Timeline of major events in Islamic History


A brief timeline of some of the major Islamic events is presented from the information, which can be found in Shia Ahadith Books. NB: Arabic text is deliberately excluded in order to shorten the length of the article, but can be obtained from the given references.

Prior to the migration to Madinah, events related to Islam are referred against the year of elephant, a unique historical event which took place, during the lifetime of Abd Al-Muttalib‑asws, the grandfather of Rasool Allah-saww.  The year of elephant refers to the year when a king of Ethiopia (Abraha)[1] diverted with the cavalry horses and with them were the elephants, in order to demolish the House (Kabah) and to rebuilt its replica in his own country.[2]

The Holy Prophet Mohammed-saww Ibn Abdullah-saww was Sent down to earth by Allah-azwj on the 17th of Rabi’ Al-Awwal, in the year of the Elephant on a Friday at noon.[3] Additional information on Rasool Allah-saww is included in Appendix, below a summary, on the most important Islamic events during the life-time of Rasool Allah-saww is presented.

Prophet Mohammed-saww’s father Abd Allah-asws ibn Abd Al-Muttalib-asws died in Madinah, while accompanying a trading caravan, when Prophet Mohammed-saww was only two months old.

Prophet-saww’s mother Syeda Amina-asws daughter of Wahab, died when he-saww was a boy of four years old.

Abd Al-Muttalib-asws (the grandfather of the Prophet-saww who started taking care of him-saww after the death of his-saww parents-asws) also died when the Holy Prophet-saww was about eight years old.

After the death of Abd Al-Muttalib-asws, the Prophet-saww’s uncle Abu Talib-asws (Ibn Abd Al-Muttalib-asws) and his-asws wife (Syeda Fatimah-asws Binte (daughter) of Asad-asws) starting looking after Prophet Mohammed-saww.

Ali-asws (the cousin and successor) of Prophet Mohammed-saww was gifted to Abu Talib-asws and Syeda Fatimah-asws binte[4] Asad-asws 30 years after the year of the elephant, in the Kabah on Friday on the night of 13th Rajab. Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq-asws (6th Shia Imam) says that Ali-asws (Amir Al-Momineen-asws – chief of the believers) was blessed to his-asws parents thirty years after the coming to the world of holy Prophet-saww.[5]

The narrator of the Hadith says I heard it from Imam Ali-asws bin Al-Hussain-asws that Syeda Fatima-asws Binte Asad-asws was performing circumambulation (tawaf) of the Kabah when its wall (suddenly) opened (with noise) and the Syeda-asws entered into the Kabah and there came (to this world) Amir ul-Momineen-asws.[6]

Imam Ali-asws (the first Shia Divine Leader) left this world on the twenty-first of the month of Ramadan on Sunday night aged 63 years old. Ali Amir Al-Momineen-asws lived for thirty years after the death of the Holy Prophet-saww.

Prophet Mohammed-saww married Syeda Khadija-asws after reaching adulthood. Allah-asws blessed them-asws with a daughter, Syeda Fatimah-asws. Syeda Khadija-asws left this world one year before the Prophet-saww migrated to Madinah. Syed Abu Talib-asws who brought up Holy Prophet-saww and protected him-saww from ‘Mushraqeen’[7] of Makkah also left this world shortly in the same year.

When Rasool Allah’s-saww dear wife and loving uncle-asws, who had been supporting and protecting him-saww from non-believers of Makkah, left the world, so it became very difficult for the Prophet-saww to live in Makkah. He-saww became extremely sad and prayed to Allah-azwj. Allah-azwj then Sent him-saww the Message to ‘leave the town, the town of the unjust people’; after Abu Talib-asws, there was no one in Makkah to support him-saww. This is why he-saww was Commanded to migrate to Medina.

Events after the migration to Medina are referred to as ‘after hijra, AH’ and before this event, historians refer to an event as ‘before hijra, BH’ or in accordance with the Year of Elephant.

Rasool Allah (Prophet Mohammed-saww), as a Prophet, remained in Makkah for 13 years after receiving Divine Commands (through Angel Jibraeel-as to announce his-saww Prophet-hood) as the Rasool Allah-saww. Thereafter, he-saww moved to Medina where he-saww lived for ten years. Prophet Mohammed-saww left this world, succumbing to the poisoned, on the 28th of Safar, at the age of 63 years.[8]

The remainder of the article, archives a brief timeline of the some of the most significant events in Islam.

Da’wat dhi ‘l-‘ashíra (Feast of the Clan): Year 9-6 Before Hijra (B.H.)[9]

When the Verse of the Holy Quran ‘And warn your nearest relations’ (26:214) was revealed, Rasool Allah-saww organised a feast which is known as “the Feast of the Clan” (Da’wat dhi ‘l-‘ashíra). This is the first time that Rasool Allah-saww openly and publicly called the relatives to accept him-saww as the Messenger and Prophet of Allah-azwj. It is also the same feast in which Rasool Allah-saww declared ‘Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws very clearly, and very explicitly as his-saww successor and caliph, e.g., a Hadith on Da’wat dhi ‘l-‘ashíra,

The narrator of the Hadith says:

Imam Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws said: ‘When this Verse was Revealed [26:214] And warn your nearest relations, Rasool-Allah-saww called me-asws and said: “‘O Ali-asws! Allah-azwj has Commanded me-saww that I-saww should warn my-saww near relatives. But I-saww have been patient after recognising their unwillingness to accept it (the religion of Allah-azwj).  So I-saww remained silent until Jibraeel-as came to me-saww and said: ‘O Mohammed-saww! Do what you-saww have been asked for.’ So (Ya Ali-asws) make for us a Sa’a (a unit of measurement) of food, and place upon it a leg of lamb, and fill for us a cup of milk, and gather for me-saww the Clan of Abdul Muttalib-asws and I-saww will let them know and deliver to them what I-saww have been Commanded to.”

‘So, I-asws did what I-asws had been ordered with. Then I-asws invited them to Rasool Allah-saww. There were, in those days, forty of them. Among them were his-saww uncles Abu Talib-asws, and Hamza-asws, and Al-Abbas, and Abu Lahab-la. When they gathered to Rasool Allah-saww, he-saww called for the food which I-asws had prepared for them. So, I-asws came up with it. When I-asws had placed it, Rasool-Allah-saww took a part of the meat, and tore it and then placed it by the side of the platter. Then Rasool Allah-saww said: ‘Eat in the Name of Allah-azwj!’ So, the people ate until they had no (further) need of it. And I-asws say it by Allah-azwj in whose Hand is the soul of Ali-asws, if one man from them were to eat (under normal conditions) he would finish it (the whole of the food) without feeling anything has reached his stomach. Then Rasool Allah-saww said: “quench the people”. So, I-asws came to them with that cup (of milk). They drank from it until they had all been thoroughly quenched.

‘When Rasool-Allah-saww intended to speak to them, Abu Lahab-la interrupted the speech. He‑la said, “You are all destroyed by what has enchanted you, by this sorcery of your companion‑saww” (Nouzobillah[10]). So, the people dispersed and the Prophet-saww did not get to speak to them. On the next day, Rasool Allah-saww said: “O Ali-asws! This man preceded me-saww to what my-saww people were to hear from me-saww. So, the people dispersed before I-saww could speak to them. Therefore, prepare for us, from the food, the like of what you-asws did. Then gather them to me-saww”. I-asws did it. Then I-asws gathered them to him-saww and he-saww called for the food. I-asws brought it near to them and they did what they had done the day before, and ate until there was nothing more that they needed. Then he-saww said: “quench them”. I‑asws came up to them with that cup (of milk). They drank until all of them were thoroughly quenched from it.

‘Then Rasool-Allah-saww spoke. He-saww said: “O Clan of Abdul Muttalib-asws! By Allah-azwj! I-saww do not know of any youth among the Arabs who has come to his people with anything better than what I-saww have come to you all with. I-saww have come to you with the good of the world and the Hereafter. And Allah-azwj has Commanded me that I-saww should invite you. So, which one of you would (like to) be my-saww Vizier, so that he would become my-saww brother, and my-saww successor, and my-saww Caliph among you?”

‘So, the people declined from it, altogether. I-asws (Imam Ali-asws) said: “And I-asws am younger than them in age, and kinder than them in eyes, and weaker than them (in presence). I-asws, Ya Rasool Allah-saww would become your-saww Vizier.” So Rasool Allah-saww took me-asws and said: “this is my-saww brother-asws, and my-saww successor-asws, and my-saww Caliph among you, therefore listen to him-asws and obey.”’

So, the people got up and they were laughing and saying to Syed Abu Talib-asws, that the Prophet-saww had ordered him to listen to Imam Ali-asws and therefore obey his own son.[11]

Shiab-e-Abi Talib-asws (Valley of Abu Talib-asws): Year 5-1 B.H.[12]

This is the valley of Syed Abu Talib-asws (Shiab-e-Abi Talib-asws), where the members of Banu Hashim were forced to take refuge from the infidels of Makkah and lived there during a painful social boycott for three years.

When Islam began to spread, the Makkahns asked Abu Talib-asws, the uncle and protector of the Prophet-saww, to hand the Prophet-saww over to them for execution, but Abu Talib-asws steadfastly refused. Abu Talib-asws immediately called on the members of Banu Hashim to meet at the Ka’bah (the House of Allah-azwj) and convinced them to pledge that they would protect, at any cost, Mohammed-saww Ibn Abd Allah (Rasool Allah-saww).

The Quraysh held a meeting and decided to outcast the Banu Hashim by placing them under a total social boycott.  The conditions of the agreement were, the other clans from the Quraysh would neither marry their daughters, nor buy nor sell to them, nor keep company with them, nor would they accept any peace offer from them until they handed over the Prophet-saww to them. Once, all the people present had agreed with the points mentioned above, they put this pact in writing. The Quraysh chiefs signed this document and the parchment was secured inside the Ka’bah (the House of Allah-azwj).

At this point, Abu Talib-asws gathered the forty members of the Bani Hashim clan and took them to ‘Shiab-e-Abi Talib-asws’ in order to protect the life of the Holy Prophet-saww. Syed Abu Talib-asws closed down all sides of the ‘Shiab-e-Abi Talib-asws’ and started protecting Rasool Allah-saww day and night. Abu Talib-asws, would un-shield his-asws sword during night and walk around the valley for the security of Rasool Allah-saww, though he-asws would not settle on that. He-asws would also change the sleeping place of Rasool Allah-saww several times during the night and would usually move his son Ali-asws ibn Abi Talib-asws at the place of Rasool Allah-saww.  This was so that if all security measures in place were to be overcome by the Quraysh and if they were to succeed in making their way in, they would still strike Ali-asws, his-asws son-asws rather than Rasool Allah-saww, who they could have found, somehow, sleeping there during the early part of the night.

The boycott was devastating for the Bani Hashim and for many months they lived in hardship. It was so rigorously applied that the food had become scarce and they had to eat the leaves of trees. The women, and more specially the children and suckling babies would cry with hunger which could be heard all over the valley. The Quraysh told the merchants not to sell any goods to them. Prices were increased to prevent them from buying even essentials. They remained in that state for three years. Occasionally, Imam Ali-asws would break the barricades of Quraysh and bring in some food and essentials for the family members. Despite such grim circumstances, Rasool Allah-saww never ceased inviting non-Muslims to Islam. Rasool Allah-saww particularly invited non-Muslims who would come to Makkah during the time of Hajj. It was at this time that Rasool Allah-saww would speak to tribes that had travelled to Makkah from all over the Arab world.

When three years had passed and Quraysh continued to implement the social boycott of the Abu Talib-asws and Bani Hashim, Allah-azwj got their signed parchment, which they had hidden in the Kabah, to be eaten up by a termite.  It ate all writing on the parchment except for the Name of Allah-azwj, which remained intact.  Allah-azwj Sent down Angel Jibraeel-as who informed this to Rasool Allah-saww to inform Abu Talib-asws that he-asws should go to the Kabah.

Abu Talib-asws went to the Kabah and found the presence of some of the notable members of the Quraysh therein. They were afraid of Abu Talib-asws due to his-asws unexpected arrival there and they all stood up out of respect.

They asked for the reason of the Abu Talib-asws coming to the Kabah, and Abu Talib-asws informed them what Allah-azwj had Done to their signed parchment, and they should stop their unjust and cruel social boycott or else await Allah-azwj’s wrath.  After much infighting among them and consultation, they decided to end their social boycott.  Later, in the same year, staunch supporter and protecter Abu Talib-asws and caring and comforting wife of Rasool Allah‑saww were called back by Allah-azwj, and they-asws met their martyrdom owing to three years’ malnutrition and hardship deteriorating their-asws health.  Prophet-saww declared the year as the Year of Sorrow.  At that Rasool Allah-saww was asked to migrate from Makkah as he-saww had lost his-saww support.[13]  This marked the commencement of the Hijri (Migration) –the Start of Islamic Calendar (A.H.).

Islamic year started when Rasool Allah-saww immigrated to Madinah from Makkah, which approximately equates to 622 CE in the Gregorian calendar. Islamic Year refers to Hijra or A.H. (After Hijra). All the years referred in the following events are Hijra.

Migration from Makkah to Madinah – Year 1

When the Quraysh had become very annoyed with the preaching of Rasool Allah-saww and the success of Islam in Makkah, they decided to collectively attack Rasool Allah-saww on one night.  They picked one person from each tribe in order to have the presence and contribution of each tribe in the killing of Rasool Allah-saww while asleep.  They started gathering during the earlier part of the night and sealed all possible ways out of Rasool Allah-saww’s house.

Allah-azwj Asked Rasool Allah-saww to leave his-saww house immediately and migrate to Madinah (350 kilometres North of Makkah), by entrusting the deposits of the people with his cousin Ali-asws Ibn Abu Talib-asws, who would join him-saww later, after returning the deposits of people, who used to entrust their valuables to Rasool Allah-saww for safekeeping.  Rasool Allah-saww miraculously made his-saww way out through the rows of Quraysh, without them realising him‑saww going out in the midst of their well-planned surveillance.

The narrator of the Hadith says regarding the explanation of the exit of the Prophet-saww from his-saww house towards the cave (on his-saww way to Madinah), that Rasool-Allah-saww asked that Imam Ali-asws should sleep on his-saww bed instead. Rasool Allah-saww said to Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws: ‘Ransom me-saww with your-asws self.’ Ali-asws said: ‘Yes, Rasool-Allah-saww.’ He-saww said: ‘O Ali-asws, sleep on my-saww bed and cover up (yourself-asws) with my-saww blanket.’ Ali-asws slept on the bed of Rasool-Allah-saww and covered up with his-saww blanket (so that the Quraysh would think Rasool Allah-saww is resting in his-saww bed). (Allah-azwj Sent) Jibraeel-as to Hold Rasool-Allah-saww’s hand, take him-saww out from the Quraysh whilst they were asleep and he (Jibraeel-as) was reciting to him-saww And We have made in front of them a barrier and a barrier behind them, so We have Covered them over, so they are not seeing [36:9].[14]

The narrator says in another Hadith:

It is narrated: “On the (emigration) night (of Rasool Allah-saww), when Imam Ali-asws slept in the bed of Rasool Allah-saww, Allah-azwj Revealed to Jibraeel-as and Mikaeel-as that I-azwj have made you brothers of each other. And one of you is given a longer life than the other. Which one of you will give (the extra years of) his life to the other? They did not agree upon giving away part of their lives (to the other one who was given lesser life-span).

At that Allah-azwj Revealed to them: “Why can’t you be like Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws? I-azwj Made him-asws the brother of Mohammed-saww and he-asws (is prepared to sacrifice his-asws life to protect the life of his-asws brother-saww) and Ali-asws is sleeping in his-asws (brother’s) bed after dedicating his-asws life to him-asws. So go to the earth and protect Ali-asws from (the attackers of) his-asws (brother). So they-as came down and Jibraeel-as sat at Ali-asws’s head side and Mikaeel-as sat at his-asws feet side and said: “Glad Tidings for you-asws, O son of Abu Talib-asws, who can be like you-asws? That Almighty Allah-azwj Boasts about you-asws to the angels-as.”

The narrator says that Rasool Allah-saww said:

‘The next morning after I-saww was in the cave (on my-saww way to Madinah), Jibraeel-as came to me-saww overjoyed, and I-saww asked him-as about his-as happiness, Jibraeel-as replied; “Why should I-as not be happy when the Almighty Allah-azwj Honoured your-saww brother-asws, successor-asws and the Imam-asws of the Umma last night, and Allah-azwj was so Proud of him-asws and He-azwj Said: “O angels-as, Look at My-azwj Proof-asws, how he-asws is risking his-asws life for the Prophet-saww.  [15]

Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws (the 11th Imam) said that Ali-asws Bin Al-Husayn-asws said: ‘When Allah-azwj Sent Mohammed-saww in Makkah and Manifested his-saww call, and advertised his-saww words, and faulted the idol worshipping religions, they came after him-saww to hurt Mohammed-saww and the rest of his-saww companions, and Mohammed-saww had to leave Makkah and go to Madinah.

He-saww turned back to face Makkah and said: ‘Allah-azwj Knows that I-saww love you (O City of Makkah). Had your inhabitants not forced me-saww to go out, I-saww would not have given priority to another city over you, nor changed you for another one, and I-saww feel sad and grieved’.

Allah-azwj Revealed unto him-saww: ‘O Mohammed-saww! The Most High-azwj Sends Greetings to you-saww and Says, ‘I-azwj Shall Return you-saww to this city victorious, unscathed, powerful, compelling’. And that is the Words of the High Most surely He Who has made the Quran binding on you will bring you back to the destination” – 28:85 meaning to Makkah victorious and a winner, and Rasool Allah-saww informed that to his-saww companions. However, the Makkahns laughed when they heard about this’.[16]

Prophet-saww Waited for Imam Ali-asws before Entering Madinah: – Year 1

Rasool Allah-saww waited for Imam Ali-asws outside Madinah. Imam Ali-asws joined him-saww together with the other members of their-asws family, including the mother-asws of Imam Ali‑asws and the daughter-asws of Rasool Allah-saww. Then they-asws all entered together in the city of Madinah.

The narrator of the Hadith says I asked Imam Ali-asws Ibn Hussain-asws (the 4th Imam-asws) about (Imam Ali-asws’s to Migration to Madinah):

(The 4th Imam-asws said) ‘When Rasool Allah-saww migrated to Madinah, and left Imam Ali-asws behind, he-saww journeyed to Madinah over twelve nights from the Month of Rabbi ul-Awwal with the setting of the sun.

‘And Rasool Allah-saww stayed at (the house of) Amro Bin Awf for about ten days. They were saying to him-saww, ‘Stay with us, so we will build for you-saww a house and a Masjid’. So Rasool Allah-saww said; ‘No. I-saww am awaiting (my-saww brother) Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws, and have asked him-asws to meet me-saww, and I-saww will not settle in a house until (my-saww brother) Ali‑asws comes, and he-asws will not be long, Allah-azwj Willing.’ So Imam Ali-asws came to the Prophet-saww at the house of Amro Bin Awf and stayed with him-saww.

‘When Imam Ali-asws arrived, Rasool Allah-saww, transferred from Quba to the Clan of Saalim Bin Awf, and Imam Ali-asws was with him-saww, on the Day of Friday at sunrise. So, they drew a boundary for him-saww for a Masjid, and established its Qiblah (direction of Prayer). Rasool Allah-saww Prayed with them the Friday Prayer of two cycles, and preached them two sermons. Then Rasool Allah-saww went to Madinah upon a she-camel, and Imam Ali-asws was with him‑saww.

‘Rasool Allah-saww had freed the camel’s reins until it ended up at the place which you see’, and the fourth Imam-asws gestured by his-asws hands to the door of the Masjid of Rasool Allah‑saww. The Imam-asws said: ‘So it paused at it and knelt, and placed itself upon the ground. So, Rasool Allah-saww descended, and Abu Ayub welcomed him-saww and carried his-saww saddle bag and made him-saww to enter his house. And Rasool Allah-saww and Imam Ali-asws stayed with him until they built for him-saww, his-saww Masjid, and built for him-saww his-saww house, and a house for Imam Ali-asws. So, both of them-asws transferred to their-asws houses’.

So, Saeed Bin Al-Musayyab (the narrator) said to Ali-asws Bin Al-Husayn-asws, ‘May I be sacrificed for you-asws, Abu Bakr was with Rasool Allah-saww when he-saww arrived at Madinah. So, when did he separate from Rasool Allah-saww?’ So, the Imam-asws replied: ‘Abu Bakr was with him‑saww when Rasool Allah-saww proceeded to Quba, and he-saww decided to wait for Imam Ali-asws. Abu Bakr said to him-saww, ‘Come with us to Madinah, for the people would rejoice at your-saww arrival there and are eager to welcome you-saww. Come with us and do not stay over here waiting for (your-saww brother) Ali-asws, from what I can see, it would take him-asws a month to come to you-saww. So Rasool Allah-saww said to him: ‘Never! He-asws will not be long, and I-saww will not move until my-saww cousin-asws, and my-saww brother-asws for the sake of Allah-azwj, and the most beloved to me-saww of my-saww Family comes over, for he-asws saved me-saww from the Polytheists by being in my-saww place’.

The Imam-asws said; ‘So Abu Bakr became angry and was disgusted by it, and felt envious of Imam Ali-asws, and that was the first enmity initiated from him to Rasool Allah-saww with regards to Imam Ali-asws, and the first of his opposition to Rasool Allah-saww. So, he went until he entered Madinah, and left behind Rasool Allah-saww at Quba waiting for Imam Ali-asws’. (Hadith continues)

Nikah of Syeda-asws with Ali-asws and Increase in Prayer: Year 1

(The narrator) said, ‘I said to Imam Ali-asws Bin Al-Husayn-asws, ‘So when did the Messenger-saww get Syeda Fatima-asws married to Imam Ali-asws?’ He-asws said: ‘In Madinah, a year after the Migration, and Syeda-asws was in her-asws ninth year’.

So, I (the narrator) said to the fourth Imam-asws, ‘when was the Salat became Obligatory upon the Muslims in the form that they are Praying today?’ He-asws said: ‘At Madinah when the Call was made apparent, and Al-Islam was strong, and Allah-azwj Decreed Jihad upon the Muslims, and Rasool Allah-saww increased in the Prayer, seven cycles – two cycles in Al-Zohr, and two cycles in Al-Asr, and one cycle in Al-Maghrib, and two cycles in Al-Isha, and accepted Al-Fajr upon what it had been Obligated in order to expedite the descent of the Angels of the day from the sky and to expedite that rising of the Angels of the night to the sky. And the Angels of the night and the Angels of the day had been testifying with Rasool Allah-saww for Al-Fajr Prayer, so that is the Statement of Allah-azwj: “[17:78] (the recital of) the Qur’an at dawn. Lo! (the recital of) the Qur’an at dawn is witnessed”, witnessed by the Muslims and witnessed by the Angels of the day and Angels of the night’.[17]

Change of the Qibla Direction: – Year 2

Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws (11th Shia Imam) said: ‘And that when Rasool Allah-saww used to be in Makkah, Allah‑azwj Ordered him-saww to face towards the Bayt Al-Maqdis during his-saww Prayers, and make the Kabah to be in between if possible, and if it is not possible then only towards the direction of Bayt Al-Maqdis as before. And Rasool Allah-saww did that for a long duration of thirteen years.

‘And when he-saww was in Madinah, he-saww used to face towards Bayt Al-Maqdis and not towards the Kabah for seventeen months. A group of stubborn Jews came and said: ‘By Allah‑azwj! Mohammed-saww does not know how to Pray to the extent that he-saww faces towards our direction and he-saww has adopted our ways and customs in his-saww Prayers’. Jibraeel-as came over and Rasool Allah-saww said to him: ‘O Jibraeel-as! It would be good if Allah-azwj were to change the direction from Bayt Al-Maqdis to the Kabah, for I-saww have been hurt by the talks of the Jews regarding the direction’. Jibraeel-as said: ‘Peace be on you-saww! Ask your-saww Lord-azwj, for He-azwj will never reject anything that you-saww ask for and will never keep you-saww away from your-saww desire’.

When his-saww supplication was completed, Jibraeel-as flew up into the sky and then came down within a moment and said: ‘Read, O Mohammed-saww! Indeed We see the turning of your face to heaven, so We shall surely turn you to a qibla which you shall like; turn then your face towards the Sacred Masjid, and wherever you are, turn your face towards it” (2:144). The Jews said with regards to that “What has turned them from their qibla which they had? – (2:142) Allah-azwj Answered them beautifully by Saying: “Say: The East and the West belong only to Allah” – 2:142 and He-azwj is the Owner of them and Placing on you the effort to turn in one direction is like Placing on you the effort of turning towards another direction “He guides whom He likes to the right path – 2:142 and it is for your betterment, and the obedience to this will take them towards the Blissful Gardens (an extract).[18]

Battle of Badr – Year 2

And the day of Badar was on the day of Friday of the seventeenth night of the Month of Ramazan of the year two from the Hijra, at the beginning of the eighteenth month (after Hijra), and it is said it was the 19th of the Month of Ramazan, and that has been reported from Abu Abdullah-asws.[19]

The narrator of the Hadith says that Imam Hassan Askari-asws (11th Imam-asws) said:

Abu Jahl-la sent his messenger to Prophet Mohammed-saww and, he approached him-saww threateningly and said: ‘O Mohammed-saww! This madness (nouzobillah) which you-saww have in your-saww head has made your-saww life in Makkah very difficult and has made you-saww reach Yathrab (Madinah), and they (Quraysh) will not ease off from you-saww until you-saww review your-saww affairs.

This message was given to Prophet Mohammed-saww when he-saww was living on the outskirts of Madinah, and there were present with him-saww a group of his-saww companions, and the generality of the infidels and some Jews from the Children of Israel, and this was what the messenger (of Abu Jahl-la) had been ordered to do, to present this message, to set aside the believers so that the rest of the unbelievers would attack them. Rasool-Allah-saww said to the messenger: ‘Have you finished your message?’ He said ‘Yes’.

He-saww said: ‘Listen to the reply: Abu Jahl-la threatens me-saww with difficulties and destruction, and the Lord-azwj of the worlds Promises me-saww Help and victory, and the News of Allah-azwj is True, and I-saww accept what is from Allah-azwj as Right. Mohammed-saww has no fear of anyone’s desertion or anger when he-saww has the Help of Allah-azwj the Almighty Who will Grant him-saww Preference by His-azwj Grace and Honour’.

‘Say to him-la: O Abu Jahl-la! You have sent to me-saww a message which Satan-la has inspired you-la with and I-saww am answering you-la with what Allah-azwj has Inspired me-saww with – The battle between us and you-la will be after twenty nine days from now, and Allah-azwj will Have you-la killed by a weak companion of mine-saww, and you will bring with you Otbah, and Sheyba, and Waleed, and such and such’ – Rasool-Allah-saww mentioned a number of the Quraysh people – ‘in the centre of Badar. Seventy of you will be killed, and seventy of you will be taken as prisoners, who will bear a heavy and great (war) penalty’.

Then Rasool-Allah-saww called out to those who were present from the believers, the Jews, the Christians and others: ‘Would you like to see the death place of each one of these?’ They said: ‘Yes’. Rasool-Allah-saww said: ‘Let us go to Badar, for over there is where the armies will meet and the battle will be, and over there will be the great affliction. I-saww will place my-saww feet on those places where they will die, then you will see that there will be no difference in that, neither more nor less from these spots’ (when the battle is finished). So, none of them who had agreed wanted to go there (to witness) except Imam Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws alone, and Imam Ali-asws said: ‘Yes, in the Name of Allah-azwj‘. The rest of them said: ‘We need provisions and expenses for this, and it is not possible to return from there, for it is a journey of days’.

Rasool-Allah-saww said to the rest of the Jews: ‘What have you got to say?’ They said: ‘We want to settle down in our homes, and have no need to witness what you-saww claim for your-saww enemies’. Rasool-Allah-saww said: ‘I-saww do not want to give you the difficulty of walking up to there. Take one step, and Allah-azwj will Fold the earth in such a way for you that by your second step you will be over there’.

The believers said: ‘Rasool-Allah-saww speaks the truth; we will be honoured by these Signs’. And the infidels and the hypocrites said: ‘We will all examine this lie and cut off the excuse of Prophet Mohammed-saww, and let this claim of his-saww be a proof over him-saww, and the exposure of his-saww lie.’

The Holy Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws said: ‘The people took one step, then another, and found themselves by the well of Badar’. Rasool-Allah-saww went and said: ‘Make the well as a reference. And at a certain distance from it he-saww said: ‘This is the death place of Abu Jahl-la, and a certain man of the Helpers will wound him-la and an elderly companion of mine-saww will kill him-la ‘.

Then the Holy Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws said: ‘Rasool Allah-saww measured from this well in another direction, then another, then another, such and such a distance, and mentioned different distances. When all the counting and measuring had completed, Rasool Allah-saww said: ‘This is the death place of Otbah, and that is the death place of Sheyba, and that is the death place of Waleed, and they will be killed by such and such’ – until he-saww had named all seventy of them with their names – ‘and such and such will be made captive’ – until he-saww had named seventy of them with their names and their fathers names and their characteristics, and detailed their lineage from their fathers, and the lineage of their friends as well’.

Then Rasool Allah-saww said: ‘Are you all aware now of what I-saww have informed you of?’ They said: ‘Yes’. He-saww said: ‘This is the truth which will transpire after twenty-eight days from now, on the twenty ninth day. The Promise of Allah-azwj is Destined to happen and is a must’. Then Rasool Allah-saww said: ‘O group of Muslims and Jews, write down what you have just heard’. They said: ‘O Rasool Allah-saww, we have heard and our minds will not forget’.

Rasool Allah-saww said: ‘Writing is preferable and a remembrance for you‘. They said: ‘O Rasool Allah-saww! And where is the ink and paper?’ Rasool Allah-saww said: ‘That is for the Angels’. Then he-saww said: ‘O Angels of my-saww Lord-azwj! Write down what you have heard from this story on paper, and place a copy of this in the sleeves of each and every one of them’.

Then Rasool Allah-saww said: O Group of Muslims! Shake your sleeves and take out what is in them and read from it’. Each one of them look into their sleeves and found a parchment, read it, and found mentioned in it what Rasool Allah-saww had said correctly, not more and not less and not ahead of it nor left anything behind from it. Then Rasool Allah-saww said: ‘Put them back in your sleeves for these are proofs over you, and a matter of honour for the believers from among you and argumentative proof over the infidels’. These remained with them.

When the day of Badar came, the events all transpired in accordance with what Rasool Allah-saww had said would happen, not more and not less, and it was exactly as had been written down by the Angels, not more and not less. The Muslims accepted the apparent acceptance of the Jews and left their hidden beliefs to their Creator-azwj.

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘When the Cavalry lined up on the Day of Badar, Abu Jahl-la raised his hands and said, ‘O our gods! We have severed our ties (of kinship), and they have come against us those whom we do not recognise (anymore), so let the punishment befall. So, Allah-azwj Revealed [70:1] A questioner, asked for the Punishment to befall’.[20]

Abu Ja’far-asws having said: ‘On the Day of Badar, Iblees-la used to belittle the Muslims in the eyes of the infidels, and magnify the infidels in the eyes of the Muslims. So Jibraeel-as pulled the sword against him-la and Iblees-la fled from him-as, saying, ‘O Jibraeel-as, I-la have been Granted a term, I-la have been Granted a term’, until he-la ended up in the sea’. Zurara (the narrator) said, ‘So I said to Abu Ja’far-asws, ‘What was it that he-la was afraid of since he-la had been Granted a specific term?’ He-asws said: ‘Some parts of his-la sides to be cut off’.[21]

For additional details, see for example: https://www.hubeali.com/article/battle-of-badar/

Ahl Al-Bayt-asws were Blessed with Al-Hassan-asws Ibn Ali-asws: Year 2

It is narrated that Imam AI-Hassan-asws was blessed to Imam Ali-asws and Syeda-asws in the month of Ramadan (15th) in the year that the battle of Badr took place, the second year after Hijra. Imam Hassan-asws was martyred (through poison) in the end of the month of Safar (28th Safar) in the year forty-nine (49) (A.H). Imam Hassan-asws lived for forty-seven (47) years and a few months. His-asws mother was Syeda Fatimah-asws, daughter of the Rasool Allah.[22]

See for example: https://www.hubeali.com/article/ahlul-bayt-asws/imam-al-hassan-asws-ibn-ali-asws/

Battle of Uhud: Year 3

Abu Sufyan mobilised the Quraysh again (in 3 A.H.) after the defeat at Badr where they had met with heavy losses, along with some of their leading members had been killed including Abu Jahl, Utba, Shaiba, Walid, Umayya bin Khalaf, and Hanzala bin Abu Sufyan. After the death of Abu Jahl, the leadership of the Makkahns had passed on to Abu Sufyan.[23]

See for example: https://www.hubeali.com/article/battle-of-uhud/

Ahl Al-Bayt-asws were Blessed with Al-Hussain-asws Ibn Ali-asws: Year 3

Amir Al-Momineen Ali-asws Ibn Abu Talib-asws and Syeda-asws Binte (daughter of) Rasool Allah‑saww were blessed with Imam AI-Hussain-asws in the third year A.H. on the 3rd of Shaban. Imam Hussain-asws was martyred in the month of Muharram in the year sixty-one (61) A.H. Imam Hussain-asws lived for fifty-seven (57) years and a few months. Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad (may he fall in condemnation of Allah-azwj) murdered him-asws during the Caliphate of Yazid ibn Mu’awiya (may he fall in condemnation of Allah-azwj). He was the governor of Kufa. The horsemen who murdered him-asws were led by ‘Umar ibn Sa’d (may he fall in condemnation of Allah-azwj) in the plane of Karbala. It took place on Monday the tenth of the month of Muharrarn.[24] See for example: https://www.hubeali.com/article/ahlul-bayt-asws/imam-al-hussain-asws-ibn-ali-asws/

Battle of Trench (Khandaq): Year 5

After being defeated at Badr and Uhad, the Quraysh of Makkah sought help from the Jews and came forward with a large, allied force to uproot Islam, considering it a major threat to their religious beliefs. Rasool-Allah-asws decided to protect Madinah from the large confederate army by digging a trench around the city.  Below are some Ahadith related to the Battle of Khandaq.

The holy Verse: O you those who believe! Recall the Favour of Allah upon you when the armies came towards you, so We Sent a wind against them and armies you could not see, and Allah was always Seeing what you were doing [33:9] When they came to you from above you and from below you, [33:10] – the Verse. ‘It was Revealed regarding the story of the allies from Quraysh and Arabs, those who were allied against Rasool-Allah-saww. And that is when Quraysh gathered in the year five from Al-Hijra and they came to be among the Arabs and gathered them and provoked them for war against Rasool-Allah-saww. So they raised (an army of) ten thousand, and with them was Kanana, and Saleym, and Fazara.[25]

Briefly, the Battle of the Trench (Battle of Khandaq, غزوة الخندق) which is also known as the Battle of the Confederates (Battle of Ahzaab, غزوة الاحزاب) was about a month long defence by the Muslims of Yathrib (now Madinah) against allied Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies consisted of over 10,000 soldiers while the Muslim defenders numbered to about a third of them.

Rasool-Allah-saww decided to dig a trench around Madinah in order to protect the Muslims as the confederates had planned to attack them from multiple directions.

The digging of the trench was a painstaking and strenuous task that exhausted the Muslims. They were working day and night, digging around Madinah, including going several days without eating any food, i.e., Rasool-Allah-saww was offered a disc of bread by his-saww daughter (Syeda Fatima-asws) which was the Prophet-saww’s only meal in three days.  Similar was the condition of Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws and the other companions of Rasool-Allah-saww – except for the hypocrites who fabricated worthless excuses to take leave of absence from the hard work.

When the enemies of Islam approached, they could not figure out a passage beyond the trench in order to fight against Muslims. After a few days of being unsuccessful in getting any closer to the Muslims, a famous warrior named Amro Bin Abdi Wudd, managed to cross the defensive trench along with a handful of his companions and shouted at the Muslims for duel.  The Muslims were in shock and sat as if there were birds sitting upon their heads – entirely stunned.  No one wanted to confront him except Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws.  Rasool-Allah-saww finally sent Ali-asws to answer the call to fight.

Imam Ali-asws offered for Amro Bin Abdi Wudd to strike first, to which he agreed and hit his sword on the head of Imam Ali-asws, cracking the protective helmet and injuring Imam Ali-asws’s head. Blood started dripping and Imam Ali-asws had a deep wound in the head.  In retaliation, Ali-asws struck him with the Zulfiqar which brought Amro down and thus he was killed by the hands of Imam Ali-asws.  Eventually, the Muslims saw that Imam Ali-asws coming out as the victorious one out of a thick cloud of dust.  Upon observing the killing of Amro, Amro’s companions tried to escape the scene.

Afterwards, no one dared to cross the trench but kept on surrounding the Muslims for over 20 days, until Allah-azwj Answered Rasool-Allah-saww‘s prayers and Sent down a strong wind upon the confederates which blew their tents away and made them to flee.  This led to an end to the Battle of Khandaq in favour of the Muslims. For more details, see for example: https://www.hubeali.com/article/battle-of-trench-khandaq/

Hudaybiyya Treaty: Year 6

The Treaty of Hudaybiyya (صَلَح ٱلْحُدَيْبِيَّة) is an important event in the history of Islam. Rasool-Allah‑saww and the Muslims went towards Makkah with the intention of Hajj in 6 A.H.[26]  However, the polytheists of Makkah, although in a very weak position and fewer in number, did not allow Rasool-Allah-saww to perform Tawaf of the Kabah. The Muslims, greater in number, were irritated and tried to persuade Rasool-Allah-saww to confront them and enter Makkah.  However, the Holy Prophet-saww very wisely decided to sign a treaty in order to save the lives of those Muslims who were still living in Makkah from the hands of the polytheists.  The signed treaty was to last 10 years, though apparently its conditions were less favourable to the Muslims, Rasool-Allah-saww knew that soon Islam will triumph as they will falter and the treaty would then become invalid – which was the case when Makkah fell to the Muslims soon after.

Abu Abd Allah-asws (our 6th Imam-asws) has said; ‘The Rasool-Allah-saww marched (with his-saww companions) towards Al-Hudaybiyya during the Month of Zeeqad (11th Islamic month). When the Rasool Allah-saww ended up at the place in which Ihram (for Hajj) had to be worn, they did so and they wore their weapons as well. When this news reached the ‘Mushriqeen’, they sent Khalid Bin Waleed to Rasool Allah-saww to block his-saww way. So, the Rasool Allah-saww adopted a different route and the caravan ended up at Al-Uqba.

There were 1800 Muslims. When they descended to Al-Hudaybiyya, there was a woman who had her son with her. Out of fear, her son ran away. When she established that it was the Rasool Allah-saww, she screamed, ‘These are kind people, there is no reason for you to worry’. The Rasool Allah-saww came up to her and asked her to draw a bucket of water- he-saww drank the water and washed his-saww face. She took the remaining water and returned it back in the well. That well still has water in it even now.

Rasool Allah-saww came out (to the caravan), and the polytheists (Mushriqeen) sent two chiefs with some horsemen to him-saww. They saw the animals being prepared for sacrifice (for after Hajj). They did not face Rasool Allah-saww but returned and told Abu Sufyan of the Mushriqeen ‘By Allah-azwj, it is not how we wanted, but the Muslims will be allowed to perform Hajj.  Abu Sufyan said, ‘Keep quiet until we talk to Mohammed-saww’.

So, they sent Urwat Bin Masoud to him-saww and he said, ‘O Mohammed-saww, why have you‑saww come?’ He-saww said: ‘I-saww have come to perform the Tawaf of the House (Kabah), and to perform Sa’ee between Al-Safa and Al-Marwa, and to sacrifice this camel and leave its meat for you’.

He said, ‘I swear by al-laat and al-uzza[27], a person like you-saww should not be sent back from what he has come for. So, he returned to Abu Sufyan and his companions and said ‘No, by Allah-azwj, a person like Mohammed-saww should not be turned back from what he has come for’.

Then the Mushriqeen sent Suhail Bin Amro and Huweytab Bin Abdul Uzza to him-saww. Rasool Allah-saww commanded for the sacrificial animals to be spread out in front of their eyes. He said, ‘Why have you-saww come here?’ He-saww said: ‘For Tawaf of the House, and the Sa’ee between Al-Safa and Al-Marwa, and to sacrifice the animals and leave their meat for you’. (They said) by doing so you will enter into our city without our permission and make enemies!’ Rasool Allah-saww refused those two. Rasool Allah-saww then sent Usman Bin Affan to talk to them and get permission to enter (Makkah). But Usman went and returned (without any success).

(At that), to avoid conflict, the Rasool Allah-saww decided to establish an agreement with the Mushriqeen through a treaty. He-saww said to Ali-asws: ‘Write – In the Name of Allah-azwj, the Beneficent, the Merciful’. Suhail (of the Mushriqeen) said, ‘I don’t know what the Beneficent, the Merciful is, we do not say that, write like us and say ‘By Your-azwj Name, our Allah-azwj’. He‑saww (Rasool Allah-saww) said; ‘And write– This has been agreed upon by the Rasool Allah-saww and Suhail Bin Amro’. But Suhail said, ‘What are we fighting you-saww for, O Mohammed-saww? We do not believe you-saww to be the Rasool Allah-saww’ So he-saww said; ‘I-saww am the Rasool of Allah-azwj and I-saww am Mohammed bin AbdAllah-saww’. The Muslims said: ‘You-saww are Rasool-Allah-saww’ but Suhail said, ‘Write Mohammed Bin AbdAllah-saww

The agreement stated that ‘If one of us (the Mushriqeen of Makkah) goes to you, he must be returned back to us and the Rasool Allah-saww must not keep him (even if he becomes a Muslim). But if one of you (one of the Rasool-Allah-saww’s people) comes to us, he will not be returned back to you’. Rasool Allah-saww was patient and accepted this, but added; ‘However, they should be allowed to worship Allah-azwj among you openly, not in secret, and be allowed to exchange gifts between Madinah to Makkah.[28]

As part of the treaty, they could not perform a pilgrimage that year but could return next year for three days and perform a pilgrimage. For further details, see for example: https://www.hubeali.com/article/hudaybiyya-treaty/

Battle of Khaybar: Year 7

Khyber  (Arabic: خَيْبَر) is a fertile land situated some 153 kilometres north of the city of Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Prior to the rise of Islam in the 7th century, the area had been inhabited by Arabian Jewish tribes.  The Battle of Khyber took place in 7 Hijri.

(From the book ‘Al-Manaqib’ of Ibn Shehr Ashub) – ‘Khyber was conquered during Al-Muharram of the year seven (7 A.H.) and when the people saw the deed of Ali-asws (uprooting the door of the Fort of Khyber and killing Marhab), Ibn Abu Al-Huqeyq said to the Prophet-saww: ‘Descend so I can speak to you-saww’. He-saww said: ‘Yes’. He-saww descended and the Prophet-saww reconciled with them, saving the blood of the ones in the fortresses and allowing them out with one set of clothes.[29] See for example: https://www.hubeali.com/article/battle-of-khyber/

Conquest of Makkah: Year 8

During the month of Ramadhan of 8 A.H.[30], the Quraysh of Makkah killed the allies of Muslims which violated the treaty of Hudaybiya.[31] As a result, Rasool-Allah-saww marched with 10,000 men on the 10th of the month of Ramadhan and camped a short distance from Makkah. The Makkahns sent a few spies, including Abu Sufyan, to find out the strength of the Muslim army. Upon observing the Muslim army, the Quraysh surrendered and Makkah fell into the hands of Muslims. The Rasool-Allah-saww told his-saww army not to fight until someone attacked and to spare those who run away or stay inside their homes.

(The book) ‘Al-Adad Al-Qawiya’ – During the twentieth day of (the month of) Ramadhan of the year eight from the emigration was the conquest of Makkah’’.[32]See for example: https://www.hubeali.com/article/conquest-of-Makkah/

Battle of Hunayn: Year 8

The Battle of Hunayn is mentioned in the Holy Quran in Surah at-Tawbah [9:25-26]. A Bedouin tribe named ‘Hawāzin’ fought against the Muslims after the Prophet Mohammed-saww conquered Makkah, in a land near Tā’if in 8 A.H – therefore, the battle is also called ‘the Battle of Hawāzin’. The Muslims were great in number, as Allah-azwj Says: when your great numbers fascinated you but they did not avail you of anything, and the earth was straitened upon you despite its vastness, then you turned back retreating [9:25].  However, before the breaking of dawn, the Muslims were attacked without warning by the fighters of Hawāzin.  Caught off-guard and fearing for their lives, the majority of the Muslims fled the war zone – all except for eight members of the Bani Hashim-as tribe.

Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws along with seven others from the Bani Hashim-as fought persistently and very bravely and repelled the Bedouins.  Upon seeing this – only after these signs of relief – the fugitive Muslims returned to the battlefield. Finally, with the help of Allah-azwj, hundreds of pagans were killed and the rest surrendered. At last, the lost Battle of Hunayn ended as a victory for the Muslims.

‘From Abu Abdullah-asws having said: ‘There did not pass upon the Prophet-saww any day more difficult upon him-saww than the day of Hunayn, and that is regarding the Arabs’ surprised (attack) upon him-saww’’.[33]See for example: https://www.hubeali.com/article/battle-of-hunayn/

Battle of Motah: Year 8

The Battle of Motah (مَعْرَكَة مُؤْتَة, or غَزْوَة مُؤْتَة) was a battle or skirmish fought in 8th year of Hijri, near the village of Mu’tah, East of the Jordan River, in Karak, between the Muslim forces and the forces of the Byzantine Empire and their Arab Christian Allies.

And Abdullah Al-Hameed Bin Abu Al-Hadeed said in the commentary on (the book) ‘Nahj Al-Balagah’ – It is reported by Al-Waqidy, from Umar Bin Al-Hakam who said, ‘Rasool-Allah-saww sent Al-Haris Bin Umar Al-Azdy in the year eight to the king of Busra with a letter. When he descended at Motah, there presented to him Sharhabeel Bin Amro Al-Gasany. He said, ‘Where are you intending (to go to)?’ He said, ‘Syria’. He said, ‘Perhaps (you are) from the messengers of Mohammed-saww’. He said, ‘Yes’.

He ordered with him to be bound, then brought him forward and struck off his neck, and no messenger of Rasool-Allah-saww was killed apart from him, and that reached Rasool-Allah-saww, he-saww intensified upon it and called the people and gave them a choice with the killing of Al-Haris.

Rasool Allah-saww dispatched soldiers to Al-Gasany with instructions;

Call them to enter into (the fold of) Al-Islam, and if they do so then accept and refrain. Then call them to the transferring from their houses to a house of the emigrants, and if they do so, then inform them that for them is what is for the emigrants and against them is what is against the emigrants, and if they enter into Al-Islam and choose their houses, then inform them that they would become like the Bedouins of the Muslims. The Judgment of Allah-azwj would flow upon them and there would not happen to be for them anything as the war booty and the spoils, except that they will be fighting alongside the Muslims.

If they refuse, then call them to give the tribute (taxes), so if they do so then accept from them and refrain from them. But if they refuse then seek Assistance with Allah-azwj and fight them; and if you were to besiege the people of a fort or a city and they intend to descend to you upon the Judgment of Allah-azwj, do not let them descend upon the Judgment of Allah-azwj, but descend them upon your decision, for you do not know whether you will hit the correct Judgment of Allah-azwj regarding them or not.[34]See for example: https://www.hubeali.com/article/battle-of-motah/

The Event of Mubahila: Year 9

The Christians came to Madinah to argue with the Holy Prophet-saww and insisted that Jesus (Prophet Isa-as) is the son of God, Allah-azwj Revealed the following Verse:

Surely the example of Isa with Allah is like the example of Adam; He Created him from dust, then said to him, Be, and he became [3:59].

Our 6th Imam (Abu Abdullah-asws) says: ‘The Christians of Najran[35] sent a delegation to Rasool-Allah-saww (for debating). They performed their Prayers by ringing bells, and they Prayed. The companions of Rasool-Allah-saww said, ‘O Rasool-Allah-saww! This (is being done) in your-saww Masjid?’ So he-saww said: ‘Leave them.’

So, when they were free, they approached Rasool-Allah-saww and said to him-saww, ‘To what are you-saww inviting us?’ So, he-saww said: ‘To the testimony that there is no god except for Allah‑azwj, and that I-saww am a Rasool-saww of Allah-azwj, and that Isa-as was a Created servant who used to eat and drink’. They asked, ‘So who was his-as father?’ A Revelation came down unto Rasool-Allah-saww that he-saww should say to them: ‘What are you all saying regarding Adam-as, who was a Created servant, eating and drinking, and marrying?” So the Prophet-saww asked them. They said, ‘Yes’. So, he-saww said: ‘So who was his-as father?’ They were astonished and remained silent. Thus, Allah-azwj Revealed [3:59] Surely the example of Isa with Allah is like the example of Adam; He Created him from dust, then said to him, Be, and he became up to His-azwj Words [3:61] and make the Curse of Allah to be upon the liars.

Rasool-Allah-saww said: ‘Therefore imprecate (curse on the liar) with me-saww, so if I-saww was truthful the Curse would descend upon you all, but if I-saww were to be untruthful, then it would descend upon me-saww’.

In another Hadith, ‘Abdul Maseeh Bin Abqa went to Rasool-Allah-saww and with him was Al-Aaqib and Qays his brother, and with him was Haris Bin Abdul Maseeh, and they were boys, and with him were forty priests. He said, ‘O Mohammed-saww! What are you-saww saying regarding the Messiah-as, for by Allah-azwj, we are denying what you-saww are saying’.

He (the narrator) said, ‘Allah-azwj the Exalted Revealed to him-saww: ‘Surely the example of Isa with Allah is like the example of Adam; He Created him from dust, then said to him, “Be”, so he became [3:59]. He (from the Christians) was amused by what Rasool-Allah-saww said and responded with, ‘But, he-as is Allah-azwj’. So, Allah-azwj Revealed: So the one who argues with you in this matter after what has come to you from the Knowledge, then say: ‘Come, let us call [3:61] – up to the end of the Verse.

When he-saww heard the mention of the ‘sons’, he-saww was aggravated with intense anger (against the Christians) and called Al-Hassan-asws and Al-Husayn-asws and Ali-asws and (Syeda) Fatima-asws. He-saww got Al-Hassan-asws to stand on his-saww right, and Al-Husayn on his-saww left, and Ali-asws to his-saww front, and (Syeda) Fatima-asws to his-saww back and he-saww said: ‘These are our sons and our women and our selves’. They came to him-saww with the restraint.

The narrator said: (At this point) ‘Al-Aaqib leapt and said, ‘I remind you of Allah-azwj if you were to imprecate (curse on the liar) this man-saww! By Allah-azwj, if he-saww was a liar, there is no good in you cursing him-saww, and if he-saww was truthful, a year would not pass by and there would be from you one blowing a fire’. So, they reconciled with him-saww with every reconciliation’’.[36]

For further details, see for example: https://www.hubeali.com/article/mubahila-imprecation-eid-new/

Battle of Tabuk & Conspiracy to assassinate Prophet-saww at Al-Aqaba: Year 9

The Battle of Tabuk was fought in Rajab 9 AH, near the Gulf of Aqaba towards north-west of Madinah (in the opposition direction to Makkah). It was the largest and the last military expedition during the lifetime of Rasool-Allah-saww.  In response to the planning of the hypocrites to create mayhem in Madinah in the absence of Rasool-Allah-saww, the Prophet-saww decided to leave Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws as his-saww successor in Madinah.

And the Prophet-saww descended at Tabuk and stayed there for two months, and what the Prophet-saww had been informed of (from the people) regarding- the sending of Hercules and his companions (to fight against Muslims), and his approaching to near Syria and his determination upon fighting the Prophet-saww and the Muslims – did not happen. (Instead) Hercules[37] sent men from Gasaan to the Prophet-saww to look at his-saww description and his-saww signs and at the redness in his-saww eyes and at the seal of the Prophet-hood and ask that he‑saww does not accept the charities. So, he (the reporter) retained (some) things from the attributes of the Prophet-saww.

Then he left to go to Hercules and mentioned them (these attributes) to him. Hercules called his people to the verification with it, but they refused to him until he scared them upon his kingdom; and he secretly became a Muslim and prohibited them from fighting the Prophet‑saww, and the Prophet-saww did not permit to fight him, and returned back to Madinah.[38]

However, when returning to Madinah, a group of hypocrites tried to kill Rasool-Allah-saww through a narrow mountain passage called ‘Al-Aqaba’ without succeeding in their heinous attempt.

During the preparation of Battle of Tabuk, the hypocrites planned to kill Rasool-Allah-saww at Al-Aqaba and Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws at Madinah, but failed in both places and Allah-azwj Saved them-asws. These events were known as the Battle of Tabuk and Conspiracy of Al-Aqaba.

In a Hadith, Abu Abdullah-asws says regarding the Words of Allah-azwj: but rather the Satan caused them to lose heart (and flee) due to something what they had earned, [3:155], he-asws said: ‘They are the companions of Al-Aqaba’’.[39].[40] See for more details, https://www.hubeali.com/article/battle-of-tabuk-and-conspiracy-of-al-aqaba/

The last Pilgrimage of Rasool Allah-saww: Year 10

The farewell Hajj was performed by Rasool Allah-saww in 10 A.H.  (The books) ‘Alaam Al-Wara’ (and) ‘Al-Irshad’ – ‘When Rasool-Allah-saww wanted to head to the Hajj and fulfil the Obligations of Allah-azwj the Exalted during it, he-saww proclaimed among the people with it and his-saww call reached to the outskirts of the cities of Islam. The people prepared for the going out with him-saww and they presented at Al-Madinah from its areas and from around it and a lot of people came near it, and they prepared for the going out with him-saww.

He-saww went out with them on five (days) remaining from Zul-Qadah and communicated with Amir Al-Momineen-asws with heading to Al-Hajj from Al-Yemen. And Amir Al-Momineen-asws came out with the ones from the soldiers with him-asws, those who had accompanied him-asws to Al-Yemen, and with him-asws were the garments which he-asws had taken from the people of Najran. When Rasool-Allah-saww came near Makkah from the road of Al-Madinah, Amir Al-Momineen-asws came near it from the road of Al-Yemen, and forwarded the army for meeting the Prophet-saww and made a man from them to be in charge upon them.

And when Rasool-Allah-saww had fulfilled his-saww rituals, he-saww participated Ali-asws in his-saww offering and returned to Al-Madinah and he-asws was with him-saww and the Muslims until he‑saww ended up to the famous place at Ghadeer e Khum, and there wasn’t any place there which was correct for the encampment due to the lack of water and the pasture therein. He‑saww descended in the place and the Muslims descended with him-saww, and the reason for his-saww descent in this place was the Revelation of the Quran unto him-saww with his-saww nomination of Amir Al-Momineen Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws as a Caliph in the community from after him-saww.

And the Revelation had preceded to him-saww regarding that from another timing to him, but he-saww delayed it (announcement) for the presenting of the time he-saww felt safe in it of the differing from them upon it, and Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic Knew that if he-saww crossed over Ghadeer e Khum, a lot of the people would separate from him-saww to go to their cities and their dwelling and their valleys. Therefore, Allah-azwj Wanted that he-saww gathered them to hear the text upon Amir Al-Momineen-asws and an emphasis of the argument/proof upon them regarding him-asws (an extract).[41]

See for example: https://www.hubeali.com/article/farewell-hajj-of-rasool-allah-saww/

Ali-asws as Mola (Successor) & Completion of Islam at Ghadeer-e-Khum – Year 10

Rasool Allah-saww, at the end of farewell Hajj, asked Muslims to assemble at a place called Ghadeer e Khum (Spring at Khum) and after giving an eloquent sermon, announced the Ali‑asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws as his-saww successor (Khalif), and the Holy Verse ‘This day have I Perfected for you your Religion and Completed My Favour on you and Chosen for you Islam as a Religion[5:3] was Revealed by Allah-azwj.

Abu Ja’far-asws (5th Imam-asws) narrates that when Rasool-Allah-saww finished the Farewell Pilgrimage, this Verse was Revealed: O Rasool! Deliver what has been Revealed unto you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His Message, and Allah will Protect you from the people [5:67]. So, the Rasool Allah-saww called for the congregational Prayer (on the 18th of Zil-Hajj).

The people gathered and Rasool Allah-saww said: ‘Who is foremost among you than your own selves?’ They all said, ‘Allah-azwj and His-azwj Rasool-saww’. The Rasool Allah-saww grabbed Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws and said:

‘For the ones for whom I-saww am Mola (Master), for them, Ali-asws is Mola! Our Allah-azwj! Befriend the one who befriends him-asws, and Do not favour the one who does not favour him‑asws, and Help the one who helps him-asws, and Abandon the one who abandons him-asws, for he-asws is from me-saww and I-saww a m from him-asws, and he-asws is to me what Haroun-as was to Musa-as except that there is no Prophet-saww after me-saww’.

And it was the last Obligation which Allah-azwj the High Obligated upon the community of Mohammed-saww, then Allah-azwj Revealed unto His-azwj Prophet-saww:

This day have I Perfected for you your Religion and Completed My Favour on you and Chosen for you Islam as a Religion[5:3].

Rasool Allah-saww said in the sermon at Ghadeer e Khum: O you people! I-saww have made known to you your ‘Master’ and your Imam-asws after me-saww; your evidence and your guide. He-asws is Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws and he-asws is among you at the status that I-saww am among you. So, emulate him-asws (do his-asws Taqleed), and obey him-asws in all of your affairs, for in his‑asws possession is what Allah-azwj has Taught me-saww, and Ordered for me-saww, and I-saww have made it known to him-asws, and I-saww am letting you know that it is with him-asws. So, ask him-asws and learn from him-asws and from the successors-asws after him-asws, and do not try to teach them-asws nor go in front of them-asws nor be left behind them-asws, for they-asws are with the ‘Haq’ (truth) and the ‘Haq’ is with them-asws, neither will they-asws leave it nor will it leave them-asws’ (an extract). [42] For more details, see for example: https://www.hubeali.com/article/ghadeer-e-khum/

Martyrdom (Shahadat) of Rasool Allah-saww: Year 11

After several failed assassination attempts, finally, the enemies of Allah-azwj succeeded in poisoning Rasool Allah-saww.

Abu Abdullah-asws (6th Shia Imam) having said: ‘Are you all intending that the Prophet would die or be killed. Allah-azwj is Saying: So if he dies or is killed will you turn back upon your heels? [3:144]. So, they poisoned (him-saww) before the death, these two had (made him-saww to) drink it’. We-asws say: ‘These two (two wives), and their two fathers (1 and 2) are the most evil of the creatures of Allah-azwj’.[43]

In another account, ‘He-saww let Hafsa know that her father and Abu Bakr would be pursuing the command. She divulged it to Ayesha, and she divulged it to her father, and he divulged it to his companion. Then they all united upon, that they would hasten upon it by poisoning him-saww. When Allah-azwj Informed him-saww of their deed, he-saww thought of killing them both (1 and 2), but they both oathed to him-asws that they did not do so. So, it was Revealed: O you those who commit Kufr! Do not offer excuses today. [66:7]’’.[44]

Rasool Allah-saww Foretold martyrdom of himself-saww and his successors-asws

(Sulaym ibn Qais Hilali narrates) Then the Rasool Allah-saww reiterated, so he-saww said: ‘O you people! When I-saww am martyred, so Ali-asws is higher to the believers than their own selves. When Ali-asws is martyred, so my-saww son-asws Al-Hassan-asws is higher to the believers than their own selves. When Al-Hassan-asws is martyred, so my-saww son-asws Al-Husayn is higher to the believers than their own selves. When my-saww son-asws Al-Husayn-asws is martyred, so my-saww son Ali-asws Bin Al-Husayn-asws is higher to the believers than their own selves. There is not for anyone (a say) with them-asws in the command’.

Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws stood up, and he-asws was weeping, and said: ‘May my-asws mother-as, and my-asws father-as be sacrificed for you-saww, O Prophet-saww of Allah-azwj, will you-saww be martyred?’ He-saww said: ‘Yes, I-saww will be made a martyr by being poisoned, and you-asws will be killed by the sword and your-asws beard will be dyed from the blood of your-asws head, and my-saww son Al-Hassan-asws will be killed by the poison, and my-saww son-asws Al-Husayn-asws will be killed by the sword, and he-asws will be killed by a tyrant son of a tyrant, one whose lineage is in doubt (Da’iy) son of one whose lineage is in doubt (Da’iy), a hypocrite son of a hypocrite’.[45]

Sadly, Rasool Allah-saww was recalled by Allah-azwj, shortly after Farewell Hajj on the 28th of month of Safar, i.e., two months after returning to Madinah after demonstrating Hajj Rituals as well as announcing the Will of Allah-azwj regarding his-saww successor at Ghadeer e Khum.[46]

Muslims Appoint Abu Bakr as Caliph before Prophet-saww‘s Funeral: Year 11

Abu Bakr was chosen as caliph, after a fight at Banu Saqifa, among those Muslims who abandoned the funeral of Prophet-saww in order to take over the reign of Muslim nation.  The ’SaqifaSaqīfah (سَّقِيفَة) was a shed belonging to the Banu/Bani Sa’ida clan, in which a secret meeting was held (in 11 AH) by a small group of Muslims, soon after the news of the Shahadat of the Holy Prophet-saww was broken. During the meeting, participating Muslims from both Ansaar (the helpers) and Mahajareen (the emigrants) tried to appoint a caliph from their race and creed. The Ansaars[47] claimed that they were more entitled to appoint a caliph from amongst them due to their help and assistance, whilst the Mahajareen insisted a caliph should be from amongst them, as they were first in embracing Islam and had close kinship with Rasool Allah‑saww.  Their arguments continued for hours, turning into ugly altercations, exposing tribal rivalries and personal grudges, and ending in a stampede-like situation. At this point, Umar Ibn Khattab hurriedly took the hand of Abu Bakr and pledged allegiance to him and some followed suit, while others vigorously opposed it. It took between 1-3 days as per some narrations.

Then, they came out compelling and coercing others to pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr, Umar Ibn Khattab being the foremost in doing so[48]. Whilst those Muslims were at Saqifa, Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws, along with some members of Bani Hashim, was busy in washing, embalming, offering the funeral Salat and burial of Rasool Allah-saww.  Here, we present two Ahadith related to the outcome of the Saqifa allegiance:

And he (Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed) said in another place, ‘They said, ‘When it ended to Amir Al-Momineen-asws, news of the Saqifa, after the expiry of Rasool-Allah-saww, he-asws said: ‘What did the Helpers say?’ They said, ‘They said, ‘There should be a ruler from us (Helpers) and a ruler from you (Emigrants)’.

He-asws said: ‘Why did you not argue with them that Rasool-Allah-saww bequeathed that they should be good to their (Helpers) good doers, and they should overlook from their evil ones?’

They said, ‘And what is the argument in this against them?’

He-asws said: ‘If the government was to be among them (the helpers), he-saww would not have bequeathed with them’. Then he-asws said: ‘So, what is that which Quraysh said?’ They said, ‘They argued that they are the tree (lineage) of the Rasool-saww’. He-asws said: ‘They argued with the tree and wasted the fruit (the Ahl Al-Bayt-asws)!’’[49]

When Abu Bakr succeeded in taking allegiance from most of the Muslims, he wrote to his father about him becoming the caliph of the Muslims, his father replied to him:

(The book) ‘Al-Ihtijaj’ – Abu Quhafa (Abu Bakr’s father) was at Al-Taif when Rasool-Allah-saww passed away, and Abu Bakr was pledged allegiance to. He (Abu Bakr) wrote a letter to him, its content was, ‘From caliph of Rasool-Allah-saww to Abu Quhafa. As for after, the people are in agreement with me, so today I am caliph of Allah-azwj. If you would come forward to us, it would be good from you’.

When Abu Quhafa read the letter he said to the messenger, ‘What prevented them from Ali‑asws?’ The messenger said, ‘He-asws is of young age, and he-asws has killed a lot among the Quraysh and others, and Abu Bakr is older than him-asws’.

Abu Quhafa said, ‘If this command in that was based upon the age, then I am more rightful than Abu Bakr is. They have oppressed Ali-asws of his-asws right, and the Prophet-saww had got the allegiances to be pledged to him-asws, and had ordered us with pledging to him-asws’.

Then he (father of Abu Bakr) wrote to him (Abu Bakr), ‘From Abu Quhafa to Abu Bakr. As for after, ‘Your letter came to me and I find it to be a letter of an idiot, contradicting part of it with a part. At times you are saying, ‘Caliph of Allah-azwj’, and at time you are saying, ‘Caliph of Rasool-Allah-saww’, and at times, ‘The people are in agreement with me’, and it is a vague matter.

Do not enter into a matter it would be difficult for you to exit from it tomorrow, and your posterity would happen to be in regret from it, and the self-accusing soul would blame in front of the Reckoning on the Day of Qiyamah. There are entrances and exits for the matters, and you know one who is foremost with it than you are. Watch out for Allah-azwj as if you can see Him-azwj, and do not leave out its (rightful) owner, for leaving it today is lighter upon you, and peace be to you’’.[50]

The Saqifa meeting, however, needs to be analysed as a reaction to the sermon of Rasool Allah-saww at Ghadeer-e-Khum, where Rasool Allah-saww announced: ‘For the ones for whom I‑saww am Mola (Master), for them, Ali-asws is Mola![51]  A group among Muslims, disliked it so much that they agreed among themselves to stop Bani Hashim (mainly Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib‑asws) from succeeding to Caliphate.  The leading hypocrites among them were the twelve (12) companions of Al-Uqba, who hatched their first plan when they covered their faces and intended to frighten the camel of the Messenger of Allah-saww.

When did that happen (Sulaym asked from Abu Dharr-ra)?’ He–ra (Abu Dharr-ra) said, ‘At Ghadeer Khum (or Battle of Tabbuk as per some traditions), when the Messenger of Allah-saww was returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage’. I said, ‘May Allah-azwj Keep you well, do you know them?’ He-ra, said, ‘Yes, by Allah-azwj, all of them’. I said, ‘From where did you-ra come to know them and the Messenger of Allah-saww had told Huzayfa to keep it a secret?’ He-ra said, ‘Ammar Bin Yaasar was the guide and Huzayfa was the usher, so Huzayfa was ordered for concealment, but that was not the order to Ammar’. I said, ‘Can you name them for me?’ He‑ra said, ‘Five (5) companions of the agreement[52], and five (5) companions of the consultative council (to selected the 3rd Muslim Caliph), and Amr Bin Al-Aas and Mu’awiya’. A (failed) assassination attempt was made to trip the she-camel of Rasool-Allah-saww on the night of Al-Aqaba (at Al-Aqaba Mountain pass), and the remaining ones from the renegade hypocrites at Al-Madinah wished to kill Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws.

The animosity of hypocrites against Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws was finally realised at Saqifa, conclusion of the most controversial events in early Islam, due to the exclusion of a large number of the Holy Prophet-saww‘s companions from the secret council at Saqifa, including Rasool Allah--saww’s immediate family members and notably Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws, his-saww most trustworthy, knowledgeable, and flag bearer.

With respect to the succession to the first Caliph, Abu Bakr could not find a better leader than Umar Ibn Khattab and nominated him as his successor. Towards the end of 2nd Caliph’s rein, a completely new method of choosing the 3rd Muslim Caliph was devised and a council was formed consisting of six from the companions of Rasool Allah-saww (all of them from the Quraysh – the Mahajareen – Emigrants).  Then when the third Caliph was murdered by a delegation from Egypt, after days of siege and bloodshed, Muslims started looking for the fourth caliph and pleaded to Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws to lead them, who was also martyred, later on, by the cruel strike of Ibn Muljim.

Islamic history is tainted by divisions caused at Saqifa. These divisions continued, leading to several wars among Muslims (mainly involving the companions of Rasool Allah-saww), e.g., the battle of Camel (battle of Jamal), where companions of Rasool Allah-saww were killed from both warring groups! The Muslim divisions and contention remained so, and lead to the very tragic and shameful killings of the Ahl Al-Bayt-asws in Karbala, their-asws imprisonment in Sham.  And Saqifa contention still haunts the Islamic community, as some extreme Muslim factions have declared the followers of Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws as non-believers and Kafirs and have attempted to kill them whenever an opportunity present to them – and that is all over the world.

It is therefore, important to learn about that which occurred at Saqifa and correct our allegiance to Allah-azwj and adhere to His-azwj Path. Only if we were to analyse the circumstances prior to and after Saqifa and to try to sieve out the falsehood and develop tolerance for each Islamic faction’s point of view, rather than try to eliminate them from the face of the earth – so uprooting the extremism which has been planted by the army of Iblis-la to divide and disintegrate the Muslim nation.

See for example, https://www.hubeali.com/article/saqifa-and-beyond/

Shahadat of Syed Mohsin-asws Ibn Ali-asws – Year 11

Rasool-Allah-saww had given the name ‘Mohsin-asws’ to the third son of Syeda-asws and Ali-asws, before leaving this world.

(It has been narrated) from Abu Abdullah-asws having said: ‘My-asws father-asws narrated to me‑asws, from my-asws grandfather-asws having said: ‘Amir-Al-Momineen-asws said: ‘Name your children before they are born, so if you do not know whether it is a male or a female, so name them by the named which happen to be for the males and the female, for if they are miscarried, when they meet you on the Day of Judgement, and you have not named them the miscarried one would be saying to its father, ‘Did you not name me?’ And Rasool-Allah-saww had named Mohsin-asws before he-asws had been Given (to us-asws)’.[53]

Ahadith related to the martyrdom of Syed Mohsin-asws Ibn Ali-asws reveal, martyrdom took place when Muslims attacked the house of Ahl Al-Bayt-asws (Syeda-asws and Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib‑asws) and burnt and demolished its door. The circumstances which led to the attack were their desire to forcefully seek the ‘Bayt’ (allegiance) of Ali-asws’ in order to endorse the legitimacy of the first Muslim caliph’s reign, following the departure of Rasool-Allah-saww:

In their violent attack, subsequent to the burning of the front door of Ali-asws’s house, they entered the holy house but Syeda-asws tried to stop them while coming forward to protect Amir-Al-Momineen Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws from the agents of the first Muslim Caliph. The burning door was pushed onto the Syeda-asws – thereby injuring the daughter of Rasool-Allah‑saww.  In the attack, Syeda-asws’s ribs were fractured and as a result, Syed Mohsin-asws’s soul departed to the Heavens.

When is the Shahadat of Syed Mohsin-asws Ibn Ali-asws?

How soon after the Shahadat (martyrdom) of Rasool Allah-saww, Syed Mohsin-asws Ibn Ali-asws was martyred?

After the burial of Holy Prophet-saww, and subsequent to the people gathering behind Abu Bakr, Amir Al-Momineen-asws reminded Muslims of their allegiance to him-asws at the place of Ghadeer-e-Khum. Which took place for three days, when Muslims did not support Amir Al-Momineen-asws, Ali-asws started compiling the Holy Quran (writing it on paper, skin/hide by his own handwriting containing Holy Verses as well as interpretations) while confining himself‑asws to his-asws house for several days (Ahadith say between 7 to 9 days after the Shahadat of Rasool Allah-saww)[54], when Abu Bakr saw that he insisted on the allegiance, but Amir Al-Momineen-asws sent him a message that I-asws will not come out of my-asws house until after completing the compilation of the Holy Quran. So, they kept quiet from him-asws for a few days.[55] After completion of the compilation of the Holy Quran, Amir Al-Momineen-asws visited the Masjid of Rasool Allah-saww, where people were around Abu Bakr and said: I-asws have been preoccupied with his-saww washing (and burial), then with the Quran (compilation), and did not cease until I-asws have collected all of it in this one cloth.  At this point, Umar said, ‘What we have from the Quran is sufficient for us, but rather, you-asws are calling us to yourself‑asws’. Then Ali-asws entered his-asws house’.  And only after this day, Abu Bakr sent a message to Amir Al-Momineen-asws and insisted on allegiance which led to the burning of the door of the Ali‑asws and Syeda-asws, which led to the shahadat of Syed Mohsin-asws. Therefore, the exact number of days after the Shahadat of Rasool Allah-saww and prior to the burning of the door of Amir Al-Momineen-asws cannot be quantified but it could be after several days.

A brief account on Shahadat of Syed Mohsin-asws Ibn Ali-asws, is given elsewhere: https://www.hubeali.com/article/shahadat-of-syed-mohsin-asws-ibn-ali-asws/

Shahadat of Syeda-asws the daughter of Rasool Allah-saww: Year 11

After the Shahadat of Rasool Allah-saww, some Muslims decided to make Abu Bakr as the successor of Rasool Allah-saww but Imam Ali-asws and his-asws true followers declined to accept Abu Bakr as the successor (Caliph) of Rasool Allah-saww and told them that Rasool Allah-saww, during his-saww life-time, had already appointed Ali-asws Ibn Abu Talib-asws (as his-saww successor).

(After winning the support of general Muslims for Abu Bakr), Umar said to Abu Bakr, ‘Send a message to Ali-asws to do his ‘Bayt[56] (pay allegiance), for there is nothing in this (Caliphate) until he-asws does ‘Bayt’, and if he-asws were to do so, it will be secure’. Abu Bakr sent a message to him-asws, ‘Answer to the caliph of the Rasool Allah-saww’. The messenger came and said that to him-asws. Imam Ali-asws replied to him: ‘Glory be to Allah-azwj, with what haste you have forged a lie to the Rasool Allah-saww, he knows and those that surround him know that the Allah-azwj and His-azwj Messenger-saww did not appoint a Caliph other than myself-asws’. The messenger went and informed him (Abu Bakr) of what he-asws had said to him.

Abu Bakr sent his messenger again and insisted that Ali-asws must do ‘Bayt’ of ‘Amir Al-Momineen’. Ali-asws said to him (the messenger should tell to Abu Bakr): ‘Glory be to Allah-azwj, by Allah-azwj it has not been long and he (Abu Bakr) has forgotten it. By Allah-azwj, he knows that this is a name (Amir Al-Momineen), which is not correct except for myself-asws, and Rasool Allah-saww has ordered it, and he himself was the seventh one who had saluted me-asws as Amir Al-Momineen (the chief of the faithful). He (Abu Bakr) and his companion Umar were among those seven (people) who inquired by saying, ‘Is this truth from Allah-azwj and His-azwj Prophet‑saww?’

The messenger returned and informed him of what he-asws had said. He kept quiet from him on that day.

When Imam Ali-asws saw the Abandonment of the people, their avoidance of supporting him‑asws, and their gathering around Abu Bakr and their obedience to Abu Bakr, Mola Ali-asws decided to stay at his-asws house.

(After a few days) Umar said to Abu Bakr, ‘What is preventing you to send someone to Ali-asws for the ‘Bayt’, for there is no one remaining except that he has done Bayt apart from him-asws and those four (Mola Ali-asws’s supporters)’. And Abu Bakr was softer of the two men, and more thoughtful of the two, and the more peaceful of the two, and had more foresight of the two, and the other one was more short-tempered of the two, and hard-hearted of the two, and more oppressive of the two. Abu Bakr said: ‘Who shall we sent to him-asws?’ Umar said, ‘We should send to him-asws Qunfuz, and he was a man who was rude, muscular, short-tempered from one of the freed slaves.[57]

He sent him, and sent some ‘Al-Ansar’ along with him, and they gather at house of Imam Ali‑asws. They sought permission from Imam Ali-asws to enter the house. He-asws did not permit them. The companions of Qunfuz returned to Abu Bakr and Umar – and they were both seated in the Masjid, and the people were around them. They said, ‘He-asws is not permitting us’. Umar said, ‘Go, if he-asws gives you permission, and if not, enter without permission.’ They rushed across. They sought permission. The Syeda-asws said, ‘Get out of here all of you that you cannot entered into my-asws house without my-asws permission!’ They returned, and Qunfuz the accursed, remained there. They said (to Abu Bakr and Umar), ‘The Syeda-asws said such and such. She-asws told us to get out of her-asws house, for we (cannot) enter without permission’. Umar got angry and said, ‘What have we to do with the women (being very disrespectful – Nouzo billah)?’

Then he ordered the people around him to carry firewood. They all carried firewood, and Umar carried it with them. They went around the home of Imam Ali-asws and the Syeda-asws, and their-asws two sons-asws. Then Umar called out until Imam Ali-asws and the Syeda-asws heard, ‘By Allah-azwj, Come out to us, O Ali-asws, and do ‘Bayt’ to the caliph of Rasool Allah-saww, or else we will burn down your-asws house upon you-asws’. The Syeda-asws said: ‘O Umar, what have you to do with us-asws?’ He said, ‘Open the door or else we will burn down your-asws house upon you-asws’.

Syeda-asws said: ‘O Umar, do you not fear Allah-azwj that you want to enter into my-asws house?’ He refused to leave. And Umar called for the fire. He set fire to the door, then pushed it and entered. Syeda Fatima-asws confronted him and shouted: ‘O my-asws father-saww, O Rasool Allah‑saww! Umar raised his sword, and it was in its sheath, and hit the Syeda-asws with it on her‑asws side. The Syeda-asws screamed: ‘O my-asws father!’ He raised the whip. He struck her-asws with it on her-asws arm. She-asws called out: ‘O Rasool Allah-saww! Evil it is what Abu Bakr and Umar have done after you-saww!’

Defence of Ali-asws for the descendant of the Prophet-hood – Year 11

(When Umar moved forward) Ali-asws leapt up and grabbed Umar by the collar and pushed him away. He fell and injured his neck and nose.  Mola Ali-asws was about to kill him but he-asws remembered the statement of the Rasool Allah-saw: “O Ali-asws! you must not fight with them (unless there are 40 supporters with you-asws)”. So, Mola Ali-asws said: ‘By the One Who-azwj has Honoured Mohammed-saww with Prophet-hood – O son of Sahhaak – had the Book of Allah‑azwj not been in front of me-asws, and the promise – my-asws promise to Rasool Allah-saww, you would have never been able to enter my-asws house’!

Umar yelled out for help. The people came over until they entered the house, and Imam Ali‑asws reached for his-asws sword. Qunfuz returned to Abu Bakr and he feared that Imam Ali-asws would come out to him with his-asws sword, having known of his-asws bravery and determination. Abu Bakr said to Qunfuz, ‘Return, and see if he-asws comes out, or else break down his-asws house, and if he-asws still refuses, burn down his-asws house upon him-asws’. Qunfuz – the accursed – returned.

He and his companions entered without permission, and Imam Ali-asws reached for his-asws sword. They got to him-asws first, and they surrounded him-asws, and there were many of them. Some of them took their swords out, grabbed him-asws and seized him-asws. They put a rope around his-asws neck. The Syeda-asws came in between him-asws and them near the door of the house.

And Qunfuz then hit Syeda-asws with the whip when she-asws came between them and her-asws husband-asws, and Umar had instructed him, ‘If the Syeda-asws comes between you and him-asws, hit her-asws’. Qunfuz, may Allah-azwj Curse him, forced her-asws to take refuge behind the door of her-asws house, and he pushed it. The ribs on her-asws side broke, and as a result of which (Mohsin-asws) was martyred. The Syeda-asws did not cease being injured as a result, until she-asws met Allah-azwj, as a martyr’.[58]

Imam Jafar e Sadiq-asws (6th Shia Imam) said: Syeda-asws lived for seventy-five (75) days after the Shahadat of the Rasool Allah-saww. The Syeda-asws had become extremely sad after the Shahadat of her-asws father-asws. Angel Jibril-as would visit her-asws with condolences because of the Shahadat of her-asws father-saww with Allah-azwj’s Blessings. Jibril-as would inform the Syeda‑asws about where her-asws father-saww was and about what might happen after her-asws Shahadat to her-asws descendants and Ali-asws would write down such information (Just as the Holy Quran was Revealed to the Holy Prophet Mohammed-saww).[59]

The narrator says I asked Imam Ali Al-Reza-asws (our 8th Imam-asws) about the grave of Syeda Fatimah-asws.  Imam Ali Reza-asws replied that the Syeda-asws was buried in her-asws own house. When the Amawids enlarged the Masjid,  it became part of the Masjid.[60]

For further reading, please see, for example: https://www.hubeali.com/kitab-e-sulaym/
And for the usurped property of Fadaq, https://www.hubeali.com/article/fadak-and-the-divisions-beyond-fadak/

Abu Bakr Appoints Umar as his successor before his passing away: Year 13

Abu Bakr, among fights and unrest, was selected as Caliph by those who abandoned the washing and burial of Prophet-saww and remained as caliph for two years and few months (11-13 A.H.).  Abu Bakr nominated Umar as his successor and next caliph, abandoning the process of consultation, he had himself gone through for his nomination.

‘From Abu Abdullah-asws having said: ‘Amir Al-Momineen-asws came to Abu Bakr and said to him: ‘Didn’t Rasool-Allah-saww order you to obey me-asws?’ He said, ‘No, and had he-saww ordered me, I would have done so’.

He-asws said: ‘Then let us go to Masjid Quba’, and there was Rasool-Allah-saww praying Salat. When he-saww finished, Ali-asws said: ‘O Rasool-Allah-saww! I-asws said to Abu Bakr: ‘Allah-azwj and His-azwj Rasool-Allah-saww had Commanded you to obey me-asws’ and He (Abu Bakr) said, ‘No’. Rasool-Allah-saww said: ‘I-saww had ordered you, so obey him-asws!’

He-asws said: ‘He (Abu Bakr) went out and Umar met him, and he had been terrified. He said to him, ‘What is the matter with you?’ He said, ‘Rasool-Allah-saww said such and such to me’. He said, ‘Damn the community making you, their ruler. Do you not recognise the sorcery of the Clan of Hashim-as?’’[61]

Abu Bakr witnessed the Rasool Allah-saww and Ali-asws at the time of death – Year 13

I (Sulaym Ibn Qais Hilali) said, ‘I (Sulaym) said to Abdul Rahmaan Ibn Ghanam said, ‘And that which you heard from him, what was it?’ He said, ‘He (Abu Bakr) called for the woe and the destruction (upon himself), so Umar said to him, ‘O Caliph of the Rasool Allah-saww, what is it with you that you are calling for the woe and the destruction?’ He said, ‘This here is the Rasool Allah-saww and Ali-asws is with him-saww, giving me the news of the Fire, and with them-asws is the agreement which we had made a pact on in the Kabah, and he-saww is saying: ‘By my-saww life, you have been faithful by it, and you and your companion have overcome the Guardian of Allah-azwj, so receive news of the Fire in the lowest levels of it’.

When Umar heard it, he went out and he was saying, ‘He is out of his mind’. He (Abu Bakr) said, ‘No, by Allah-azwj I am not out of my mind, where are you going?’

Umar said, ‘You were the second of the two in the cave’. He said, ‘Now as well? Or have I not narrated to you that Mohammed-saww – and he did not say ‘Rasool Allah-saww’ – said to me, and I was with him-saww in the cave: ‘I-saww can see the ship of Ja’far-ra and his-ra companions floating in the sea’. So I said, ‘Show it to me’. So he-saww wiped my face. So I looked at him-saww and was convinced by that, that he-saww is was a magician. I mentioned that to you at Al-Madinah. So we were both coincidental in our opinions that he was a magician?’

Umar said, ‘O you all, your father is out of his mind, so let it fade, and conceal what you have heard from him, lest the People-asws of the Household gloat over you’. Then he went out, and my brother (Mohammed Ibn Abi Bakr) went out, and Ayesha went out to perform ablution for the Prayer. So he made me hear from his words which he did not let them hear. (Hadith continues)

Acceptance of Abu Bakr of his entry into the coffin of Hell

I said to him when I was alone with him, ‘O father, say, ‘There is no God but Allah-azwj’. He said, ‘I will not say it nor do I have the ability to do so until I go to the Fire and enter the coffin’. When he mentioned the coffin, I thought that he was out of his mind, so I said to him, ‘Which coffin?’ He said, ‘A coffin from the Fire locked by a padlock from the fire, in which will be twelve men, I and this companion of mine’. I said, ‘Umar?’ He said, ‘Yes, who else I would mean by it? And ten, who will be in a well in Hell, over which is a rock. Whenever Allah-azwj Intends to Heat the Hell, He-azwj Lifts the rock’. (Hadith continues)

Cursing of Umar by the tongue of Abu Bakr

I said, ‘Are you delirious?’ he said, ‘No, by Allah-azwj, I am not delirious. May Allah-azwj Curse Ibn Sahaak (Umar). He is the one who repelled me from the Remembrance (Al-Zikr) after it had come to me. So he is an evil companion, May Allah-azwj Curse him. Place my cheek on the ground’. So, I place his cheek on the ground, and he did not cease to call for the woe and the destruction until he died.

Then Umar entered, and he had already died. He said, ‘Did he say anything else after me?’ So made it known to him what he had said. Umar said, ‘May Allah-azwj have Mercy on the Caliph of the Rasool Allah-saww. Conceal it, for this was due to delirium, and you are a people of the house whose members are well known to be suffering from the illness of being delirious’.

Ayesha said, ‘You speak the truth’, and all of them said to me, ‘Let no one hear anything from this, or else Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws and the Ahl Al-Bayt will gloat over you.

Sulaym said, ‘I said to Mohammed, ‘Whom do you see to have narrated to Amir Al-Momineen‑asws about these five of what they had said?’ So he said, ‘The Rasool Allah-saww, and he-asws sees him-saww in his-asws dream every night, and him-saww narrating it to him-asws in the dream is similar to him-saww narrating it to him-asws during his-saww lifetime and the wakefulness, for the Rasool Allah-saww has said: ‘The one who sees me-asws in the dream, so he has seen me‑saww, as the Satan-la cannot be like me-saww, neither in the sleep nor in wakefulness, and not be like any one from my-saww successors-asws, up to the Day of Judgement’.

Sulaym said, ‘I said to Mohammed Bin Abu Bakr, ‘Who has narrated this to you?’ He said, ‘Ali‑asws’. I said, ‘And I heard it as well from him-asws, just as you heard it’ So I said to Mohammed, ‘Perhaps an Angel from the Angels narrated it to him-asws?’ He said, ‘How can that be?’ I said, ‘Do the Angels narrate to any but the Prophets-as?’ He said, ‘But have you not read the Quran, [22:52] And We did not send before you any messenger or prophet, or a Muhaddith”?’ (Please note that the word ‘Muhaddith’ is missing from this Verse from the current version of the Quran).

(Sulaym) said, ‘I said to him, ‘Amir Al-Momineen-asws, he-asws was a Muhaddith?’ He said, ‘Yes, and so was (Syeda) Fatima-asws a Muhadditha and she-asws was not a Prophetess, and Maryam‑as was a Muhadditha and she-as was not a Prophetess, and the mother-as of Musa-as, she-as was not a Prophetess and she-saww was a Muhadditha, and so was Sarah-as the wife of Ibrahim-as, she-as saw the Angel who gave her-as the good news of Is’haaq-as and after Is’haaq-as, Yaqoub-as, and she-as was not a Prophetess’. (Hadith continues)

Confirmation by Amir Al-Momineen-asws for this Hadith for a second time

Sulaym said, ‘When Mohammed Bin Abu Bakr was killed in Egypt, I gave my condolences to Amir Al-Momineen-asws, and was alone with him-asws, so I narrated to him-asws of what Mohammed Bin Abu Bakr had narrated to me, and informed him-asws of what Abdul Rahmaan Bin Ghanam has informed me. He-asws said: ‘Mohammed spoke the truth, may Allah-azwj has Mercy on him, but rather he is a martyr, alive and in receipt of sustenance.[62]

Rule of Umar and creation of 6-member group for next Caliph: Year 13-23

Abu Bakr Ibn Quhafa appoints Umar Ibn Khatab as his successor in late 12 or start of 13 A.H. who ruled Muslims from Madinah for about ten until being assassinated by a Persian slave Abu Lu’lu’a Firuz in 22, an Iranian who got upset after not being paid wages on time or charged with higher levy.

Close to his death, Umar Ibn Khatab, established a ‘Shura’[63] consisting of six persons (in the matter of selecting the next caliph). After three days’ deliberations, the council collared it on Abdul Rahman. Then Ibn Awf (Abdul Rahman) made it (Caliphate) to go to Usman on the condition that he would return it back to him. Usman betrayed him, and Ibn Awf (Abdul Rahman) slandered him as an infidel and an ignorant one during his lifetime. His children (Abdul Rahman’s) thought that Usman had poisoned him, which (led to his) death.[64]

Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws objected to the Shura created by Umar and said: And the consultative group (which Umar nominated for the 3rd Caliph) consisted of six in number and all of us are alive. Why did Umar include me-asws in the consultation when he and his companions had testified against the Messenger of Allah-saww (by fabricating a Hadith that Prophet-hood and Caliph will not be together)? Did he include me in the consultation regarding the Caliphate or for something else? And if you think that he made the consultation to be for something other than the Emirate, so it is not for Usman to be the Emir over us, and is it necessary for us to have a consultation for something else because he ordered us to have a consultation for something else? And if the consultation was regarding it (Caliphate), why did he include me-asws among those (the nominees)? Did he not take me-asws out by saying that the Messenger of Allah-saww had taken out the People-asws of the Household from the Caliphate and informed that there is no share for them-asws in it (the fabricated Hadith)?’[65]

In another Hadith, Ali-asws turned towards Talha, and Al-Zubayr, and Ibn Awf, and Sa’ad. He‑asws said: ‘By Allah-azwj, if those five lied against the Messenger of Allah-saww (by fabricating the Hadith) then it is not permissible for you to hold their friendship, and if they spoke the truth then it is not permissible for you – O you five – to include me-asws along with you in the consultation, for my-asws inclusion in it is against the Messenger of Allah-saww, and away from him-saww’.[66]

Once, Al-Abbas said to Ali-asws, ‘What is your-asws opinion on Umar not penalising Qunfuz like he had penalised the rest of the workers?’ So, Ali-asws looked at the ones around him-asws, then his-asws eyes filled up with tears, then he-asws said: ‘In appreciation for the strike which he struck at (Syeda) Fatima-asws, with the whip. She-asws passed away, and on her-asws shoulder was the effect of it, like a bruise and swelling’.

Then he-asws said: ‘The strange thing is what the hearts of this community are drinking from the love of this man and his companion that was before him, and their submission to him in everything ‘new’ that he comes up with. If his (2nd Caliph’s) workers were fraudsters and that this wealth, which was in their hands was fraudulent, it was not permissible for him to leave it (any of it with them), and he should have taken all of it back, for it was the wealth of the Muslims.

So, what made him take half of it and leave the other half (in their possession)? And if it was not fraudulent, then it was not permissible for him to take anything from their wealth, neither little nor a lot. But he (Umar) took half of it. And if that which was in their hands, was fraudulent, and they did not accept it as such, and he did not establish any proof over them for it, it was not permissible for him to take from them, neither little nor a lot. And what is even stranger than that is that he has reinstated some of them back to their positions. If they were fraudsters, it was not permissible for him to keep them as the office-bearers, and if they were not fraudsters, their wealth was not permissible for him (to take back from them)’.[67]

Examples of changes to Sunnah by Umar[68]:

(In lengthy sermon) Ali-asws turned towards the people and said: ‘It is strange that the people are seeing the ‘Sunnah’[69] of their Prophet-saww being altered and replaced by other things, one by one, and door by door (part by part), but they are happy with it and do not deny them, but instead they get angry on his behalf at the one who finds faults with him and denys him instead. Then, very soon people will come after us who will follow his innovations, and his injustices, and his new things, and will take his new things as ‘Sunnah’ and make it to be their religion, in order to be close to Allah-azwj by these. For example –

Relocation of the ‘Maqaam-e-Ibrahim-asws’ to where it used to be in the era of Ignorance

He (Umar) transferred the ‘Maqaam-e-Ibrahim-as’ from the place where it was placed by the Messenger of Allah-saww to the place which it used to be in the era of ignorance, where the Messenger of Allah-saww had moved it from (upon conquering Mecca).

Changing of the weight measures of the Messenger of Allah-saww of ‘Sa’a’ and ‘Mudd’

And with regards to him changing the Sa’a of the Messenger of Allah-saww and his-saww Mudd, and in both of them is an obligation and a Sunnah. So, he did not increase anything except for evil, because the poor – with regards to their expiations of the oath and the ‘Zihaar’ – by both of these they give what is obligatory for them. And the Messenger of Allah-saww has said: ‘Our Allah-azwj, Bless for us with regards for our Mudd and our Sa’a!’ They did not place any obstructions between him and that, but they were pleased with it and accepted what he did.

Usurpation of Fadak

He (Umar), along with his companion (Abu Bakr), captured Fadak, and it was in the hand (control) of (Syeda) Fatima-asws. She-asws had consumed from its yield in the era of the Prophet‑saww. So, they asked her-asws for proof for that which was already in her-asws hands, and neither did they ratify her-asws nor Umm Ayman-ra.[70] And he knew with conviction – just as we‑asws know – that it was in her-asws hands. And it was not permissible for him to ask her-asws for proof for that which was already in her-asws hands, or for him to hurl accusations at her‑asws.

Then the people beautified that and praised him for it and said, ‘But he did that due to his piety and virtue’. Then they beautified the ugly deeds of them both as being fair and equitable. So, they said, ‘We think that (Syeda) Fatima-asws did not say except for the truth, and that Ali-asws did not testify except with the truth, and had there been with Umm Ayman another woman (to testify), we would have given it to her-asws’. So they both gained credibility by that among the ignorant people, and what are these two, and who made these two to be rulers, so they should be followed or prevented?’ But, the community got involved with the two of them and entered themselves into that in which they had no right for them both, and both of them did not have any knowledge about it.

And (Syeda) Fatima-asws had said to them both – when he wanted to take it (Fadak) away from her-asws, and it was in her-asws hands: ‘Is this not in my-asws hands and my-asws representative regarding it is here, and I-asws had consumed the yield from it whilst the Messenger of Allah‑saww was alive?’ He said, ‘Yes’. She-asws said: ‘So why do you ask me-asws for the proof on that which is already in my-asws hands?’ He said, ‘Because this is war booty for the Muslims, so you-asws produce the proof otherwise we will not give it’. She-asws said to both of them – and the people around them were listening: ‘Do the two of you want to turn back what the Messenger of Allah-saww has done, and you both are issuing a ruling with regards to us-asws especially what you two have not issued regarding the rest of the Muslims? O you people! Listen to what they are riding on. Do you think that if I-asws were to claim to be in my-asws hands from the wealth of the Muslims, you will ask me-asws for the proof or from them?’ They said, ‘But we will ask you-asws’.

She-asws said: ‘If all the Muslims were to make a claim for that which is in my-asws hands, you will ask them for the proof or from me-asws?’ Umar got angry and said: ‘This is the ‘Fey’ (war booty) for the Muslims and their land, and it is in the hands of (Syeda) Fatima-asws and she-asws is consuming the yield of it, so if she-asws can establish proof on what she-asws is claiming that the Messenger of Allah-saww gifted it to her-asws from between the Muslims – and it is their war booty and their right – we will look into that’.

So, she-asws said: ‘It is sufficient for me-asws that I-asws should adjure you with Allah-azwj as Witness, O you people, but have you not heard the Messenger of Allah-saww say: ‘My-saww daughter-asws is the Chieftess of the women of the Paradise?’ They said, ‘By our Allah-azwj, yes, we have heard it from the Messenger of Allah-saww’. Would the Chieftess of the women of the Paradise make a false claim and take what is not for her to take? Do you think that if four witnesses testify against me-asws for immorality, or two men for theft, you will ratify them against me-asws?’ As for Abu Bakr, he was silent, but not Umar. He said, ‘Yes, we will apply the Limits (of the Law) on you-asws’.

She-asws said: ‘You lied, and are wicked. Nay, you have accepted that you are not on the Religion of Mohammed-saww. The one who places a requirement of a witness upon the Chieftess of the women of the Paradise, or establish the Limits (of the Law) against her-asws, is an accursed infidel by what Allah-azwj Sent down upon Mohammed-saww, because they-asws are the ones from whom-asws Allah-azwj has kept away all uncleanness and Purified them-asws with a thorough Purifying [33:33]. It is not permissible to have witnesses against them-asws because they-asws are infallible from every evil, and pure from every immorality.

Narrate to me-asws – O Umar – who are the People-asws (Ahl) of this Verse? If the people testify against them-asws or anyone-asws from them-asws, of Polytheism or infidelity, or immorality, will the Muslims keep away from them-asws and apply the Limits (of the Law) on them-asws?’ He said, ‘Yes, and they-asws and the rest of the people with regards to that are not but equal’.

She-asws said: ‘You have lied and transgressed (Kufr), they-asws and the rest of the people are not equal with regards to that because Allah-azwj has Made them-asws to be Infallible and Revealed their-asws Infallibility, and their-asws Purification, and Kept away from them-asws, the impurities. Therefore, the one who ratifies against them-asws, he has lied against Allah-azwj and his-azwj Messenger-saww’. Abu Bakr said, ‘I am holding you on oath – O Umar – to keep quiet’.

Withholding of Al-Khums

Sulaym said, ‘Then he-asws turned towards Al-Abbas and those who were around him, then said: ‘Do you not wonder at the one who withheld it and his companion who withheld it from us, the share for the near relatives which Allah-azwj had Obligated for us-asws in the Quran? And Allah-azwj Knew that they would oppress us-asws by it and seize it from us-asws, so He-azwj Said: “[8:41] (And know that whatever thing you gain, a fifth of it is for Allah and for the Messenger and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer), if you believe in Allah and in that which We revealed to Our servant, on the day of distinction, the day on which the two parties met”.

The joining of the house of Ja’far with the Masjid

And it is strange that he demolished the house of my-asws brother Ja’far and joined it with the Masjid, and never gave his sons anything from its value, neither little nor more. Then the people did not fault that to him and did not change it. It was as if he had taken a house from a man from ‘Daylam’.

The innovation regarding the Major Ablution (Ghusl Al-Janaba)

And it is strange, his ignorance and the ignorance of the community, that he wrote to all of his office bearers that, ‘The one who is in requirement of the major ablution, if he does not find water, it is not upon him to Pray and it is not upon him to perform ‘Tayammum’ with the earth until he does find water, even though he does not find it until he meets Allah-azwj’ Then the people accepted that and were happy with it, and he knew as well as the people that the Messenger of Allah-saww had ordered Ammar and ordered Abu Dharr-ra that they should perform Tayammum from the ‘Janaaba’[71] and Pray, and he was a witness to it as well as the others, but he did not accept that and did not approve it (the way of the holy Prophet-saww).

The innovation regarding the inheritance from the grandfather

And it is strange, when he mixed up different issues with regards to the inheritance from a grandfather arbitrarily without knowledge and due to ignorance, and what these two claimed to know and their audacity against Allah-azwj and their lack of piety. They claimed that the Messenger of Allah-azwj passed away never having made any decision with regards to the (inheritance of) grandfather, and no one knows what is to be the inheritance from the grandfather. Then the people followed them on that and supported the two of them.

The innovation regarding the divorce

And stranger than that is when Abu Kanaf Al-Abady came up to him and said, ‘I divorced my wife whilst I was away, and the news of the divorce reached her. Then I reverted back to her whilst she was still in her waiting period, and I wrote to her. The letter did not reach her until after she had remarried’. He (Umar) wrote to him, ‘If this man who has married her did establish marital relations with her then she is his wife, and if had not had marital relations with her then she is your wife’. And he wrote that to him, and I-asws am a witness to it. He never consulted me-asws and did not even ask me-asws about it. He thought that due to his knowledge, he was in no need of me-asws. I-asws intended to prevent him, but then I-asws thought: ‘What do I-asws care if Allah-azwj Exposes him’. Then the people did not fault him, but beautified his actions and took to his ways and accepted it from him and saw it as being correct, and that is such a judgement that even if an insane person were to judge it, he would not have exceeded this.

The dropping of the parts of the Call (to Prayer)

Then he left from the Call to Prayer (Azaan), ‘Hurry to the best of the deeds’ (Hayya Alaa Khayr Al-Amal). So, they took to his ways and followed him on that.

The innovation regarding the matter of the missing husband

And he judged regarding the missing husband, and that if four years have passed, then she could wed again. So, if her husband turns up then he shall have the choice between the wife and the dowry. The people beautified it and took to his way and accepted it from his ignorance, and said that he knew the Book of Allah-azwj and the Sunnah of His-azwj Prophet-saww.

His Innovation regarding the non-Arabs and his expelling of all the non-Arabs from Al-Madinah.

And his sending of a rope to his office bearers in Al-Basra the length of five spans ‘Ashbaar’ and his statement, ‘Anyone from the non-Arabs whose height is longer than this rope, so have his neck struck off’.

And further innovations

And he returned the female captives who were secretly carrying a child. And his sending a rope with regard to the captive thieves in Al-Basra, and his statement, ‘Anyone who has reached the length of this rope, so cut off (his hands)’. And even stranger than that is the stoning of the liar by a liar. So they accepted it, and accepted his ignorance. (And defended his ignorance by) coming up with a fabrication that an Angel was speaking through his tongue and was teaching him. And his releasing of the captives of the people of Yemen.[72]

A conspiracy to kill Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws – Year 10

When it was night time, they both (Abu Bakr and Umar) went to Khalid Bin Waleed. They said, ‘We want to issue a secret command to you, and trust that you will be steadfast with it’. He said, ‘Burden me with whatsoever you like, for I am obedient at your hands’. They said to him, ‘This (Caliphate) is of no benefit to us, what we have regarding it, from the kingdom and the Sultanate, so long as Ali-asws is still alive. Did you hear what he-asws said to us and what he-asws had replied back out to us? And we do not feel secure for he-asws might call in secret, so the people would respond to him-asws and he-asws will confront us since he-asws is the bravest of the Arabs. And we have committed from it that you have seen, and have overcome the kingdom of the son-as of his-saww uncle-as whilst we had no rights with regards to it, and we confiscated Fadak from his-asws wife-asws. So, when you Pray the morning Prayer with the people, stand beside him-asws and have your sword with you, and when I send the salutations in the Prayer, strike his-asws neck’.

Ali-asws said: ‘Khalid Prayed by my-asws side wearing the sword. Abu Bakr stood up during the Prayer, and regretted to himself, and was silent with his hands until the sun almost rose. Then he said (to Khalid) – before he sent salutation: ‘Do not do what I had ordered you to’. Then he sent salutations. I-asws said to Khalid: ‘And what was that about?’ He said, ‘He had ordered me – when he sends salutations – that I should strike your-asws neck’. I-asws said: ‘Would you have done it?’ He said, ‘Yes, and by my Lord-azwj, I would have done it’. (Hadith continues)

Speech of Umar at the time of death

Mohammed (Bin Abu Bakr) said, ‘I met Abdullah Bin Umar during the Caliphate of Usman, so I narrated to him what my father had said at the time of his death, and I had taken an oath and a covenant that I would keep it concealed. Ibn Umar said to me, ‘Keep it concealed, for, by Allah-azwj my father had also said similar to what your father said, neither more nor less’. Then Abdullah Ibn Umar rectified it and was fearful that I would inform that to Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws as he knew that I was one of those who loved him-asws and that I cut myself off (from others) to him, so he (Abullah bin Umar) said, ‘My father was out of his mind’.  (Hadith continues)

Confirmation of Amir Al-Momineen of this Hadith

I (Mohammed Bin Abu Bakr) came to Amir Al-Momineen-asws. So I narrated to him-asws what I had heard from my father and also what Ibn Umar had quoted to me from his father. So Amir Al-Momineen-asws said: ‘I-asws have been informed by the one who is more truthful than his father, and your father, and Abu Ubeyda, and Saalim, and Ma’az, and you and Ibn Umar’.

I asked, ‘Who is that one, O Amir Al-Momineen-asws?’ So he-asws said: ‘Someone who narrated it to me-asws (all that which is happening). I understood who he-asws meant by that, so I said, ‘You-asws have spoken the truth, O Amir Al-Momineen-asws, but I thought that a human being had narrated it to you-asws, and there was no one present with my father – when he was saying this – apart from myself’.

Sulaym said, ‘I said to Abdul Rahmaan Ibn Ghanam, ‘Ma’az died by the plague, so what did Abu Ubeyda die of?’ He said, ‘By empyema (collection of pus in the lungs).[73]

Rule of Usman Ibn Affan: Year 23-34

Usman Ibn Affan, as a result of six-member Shura became the third caliph after Rasool Allah‑saww, and ruled Muslims from Madinah between 11 to 12 years. Usman favoured his clan, Bani Umayyad, which made other tribes dissatisfied from his rule, his loose grip on governance led to an armed revolt, leading to a siege upon his residence and ultimately culminating in his assassination.

Rule of Usman was similar to that of Abu Bakr and Umar

(Amir Al-Momineen-asws Ali Ibn Abi Talib wrote in reply to a letter of Muawiya Ibn Abu Suffan).  When Ali-asws read the letter of Muawiya which had been brought by Abu Al-Darda and Abu Hureira, his message and his words, Ali-asws said to Abu Al-Darda: ‘The two of you have brought to me what Muawiya had sent you two with, so hear from me-asws, then take it from me-asws to him just as you two brought it to me-asws, and say to him that: ‘Usman Bin Affan was nothing more than one of the two men – (either) an imam of guidance (shedding of) whose blood was forbidden, and helping of whom was obligatory, and it was not permissible to disobey him, nor was there any leeway for abandoning him; or he was an imam of misguidance, (the shedding of) whose blood was permissible, and befriending him and helping him was not permissible. So he was not devoid of one of the two characteristics (an extract).[74]

An example of Bani Ummiad’s fabricated Hadith on Usman

(In a lengthy Hadith, the narrator asked Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws) I said to him-asws, ‘May Allah‑azwj Keep you-asws well, tell me some of those things’. He-asws said: ‘They report that the Chiefs of the elderly of the inhabitants of the Paradise are Abu Bakr and Umar, and that Umar is a Muhaddith, and that the Angel teaches him, and that the tranquillity is pronounced upon his tongue, and that the Angels are embarrassed by Usman, and that there is a Vizier for me-asws from the inhabitants of the sky and a Vizier from the inhabitants of the earth, and that they are being managed from a remote distance from me-asws, and to remain steadfast, for it is not upon you except for the Prophet-saww, and a truthful and a witness’ – to the extent that Abu Ja’far-asws recounted more than one hundred such reports which were regarded as being the truth. He-asws said: ‘By Allah-azwj, all of these are lies and forgeries’.

I said, ‘May Allah-azwj Keep you-asws well, is there nothing from it (true)? He-asws said: ‘From these are clear (forgeries) and from these are distorted ones. As for the distorted, it is that ‘there is nothing upon you except for the Prophet-saww and a truthful and a witness’, it means Ali-asws. So accept it. And similar to it, ‘How can it not be a blessing for you and upon you is a Prophet-saww, and a truthful and a witness’, it means Ali-asws. And the generalisation of it is a lie, and a forgery, and invalid.

Our-asws Allah-azwj, Make my-asws speech to be the speech of the Messenger of Allah-azwj, and the speech of Ali-asws, in what the community of Mohammed-saww differs, in after him-saww, (and) until Allah-azwj Sends the Mahdi-asws’.[75]

In another Hadith, Usman said, ‘O Abu Al-Hassan-asws, but is there with you-asws and with these companions of yours-asws a Hadith regarding myself?’ Ali-asws said: ‘Yes, I-asws heard the Messenger of Allah-saww curse you twice, then did not seek Forgiveness from Allah-azwj for you after having cursed you’. Usman got angry, then said, ‘What is it to me and what is it to you-asws that you-asws do not leave me to myself, neither in the era of the Prophet-saww, nor after him-saww.

Ali-asws said: ‘Yes, may Allah-azwj Grind your nose’ (Humiliate you). Usman said, ‘By Allah-azwj, I have heard from the Messenger of Allah-saww, he-saww said that: ‘Al-Zubeyr will be killed as an apostate (defector) from Islam’. Salman-ra said, ‘Ali-asws said to me-ra – just between me-ra and him-asws – Usman spoke the truth, and that he will pay allegiance to me-asws after the killing of Usman, and will break the allegiance and will be killed as an apostate.[76]

Ali-asws narrates that Usman sent a message to me-asws during a hot day, so I-asws veiled with my cloth and went to him. I-asws entered and he was upon his throne, and in his hand was a stick, and in front of him was a lot of wealth, two piles of silver and gold. Here! Take from this until your-asws belly is full, for it is burning me’.

I-asws said: ‘Are you helping a relative! If this wealth was an inheritance, or a donor has given you, or you earned it from a trade, I-asws would be one of the two men – Either I-asws take and be grateful, or I-asws would save and work; and if it was from the wealth of Allah-azwj, and in it is a right of the Muslims, and the orphans, and the travellers, then by Allah-azwj, it is not for you that you give it, nor is it for me-asws that I-asws take it’.

He said, ‘You-asws are refusing, by Allah-azwj, only you-asws are not refusing’. Then he stood with the stick and hit me-asws. By Allah-azwj, his hand did not return until he had fulfilled his need. I-asws covered with my-asws cloth and returned to my-asws house and said: ‘Allah-azwj is between me-asws and you, that I-asws was instructing you with the good and forbidding you from the evil’’.[77]

Caliphate of Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws: Muslims, unanimously pledge Allegiance: –Year 34-40

(Ali Amir Al-Momineen-asws says in one of the Sermons) When he (Usman) was killed, and the people gathered for three days, having consultations regarding their command (ruler). Then they gave it to me-asws, so they pledged their allegiances to me-asws willingly, without abhorrence’.  However, when the likes of Al-Zubayr and Al-Talha did not succeed in getting their hands to the treasury, they instigated revolt against me (Amir Al-Momineen-asws).

(Ali Amir Al-Momineen-asws says): Then Al-Zubayr and Talha came to me-asws seeking permission to go for Umrah. So, I-asws held both of them on oath that they would not break their allegiances with me-asws nor would they rebel against me-asws inflicting a calamity. Then they diverted themselves to Mecca. So, they went with Ayesha to the people of Mudra (Al-Basra), ignorant ones of little understanding. So, they got them to break their allegiances with me-asws and made (shedding of) my-asws blood to be permissible’.

(Sulaym said), ‘Then he-asws mentioned Ayesha and her coming out from her house, and what was set up from it. So, Amaar said, ‘O Amir Al-Momineen-asws, refrain from it for she is your‑asws mother’. At that, he-asws avoided mentioning it, and spoke regarding another matter, then return to mentioning it. Then he-asws spoke about it in even stronger words than the first time.

Amaar said, ‘O Amir Al-Momineen-asws, refrain from it, for she is your mother’. So, he-asws left mentioning it, then returned for a third time, so he spoke in even stronger words (against her) than what he-asws had said before.

Amaar said, ‘O Amir Al-Momineen-asws, refrain from it, for she is your-asws mother’. Amir Al-Momineen-asws said: ‘Never! I-asws am with Allah-azwj against ‘that mother’ of yours who opposes Him-azwj, and Allah-azwj Tested you by her so that He-azwj would Know whether you are with Him-azwj or with her’. (an extract). [78]

Battle of the Jamal (Camel): Year 35

It is narrated from Suleym Bin Qays who said, ‘I battled alongside Ali-asws on the Day of the Camel (Al-Jamal) and we were 12,000 men, and the army and companions of the Camel had more than 120,000 men. The army was led by Aisha and it was defeated in the battle.  Talha and Zubeyr, also leaders of the army, were both killed.  After defeating them, Amir Al-Momineen-asws sent Aisha back to Madinah in the company of female soldiers.[79]

In a Hadith, Amir Al-Momineen-asws said:

‘And Amir Al-Momineen-asws wrote a letter to the Shias in which he-asws mentioned the coming out of Aisha to Al-Basra for battle and the major error of Talha and Zubeyr. He-asws said: ‘And is there an error greater than this? They have brought out the wife of the Rasool-Allah-saww from her house, and uncovered her veil which Allah-azwj had Veiled upon her whilst they kept their own wives in their houses!’ They have not done justice to Allah-azwj and His-azwj Rasool‑saww’.

Aisha, Talha and Zubeyr all performed three (evil) acts referenced in the Book of Allah-azwj – The rebellion, the plotting, and the breaking (of allegiance). Allah-azwj Said [10:23] O you people! Your rebellion is against your own souls, and Said [48:10] Therefore whoever breaks (the Covenant), he breaks it only against his own soul, and Said [35:43] and the evil plans shall not weigh down any except the planners of it. (Ali-asws said) and they have rebelled against us-asws, and broke their allegiance with me-asws, and plotted against me-asws’.[80]

For further details, for example, see https://www.hubeali.com/article/battle-of-jamal/

Battle of Siffin: Year 36

The Battle of Siffin occurred between Muawiya and his people and Amir Al-Momineen-asws and his companions in Syria at Siffin at the bank of the Euphrates (today, Raqqa, a city of Syria).

The narrator of the Hadith said: After they failed to defeat Ali-asws at battle of Jamal, Muawiya (who was the ruler of Syria) called the reciters of the (holy Quran) of Syria, gave them money and sent them to different areas in Syria. They reported false reports and taught them false principles. They lied, informing them that Ali-asws killed Usman[81] and that Muawiya is seeking the blood (revenge) for Usman. With them were the children of Usman, this helped to convince the people of Syria to agree.

Muawiya continued this for twenty years, to the extent that the young grew up, and the grown ones became elderly. He gave his agents of falsehood (the oppressors spreading lies) wealth, land and food and drink. And the people of Syria stopped cursing Satan-la and started cursing Ali-asws, and they were saying, ‘Curse be upon Ali-asws the murderer of Usman’ (nouzobillah – God Forbid). The ignorant ones accepted that and their misguidance lead them to the Fire. Sufficient for us is Allah-azwj and He-azwj the best Disposer. Had He-azwj so Wished, He-azwj could have Gathered them on the path of the guided, but Allah-azwj Does what that He-azwj so Desires.[82]

The narrator of the Hadith says I asked Sulaym (Ibn Qais Hilali) ‘Did you witness (the battle of) Siffin?’ He said, ‘Yes’.

I asked, ‘How old were you then?’ He said, ‘Forty years’. I said, ‘Tell me about it, may Allah‑azwj have Mercy on you’. He said, ‘I have forgotten many things, but I cannot forget this event’.

Then he wept and said, ‘We were aligned in our rows when Maalik Al-Ashtar (another companion) came out on his horse. He moved so that he was standing between the two rows facing us, with his back towards the people of Syria. He Praised Allah-azwj, sent greetings upon the Prophet-saww and said, ‘What happens is from the Judgement of Allah-azwj and His-azwj Power, He-azwj has Gathered us on this spot of earth for this and His-azwj Commands have been Issued.

We are led by the Chief of the Muslims- Amir Al-Momineen-asws. He-asws is the best of the successors-as, the son-asws of the uncle-as of our Prophet-saww and his-saww brother-asws, and inheritor-asws. Our swords are the swords of Allah-azwj, but the leader of the Syrian army is the son of the liver-eater (Muawiya son of Hinda) and a shelter for hypocrisy, leading them all to the misery and the Fire. And we are hopeful that by killing them we will be Rewarded by Allah-azwj whilst they are awaiting the Punishment.

So, when the fighting erupts and horses wander by our dead and their dead, we will be hopeful for the Help of Allah-azwj. So do not listen to anything except for the sounds of the swords and the horses. O you people, lower your gaze and clench your teeth for it is intense, striking the head (of an opponent) and turn your face towards their faces. With the sword in your right hand, strike their heads and stab your spear into their hearts’.

Then the people met (in battle) and between them was a great fight. 70,000 of the well-known Arabs were killed. And the event lasted from sunrise until a third of the night had gone by. No one from the army prostrated to Allah-azwj for their Prayers at Midday (Al-Zohr), Mid-afternoon (Al-Asr), Evening (Al-Maghrib) and at Night (Al-Isha) Prayers.

The narrator of the Hadith said, ‘I heard Ali-asws say on the Day of Al-Jamal and the Day of Al-Siffin: ‘I-asws could either fight against what Allah-azwj has Sent down, or I-asws can fight in the Way of Allah-azwj and command the doing of the good and forbid the evil. I-asws chose to fight in the Way of Allah-azwj against the disbelief (Al-Kufr). The disbelievers (Kafirs) face the chains in the Fire of Hell. I-asws have continuously been oppressed since the passing away of Rasool-Allah-saww. Had I-asws found helpers (enough companions) before today I-asws would have fought and it would have not been possible for me-asws to be seated (and not fight). And the Book and the Sunnah (would have been shared by the people) just as I-asws have found today.’[83]

The narrator of the Hadith has said: ‘When Ali-asws met the enemies on the day of Battle of Al-Jamal, Siffin, and Al-Nahrwaan, he-asws turned towards the Qiblah (Kabah) whilst on his-asws grey mule (which was a mule similar to that of Rasool-Allah-saww) and he-asws said: ‘Our Allah-azwj! The hands are extended towards You-azwj, and the eyes are raised, and the hearts are opened up, and the feet have stepped ahead (towards You-azwj). Our Lord-azwj! Grant victory to us and to our people by the truth, and You-azwj are the best in Granting victory’, and he-asws had his-asws hands raised, and his-asws companions responded by saying ‘Ameen’.[84]

Sulaym (the narrator of the Hadith) says: ‘When Ali-asws and his-asws companions passed by a group of Syrians from Muawiya’s camp, he-asws heard them making offensive remarks against him-asws. He-asws halted his-asws companions and said: ‘Go to them in a polite manner and with righteous attitude and maintain the dignity of Al-Islam.

Indeed, they are the worst in the ignorance to Allah-azwj, their rudeness and delusion shows that their leader is Muawiya. Before today they did not fight against me-asws or verbally attack me-asws, I-asws used to call them towards Al-Islam and they would call me-asws to worship idols. So, Praise be to Allah-azwj, I-asws leave this matter to Allah-azwj , He-azwj will deal with the mischievous hypocrites who we saw unsatisfied and ungrateful to Islam. They deceived this community and made their hearts drink the love of ‘Fitna’ (rebellion) and attracted their desires towards the falsehood. So they established the war against us in order to extinguish the Light of Allah-azwj, “[61:8] and Allah will perfect His light, though the unbelievers may be unwilling.”

Then Ali-asws said: ‘These ones will not move away from this position of theirs unless they are challenged until their hearts fly out and bones are broken and wrists fall off, and until their foreheads are knocked by iron and their bones are crushed in their chests, and their chins and their collar bones are pulled out. Where are the people who seek the Hereafter?’

The Battle of Siffin Ends

When the army of Amir Al-Momineen-asws was about to reach the camp of Muawiya, Muawiya’s army brought Holy Quran on the heads of the spears and asked for settlement on the Book of Allah-azwj and pleaded for ceasefire, based on the advice of Amro Bin Al-A’as.  So, the battle of Siffin was stopped in the favour of negotiation, without producing any result.

For further details, see for example: https://www.hubeali.com/article/battle-of-Siffin/

Battle of Nahrwan: Year 37

The hypocrites (called Kharajis), who fought in the battle of Siffin, rose against Amir-ul-Momimeen-asws at a place called ‘Nahrawan’. Amir Al-Momineen-asws addressed them (the Kharajis) as:

I-asws am warning you that you will be killed here and that you have no excuse before Allah-azwj nor any authority. You have come out of your houses and now the Divine ruling will trap you. I‑asws had advised you against this but you rejected my-asws advice. Your heads are devoid of intelligence. Allah-azwj ‘s woe be to you! I-asws have not put you in any misfortune nor wished you harm.[85]

‘When Ali-asws returned from Siffin to Al-Kufa, the Kharijites stayed until they were a crowd, then they went out to the desert at Al-Kufa named as Haroura. They called out, ‘لَا حُكْمَ إِلَّا لِلَّهِ’ ‘There is no Judgment except for Allah-azwj, and even if the Polytheists are averse to it! Indeed, Muawiya and Ali-asws have both associated in the Judgment of Allah-azwj!’

Ali-asws sent Abdullah Bin Al-Abbas to them. He looked into their affairs and spoke to them, the returned to Ali-asws. He-asws said to him: ‘What did you see?’ Ibn Abbas said, ‘By Allah-azwj! I don’t know what they are’. He-asws said: ‘Did you see them as hypocrites?’ He said, ‘By Allah‑azwj! Their signs are not signs of the hypocrites. In between their eyes are impact of the Sajdahs and they are interpreting the Quran’. He-asws said: ‘Leave them for as long as they are not spilling blood or usurping wealth’.

And he-asws sent a message to them: ‘What is this which you are innovating and what are you intending?’

They said, ‘We want us and you-asws and the ones who were with you-asws at Siffin to go out for three nights and repent to Allah-azwj from the affair of the two judges, then we should travel to Muawiya and fight him until Allah-azwj Judges between us and him’.

Ali-asws said: ‘Why did you not say this when we were sending the two judges and taking the pact from them and giving it to them? Why didn’t you say this on that day?’

They said, ‘The war had been prolonged upon us, and the difficulties had intensified, and the injuries were a lot, and the animals and the weapons were scarce’.

He-asws said to them: ‘Is it so when the difficulties intensified upon you, you made a pact, when you found the relaxation, you said, ‘We shall break the pact’? Surely, Rasool-Allah-saww used to be loyal to the Polytheists with the pact (and) you are instructing me-asws with breaking it?’

They remained in the places, not one of them moved returning to Ali-asws, nor did the last of them move going out from the presence of Ali-asws. One of them entered to see Ali-asws in the Masjid, and the people were around him-asws, and he shouted, ‘There is no judgment except for Allah-azwj and even though the Polytheists are averse to it!’ The people turned around and called out, ‘There is no judgment except for Allah-azwj and even though the damagers are averse to it!’

Ali-asws raised his-asws head and said: ‘There is no judgment except for Allah-azwj and even you thought the father-asws of Hassan-asws is averse to it? The father-asws of Hassan-asws does not dislike it if the judgment happens to be for Allah-azwj’.

Then he-asws said: ‘A Judgment of Allah-azwj is awaiting regarding you all’. The people said to him-asws: ‘O Amir Al-Momineen-asws! Will you-asws not move against them, so we can annihilate them?’

He-asws said: ‘They will not be annihilated. They will be in the loins of the men and wombs of the women up to the Day of Qiyamah’’.[86]

The Mischief of Kharajis: Year 38 (4 months after Siffin)

‘The Kharijites in the beginning when they turned away from the flags of Ali-asws threatened the people to be killed’.

He (the narrator) said, ‘A part from them came to the river, by the side of the town. A man came out from it terrified, holding his clothes, and they came across him. They said to him, ‘Have we terrified you?’ He said, ‘Yes’. They said, ‘We recognise you. You are Abdullah Bin Khabab, companion of Rasool-Allah-saww’. He said, ‘Yes’. They said, ‘What have you heard from your father, from Rasool-Allah-saww?’

He (the narrator) said, ‘He narrated to them that Rasool-Allah-saww had said that Fitna would come, from which one who sits is better than one who stands, the Hadeeth. And he said, ‘It is altered. But he narrated to them that a group would deviate from the religion just as the arrow deviates (shoots off) from the archer. They will be reciting the Quran, their Salats would be more than your Salats, the Hadeeth.

They struck off his head and his blood flowed into the river. It did not mix, i.e., it did not mingle with the water, as if it was a pathway. Then they called a pregnant slave girl of his, and they slit what was in her belly.

And he (the narrator) said, ‘Ali-asws determined the going out from Al-Kufa to the Kharijites, and among his-asws companions there was an astrologer. He said to him-asws, ‘O Amir Al-Momineen-asws! Do not travel at this time, and travel at three hours past from the day, for if you-asws were to travel in this time, harm would afflict you-asws and your companions with severe losses, and if you-asws were to travel in the time which I am instructing you with, you‑asws will prevail and win, and you-asws will achieve what you-asws seek’.

Ali-asws said to him: ‘Do you know what is in the belly of this horse of mine? Is it a male or a female?’ He said, ‘If I were to calculate, I would know’. He-asws said: ‘Who will ratify you with this, for you have belied the Quran?’ He-asws said, ‘Allah-azwj the Exalted: Surely, Allah, with Him is the Knowledge of the Hour, and He Sends down the rain, and He Knows what is in the wombs; [31:34]’.

Then he-asws said: ‘Surely, Mohammed-saww had never claimed knowledge of what you are claiming to have its knowledge. Are you claiming that you are guided to the time which is correctly beneficial for the one who travels in it, and turn away from the timing during which the one who travels in it would face the evil.

Who would ratify you with this, for you have become needless from seeking the Assistance with Allah-azwj Majestic and Mighty in turning the abhorrence(s) away from him; and it is befitting for the one certain with your matter, that he should give you the praise, rather than Allah-azwj, Majestic is His-azwj Majesty, because you are claiming to guide him to the time which he would achieve the benefit, one who travels during it, and turn him away from the time the ones who travel during it would face evil.

So, who will believe you regarding this, not relying upon Him-azwj? He would happen to be like the one taking an adversary and a peer. O Allah-azwj! There is no evil omen except Your-azwj Omen, nor any harm except Your-azwj, nor is there any god apart from You-azwj’.

Then he-asws said: ‘We shall oppose and travel in the time which we have prepared for it’. Then he-asws faced towards the people and said: ‘O you people! Beware of learning of the stars except what you can be guided with in the darkness of the land and the sea. But rather, the astrologer is like the soothsayer, and the soothsayer is like the Kafir, and the Kafir would be in the Fire.

But by Allah-azwj! If it reaches me-asws that you are working with the stars (astrology), I-asws will forsake you in the prison forever, for as long as you live, and I-asws will deprive you the awards for as there would be authority for me-asws’.

Then he-asws travelled during the time in which he-asws had been forbidden from by the astrologer, and he-asws was victorious with the people of the river (Kharijites), and prevailed over them.

Then he-asws said: ‘Had we not been victorious during the time which the astrologer had forbidden from, the people would have said, ‘He-asws travelled during the time which the astrologer had instructed with, so he-asws was victorious and prevailed. But surely, there was no astrologer for Mohammed-saww nor will there be one from after him-saww, until Allah-azwj Grants victory to us over the countries of Chosroe and Caesar (famous kings).

O you people! Rely upon Allah-azwj and be trusting with Him-azwj, for He-azwj will Suffice from the ones besides Him-azwj’.

He (the narrator) said, ‘Muslim Al-Zaby reported from Habbat Al-Arny who said, ‘When we ended to them, they shot (arrows) at us. We said to Ali-asws, ‘O Amir Al-Momineen-asws! We have been shot at!’ He said, ‘Restrain!’ Then we were shot at (again). He-asws said to us: ‘Restrain!’ Then the third time. He-asws said: ‘Now, the fighting is good. Attack upon them!’’

And it is reported as well from Qays Bin Sa’ad Bin Ubada, ‘When Ali-asws ended up to them, he‑asws said to them: ‘You have tied us by (shedding) the blood of Abdullah Bin Khabab’. They said, ‘All of us killed him’. He-asws said: ‘Attack upon them!’’[87]

The Kharajis were all killed in the battle except for few- among them was Abdur Rehman ibn Muljim-la, who later took part in the assassination of Amir Al-Momineen-asws in the Masjid of Kufa. For further details, see for example: https://www.hubeali.com/article/battle-of-nahrawan/

A brief biography of Amir Al-Momineen Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws

Imam Jafar e Sadiq-asws said: On the Day of ‘Qiyamat’ (Judgement) ‘Syed Abd Al-Muttalib-asws (the grandfather of the Holy Prophet Mohammed-saww), who is the first who believed in ‘Bada’ (Allah-azwj’s Divine Plan for people), will be brought as a whole nation and he-asws will have a complexion like those of the Prophets-asws and a majestic presence like those of the kings.[88]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘I heard Amir Al-Momineen-asws saying: ‘By Allah-azwj! Neither my-asws father-as, nor my-asws grandfather-as Abdul Muttalib-as, nor Hashim-as, nor Abd Manaf-as worshipped idols at all’. It was said to him-asws, ‘So what were they-as worshipping?’ He-asws said: ‘They were Praying to the House (Kabah), upon the Religion of Ibrahim-as, being attached to it’.[89]

Declaration of Al-Wilayah of Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws at Ghadeer e Khum

He-asws (Amir-Al-Momineen-asws) said: ‘I-asws adjure you to Allah-azwj regarding the Words of Allah-azwj: O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Rasool and those with (Divine) Authority from you [4:59], and His-azwj Words: But rather, Allah is your Guardian, and His Rasool and those who are believing, those who are establishing the Salat and are giving the Zakat while they are performing Ruku [5:55]; then Said: And neither take from besides Allah, nor His Rasool, nor the Momineen, a confidant [9:16].

So, the people said, ‘O Rasool Allah-saww! Is it in particular for some of the Momineen or generally for all of them?’ So Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic Commanded His-azwj Rasool-saww that he-saww teaches them regarding the ones for whom the Verses were Revealed, and that he-saww should interpret about the ‘Wilayah’ just as he-saww had interpreted to them of their Salats, and their Soams, and their Zakat, and their Hajj.

Then, he-saww nominated me-asws at Ghadeer e Khum and said: ‘Allah-azwj Sent me-saww with a Message which constricted my-saww chest and I-saww thought that the people would belie me‑saww. Therefore, He-azwj Promised me-saww that I-saww should preach it or else He-azwj would Punish me-saww. Arise! O Ali-asws!’.

Then he-saww called for the congregational Salat, so we all Prayed with him-asws Al-Zohar Salat, then he-saww said: ‘O you people! Surely Allah-azwj is my-saww Master, and I-saww am the Master of the believers and foremost to them than their own selves. Indeed! The one whose Master I-saww was, so Ali-asws is his Master. O Allah-azwj! Befriend the one who befriends him-asws, and be Inimical to the one who is inimical to him-asws, and Help the one who helps him-asws and Abandon the one who abandons him-asws’.

So, Salman Al-Farsi-ra stood up in front of him-saww and said, ‘O Rasool Allah-saww, befriend him‑asws like what?’ He-saww said: ‘Befriend him-asws like you-as are befriending me-saww. The one to whom I-saww am foremost than his own self, so Ali-asws is foremost to him than his own self’, and Allah-azwj Blessed and Exalted Revealed: Today I Perfected your Religion for you and Completed My Favour upon you, and am Pleased with Al Islam as a Religion for you [5:3]’.

Salman Al-Farsi-ra said, ‘O Rasool Allah-saww! This Verse is Revealed regarding Ali-asws in particular?’ Rasool Allah-saww said: ‘Indeed, it is regarding him-asws, and regarding my-saww successors-asws up to the Day of Judgement’.

Then, Rasool Allah-saww said: ‘O Salman-ra, you and those who are present are witnesses of that, and those present should make it reach to the ones who are absent’. Salman Al-Farsi-ra said, ‘O Rasool Allah-saww, explain clarify them-asws for us’.

He-saww said: ‘Ali-asws, who is my-saww brother, and my-saww Vizier, and my-saww successor, and my-saww inheritor, and my-saww Caliph in my-saww community, and the Guardian of every believer after me-saww, and eleven Imams-asws from his sons-asws. The first of them-asws is my-saww son Al-Hassan-asws, then Al-Husayn-asws, then nine from the sons-asws of Al-Husayn-asws, one after the other. The Quran is with them-asws and they-asws are with the Quran. Neither will it separate from them-asws nor will they separate from it until they-asws return to the Fountain’.

Twelve men from the people of Badr stood up and said, ‘We testify that we heard that from the Rasool Allah-saww as you-asws have said it exactly, neither have you-asws added nor you-asws have been deficient by a single letter, and Rasool Allah-saww made us witnesses on that’. And the remaining seventy said, ‘We have heard that but did not memorise all of it, and these twelve are our good ones, and the best ones of us’. So he-asws said: ‘You spoke the truth. It is not for all the people to be memorisers, some of them are better at memorising than others’.

Four from the twelve stood up – Abu Al-Haysam Bin Al-Tayham, and Abu Ayyub Al-Ansary, and Amaar Bin Yaaser, and Khuzayma Bin Sabit, the one with the two testimonies, may Allah‑azwj have Mercy on them – so they said, ‘We testify that we have heard the words of Rasool Allah-saww and we have preserved it that he-saww did say one day, and he-saww was standing, and Ali-asws was standing beside him-saww.

Then Rasool Allah-saww said: ‘O you people! Allah-azwj has Commanded me-saww that I-saww should nominate for you an Imam-asws and a successor-asws who will be the successor-asws of your Prophet-saww among you, and my-saww Caliph in my-saww community, and among the People-asws of my-saww Household after me-saww, and the one-asws for whom Allah-azwj has Obligated upon the believers, in His-azwj book, obedience to him-asws, and has Commanded to you all in it for his-asws ‘Wilayah’. So I-saww referred it back to my-saww Lord out of fear of the hypocrites and their belying it, so He-azwj Promised me-saww that (He-azwj will Protect me-saww) but if I-saww do not preach it, He-azwj would Punish me-saww’.

Then Rasool-Allah-saww said: ‘O you people! Surely Allah-azwj – Majestic is His-azwj Name – has Commanded you all in His-azwj Book for the Salat and I-saww have explained it for you and its mannerism, and the Zakat, and the Soam, and the Hajj. So I-saww explained these to you and interpreted them for you all, and He-azwj Commanded you all in His-azwj Book for the ‘Wilayah’, and I-saww adjure you, O you people, that it is in particular for Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws and the successors-asws from my-saww sons-asws and the sons-asws of my-saww brother and my-saww successor-asws. Ali-asws is the first of them-asws, then Al-Hassan-asws, then Al-Husayn-asws, then nine from the sons-asws of Al-Husayn-asws – my-saww son-asws. Neither will the Book be separated from them-asws nor will they-asws separate from it until they-asws return to the Fountain.

O you people! I-saww have made known to you your ‘Guide’ and your Imam-asws after me-saww, and your indicator and your guide, and he-asws is Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws, and he-asws is among you at the status that I-saww have among you.

So, emulate him-asws (do his-asws Taqleed), and obey him-asws in all of your affairs, for in his-asws possession is what Allah-azwj has Taught me-saww, and Commanded me-saww for, and I-saww have made it known to him-asws, and I-saww am letting you know that it is with him-asws. Therefore, ask him-asws and learn from him-asws and from the successors-asws after him-asws, and do not try to teach them-asws nor precede them-asws not be left behind them-asws, for they-asws are with the truth and the truth is with them-asws, neither will they-asws leave it nor will it leave them-asws’.[90]

Martyrdom of Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws: Year 40

A companion of the Rasool Allah-saww narrates: On the day that Amir Al-Momineen-asws Ali‑asws was martyred, the place shook as people wept and cried, and they were frightened as they were on the day of the Holy Prophet-saww’s Shahadat (passing away).

In another hadith:

Once, ‘Amir, ‘Abd Allah ibn Jiza’a, Al-’Azdi and the narrator were in the presence of Abu Abd Allah-asws (our 6th Imam). The narrator has said that Amir said to the Imam-asws the following:

‘May Allah-azwj Keep my soul in service for your-asws cause, people think Amir Al-Momineen-asws Ali-asws was buried in al-Rahba (an open space near the Masjid of Kufa).’ The Imam-asws said, ‘No, he-asws was not buried there.’

He then asked, ‘Where is he-asws buried?’ The Imam-asws said, ‘After his-asws death, Imam Al-Hassan-asws carried him-asws to a place, behind Kufa which is near Al-Najaf, toward the right of al-Ghari and the left of al-Hira. He-asws buried him-asws among the small dunes of white sands.’

Later on, I went to the place and I thought of one area as being his-asws gravesite. I then returned and informed the Imam-asws about it. The Imam-asws said, ‘You, may Allah-azwj grant you blessings, you found it (the gravesite) three times.[91]

Imam Al-Hassan-asws (2nd Shia Imam) said:

Imam Ali-asws was the standard bearer of the Rasool Allah-saww, with angel Jibra’il-as on his-asws right and angel Micha’il-as on his-asws left. He-asws would not turn back until Allah-azwj Granted him‑asws victory. By Allah-azwj, he-asws died during a night in which the executor of the will of Musa (Moses) Yusha’ ibn Nun had passed away, the night in which Jesus-as, son of Mary-as, was taken to heaven and the night in which the Holy Quran was revealed.[92]

Imam Abu Abd Allah (Imam Jafar e Sadiq-asws) said: ‘When Amir Al-Momineen-asws was washed for burial, (A Divine Caller) Called from the side of the house, ‘If you lift up the front of the coffin then you do not need to lift up the back of the coffin and if you lift up the back then you do not need to lift up the front side (as Jibrail-as and Mikhail-as will lift from the other side).[93]

Bequest (Will) of Ali Amir Al-Momineen-asws: Year 40

‘When Amir Al-Momineen-asws was struck, the visitors encircled him-asws and it was said to him‑asws, ‘O Amir Al-Momineen-asws! Bequeath!’ He-asws said: ‘Double the pillow for me-asws’. Then he-asws said: ‘The Praise is for Allah-azwj as He-azwj is rightful of. I-asws was obedient to His‑azwj Commands, and I-asws Praise Him-azwj just as He-azwj Loves, and there is no god except for Allah‑azwj, the One, the First, the Samad, just as He-azwj has Attributed Himself-azwj.

O you people! Every person would meet during his fleeing, what he is fleeing from (i.e., death). The death is an usher of the soul towards it, and the escaping from it is to (actually) find it. How many days have come and gone in researching about the hidden of this matter, but Allah-azwj, Mighty is His-azwj Mention, Refused, except to Keep it hidden. Far be it, for the hidden to be known!

As for my-asws bequest, so it is that you shall not associate anything with Allah-azwj, Majestic is His-azwj Laudation. And Mohammed-saww, so you must not waste his-saww Sunnah. Establish these two pillars and inflame these two lanterns, and you will be free of blame for as long as you are not displaced. Every person would bear his effort, and it is lightened from the ignorant ones. The Lord-azwj is Merciful, and the Imam-asws is the most knowledgeable, and the Religion is straight.

Yesterday I-asws was your companion, and today I-asws am a lesson for you all, and tomorrow I‑asws shall part from you. If the treading is steadfast during these stumbles, so that is the objective, and if the feet waver, so we are living in the shade of the branches and shelter of the winds, and beneath the shade of the clouds dissipating in the atmosphere and the disappearing resources in the central ground.

And rather, I-asws was a neighbour. My-asws body was your neighbour for (some) days, and as a consequence from me-asws it would be an empty body, motionless after its movement, and silent after speaking. Let it be an admonishment, my-asws silence, and the dimming of my-asws eyes, and the stillness of my-asws limbs. So it is more of a preacher for you all than the eloquent speaker. And my-asws bidding farewell to you all is a farewell of one expecting the reunion.

Tomorrow you shall be seeing (the reality of) my-asws days, and Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic will Uncover my-asws secrets from me-asws, and you will be recognising me-asws after the emptiness of my-asws place, and the standing of someone else in my-asws place.

If I-asws were to remain (alive), I-asws would be the Guardian of my-asws own blood, and if I-asws perish, so the perishing is my-asws destiny, and if I-asws were to forgive, so the forgiving, for me‑asws it is a nearness (to Allah-azwj, and for you it is a good deed, therefore be forgiving and overlooking. Would you not like it Allah-azwj should be Forgiving you all? What a regret it would be upon every neglectful one! His own life-time would become an argument against him, or his days would lead him to misery.

May Allah-azwj Make us-asws and you all from the ones who are not deficient with it from obeying Allah-azwj out of desire or being terrified of the Punishment after the death. So rather, we are for Him-azwj and with Him-azwj’.

Then he-asws turned towards Al-Hassan-asws, and he-asws said: ‘O my-asws son-asws! A strike in place of a strike, and you-asws will not be overdoing it’’.[94]

Appointment of Imam Hassan-asws as a Muslim Caliph: Year 40

Following the death of Usman (3rd Caliph), the Muslims asked Imam Ali-asws to lead them. Imam Hassan-asws supported his father, Ali-asws ibn Abi Talib-asws during this brief rule spanning three years and nine months.

Throughout this time Mua’wiyyah-la not only refused to accept Imam Ali-asws’s unanimous nomination, but also tried his best to bring about troubles and destabilise Imam Ali-asws’s rule. Such that Amir ul-Momaneen-asws, in response had to transfer the capital of the Muslim state from Madinah to Kufa in order to keep a closer eye on the borders of Mua’wiyyah-la’s territories.

Imam Ali-asws left this world on the 21st of Ramadhan, from an assassination, after being struck by a ‘Kharaji’ Ibn-e-Muljim on the 19th of Ramadhan, who fused his sword in a lethal poison sent by Mua’wiyyah.

Later on, Imam Hassan-asws was unanimously elected as the Caliph of Muslims in the 40th year of Hijra. At first the people of Kufa and Basra accepted him-asws, followed by those residing in the cities of Madinah and Makkah. However, Mua’wiyyah-la, the governor of Syria, refused to accept Imam Hassan-asws as the Caliph of the Muslim nation.

Mua’wiyyah-la paid large sums to his agents in Kufa, who actively started to create unrest and turn public opinion into Mua’wiyyah-la‘s favour, with the intention of destabilising the Imam‑asws’s newly established government. After being informed of success by his agents, Mua’wiyyah-la came out from Shaam with a huge army to fight against Imam Hassan-asws. In response to his advances, Imam Hassan-asws gave an eloquent sermon in the Masjid of Kufa – but Mua’wiyyah-la’s agents had already won people’s opinion in favour Mua’wiyyah-la, through bribery and lucrative promises. As a result, with the exception of a few devout followers, no one came forward to support Imam Hassan-asws‘s appeal to join his-asws army against Mua’wiyyah‑la.

The army that Imam Hassan-asws did manage to form, lacked loyalty and were more interested in the worldly gains which Mua’wiyyah-la was promising them; ‘Dinars’ and a share in his new government. Consequently, several ranks of Imam Hassan-asws‘s soldiers and commanders defected him-asws and joined Mua’wiyyah-la’s camp.

After introducing weakness in Imam Hassan-asws’s army, Mua’wiyyah-la proposed a treaty, which Imam Hassan-asws accepted by putting forward some conditions, with the intention of avoiding unnecessary bloodshed of his-asws few but devout followers that remained. The conditions of the treaty, very briefly, were:

  1. Mua’wiyyah-la will rule according to the Holy Qur’an and Sunnah;
  2. He will stop harassing and torturing the people of Kufa (and those elsewhere) who were the followers of Imam Ali-asws;
  3. He will stop the cursing of Imam Ali-asws from the Pulpits;
  4. He will not have the right to appoint a successor after him; the matter will be left to the Muslim community.

Mua’wiyyah-la, however, very soon after signing the treaty, violated its conditions.

The Reasons Behind the Treaty:

Imam Hassan-asws replied on various occasions when asked about the reasons for agreeing to the truce offered by Mua’wiyyah-la, when the Imam-asws had undeniable proofs of his-la corruption and treachery.

We will only present two extracts from Imam Hassan-asws‘s replies:

(1) ‘The doctrine behind my-asws truce is the same as Prophet Mohammed-saww had adopted when signing the treaty of ‘Hudabiyya’ with Bani Zammer and Bani Ashajja and people of Mecca, when they offered their conditions of peace. Although, those people were deniers of the ‘Wahi’ (Inspiration) as well as the Book, however, Mua’wiyyah-la and his-la associates are only deniers of its (Book) interpretation’.

(2) ‘By Allah-azwj, I-asws had opted for a truce with Mua’wiyyah-la, on the conditions that he-la would not spill our blood, and give immunity to our relatives and associates, it is certainly better than him-la assassinating us and completely destroying our lineage. It turned out to be in our favour that I-asws did not respond to his-la antagonising assaults and a series of aggressive measures, otherwise my-asws own people (who were bribed by him-la) would have grabbed me-asws from my-asws neck and handed me-asws over to Mua’wiyyah-la. By Allah-azwj, it is far better for me-asws to secure a truce with him (on my-asws dictated conditions) than being presented to him-la as a prisoner of war, for he-la may have then either killed me-asws or alternatively, spared my-asws life as a favour, hence Bani Hashim would have been eternally buried under his-la favour and his-la decedents would have kept on taunting us by mentioning his-la goodwill to our present and past generations. Shortly afterwards, Imam Hassan-asws, left for Madinah and resided there, facing and enduring Bani Ummaiyadla’s antagonising propaganda and fabricated lies against the Ahul Bayt-asws in order to cause damage to their-asws Divinely Higher status. Imam Hassan-asws mostly stayed at home and submitted to the Will of Lord-azwj, until Mua’wiyyah-la had completed the ten years of his-la tyrannical rule.

Shahadat of Imam Hassan-asws Ibn Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws: Year 47

Mua’wiyyah-la, after satisfying his-la evil desires and achieving his-la worldly goals through deceit and perjury, turned his-la attention to nominating his-la alcoholic, uncouth and wicked son, Yazeed-la, so that the empire built by him-la would be passed on to his-la descendants. He, however, knew it quite well that he-la will not achieve this as long as Imam Hassan-asws was alive, so he-la pondered on various schemes for a long time and then finally decided to assassinate Hassan-asws Ibn Ali through poisoning.

He made several attempts to poison Imam-asws, but did not succeed as Imam Hassan-asws would recover from the attacks of his various assassinators. It is reported in history that Imam Hassan-asws was poisoned more than 11 times but recovered after spending a few months in illness. Finally, Mua’wiyyah-la acquired a deadly poison from the Emperor of Rome after making a special request.[95] Mua’wiyyah-la then conspired through Jadah-la, one of the wives of Imam Hassan-asws, whose father (Al-Ashath) was his-la old and trusted ally. Concerning her-la, Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq-asws says: ‘Surely, Al-Ashath took part in shedding the blood of Imam Ali‑asws, his daughter Jadah-la poisoned Al-Hassan-asws and his son-la took part in shedding the blood of Al-Hussain-asws.’[96]

Mua’wiyyah-la’s sister (Ummul Hakam-la) along with Marwan-la convinced Jadah-la to poison Imam Hassan-asws, after giving her one thousand Dirhams with a promise, to later, remarry her to Yazid-la. When Imam Hassan-asws came home to open his-asws fast at the end of a hot day, she mixed poison into yogurt. Imam Hassan-asws took a mouthful of it and suddenly felt the effect of excruciating pain, which started tearing and cutting apart Imam-asws’s stomach and liver. Upon feeling the bitter pain, Imam-asws said: ‘To Allah-azwj we belong and to Him-azwj is our return! Praise belongs to Allah-azwj, (soon I-asws shall be) embracing His-azwj Messenger-saww, the chiefs of Prophets-saww, my father-asws, the master of the Guardians-asws, my mother-asws, the chief of the women of all worlds-asws, my uncle Jafar al-Tayyar-asws, and Hamza-asws, the Master of Martyrs’. Then Imam-asws turned to Jadah-la and said to her-la: ‘O enemy of Allah-azwj, you-la have killed me-asws! May Allah-azwj destroy you-la! By Allah-azwj, you-la will not get a guardian after me-asws. He-la (Mua’wiyyah-la) has deceived and ridiculed you-la. May Allah-azwj disgrace you-la and him-la!’[97]

Certainly, Allah-azwj disgraced her-la, although Mua’wiyyah-la reluctantly received her-la in Shaam but later told her-la that he-la would not marry his-la son-la to someone who had poisoned her-la kind husband! Various historians have recorded that when the news of Imam Hassan-asws‘s assassination arrived in Damascus, Mua’wiyyah-la exclaimed with joy: ‘Allah-u-Akbar’ very loudly and rejoiced by dancing and waving his-la hands.

At that time, Imam Hassan-asws was forty-eight years of age. His-asws succession (to the Imamate) had been for slightly over ten years. His-asws brother and trustee (wasi), al-Hussain-asws, undertook the washing and shrouding of his-asws body and started making arrangements for his-asws burial, as per his-asws brother-asws’s will to bury him-asws next to his-asws grandmother, Syeda Fatima binte Asad-asws’s grave.

When the funeral procession was on its way to the Baq’ee cemetery where Syeda-asws had been buried, Imam Hussain-asws stopped the coffin procession at the Prophet-saww‘s shrine, as per the will of Imam Hassan-asws to say goodbye to his-asws beloved gradfather-saww. A’isha, a surviving wife of the Prophet-asws, who had been following the procession with hidden animosity against the family of Prophet-saww came out and shouted stop. She immediately intervened by saying that she would not allow Hassan-asws’s body to touch the grave of Prophet-saww.

Suddenly, several of her supporters also turned up under the command of Marwan-la. There were words exchanged between her supporters and Mohammed Hanafiyya-as, another son of Imam Ali-asws. In the meantime, A’isha came out riding a donkey, as she did in the battle of Camel and gave a signal of ‘attack’ to Marwan-la, who in turn asked his archers to shoot arrows at the procession. Numerous arrows were lodged in Imam Hassan-asws‘s coffin and the colour of the white shroud turned red. At this stage, Imam Hussain-asws quickly intervened, and took the coffin back to the house of Ahlul Bayt-asws, and the arrows were taken out by Imam Hassan’s sisters-asws, under sobs and cries, and a new shroud was prepared for burial and the coffin was then taken straight to Baq’ee. However, Bani Umayyad-la‘s raging fire of animosity against Ahlul Bayt-asws was not extinguished here; they continued. Their next major onslaught was a few years later, this time in Karabala, when the army of Yazid-la surrounded Bani Hashim‑asws in 61 Hijri.

When Imam Hassan-asws’s young son, Al-Qasim-asws, came out in defence of his-asws uncle Imam Al-Hussain-asws, they surrounded him-asws from all directions and, after bringing him-asws down, they started cutting and stampeding his-asws body under the feet of their horses, thereby dividing little Qasim-asws into several hundred pieces. Imam Hussain-asws collected parts of Qasim-asws, one by one, while remembering those red and blue pearls of his-asws brother’s liver which he-asws gathered when Qasim-asws’s father Imam Hassan-asws had by poisoned by the Umayyad-la.

Hussain-asws Ibn Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws – The Spiritual leadership: Year 47

After the Shahadat of Imam Hassan-asws, through poisoning by Ja’da bint al-Ash’ath-la, Imam Hussain-asws took the responsibility of Immamat for slightly over10 years.  Imam Hussain-asws remained patient during all this time while persecution and assassinations of his-asws Shias by Muawiyah-la continued.

(The narrator says): ‘I came up to the Prophet-saww. Al-Husayn Bin Ali-asws was upon his-saww thigh, and he-saww gazed upon his-asws face and kissed him-asws between his-asws eyes, and said: ‘You-asws are the Chief, son-asws of a Chief. You-asws are an Imam-asws, son-asws of an Imam-asws, brother of an Imam-asws, father of Imams-asws. You-asws are the Proof of Allah-azwj son-asws of a Proof of Allah-azwj, and father of Proofs, nine from your-asws descendants, the ninth one-asws of them-asws being their-asws Rising one (Al-Qaim-asws)’.[98]

Death of Mua’wiyah and rule of his son Yazid: Year 58-59

Mu’awiya passed away sometime between 58 and 59 A.H. Before his death, he nominated his son Yazid as his successor and the next ruler after him.

Imam Hussain-asws ignored the political wrangling and got on with the facilitation and communication of Divine Commands when Yazid-la took his father’s place between 58 and 59 A.H. Yazid-la, soon after coming into power, asked for an oath of allegiance from Imam Hussain-asws. A similar attempt had already been made earlier, by Abu Bakr-la when he tried to force Imam Ali-asws, without success, into accepting what he wanted when he legitimatised himself as the successor of Prophet-saww.

No one dared to try it again, not even Muawiyah-la. But Yazid-la, out of his arrogance and faithlessness tried to repeat the mistake of Abu Bakr-la by sending soldiers in plain clothes to Madinah. Imam Hussain-asws, with the view of safeguarding the great sanctuary of Madinah and Mecca, left both of these holy places and travelled towards Kufa. It was also in response to a cry for help from the inhabitants of Kufa, who had written hundreds of letters to Imam Hussain-asws pledging loyalty to him-asws and asking for guidance and deliverance.  Imam Hussain-asws knew it very well that most of them were hypocrites and only wanted to reinstate their lost scholarships which Muawiyah-la used to give them, as his informers and allies against Imam Ali-asws, but Yazid-la had stopped. But as an Apostolic Imam, Imam Hussain-asws had to fulfil the Divine mission of removing the masks of hypocrites and reveal their devious schemes and seeds of contention which were planted at ‘Saqifa’-where the first Muslim caliph was elected.

The Battle of Karbala: Year 61

Imam Hussain-asws reached Karbala on the 3rd of Moharram, a place which is approximately seventy kilometres from Kufa, a desert near the banks of river Euphrates. Yazid-la’s army under the command of Ibne Saad-la encircled Imam Hussain-asws and his-asws companions from all sides and stopped their water supply from the river. Imam Hussain-asws exhausted all means to avert the war, even at the expense of living under intolerable thirst and famished conditions. The sufferers were as young as Syed Ali Asghar-asws who was only six months of age.  On the eve of 10th of Moharram, the army of Yazid-la tried to attack Imam Hussain-asws but Imam Hussain‑asws gave them another opportunity to rethink their stance and tried to stop them from killing the grandson of Prophet-saww, the last surviving among the ‘people of Kisa’(Ahlul-Kisa).

There was indeed an effect, as that night saved Hurr bin Riyahi, his slave and son from plunging deep into the hottest zone of Hell, as they deserted Yazid-la’s army by recognising the just and Divine position of Imam Hussain-asws. On the tenth day of Muharram of the year 61/680, the impatient army of Yazid-la, which was lured into getting worldly gains, attacked Imam Hussain-asws’s camps.

One by one all Hashmiad-asws and companions of Imam Hussain-asws were martyred. They were just 72 or 110 in number but had killed thousands of Yazid’s-la soldiers, who were desperate to live to get their worldly rewards and thus ran away from the battle.  Imam Hussain-asws kept on bringing back the bodies of his-asws dear ones as afternoon approached.  Imam Hussain-asws’s final sacrifice was his-asws 6-month-old child, Master Ali Asghar-asws, who was martyred with a three-headed arrow while held in the arms of Imam Hussain-asws.

Yazid-la’s army then attacked Imam Hussain-asws from all directions and started shooting arrows, throwing stones and spears but Imam Hussain-asws responded with fierce courage and strength, while being injured from head to toe, killing thousands of cowards until Allah-azwj asked Imam Hussain-asws to stop and announced (89:27-30): O content soul, return back to Me, I am pleased with you and You are pleased with me. Upon hearing this, Imam Hussain-asws went into prostrations. Shamir-la, a general of Yazid-la’s army leapt forward to seize the opportunity and started striking, with his-la dagger, the back of Imam Hussain-asws‘s throat. At this point, the skies turned red and windstorms started blustering.

A call came from skies; the Muslims have martyred the grandson of the Prophet-saww, and now will never get to observe a single day of blessings. The army of Yazid-la, after ending the war, plundered the ‘haram’ of the Imam-asws and burned the Imam-asws’s tents. They decapitated the bodies of the martyrs, started running horses over the bodies, and left the bodies without burying them.  Then they moved those remaining of the honourable Ahlul Bayt-asws, and took them-asws as prisoners and took them-asws along with the heads of the martyrs to Kufa and Shaam to collect their rewards from Yazid-la.

The narrator of the Hadith says that Abu Abd Allah-asws (6th Imam-asws) said: ‘after Jabrail-as came down to the Rasool Allah-saww with the (news of the future) killing of Imam Hussain-asws; the Rasool Allah-saww held the hand of Imam AIi-asws and spoke to him-asws privately for most of that day until they-asws were both overcome with tears. While they-asws were still together, Jabrail-as from the Lord-azwj of the Worlds – came down to them-asws and said, “Your Lord-azwj Conveys His Salam to both of you-asws and says, ‘It is My-azwj Will that you-asws should remain patient.”’

Abu Abd Allah-asws (6th Imam-asws) said that once Syeda Binte Rasool Allah-asws came to Rasool Allah-saww and saw that his-saww eyes were filled with tears. Syeda-asws asked him-saww, “What is upsetting you-saww?” Rasool Allah-saww replied, “Jabrail-as informed me that my-saww nation will kill Husain-asws.” When Syeda-asws heard this, she-asws became extremely grieved and restless. So the Prophet-saww informed her-asws of the Imams-asws from her-asws children.[99] This pleased and relieved her-asws.[100]

Amir Al-Momineen-asws said: ‘Rasool Allah-saw, came to visit us (one day). Um Ayman had given us some milk, butter, and dates, so we offered it to Rasool Allah-saww. After he-saww ate, he-saww went to a corner of the house and started praying. However, at the end of his-saww last Sujud (prostration), Rasool Allah-saww began to cry profusely.

Because of our-asws respect and reverence for him-saww, we did not ask him-saww why he-saww was crying. However, Al-Hussain-asws went and sat on his-asws lap and said, “O Father! When you entered our-asws house (today), we-asws felt a happiness that we-asws had never felt before. But then you-saww started to cry and your-saww crying has grieved us-asws. What made you-saww cry?”

The Prophet-saww replied, “O my-saww son-asws! Jabrail-as came to me-saww just now and informed me-saww that you-asws will all be killed and the places of your-asws martyrdom will be far from one another.”

Hussain-asws asked, “O Father-saww! What is the reward for those who come to the Ziyarah of our‑asws graves although they are far from one another?”

The Prophet-saww replied: “O my-saww son-asws! Verily, there will be some groups from my-saww nation who will come to your-asws Ziyarah seeking blessings. By doing so, they will deserve to be visited by me-saww on the Day of Judgment. I-saww will save them from the terrors of the Hour (Day of Judgement) and from their sins. Verily, Allah-azwj will Make them dwell in Paradise.”’[101]

Imam Ali-asws Named of the Killers of Hussain-asws Before Time:

The narrator of the Hadith says:

(One day) while Amir Al-Momineen-asws was delivering a sermon to the people he-asws said, “Ask me-asws before you lose me-asws! I-asws swear to Allah-azwj that I-asws will answer (your questions about) anything you might ask that has happened in the past or will happen in the future.

So Sa’d ibn Abi waqqas'” got up and asked, “O Amir Al-Momineen-asws! Tell me about the number of hairs that I have on my head and in my beard?”

Amir Al-Momineen-asws replied, “I-asws say it by Allah-azwj that my-asws dear, the Rasool Allah-saww, informed me-asws that you would be asking me-asws this question. There is a Shaytan rooted in every strand of hair on your head and in your beard and there is a baby sheep in your house who will kill my-asws son, Hussain-asws.”

(‘Abd Al-Samin/Asbagh added), ”’Umar ibn Sa’d (the killer of Imam Hussain-asws) was a child then and he was playing in front of his father (Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas).[102]

The narrator of the Hadith says:

Imam Hussain-asws Ibn Ali-asws said:

I-asws say it by the One-azwj who has the life of Hussain-asws in His-azwj Hand, that the Bani Umayyah will kill me-asws and they will not be satisfied with their government until they kill me‑asws. Verily, if they kill me-asws, the people will never be able to pray in congregation nor will they ever be able to spend ZAKAT (charity) in the way of Allah-azwj again.”

Verily, my-asws family and I-asws are the first ones killed by this nation. I say by the One-azwj who has the life of Hussain-asws in His-azwj Hand that the Day of Judgement will not come as long as there is even one man from the Bani Hashim who is enjoying his Iife.[103], [104]

Why was the Life-Span of the Masoomeen-asws made short?

The narrator of the Hadith says:

I said to Abu Abd Allah (Imam Sadiq-asws), “May I sacrifice myself for you-asws! How short are your-asws lives, O Ahlul Bayt-asws! And how close are your-asws deaths to one another while the entire creation needs you-asws?!”

Imam-asws replied:

There is a sheet for each one of us-asws (the Imams-asws) which contains everything that we need to do during our-asws time. Once every order on that sheet has been carried out, we-asws know that our-asws death is imminent. Rasool Allah-saww comes to us-asws and informs us-asws that our‑asws death has come and he-saww informs us-asws of the rewards that Allah-azwj has Prepared for us-asws.

Verily, Hussain-asws read the sheet that was entrusted to him-asws, and that which would happen and that which was yet to come were explained to him-asws. There were a few things left on Hussain-asws‘s sheet which had not been fulfilled when he-asws rose to fight. Those matters were that the angels-as asked Allah-azwj for permission to help Hussain-asws (in fighting) and Allah-azwj Granted it to them-as. While they-as were preparing themselves for battle, Hussain-asws was killed. When the angels-as descended (to earth), they-as found that Hussain-asws‘s time had passed and he-asws had been killed.

Therefore, they-as said (to Allah-azwj), “O Lord-azwj! You-azwj Gave us-as permission to descend to earth to support Hussain-asws but when we-as arrived, You-azwj had already Taken him-asws back (to Yourself-azwj)!”

Allah-azwj – the Most Exalted – Revealed to them-as, “Stay by his-asws grave until (the day) when you-as see him-asws rise (again) and then support him-asws. Cry over him-asws and over losing the opportunity to support him-asws. Verily, you-as have been chosen to support him-asws as well as to cry over him-asws.

The angels-as were grieved and they-as cried and mourned over losing the opportunity to support Hussain-asws. However, when he-asws rises, they-as will be (among) his-asws supporters.[105]

No Believer would remember (Imam) Hussain-asws without Crying:

The narrator of the Hadith says:

Abu Abd Allah-asws (Imam Sadiq-asws) said:

(Imam) Hussain-asws Ibn AIi-asws said, “I-asws am the Martyr of Tears. No believer remembers me-asws without crying.[106]

The narrator of the Hadith says:

I went to Abu Abd Allah (Imam Sadiq-asws). While I was with him, (my) servant came to me and said, “I brought the sumpter (ride) for you.”

Imam-asws asked me, “O Um Sa’id! What is the sumpter for and where do you intend to go?”

I replied, “I want to go to the Ziyarah of the graves of the martyrs-asws (of Uhud).”

Imam-asws said, “Postpone it for today. How strange are you people of Iraq!! You come to the Ziyarah of the martyrs (of Uhud) from a long distance but you neglect going to the Ziyarah of the Master of the Martyrs-asws!”

I asked, “Who is the Master of the Martyrs?”

Imam-asws replied, “Hussain-asws Ibn ‘AIi-asws.”

I said, “(I do not go to his-asws Ziyarah because) I am a woman.”

Imam-asws replied, “There is nothing wrong with women like you going to Ziyarah.”

I asked, “What is the reward for going to his-asws Ziyarah?”

Imam-asws replied, “The reward of one Hajj and one ‘Umrah, I’tikaf[107] for months in Masjid Al-Haram while fasting, and this much reward.” Um Sa’id added that the Imam-asws  extended his‑asws arms out and then closed them three times (to explain this much reward’).[108]

Imam Ali-asws Ibn Al-Hussain-asws Year 38-95 (Imamat 61 to 95)

Ali-asws Ibn Hussain-asws was blessed to Hussain-asws Ibn Ali-asws on the 5th of Shaban in the year thirty-eight (38) A.H[109]. Among others, the names of our 4th Imam include: Sajjad-asws, and Zain-ul-Abideen-asws. Ali-asws Ibn Hussain-asws was martyred in the year 95 at the age of 57.[110] The Imam-asws’s mother was Syeda Shahar Bano-asws, daughter of Yazdjurd Ibn Shahryar Ibn Shiruwayh Ibn kisra ‘A Perwiz – the famous Persian king.  Imam Zain-ul-Abideen-asws was the only male (grown-up) survivor in Karbala in 61 A.H. who accompanied the children and ladies of Ahl Al-Bayt-asws to Sham (Syria) – to the court of Yazid-la. The Imam-asws was buried in Al-Baqi cemetery, Madinah.

Abu Jafar (Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws– the 5th Imam-asws) says: ‘The girls of Madinah were extremely pleased to see the daughter of Yazdjurd when she-asws was brought before ‘Umar (the second Muslim Caliph). When she-asws entered the Masjid it became all delightful and bright. When ‘Umar looked at her-asws, she-asws covered her-asws face and said in her-asws own language: “UtI, bay ruj ba’ da Hurmuz (May the life of Hurmuz turn black).” ‘Umar asked: “Is she-asws abusing me?” He turned to her-asws (aggressively). Amir Al-Momineen Ali-asws said: “You do not have such a right (over her-asws). Give her-asws the chance to choose whoever among the Muslims she-asws likes and then count her-asws to be as his share of the war booty (of the properties seized from the Persian army).” He (Umar) allowed her-asws to choose and she-asws came all the way to place her-asws hand on the head of Imam Al-Hussain-asws. Amir Al-Momineen Ali-asws asked her-asws: “What is your name?” She-asws said: “It is Jahan Shah.” Amir Al-Momineen Ali-asws said: “In fact, it is Shahar Bano-asws.” Ali-asws then said to Imam Al-Hussain‑asws: “O Abu Abd Allah-asws, she-asws will be blessed with a son-asws for you-asws who will be the best of the inhabitants of earth.” She-asws was blessed with Imam Ali-asws Ibn Al-Hussain-asws.  Imam AIi-asws Ibn Al-Hussain-asws was called the son of the two best. The chosen from Arabs was the tribe of Hashim and from non-Arab were the clan (Kisra) best among the Persians.

It is also narrated that Abu Al-Aswad Al-Du’ili compiled the following verse about it:

‘A boy from Kisra and Hashim; the most noble one on whom sacred symbols are stitched for safety.’[111]

Abu Jafar-asws (Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws) says: ‘Imam Ali-asws Ibn Al-Hussain-asws had a she-camel. He-asws had taken this camel 22 times to Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah) and had never whipped it, not even once.’ Imam Mohammed Bawir-asws then said that: ‘the camel came after the Shahadat of Imam-asws and we-asws were not aware and we-asws noticed only when one of the servants or slaves came and said: “The she-camel has gone out all the way to the grave of Ali-asws Ibn Al-Hussain‑asws. She rubs her neck against the grave and moans.” I-asws then asked them to quickly get to her before they (the enemies) might know about her or see her.’ The Imam-asws has said that the she-camel had never seen the (Holy) grave before.[112]

Imam Abu Abd Allah-asws (6th Imam) said: ‘When it was the night that Imam Ali-asws Ibn Al-Hussain-asws left (from mortal world) he-asws said to his-asws son (Imam Mohammed-asws):  “Son‑asws this is the night in which I-asws am promised to be taken out of this world.” The departing Imam-asws made asked his-asws son-asws prepare a stable for his-asws she-camel and she should be fed properly. I-asws (Imam-asws’s son says) personally did as he-asws (my father-asws) had asked for. Very shortly thereafter the she-camel came out of the stable and reached the grave of my father-asws, placed her neck on it, rolled her body on the ground and her eyes were hooded with tears.’

The Imam-asws has said: ‘Imam Ali-asws Ibn Al-Hussain-asws used to come out in the dark at night with a sack containing Darahim and Dananir (these were units of money) and would go door-to-door, knock on them and gave a certain amount to the person who came out. When Imam Ali-asws Ibn Al-Hussain-asws passed away, these people did not see the person with money anymore. Only then (did) they realise that Imam Ali-asws Ibn Al-Hussain-asws must have been the distributor of money among them.’[113]

Abu Al-Hassan-asws (7th Imam-asws – Imam Musa-e-Kazim-asws) says: ‘When Imam Ali-asws Ibn Al-Hussain-asws was about to leave this world,  he-asws closed his-asws eyes, then he-asws opened his‑asws eyes and recited Chapters 48 ‘Al-Fath’ and 56 ‘Al-Waaqia’ from the Holy Quran and said: “All praise belongs to Allah-azwj Who has Fulfilled His-azwj promise to us-asws and made us‑asws to have the Earth as our-asws legacy and choose from Paradise whatever we-asws might like. Thus, is the reward for those who work (hard).” At that time his-asws (soul) ascended to the (Heavens) and (the Imam) did not say anything further.’[114]

Our Sixth Imam-asws says: ‘Imam Ali-asws Ibn Hussain-asws (Imam Sajjad-asws) cried over his-asws father-asws, Imam Hussain-asws Ibn Ali-asws for forty years – and whenever food was brought to him-asws, he-asws would cry over Imam Hussain-asws. One day his-asws servant said to him-asws: “May I sacrifice myself for you-asws, O son of Rasool Allah-asws!  I am afraid that you-asws may die (from grief).” He-asws (Imam Sajjad-asws) replied: “I only complain of my distress and grief to Allah, and I know from Allah what you do not know (12:86)[115].  Verily whenever I-asws remember the killing of the children-asws of Syeda Fatimah-asws, I-asws am choked with tears over them-asws.”[116]

Imam-asws was poisoned by the governor of Madinah by the instructions of the Muslim ruler Walid-la bin Abdul Malik-la. The Imam-asws met martyrdom on the 25th of Muharram 95 A.H. (713 A.D) and was buried in Madinah. With the passage of time a modest but beautiful Mausoleum was built to house the Imam-asws‘s grave in ‘Jannat ul Baqi’, near the Holy grave of Rasool Allah-saww. Shamefully, in 1926 A.D., a King-la of Saudi Arabia destroyed the Holy shrine.

4th Imam-asws was considered the most ascetic person of all times:

‘From Abu Ja’far Mohammed Bin Ali Al-Baqir-asws having said: ‘Ali-asws Bin Al-Husayn-asws used to pray Salat during the day and night, a thousand Cycles, like what Amir Al-Momineen-asws used to do. There were five hundred palm trees for him-asws, and he-asws would pray two cycles Salat at each palm tree.

And it was so that whenever he-asws stood in his-asws Salat, his-asws colour would be overcome by another colour, and his-asws standing in his-asws Salat was standing of the humble slave in front of the Majestic King. His-asws limbs would tremble from the fear of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic, and he-asws would pray the farewell Salat viewing that he-asws will not be praying after it, ever.

And one day he-asws was praying Salat, and the cloak fell off from one of his-asws shoulders. He-asws did not even it until he-asws was free from his-asws Salat. One of his-asws companions asked him-asws about that. He-asws said: ‘Woe be unto you! Don’t you know in front of Whom I-asws was? The servant, it will not be Accepted from his Salat except what he is attentive upon it by his heart, from it’.

The man said, ‘We are destroyed!’ He-asws said: ‘Never! Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic would be Completing that with the optional Salats’.

And he-asws would go out during the dark night and carry the sack upon his-asws back, and in it would be the seed and the Dinars and the Dirhams, and sometimes he-asws would carry the good, or the firewood, until he-asws would come to a door and knock it. Then he-asws would give to the one who comes out to him-asws. And he-asws used to cover his-asws face when giving to a poor lest he recognises him-asws. When he-asws passed away, they lost that, then they knew it was Ali-asws Bin Al-Husayn-asws. When he-asws was placed to the washers, they looked at his-asws back, and upon him-asws were like the marks of the camels, due to what he-asws was carrying upon his-asws back to the houses of the poor and the destitute(s).

And one day he-asws went out, and upon him-asws was a woollen coat. A beggar presented to him-asws and attached with his-asws coat. So he-asws continued and left it. And he-asws would buy the woollen (clothing) during the winter and sell it in the summer and give in charity with its price.

And he-asws had looked at a group of people on the day of Arafaat begging the people. He-asws said: ‘Woe be unto you all! Is it other than Allah-azwj you are asking in the like of this day? It is wished for during this day regarding the pregnancies that (they children) become fortunate’.

And he-asws would refuse to eat with his-asws mother-as. It was said to him-asws, ‘O son-asws of Rasool-Allah-saww! You-asws are most righteous of the people and their most connecting of the kinship, so how come you-asws are not eating with your-asws mother-as?’ He-asws said: ‘I-asws dislike for my-asws hand to preceded to what her-as would have preceded to’.

And a man had said to him-asws, ‘O son-asws of Rasool-Allah-saww! I love you-asws for the Sake of Allah-azwj with intense love!’ He-asws said: ‘O Allah-azwj! I-asws seek Refuge with You-azwj from being loved for Your-azwj Sake while You-azwj are Hateful to me-asws!’

And he-asws had performed twenty Hajj upon a she-camel of his-asws, and he-asws had not tapped it with a whip. When it died, he-asws instructed with burying her lest the lions eat her’.

And a slave girl of his-asws had been asked about him-asws. She said, ‘Shall I detail or be brief?’ It was said to her, ‘But, be brief’. She said, ‘I have not gone to him-asws with food at daytime at all, and I have not prepared a bed for him-asws at night at all’.

And one day he-asws had ended up to a group backbiting him-asws. He-asws stood at them and said to them: ‘If you were truthful, then may Allah-azwj Forgive me-asws, and if you were liars, then may Allah-azwj Forgive you all’.

And whenever a seeker of knowledge came to him-asws, he-asws would say: ‘Welcome to the bequest of Rasool-Allah-saww!’ Then he-asws said: ‘The seeker of knowledge, when he comes out from his house, his legs are not placed upon anything wet or dry from the ground, except it glorifies for him to the seven earths’.

And he-asws used to support one hundred households from the poor of Al-Madinah, and it used to marvel him-asws if he-asws were to present his-asws food to the orphans, and the ones in a bad state, and the ones of prolonged illness, and the destitute(s), those having no means for them. And he-asws used to give them by his-asws hand, and the ones from them who was ill, he-asws would carry from his-asws food to him, and he-asws would not eat food until he-asws had given in charity with the like of it.

And seven calluses would fall from him-asws every year from the places of his-asws Sajdah due to the frequency of his-asws Salat, and he-asws would gather these. When he-asws died, these were buried with him-asws.

And he-asws had cried upon his-asws father-asws Al-Husayn-asws for twenty years, and food would not be placed in front of him-asws except he-asws cried until a slave of his-asws said to him-asws, ‘O son-asws of Rasool-Allah-saww! Is it now time for you-asws to terminate your-asws grief?’

He-asws said to him: ‘Woe be to you! The Prophet-as Yaqoub-as had twelve sons for him-as. Allah‑azwj Caused one of them to be absent from him-as, and his-asws eyes turned white from the frequency of his-as crying upon him-as, and his-as hair turned grey from the grief, and his-as back arched from the sorrow, and (although) his-as was alive in the world, and I-asws looked at my-asws father-asws, and my-asws brother-asws, and my-asws uncle-asws, and seventeen of my-asws family members-asws killed around me-asws. So how can I-asws terminate my-asws grief?’’[117]

Bequest of Ali-asws Ibn Hussain-asws (Year 95)

‘From Abu Abdullah-asws having said: ‘Ali-asws Bin Al-Husayn-asws fell ill with three illnesses. During each illness, he-asws bequeathed with a bequest. When he-asws woke up (recovered), signed his-asws bequest’’.[118]

‘Ali-asws Bin Al-Husayn-asws Bin Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws became ill with the illness (the poisoning by the governor of Madinah) in which he-asws passed away, so he-asws gathered his-asws children – Mohammed-asws, and Al-Hassan-asws, and Abdullah, and Umar, and Zayd, and Al-Husayn, and bequeathed to his-asws son-asws Mohammed Bin Ali-asws, and teknonymed him-asws as ‘Al-BAQIR’, and made their affairs to him‑asws.

And it was among what he-asws preached to him-asws in his-asws bequest that he-asws said: ‘O my‑asws son-asws! The intellect is a model of the soul, and the knowledge is a model of the intellect, and the intellect interprets the knowledge. And know that the knowledge is more lasting, and the tongue is most reckless.

And know, O my-asws son-asws! The goodness of the world with (all) its contents are in two phrases – correcting the affairs of the livelihood (is like) measuring the measure. Two thirds of it, is discernment and a third of it is heedlessness, because the human being is not neglectful except about something he has recognised so he is discerning to it.

And know that the times are going away with your-asws lifespan and you-asws cannot attain a bounty except by the loss of another, so beware of the long hopes. How many hopes of the hopeful have not been realised, and amassed wealth he could not consume, and prevent what he would soon be leaving it, and perhaps he had amassed it from false (means) and prevented it from a right. He attains it unlawfully and leaves it as inheritance. He carries its sin and has sold it for its burden, that is the manifest loss’’.[119]

Mohammed-asws Baqir Ibn Ali-asws: Year 57 to 114 (Imamat 95-114)

Muhammed-asws Baqir Ibn Ali-asws was blessed to Ali-asws Ibn Hussain-asws on the 1st of Rajab in the year 57 A.H. The 5th Imam-asws was martyred in the year 114 A.H. at the age of 57 on the 7th of Zilhajj.[120] [121] The Imam-asws was buried in Al-Baqi’ cemetery, Madinah, near the Holy grave of his-asws father, Imam Ali-asws Ibn Al-Hussain-asws. Imam-asws’s mother was Umm ‘Abd Allah, daughter of Imam Al-Hassan-asws Ibn Ali-asws Ibn Abu Talib-asws. Kuniya of the 5th Imam is Abu Jafar-asws

Imam Abu Jafar-asws (Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws) has said: ‘Once, my-asws mother was sitting next to a wall. The wall began to break apart and we heard an intense crumbling noise. Syeda‑asws pointed out with her-asws hands saying: “No, for the sake of Al-Mustafa-saww[122], Allah‑azwj has not Granted you permission to fall.” The wall remained hanging in the air until my-asws mother-asws moved away from that place. My father-asws gave one hundred Dinars as charity in appreciation and as an expression of gratitude for Allah-azwj’s favour.’

Abu Al-Sabbah narrates: ‘Once Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws (Imam Jafar e Sadiq-asws) mentioned hi-asws s grandmother and said: “She-asws was a truthful person. No lady was ever found in the descendants of Al-Hassan-asws like her-asws (in excellence).”’[123]

Abu Jafar-asws (Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws) has said: ‘Jabir Ibn ‘Abd Allah AI-Ansari was the last surviving companions of Rasool Allah-saww. He was a devout (firm) follower of our Ahl Al-Bayt-asws. He would sit in the Masjid of Rasool Allah-saww wearing a black turban. He would call, “O Baqir Al-Ilm, O Baqir Al-Ilm (a person of deep knowledge).”

‘The people of Madinah would say: “Jabir is hallucinating.” He would say: “No, by Allah-azwj, I do not hallucinate, but I heard Rasool Allah-saww say: ‘You will soon meet a man-asws from me-saww whose name will be as my-saww name and his-asws manners as my-saww manners. He-asws will be the revealer-asws of the (Divine) knowledge.’”

‘Jabir would still come and go, and one day in one of the roads of Madinah, when passing, he found a few young boys, (and), among them, Imam Mohammed-asws Ibn Ali-asws.  He looked at him-asws and called him-asws (Imam Mohammed-asws Ibn Ali-asws) to himself. The boy-asws came to him and then he said: “Go back.” The boy-asws went back. Then he said: “I swear by the One in Whose hand is my life, (that I see) manners as the manners of Rasool Allah-saww. O (little) boy-asws, what is your-asws name?” He-asws replied: “My-asws name is Mohammed-asws Ibn Ali-asws Ibn al-Hussain-asws.” Jabir came forward and began to kiss his-asws head and say: “May I be sacrificed for you-asws, Rasool Allah-saww, your-asws great-great grandfather-saww, told me to convey his‑saww greetings of peace to you-asws and would speak of all that (I see in you-asws).”’

The Imam-asws has said: ‘Then Imam Mohammed-asws Ibn Ali-asws Ibn Al-Hussain came to his father-asws and he-asws was anxious. He-asws explained to him-asws about Jabir. His father-asws asked: “Did Jabir really do this?” He-asws replied: “Yes, he did so.” The Imam-asws said: “My son-asws, stay at home (and do not expose yourself-asws to the enemy).” Jabir thereafter would come to him-asws in the mornings and in the evenings and the people of Madinah would say: “It is so strange that Jabir, the only surviving companion of Rasool Allah-saww, comes to a boy-asws on both ends of the day every day.” Very shortly, Imam Ali-asws Ibn Al-Hussain-asws passed away (was martyred).  Imam Mohammed-asws Ibn Ali-asws then normally went to visit Jabir out of respect for his being a companion of Rasool Allah-saww and spoke to people from Allah‑azwj.’[124]

Abu Basir once asked from Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws: ‘Are you the heir of the Rasool Allah‑saww’?’ He-asws said: ‘Yes, we-asws (Ahl Al-Bayt) are his-saww heir.’ He then asked: ‘Was Rasool Allah-saww the heir of the prophets-as and did he-saww know all that they-as knew?’ The Imam-asws (the 5th Imam-asws) said: ‘Yes, it is true.’ He then asked: ‘Do you-asws have the power to bring the dead back to life and cure the lepers, and the blind?’

He-asws said: ‘Yes, we-asws do have such powers by the permission of Allah-azwj.’  Then he-asws said to me: ‘Come closer to me, O Abu Mohammed.’ He went closer to the Imam-asws and he-asws rubbed his face eyes and he saw the Sun, the Skies, the Earth, the houses and all things in the town.

Then the Imam-asws asked: ‘Do you like to live this way, you will have what others have and be responsible for whatever they will be held responsible for on the Day of Judgement or would you like to live as before and enter into the Paradise (without accountability)?’ He said: ‘I would like to live as I lived before.’ The 5th Imam-asws rubbed his eyes and he found himself as before.’[125]

Once, Imam Abu Jafar-asws (Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws) was taken to Al-Sham (Damascus), to the court of Hisham Ibn ‘Abd al-Malik. When he-asws arrived at his door, he (Hisham) instructed his people from the Amawids[126]: ‘When I finish humiliating Imam Mohammed-asws Ibn Ali-asws and stop, then each of you, one after the other, should reprimand and insult him-asws.’ He then ordered for Imam Mohammed-asws Ibn Ali-asws to come in his presence. When Imam-asws arrived, he-asws made a gesture with his-asws hand to all of them and offered a general greeting. He-asws then sat down. This increased the disappointment of Hisham because he-asws did not address him as the Caliph and sat down without his permission.

Hisham then began to reprimand and scold him-asws. He said to him, among other things, ‘O Mohammed-asws Ibn Ali-asws, why is it that one or the other from you-asws cause disunity among the Muslims and call people to follow him-asws thinking that he-asws is the Imam-asws? It is nothing but because of his ignorance and foolishness.’ He scolded him-asws as much as he wanted. When he became quiet and others, one after the other, began to annoy and displease the Imam-asws.

When they all became quiet, he-asws stood up and asked: ‘O people, what is it that you want and where are you headed? Through us-asws, Allah-azwj Granted you guidance to the first one among you and through us-asws the last among you can receive guidance. You do have a temporary power but to us-asws belongs the future power and there will be no power after our-asws power; to us-asws belongs the final good end as Allah-azwj has Said, “The final victory is for the pious ones.” (7: 128)’

He (Hisham) ordered him-asws to be imprisoned. In the prison whoever he-asws spoke to would sympathize with the 5th Imam-asws. The guard came to Hisham and said: ‘O chief, I am afraid for you from the people of al-Sham (Damascus). They may remove you from this position,’ and then gave him the full report.

Hisham then ordered the Imam-asws to be sent to Madinah along with his-asws Shias and Hisham’s people (his army) escorted the Imam-asws (to Madinah). Hisham ordered his army to not allow the Imam-asws and his people to go to market places. They were denied food and water. They travelled for three days without food and water until they arrived at Madyan. They (the Imam-asws and his-asws Shias) were left behind the locked doors therein. The Shias of the Imam-asws complained to him-asws of hunger and thirst. The Imam-asws then climbed a hill above them and said loudly: ‘O people of Madyan, the town of unjust people. I am ‘Baqiya-tul-Allah’ (the Power that Allah-azwj has Kept in reserve) as Allah-azwj has Said: “If you are true believers then you must know that the profit (the reserved power) which Allah has left for you is better for you (than what you may gain through deceitful ways). I am not responsible for your deeds.”’ (11:86)

Among his-asws people was an old man who went to them (the people of the town) and said: ‘By Allah-azwj, this is the call of Shu’ayb-as, the Prophet of Allah-azwj. If you do not go to this man, you will be killed from the above and below (By Allah-azwj’s Wrath). Believe me and obey me this time, but you may reject me next time. I am giving you a good piece of advice.’ At that, they came out quickly to Mohammed-asws Ibn Ali-asws and his-asws people (with food and water). The news reached Hisham Ibn ‘Abd al-Malik, who summoned the old man and he was taken to the court, but no one knows what happened to him.[127]

Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws spent between three to four years in the life-time of Imam Hussain-asws, 39 years in the company of his-asws father Imam Ali-asws bin Hussain-asws and 18 or 19 years executing responsibilities of an Imam-asws prior to being martyred.[128]

The Umayyad Caliph Hisham Ibn Abdul Malik arrested the Imam-asws on several occasions with the intention of disturbing and humiliating him-asws, but could not find any evidence to prosecute the Imam-asws.  In the end, he sent a poison-soaked saddle as a gift. They insisted that the Imam-asws ride on a horse mounted with it. After a short ride, poison spread in the Imam-asws’s body. After a few days in pain, the Imam-asws left for the better world on the 7th of Zilhajj 114 Hijri, and was buried alongside the graves of Imam Hassan-asws and Imam Sajjad-asws in Baqi cemetery, Madinah.[129]

Our sixth Imam-asws says: ‘My-asws father-asws said to me-asws: ‘O Ja’far-asws! Dedicate to me-asws from my-asws such and such wealth for the lamenters to cry upon me-asws (after my departure from this world) for ten years at Mina (a place pilgrims go to during Hajj) in the days of Mina’ (during the days of Hajj).[130]

Bequest of Mohammed-asws Ibn Ali-asws – 5th Imam-asws: Year 114

‘From Abu Abdullah-asws (6th Imam) having said: ‘My-asws father-asws wrote in his-asws bequest that I-asws should enshroud him-asws in three clothes – one of them being a cloak of his-asws which he-asws used to pray Salaat in on the day of Friday, and another cloth, and a shirt. I-asws said to my-asws father-asws, ‘Why did you-asws write this?’

He-asws said: ‘Out of fear that the people might overcome you and if they were to say, ‘Shroud him-asws in four, or five (clothes)’, do not do it, and turban me-asws with a turban, and do not count the turban as being from the shroud. But rather, count what the body is wrapped with’’.[131]

‘Abu Ja’far-asws bequeathed with three hundred Dirhams for mourning him-asws, and he-asws used to view that to be from the Sunnah, because Rasool-Allah-saww said: ‘Take food to the family of Ja’far-as, for they-as are too pre-occupied (with their-as grief)’’.[132]

The Abbasids ended the Umayyad Caliphate: Year 131

The Abbasid, Abū al-ʿAbbās ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad Al-Saffāḥ overpowered the last ruler of Umayyad, Marwan ibn Mohammed ibn Marwan, killing several thousand from the family of Bani Umayyad as they had become weak due to their lavish life style, i.e., drinking and wasteful habits.  However, their grip on power declined earlier on and that gave little respite to the followers of Ahl Al-Bayt-asws during the last few years of the time of Mohammed-asws Ibn Ali-asws as well as during the time of the 6th Imam, Al-Jafar-asws Ibn Mohammed-asws Ibn Ali-asws.

‘A man from the clan of Umayya, and he was an atheist, came to Ja’far-asws Bin Mohammed‑asws. He said, ‘The Words of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic in His-azwj Book: ‘Alif Lam Meem Suad [7:1]. Which thing is intended with this, and which thing is in it from the Permissible and the Prohibition, and which thing is in it from what the people can benefit with?’

He (the narrator) said, ‘Ja’far-asws Bin Mohammed-asws was enraged from that. He-asws said: ‘Withhold, woe be unto you! The (letter) ‘Alif is one, and the ‘Laam’ is thirty, and the ‘Meem’ is forty, and the ‘Saad’ ninety. How much is with you?’

The man said, ‘(At the end of) One hundred and thirty-one (131)!’

Ja’far-asws Bin Mohammed-asws said to him: ‘When the year one hundred and thirty-one expires, the kingdom of your companions (clan of Umayya) will expire (start of 132)!’

He (the narrator) said, ‘We looked. When the year one hundred and thirty-one expired on the day of Ashura, the black (flags) entered Al-Kufa and their kingdom (of the clan of Umayya) was gone!’’[133]

NB – Various historical accounts estimate end of Umayyid dynasty between 131-132 A.H.

Jafar-asws Ibn Mohammed-asws Ibn Ali-asws: Year 83 to 148 (Imamat 114-148)

Imam Jafar-asws Ibn Mohammed-asws‘s (Abu Abd Allah-asws’s) ‘Nazool’ is on the 17th of Rabi’ul Awwal in the year 83 A.H.  Imam Jafar-asws Ibn Mohammed-asws was martyred in the month of Shawwal (on the 15th of Shawwal) in the year 148 at the age of sixty-five and he-asws lived after Abu Ja’far-asws for thirty-four years’ during the time of Al-Mansour (caliph).[134] The 6th Imam‑asws was buried in Al-Baqi’ cemetery, Madinah, in the same graveyard, where his-asws father-asws and grandfather-asws and Imam Al-Hassan-asws Ibn Ali-asws, were buried. The Kuniya of Imam Jafar-asws Ibn Mohammed-asws is Abu Abd Allah-asws.

‘Abu’ Abd Allah-asws (Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq-asws) has said: ‘My-asws mother-asws was a true believer, pious and a person of good deeds. Allah-azwj Loves the people of good deeds.’ He-asws has also said: ‘My-asws mother-asws told me-asws that my-asws father-asws used to say: “O ‘Umm Farwah, I pray to Allah-asws to Forgive the sins of the sinners of our Shia (followers) a thousand times a day because we-asws exercise patience in the face of hardships knowing well the facts of reward (in the next life) but they exercise patience in that of which they have no knowledge.”’[135]

It has been narrated that once Al-Mansur ordered his governor of Makkah and Madinah, al-Hassan Ibn Al-Zayd, to set fire to the house of Imam Ja’far-asws Ibn Mohammed-asws in order to burn him-asws to death. The house of Abu Abd Allah-asws was set on fire but it only burned the door and the corridor.

Abu Abd Allah-asws came out walking in the fire and said, while stepping on (and extinguishing) it (the fire), ‘I-asws am the son-asws of ‘A’raq al-Thara (Isma’il-as), I-asws am the son-asws of Ibrahim‑as (Abraham), the beloved friend of Allah-asws.’[136]

The narrator says that Abu Abd Allah-asws (the 6th Imam-asws) said: ‘We-asws (Ahl Al-Bayt) have the key to the treasures of the Earth. If I-asws move one of my-asws feet to say to the earth, “Let out whatever gold that is there in you,” it will do so.’

(The narrator) says that he-asws then said that to one of his-asws feet and made a line with it on the Earth. The Earth ripped open, then with his-asws hand, the Imam-asws took out a brick of gold of the size of a hand. He-asws then said: ‘Watch carefully.’ They then looked again and saw many such pieces of gold one over the other shining. A certain person said: ‘May Allah-azwj Keep my soul in service for your-asws cause, you-asws have been granted whatever there is but your-asws Shias are needy (and poor).’

The narrator says that the Imam-asws then said: ‘Allah-azwj will soon Grant to our-asws Shias and to us-asws the bounties of both this and the next life. Allah-azwj will Admit them in Paradise and its blessings. And our-asws enemies will be (sent) to the hell.’[137]

The narrator says: ‘I had a neighbour who worked for the Sultan (the ruler) and he had gained certain properties. He often arranged parties and invited female singers. They would drink wine and this would disturb me. I complained to the man several times but he did not pay any attention. When I insisted, he said: “O man, I am an addicted person and you are sober. I wish you take me to your master and I hope Allah-azwj will Save me through him-asws.” His words impressed me a great deal. Upon my visiting to Abu ‘Abd Allah (Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq-asws), I mentioned the condition of that man to him-asws. The Imam-asws said: “When you will go back to Kufa he may come to you, say to him: ‘Imam Ja’far-asws Ibn Mohammed-asws has asked you, to stay away from what you are involved in and I-asws will guarantee that Allah-azwj will admit you in the Paradise.”  When I returned to Kufa he came to me. I kept him with me until just two of us were there alone. I then said to him: “O man, I told about you to Abu Abd Allah-asws, Ja’far-asws Ibn Mohammed-asws, Al-Sadiq-asws, and he-asws said to me: When you will return to Al-Kufa, the man will soon come to you. Say to him, Imam Ja’far-asws Ibn Mohammed-asws said to you Stay away from what you are involved in and I-asws will guarantee that Allah-azwj will Admit you to the Paradise.’’’

The narrator has said: ‘The man then wept and asked me: “I ask you by Allah-azwj, did Abu Abd Allah-asws, really say this to you?” I then swore before him that Abu Abd Allah-asws did really say so. He said: “This is enough for you,” and he left. After few days he called me while he was behind his house and had no clothes on him and he said to me: “O Abu Basil’, by Allah-azwj, there is nothing left in my house. I gave all of them away and I am left as you see.” I then went to our people and made a collection to clothe him. Shortly thereafter he sent someone to inform me that he was ill and that I must see him. Thereafter I often went to him to provide treatment until he was about to die. I was sitting near him and he was experiencing the agony of death. He fainted and then regained conscience and said to me: “O Abu Basir, your master-asws has fulfilled his-asws promise to me.” He then passed away. May Allah-azwj Grant him-asws blessings. When I went for Hajj I went to see Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws and asked permission for a meeting. As I was about to enter in his-asws presence, one foot in the corridor and one inside, the Imam-asws, before my saying anything, said from the inside: “O Abu Basir’, we-asws have fulfilled our promise to your friend.”’[138]

Imam Musa Al-Kazim-asws said: ‘Abu’ Abd Allah-asws, Imam Ja’far-asws Ibn Mohammed-asws, was martyred (by the poison of Mansoor Al-Dawaniq)[139] at the age of fifty-six in 148 A.H. He-asws lived after Imam Abu Ja’far-asws (Mohammed Baqir-asws), his-asws father-asws, for thirty-four years.’[140]

Imam Musa Al-Kazim-asws also said:  ‘I-asws shrouded my father-asws with two pieces of winter cloth that he-asws had used as clothes for Ihram[141]. One of his-asws shirts, the ‘Amama (turban) that belonged to Imam Ali-asws Ibn Al-Hussain-asws and a cloak that he-asws had bought for forty Dinars were also used.’[142]

Bequest of Jafar-asws Ibn Mohammed-asws 6th Imam-asws: Year 148

‘A Bedouin came to Abu Hamza Al-Sumali. He asked him the news. He said, ‘Ja’far Al-Sadiq‑asws has expired’. He (Abu Hamza) sighed a sigh and there was unconsciousness upon him. When he woke up, he said, ‘Has he bequeathed to anyone?’ He said, ‘Yes, he-asws has bequeathed to his-asws son Abdullah, and Musa-asws and Abu Ja’far Al-Mansour’.

Abu Hamza laughed and said, ‘The Praise is for Allah-azwj Who Guided us to the guidance! and he-asws has clarified to us about the elder and Pointed us to the younger and hid the mighty matter’.

He was asked about his words. He said, ‘He-asws clarified faults of the elders and pointed upon the younger due to his-asws adding him-asws to it, and concealed the bequest to Al-Mansour, because if Al-Mansour were to be asked about the bequest, it would be said, ‘You’’.[143]

‘When Al-Sadiq-asws passed away, it was in his-asws bequest, the Imamate being to Musa-asws Al-Kazim-asws. His-asws brother Abdullah claimed the Imamate, and he was eldest of the (living) children of Ja’far-asws at that time, and he is well known as ‘Al-Aftah’.

Musa-asws instructed with gathering a lot of firewood in the middle of his-asws house and sent a message to Abdullah asking him to come to him-asws. When he came to be in his-asws presence, there was a group from the Imamite faces with Musa-asws. When his-asws brother Abdullah sat to him-asws, Musa-asws instructed to make the fire to be in that firewood, all of it. So, all of it burned down, and the people did not know the reason regarding it, until all the firewood became ember.

Then Musa-asws stood up and sat with his-asws clothes in the middle of the fire and went on to narrate to the people for a while. Then he-asws stood, shook his-asws clothes, and returned to the seat. He-asws said to his-asws brother Abdullah: ‘If you are claiming that you are the (real) Imam-asws after your father-asws, then sit in that seat! (in the embers).

They said, ‘We saw Abdullah, his colour had changed. He stood up dragging his cloak until he went out from the house of Musa-asws’’.[144]

Musa-asws Ibn Jafar-asws (7th Imam): Year 128 to 183 (Imamat 148-183)

Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq-asws was blessed with Imam Musa Al-Kazim-asws in the year 128 A.H (on the 7th of Safar). Imam Musa Al-Kazim-asws was martyred on the 25th of Rajab in the year 183 A.H, at the age of fifty-five (55) in Baghdad in the prison of Al-Sindi Ibn Shahik. Imam Musa Al-Kazim-asws was buried in Baghdad in the graveyard of Quraysh.[145] The Kuniya of Imam Musa Al-Kazim-asws is Abu Al-Hassan-asws

The narrator has said: When Imam Abu Al-Hassan Musa-asws was brought before al-Mahdi (an Abbasid ruler) the first time he-asws was accommodated in Zabala and the narrator talked to the Imam-asws. The Imam-asws found him too depressed and asked: ‘O Abu Khalid, why is it that I-asws see you depressed?’ He asked: ‘How can I be not depressed when you-asws are being taken to this transgressor and I do not know what will happen to you-asws?’

Imam Musa-e-Kazim-asws said: ‘I-asws will be safe now but (come to visit me-asws) in such and such month and day. Come to meet me-asws at about a mile’s distance.’ The narrator was relieved and started counting the months as the days passed by until that particular day arrived. He then went up to a mile’s distance and spent the day there until it was almost Sunset. Suddenly, Satan caused temptations to his heart and he began doubting in what the Imam-asws had said.

At this point, he saw figures coming from the direction of Iraq. He went to meet them and Imam Abu Al-Hassan-asws was in front of them on a mule. He-asws asked: ‘Is it you O Abu Khalid?’ The narrator said: ‘Yes, O great, great, great grandson-asws of the Rasool Allah-saww.’ The Imam-asws said: ‘Do not doubt; Satan loves that you have doubts.’ The narrator then said: ‘Thanks to Allah-azwj Who saved you-asws from them.’ Imam-asws said: ‘I-asws will soon be taken by them again from which I-asws will not be spared (will be martyred).’[146]

A Story of a Monk and a Nun:

Once, the narrator was in the presence of Imam Musa-e-Kazim-asws, when a monk and a nun, from the people of Najran, Yemen, came to see him-asws. Al-Fadl Ibn Sawwar sought permission for them and the Imam-asws said: ‘Tomorrow bring them to the well of ‘Umm Khayr.’

The narrator has said: ‘On the next day we went to see him-asws and we found the people (the monk and the nun) there also. The Imam-asws ordered to spread a mat that was made of palm tree fibres. He-asws then sat down on it and they also sat down with the Imam-asws. The nun began asking questions. She asked many questions. The Imam-asws answered them all.  Imam Musa-e-Kazim-asws asked her certain questions but she could not answer them. She then accepted Islam. The monk then began to ask questions and the Imam-asws answered whatever he asked. The monk then said: “I was very strong in my religion and no one of the Christians was as knowledgeable as I. I heard from a man from India who told me about the ‘one’ who could go for pilgrimage to the Holy House in one day and one night and then go back to his home.” I asked: “Where did he live?” I was told that he lived in Sibdhan.

The one who informed me about him said that he knew the knowledge which was with Asif (Barkhiya) an assistant of the Prophet Solomon-as, (with the help of that knowledge) he brought the throne of (Queen) Sheba (from another country) and placed it in front of Prophet Solomon-as (in a flash). “He-as (Asif Barkhiya) is the one whom Allah-azwj has Mentioned in your Book (Holy Quran) and in the books of the followers of the Bible.”

‘Imam Musa-e-Kazim-asws then asked (the monk): “How many are the names of Allah-azwj that if one asks through those, one’s prayers are answered?” The monk said: “They are many but the ones with perfect effects that do not leave the person invoking them without the desired results are seven.” Imam Musa-e-Kazim-asws asked him: “Tell of whichever that you know.” The monk said: “I swear by Allah-azwj, who has sent the Torah to Moses-as and has made Jesus‑as to be a lesson for the worlds and a trial for the thankfulness of the people of reason. (I swear by Allah-azwj), Who has Made Mohammed-saww to be a blessing and mercy and has made Ali-asws a lesson and the source of understanding, Who has made the executors of His-azwj will from the descendants-asws of Mohammed-saww, that I do not know (the answer to the question). Had I known them you-asws would not have to ask me, I would not have to come to you-asws and would not have asked you-asws questions.”

‘The monk then asked him many questions. The Imam-asws answered them all. He-asws asked the monk certain questions, which he could not answer but the Imam-asws himself answered them for him. The monk then said: “Tell me of the eight letters (code words) that were revealed – out of which four letters were shown on earth and the other four remained in space. To whom those four letters that remained in space were sent? Who will interpret them?”

‘The Imam-asws then said: “He-asws will be our al-Qa’im-asws[147]. Allah-azwj will Send them to him-asws and he-asws will interpret them. He-azwj will Send to him-asws what has not even been sent to the truthful ones, the messengers and the rightly guided ones-asws.”

‘Then the monk said: “Tell me about the two of the four that were sent to Earth. What are they?’ The Imam-asws said, ‘I will tell you about all four. The first one was, No one deserves to be worshipped and obeyed except Allah-azwj Who is One and has no partners and that He-azwj is Eternal. The second (testimony) was that Mohammed-saww is Rasool Allah-azwj without doubt. The third one (testimony) was regarding (submission to) us-asws – the Ahl Al-Bayt-asws [148].

The fourth one (testimony) was our Shi’a (followers) who are from us-asws and we-asws are from Rasool Allah-saww and Rasool Allah-saww is from Allah-azwj through a means.”

‘The monk then said: “I testify that no one deserves to be worshipped and obeyed except Allah-azwj, that Mohammed-saww is Rasool Allah-saww, that whatever he brought from Allah-azwj is true, that you, Ahl Al-Bayt-asws are the Chosen ones of Allah-azwj from His-azwj creatures and that your Shi’a are pure who are the replacement (of those who oppose you-asws). They will have the good end. All thanks are due to Allah-azwj, Lord of the worlds.”

‘Imam Musa-e-Kazim-asws called to bring for him a gown, a shirt made in Gha’in Khurasan, a scarf, a pair of shoes and a hat. He-asws gave them to him, prayed the noontime prayer and asked him to be circumcised (if he hadn’t already). He said it had already been done when he was seven years old.[149]

The Story of the Dead Cow:

Imam Musa-e-Kazim-asws once passed by a woman in Mina who was weeping and her children around her were also weeping because her cow had died. The Imam-asws went close to her and asked: ‘What has caused you to weep, O slave of Allah-saww?’ She said: ‘O servant of Allah-azwj, My children are orphans, our cow which was the only means of our living has died and we are left without any means of living.’

Imam Musa-e-Kazim-asws asked: ‘Will you be happy if I-asws will bring your cow back to life?’ She was just inspired to say: ‘Yes, O servant of Allah-asws I will be very happy.’

Imam Musa-e-Kazim-asws stepped aside and said two Rak’at prayers. He-asws then raised his-asws hands and gently moved his-asws lips. He-asws then stood up and called the cow to get up. He-asws gently pushed the cow with his-asws foot and it stood up straight. When the woman looked at the cow she cried and said: ‘Jesus-as, the son of Mary-as, I swear by the Lord-azwj of the Ka’bah (he-asws is Jesus).’ (It was famous at that time only Jesus-as would bring back to life the dead ones so she also thought like that).  Many people gathered around but the Imam-asws disappeared among them and went (out of their sight).[150]

The Shahadat of 7th Imam-asws and burial by 8th Imam-asws: Year 183

The narrator of the Hadith says that when Harun Ar-Rashid got worried about the noble characteristics of Musa-asws Ibn Ja’far-asws and the news he received from the followers of Imam Musa-asws Ibn Ja’far-asws regarding his-asws Divine Leadership, and their secret meetings with him-asws in the daytime and at night, Harun got worried for himself and his rule. At that Harun imprisoned 7th Imam-asws, which was quite lengthy spanning over ten years.[151]

Then he thought of killing the 7th Imam-asws with poison. Then Harun asked for some dates and ate some. Then he placed twenty dates on a tray, dipped a piece of thread in poison, and placed the date on a needle. He then thoroughly poisoned one of the dates with that thread until he was sure that the poison has penetrated it.

Harun did this several times and then placed the date among the other dates. He called in his servant and told him: “Take this tray of dates to Musa-asws Ibn Ja’far-asws and tell him-asws: “I have eaten dates, and have left some for you-asws. Please I beg you-asws to eat them all since I have handpicked them for you-asws myself.”’

Harun also told the servant to make sure that no dates were left and that no one else should eat any of the dates. The servant delivered the dates and the message. The Imam-asws said: ‘Bring me some toothpicks.’ The servant brought him-asws toothpicks and stood in front of him-asws while the Imam-asws ate dates. Harun Ar-Rashid had a female dog which was very dear to him. The dog exerted an effort to free itself from the golden chains and jewels and went to Imam Musa Ibn Ja’far-asws. The Imam-asws put the poisoned date on the toothpick and threw it for the dog. The dog ate the date and immediately fell down on the ground and died while its meat was falling off its bones piece by piece.

The Imam-asws ate the rest of the dates. The servant took the tray back to Ar-Rashid. Harun asked him: ‘Did he-asws eat all the dates?’ The servant said: ‘O commander of the faithful (Harun)! Yes.’ Harun asked: ‘How did you find him-asws?’ The servant said: ‘O commander of the faithful! I saw nothing wrong with him-asws.’

Then the news of the female dog and how it had fallen down with its meat being separated from its bones piece by piece and its death reached Harun. This was hard on him. He went to see the dog. He saw how the dog’s meat had separated from its bones and died. He called in the servant, asked for a sword and a rug. He told the servant: ‘Tell me the truth about the dates or I will kill you.’

The servant said: ‘O commander of the faithful! I delivered the dates to Musa-asws Ibn Ja’far‑asws and delivered your greetings to him-asws and stood right in front of him-asws. He asked me for a toothpick. I brought him-asws one. He put the toothpick into the dates and ate them one by one. Then the dog came there. He-asws placed the tooth pick in one of the dates and threw it for the dog. The dog ate it. He-asws continued eating the rest of the dates. O commander of the faithful! Then what you see happened.’ Harun Ar-Rashid said: ‘We did not gain any benefits from (trying to poison) Musa-asws. We fed him-asws the best of our dates, wasted our poison and got our dog killed. There is no solution for Musa Ibn Ja’far-asws.’

Then our Master Musa-asws called in Mosayyab three days before his-asws death. Mosayyab was his-asws prison guard. The Imam-asws said: ‘O Mosayyab!’ He said: ‘Yes, my Master-asws?’ The Imam-asws said: ‘I-asws will be going to Madinah, the town of my-asws grandfather (i.e. Rasool Allah-saww), in order to instruct my-asws son Ali Al-Reza-asws according to what my-asws father-asws had instructed me-asws to do, and establish him-asws as my-asws Trustee and Successor, and deliver my-asws orders to him-asws.’

Mosayyab said: ‘O my Master-asws! How do you order me to open the doors for you-asws while there are also other prison guards with me?’ The Imam-asws said: ‘O Mosayyab! Your belief in the Honourable the Exalted God-azwj regarding us-asws is weak.’ He said: ‘No, my Master-asws!’ The Imam-asws said: ‘Then wait.’ He said: ‘O my Master-asws! Please pray for me to get more firmly established in faith.’

Then the Imam-asws said: ‘I invoke the Honourable the Exalted God-azwj by His Great Name – by which Asif had invoked Him-azwj, and magically brought Bilquees’ (queen of Saba’s) Throne there and placed it in front of Solomon-as before the wink of an eye – to bring me-asws (Al-Kazim) and my-asws son Ali Al-Reza-asws together in Madinah.’ Mosayyab then heard Imam Al-Kazim-asws pray and suddenly he-asws was no longer where he-asws was standing to pray.

As he was standing there, he saw him-asws reappear there again, and tied the chains to his-asws own feet. At that time he fell in prostration to God-azwj to thank Him-azwj for this Divine Knowledge, i.e. the recognition of the Divine Leader. Imam Al-Kazim-asws told: ‘O Mosayyab! Raise your head. Beware that I-asws will depart to the Honourable the Exalted God-azwj three days from now.’

Mosayyab then cried. The Imam-asws told him: ‘O Mosayyab! Do not cry. My-asws son Ali-asws (Al-Reza) is your Divine Leader, and your next Master-asws! Therefore, adhere to his-asws Mastery since you will never be at a loss as long as you are with him-asws.’ He said: ‘Praise be to God‑azwj.’ Then Imam Al-Kazim-asws called him on the night of the third day and told him: ‘It is time for me-asws to go to the Honourable the Exalted God-azwj. When I-asws ask you for water and drink it, you will see that my-asws stomach gets bloated and swollen. My-asws colour will turn yellow, red and green. It will turn into different colours. Then inform that oppressor (Harun) about my-asws death. When you see me-asws that way, do not inform anyone else. Also do not tell the one who will come to me-asws until after I die.’

Mosayyab was constantly watching Imam Al-Kazim-asws until he-asws called him and asked for some water and drank it. Then he-asws called him and said: ‘O Mosayyab! This wicked As-Sindi Ibn Shahak thinks that after I-asws pass away, he will take charge of performing the ritual ablutions for me-asws himself. No. This will never be the case. When they take me-asws to the cemetery known as the Quraysh cemetery, bury me-asws there. Do not raise my-asws tomb higher than four opened fingers. And do not take any of the dirt from my-asws tomb to be blessed by, since the dirt from the tombs of all of us is forbidden except for that of my-asws grandfather – Al-Hussain-asws Ibn Ali-asws which the Sublime God-azwj has established as a means of healing for our-asws followers and friends.’

Mosayyab then saw someone who looked very much like the Imam-asws sitting next to him-asws. He had seen Imam Al-Reza-asws when he-asws was young. wanted to ask him-asws questions but our Master Imam Musa-asws asked: ‘O Mosayyab! Did I-asws not admonish you before?’ He kept waiting until the Imam-asws perished, and that person-asws disappeared. Then he informed Harun Ar-Rashid. As-Sindi Ibn Shahak came and observed that they were merely thinking that they were performing the major ritual ablutions for the dead, but their hands could not reach him-asws. They thought they were placing the embalmment on him-asws and shrouding him-asws, but they could not do anything for him-asws. It was that person-asws who was placing the embalmment on him-asws and shrouding him-asws. They could see him-asws, but could not tell who he-asws was. They pretended that he-asws was just helping them. When that person-asws got finished he-asws told Mosayyab: ‘If you had any doubts about me-asws, be no longer in doubt. I-asws am your Divine Leader, your Master, and God-azwj’s Proof for you after my-asws father-asws. O Mosayyab! The example of me-asws is like that of the honest Joseph-as. Their example is like that of Joseph-as’s brothers who came to him. Joseph-as knew them but they could not recognise him-as.’

Then they carried the 7th Imam-asws and buried him-asws in the cemetery of the Quraysh, and did not raise his-asws tomb more than he-asws had ordered it to be raised. The tomb was raised later, and a building was constructed over it.[152]

The formation of Waqafi Sect after 7th Imam-asws: Year 183

The ‘Waqifites’ or ‘Waqifa’ are a ‘break-away’ sect from the twelve Imami Shias, they believe in the seven Imams – Imam Musa Al-Kazim-asws being their last Imam-asws and they refer to him-asws as the ‘Al-Qa’im-asws’ and consider him-asws to be in the second occultation (Ghayba – they also believe in two Ghayba).  They deny the Divine Leadership of Imam Al-Reza-asws as well as the other Imams-asws – who have come after him-asws.

Waqifites emerged during the time of 8th Imam (Ali-asws Ibn Musa Al-Reza-asws) – about 183 A.H., just after the martyrdom of Imam Musa Al-Kazim-asws – so they were formed a long time ago. Several of the twelve Imami Ahadith compilers have given the reasons behind the emergence of the ‘Waqifites’ and have provided refutations based on Ahadith.

In a Hadith, the narrator says: Uthman ibn Isa Ar-Ravasay was one of the representatives (of Imam Al-Kazim-asws who lived in Egypt. A lot of (Imam Al-Kazim-asws’s) property and six slave maids were in his possession. Abul Hassan Al-Reza-asws sent someone to him and asked him to return the slave maids and the property. Uthman ibn Isa Ar-Rawasi wrote a letter in response and said, ‘Your father-asws has not died yet.’ Imam Al-Reza-asws wrote a letter to him and said, ‘My father-asws has passed away and we have divided up his-asws possessions. There is correct news to confirm his-asws death.’ Imam Al-Reza-asws presented some proofs. Uthman wrote to him-asws in reply, ‘If your-asws father-asws is alive, you-asws have no rights over his-asws property. If he-asws has died as you-asws say, he-asws has not given me any orders to dispose of these possessions to you-asws. I freed the slave maids and married them (An extract).”[153]

Bequest of the 7th Imam-asws : Year 183

‘Abu Ibrahim Musa-asws Bin Ja’far-asws, his-asws bequest was witnessed upon by Is’haq son of Ja’far-asws Bin Mohammed-asws, and Ibrahim Mohammed Al-Ja’fary, and Ja’far Bin Salih, and Muawiya Al-Ja’fary, and Yahya Bin Al-Husayn Bin Zayd, and Sa’ad Bin Imran Al-Ansary Al-Ansary, and Mohammed Bin Al-Haris Al-Ansary, and Yazeed Bin Saleyr Al-Ansary, and Mohammed Ja’far Al-Aslamy.

After having them witness, he-asws testified: ‘There is no god except Allah-azwj Alone, there being no associates for Him-azwj, and that Mohammed-saww is His-azwj servant and His-azwj Rasool-saww, And the Hour is coming, there is no doubt in it, and that Allah will Resurrect the ones in the graves [22:7], and that the Resurrection after the death is true, and that the Reckoning and the retaliation are true, and that the pausing in front of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic is true, and that whatever Mohammed-saww had come with was true, true, true, and that whatever the Trustworthy Spirit had descended with was true, and upon it I-asws am dying, and upon it I-asws shall be Resurrected, if Allah-azwj so Desires.

I-asws keep them as witnesses that this is my-asws bequest in my-asws handwriting, and I-asws have copied a bequest of my-asws grandfather-asws Amir Al-Momineen-asws, and bequests of Al-Hassan-asws and Al-Husayn-asws, and Ali-asws Bin Al-Husayn-asws, and bequest of Mohammed-asws Bin Ali-asws, and bequest of Ja’far-asws Bin Mohammed-asws before that, word by word.

And I-asws bequeath with it to my-asws son-asws Ali-asws, and my-asws sons after him-asws, if Allah-azwj so Desires, and I-asws discern (recognise) rightful guidance from them, and I-asws love their acknowledgment. So that is for him-asws, and even if he-asws dislikes them and loves to expel them, that is up to him-asws, and there is no command for them along with him-asws.

And I-asws bequeath to him-asws with my-asws charities, and my-asws wealth, and my-asws children, those I-asws am leaving behind, and my-asws children, and to Ibrahim, and Al-Abbas, and Ismail, and Ahmad, and Umm Ahmad. And to Ali-asws are (affairs of) my-asws wives besides them, and a third of the charities of my-asws father-asws and my-asws family.

He-asws can place it wherever he-asws views fit and make from it what he-asws makes the one with the one in his-asws wealth. If he-asws likes he-asws can allow what I-asws have mentioned regarding my-asws dependants, so that is up to him-asws. And if he-asws dislikes it, so that is up to him-asws. And if he-asws likes, he-asws can sell, or gift, or separate it, or donate it upon other than I-asws am bequeathing, so that is up to him-asws, and he-asws is (like) me-asws in my-asws bequest, regarding my-asws wealth, and regarding my-asws family members and my-asws children.

And if he-asws views fit, to endorse his-asws brothers, those whom I-asws have mentioned them in the beginning of this letter of mine, he-asws can endorse them, and if he-asws dislikes it, for him-asws is to expel them without repulsion upon it. And if a man from them (people) wants to marry his-asws sister (my-asws daughter) so he-asws is the Guardian of my-asws daughters, then it isn’t for him to marry her except by his-asws permission and his-asws instructions.

And whichever authority (person) uncovers him-asws from something, or hinders between him‑asws and anything from what I-asws have mentioned in my-asws letter, so he (that person) is disavowed from Allah-azwj the Exalted and from His-azwj Rasool-saww, and Allah-azwj and His-azwj Rasool-saww are disavowed from him (that person), and upon him is the Curse of Allah-azwj, and curses of the cursing ones, and the Angels-as of Proximity, and the Prophets-as and the Messengers-as altogether, and a group of the Momineen.

And it isn’t for anyone from the authorities to uncover anything of mine-asws with him-asws, from chattels, nor is it for anyone from my-asws children, and there is wealth for me-asws with him, and he-asws has ratified regarding when he-asws mentions, from its extent, even if it is less and more, so he-asws is to be ratified (to be believed).

And rather, I-asws wanted the inclusion of the ones I-asws from my-asws sons with him-asws, indication by their names, and my-asws young children, and mothers of my-asws children. One from them who stays in her house and in her veil, for her would be whatever had been flowing to her during my-asws lifetime if he-asws wants that. And the one from them who exits to a husband, it isn’t for her that she returns to my-asws treasurer except if Ali-asws deems that proper.

And no one from my-asws daughters get married, and from their mothers, nor is there any authority, nor can it be worked for them except by his-asws view and his-asws consultation. If they were to do that, so they would have opposed Allah-azwj the Exalted and His-azwj Rasool‑saww, and they would have rejected Him-azwj regarding His-azwj Kingdom, and he-asws is more knowing with the marriages of his-asws people, if he-asws wants to get them married, he‑asws will get them married, and if he-asws wants to leave, then she would be left. I-asws have bequeathed them with similar to what I-asws am mentioning, in the beginning of my-asws letter, and I-asws keep Allah-azwj as Witness upon them.

And it isn’t for anyone that he uncovers my-asws bequest, nor publicise it, and it is upon what I-asws have mentioned and named. So, the one who is evil, it would be against him, and one who is good, it is for himself, and your Lord-azwj is not the least unjust to the servants.

And there isn’t any authority for anyone, nor for anyone else that he breaks open my-asws letter which I-asws am sealing upon below. The one who does that, upon him is the Curse of Allah-azwj and His-azwj Wrath, and the Angels-as after that are the backers, and a group of Muslims and the Momineen’. And Musa-asws Bin Ja’far-asws sealed, and (so did) the witnesses.

Abdullah Bin Mohammed Al-Ja’fary said, ‘Al-Abbas son of Musa-asws said to Ibn Imran the judge, ‘The bottom part of this letter is a treasure for us and jewels. He-asws wants to hold it besides us, and our father-asws did not leave out anything except he-asws made it to be for him‑asws and left us destitute’.

Ibrahim Bin Mohammed Al-Ja’fary leapt upon him and made him hear. And Is’haq son of Ja’far-asws leapt to him and did with him similar to that. Al-Abbas said to the judge, ‘May Allah‑azwj Keep you well! Break the seal and read what is beneath it!’ He (the judge) said, ‘I will not break it. Your father-asws’s curse will not be upon me’. Al-Abbas said, ‘I shall break it!’ He said, ‘That is up to you’.

Al-Abbas broke the seal, and there in it was their expulsion from the bequest and the acknowledgment of Ali-asws alone, and his-asws including them in the governance of Ali-asws, whether they like it, or dislike it, or become like orphans in his-asws lap, and he-asws had expelled them from the limit of charities and mentioned it.

Then Ali-asws Bin Musa-asws turned to Al-Abbas and said, ‘O my-asws brother! I know that rather what had carried you upon doing this are the creditors and the debts which are upon you all. Go, O Sa’ad, and pinpoint for me-asws what (debts are) upon them and I-asws shall pay it off on their behalf and take their mentioned rights and take the receipt for them. No, by Allah-azwj! I-asws will not leave consoling you all and be righteous to you, for as long as I-asws am walking upon the surface of the earth. Speak whatever you like’.

Al-Abbas said, ‘You-asws are not giving us except from the surplus (remnants) of our wealth, and what is for us, in your-asws possession, is more!’

He said, ‘Speak whatever you like to, for the offer is your offer. O Allah-azwj! Correct them and Correct with them! And the Satan-la is mischievous from us and them and Assist them upon obeying You-azwj!’ And Allah-azwj is a Protector upon what we are saying’.

Al-Abbas said, ‘You-asws did not recognise me with your-asws tongue, and there is no clay with me for your anointing (a metaphor)’. Then the group dispersed’’.[154]

Ali-asws Al-Reza Ibn Musa-asws (8th Imam): Year 148 to 203 (Imamat 183-203)

‘Musa Al-Kazim-asws was blessed with Abu AI-Hassan Al-Reza-asws on Thursday, the 11th of Zeeqad in 148 A.H.  The Imam-asws was martyred on the 17th of Safar in the year 203 A.H. at the age of 55.  Imam Ali Reza-asws was buried in Tus (now called Mashhad).[155]  Al-Mamoon (an ‘Abbasid ruler) gave poison to the Imam-asws, which was the cause of the Imam-asws’s Shahadat. Imam Ali-Reza-asws Ibn Musa-asws’s Kuniya is Abu Al-Hassan-asws.

The Imamat of Imam Ali Reza-asws:

(A companion of Imam Ali Reza-asws says) When Imam Musa-e-Kazim-asws passed away, Imam Ali Al-Reza-asws spoke of his-asws Imamat (Leadership with Divine Authority) and it was worrying to us. It was said to him-asws: ‘You have declared a very great issue and we are afraid for your-asws life from this rebel (Harun ar-Rashid – the Abbasid ruler).’ The Imam-asws said: ‘Allow him (Harun the Abbasid ruler) to try his best but he will not find any way against me-asws.

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘l owed money to a man from the family of Abu Rafi’ called Tays. He demanded payment and pressed me hard and people assisted him. When I found myself in such condition I prayed the morning prayer in the Masjid of Rasool Allah-saww and then went to Imam Al-Reza-asws, who was in a nearby city in those days. When I had almost reached his-asws door he-asws appeared on his-asws donkey, wearing a shirt and a gown. When I looked at him-asws I felt shy, when he-asws approached me he-asws looked at me and I offered him-asws the greeting of peace. It was the month of Ramadan. I said: “May Allah-azwj Keep my soul in service for your cause, (please) give some money to your slave, (which I owe to) Tays, and he has defamed me.”

‘I thought the Imam-asws would order him to stop pressuring me and by Allah-azwj, I did not tell the Imam-asws how much I owed nor did I mention any amount. Imam Ali Reza-asws ordered me to sit until he-asws returned. I remained there until I offered my sunset prayer and I was fasting. I felt depressed and I thought of returning home.

‘At that time, the Imam-asws appeared before me with people around him-asws. Beggars had surrounded him-asws and he-asws gave them charity. The Imam-asws passed by and entered his-asws house. Then the Imam-asws came out and called me inside. We both sat down and I began to speak to him-asws about Ibn al-Musayyib, the governor of Madinah, as I used to speak to him-asws about the governor often. When I finished the Imam-asws said: “I do not think you have ended your fast yet.’ I said, ‘No, I have not ended it yet.” The Imam-asws asked for food and ordered a boy (servant) to join me at the table. The boy and I had our meal and when we finished the Imam-asws said to me: “Lift up the furnishing and pick up whatever is underneath.” I lifted it up and found Dinars therein. I picked them up and placed them in my pocket.

‘The Imam-asws ordered four of his-asws slaves to escort me to my house. I said: “May Allah-azwj Keep my soul in service for your-asws cause, the spies of Ibn Al-Musayyib check around all the time and I would not like them to see me with your-asws slaves.” The Imam-asws said: “You are right, may Allah-azwj Keep you rightly guided.” The Imam-asws ordered them to return whenever I wanted them to do so.

‘When I almost reached my house and felt safe I asked them to go back. I went home and asked for a lamp. I looked at the Dinars and there were forty-eight of them. I owed twenty-eight to the man. Among them one Dinar caught my sight. I picked it up and brought it near the lamp. I found a clear mark on it that said: “Pay to the man twenty-eight Dinars and keep the rest for yourself.” By Allah-azwj, I did not tell the Imam-asws how much l owed to the man. All praise belongs to Allah-azwj Who has Granted honour to those whom He-azwj has Given Authority.’’[156]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Once, I requested to Abu Al-Hassan Al-Reza-asws (8th Imam) in a matter that I wanted to learn from him-asws and the Imam-asws asked me to wait. One day I was with him-asws and he-asws came near the castle of so and so and stopped for rest among a few trees. Just the two of us and not a third was there. I said: “May I be sacrificed for you‑asws, a holiday is upon us, by Allah-azwj, all I have is one Dirham only and nothing else.” Imam‑asws broke the surface of the earth with his-asws whip and with his-asws hand picked up a mould of gold and said: “Use it and keep secret what you just saw.”’[157]

Imam Ali Reza-asws was Asked to come to Khurasan:

When the matter of the deposed Caliph (Amin) ended and it (the rule) was established for Al-Mamoon, he wrote to Imam Al-Reza-asws asking to come to Khurasan. Imam Al-Reza-asws in reply presented certain reasons to justify his disagreement with the proposal but Al-Mamoon continued writing until the Imam-asws found it unavoidable because he (Al-Mamoon) would not leave him-asws alone.

The Imam-asws then decided to leave for Khurasan and at that time Abu Ja’far-asws (Imam Taqi‑asws) was only seven years old. Al-Mamoon wrote to him-asws: ‘Do not travel through the mountains and Qum. Take the road through Basra, al-Ahwaz and Persia.’ The Imam-asws arrived at Marw. Al-Mamoon offered him-asws to command and lead the task of Khilafat (leadership) but Abu Al-Hassan-asws declined. He then offered the Imam-asws to accept the position of a crown prince. The Imam-asws said that he might accept it under certain conditions, Al-Mamoon said: ‘Say whatever conditions you-asws like.’

The Imam-asws wrote: ‘I will assume this position with the conditions that I will not issue any order or prohibitions nor issue any fatwa or judgment nor any appointment or dismissal of officers or change anything in the current system. You must excuse me in all such matters.’ Al-Mamoon agreed to all such conditions.

The narrator has said that when it was the day of ‘Eid (the holiday) al-Mamoon asked Al-Reza‑asws to attend the programme, lead the prayer and deliver the sermon. Al-Reza-asws replied to him saying: ‘You know the conditions between us. They did not consist of any such matters.’ Al-Mamoon sent the message: ‘I only want thereby to build confidence in the people by knowing your distinction.’ He continued insisting until the Imam-asws said: ‘I will appreciate it greatly if you excuse me from such task and if you still insist then I will do this task in the manner that Rasool Allah-saww and Amir Al-Momineen Ali-asws would do.’

‘Al-Mamoon then said: ‘You may do as you choose.’ AI-Mamoon ordered the servants and guides to lead a procession to the door of Abu Al-Hassan-asws (Imam Reza-asws), saying “Allahu Akbar,” Allah-azwj is Great (beyond description).’

People lined up waiting for the Imam-asws on the roads and roof tops, men, women and children. The guides and people from the army gathered at the door of Abu Al-Hassan-asws (Ali Reza-asws). At sunrise the Imam-asws took a shower and wore a white turban made of cotton. He-asws let one end of the turban hang over his-asws chest and the other end between his shoulders on his-asws back.

Imam-asws tied his-asws belt and said to his followers, ‘Do as I have done.’ Imam Reza-asws picked up an arrow-shaped staff and came out and they went along with him-asws. He-asws was barefoot and his-asws gown was raised halfway between his feet and knees. When he-asws walked and we walked along with him-asws, he-asws raised his-asws head toward the sky and said, ‘Allahu Akbar’ four times. It seemed to us as if the sky and the walls responded to him-asws. The guides and the people at the door were ready and armed and decorated with the best dresses. When we came out in such fashion along with Al-Reza-asws he-asws paused at the door briefly. Imam Reza-asws then said: ‘Allahu Akbar. Allahu Akbar. Allahu Akbar. Allahu Akbar. He‑azwj has Granted us guidance. Allahu Akbar. He-azwj has Granted us the cattle. All praise belongs to Allah-azwj. He-azwj has Granted us blessings.’ We all raised our voices.

Yasir Al-Khadim has said that the whole Marw (a name of a Place in Iran) shook with the weeping cries and shouts when they looked at Abu AI-Hassan Al-Reza-asws. Many of the guides fell from their horses. The horses kicked. The guides threw away their boots when they saw Abu Al-Hassan-asws barefoot. Imam Reza-asws would walk about ten steps and pause and say, ‘Allahu Akbar’ three times. Yasir Al-Khadim has said that to us it seemed as if the sky, earth and mountains responded along with him-asws. The whole Marw had become one voice loud and tearful. It was reported to al-Mamoon. Sahl Ibn al-Fadl, who had two official posts, said to him: ‘O commander of faithfuls, if Imam Al-Reza-asws will reach the place of prayer in this manner people will devotedly be attracted to him-asws. In my opinion, ask him-asws to return home.’

AI-Mamoon sent his people to ask Abu AI-Hassan-asws to return home. Imam Ali Reza-asws asked to bring his-asws shoes and wore them and rode back home.[158]

The Imam-asws is Needless of others’ wealth:

The narrator narrates in the Hadith:

‘I wanted to deliver an amount of property to Abu Al-Hassan Al-Reza-asws. It was a large amount. When the Imam-asws saw it he-asws did not show any sign of happiness. I became depressed and said to myself: “I delivered this property to him-asws but he-asws did not become happy.” The Imam-asws called: “O boy, bring water and the pot.”’

The narrator has said that the Imam-asws then sat on the chair and made a hand gesture to the boy to pour water on his hand. The narrator says that from Imam-asws’s hand gold began to fall in the pot (where the water from the hands of the Imam-asws was going). The Imam-asws then turned to me and said: ‘One-asws who is capable of doing this, he-asws does not become happy for whatever you have delivered to him-asws.’[159]

The Shahadat of Imam Ali-asws Ibn Musa-asws: Year 203

‘The narrator says in a Hadith:

Imam Ali-asws Ibn Musa-asws was martyred (through poisoning, organised by Mamoon Ar-Rashid) at the age of 49 and a few months after 202 A.H (in 203). The Imam-asws lived for 19 years and two or three months after the death of (his-asws father-asws) Imam Musa-asws Ibn Ja’far-asws.[160]

Bequest of Ali Al-Reza the 8th Imam-asws: Year 203

(The narrator says) ‘One night I was in front of Al-Mamoun until four hours from the night had passed by. Then he permitted for me to leave. I left. When half of the night had passed by, there was a knock on the door. One of my servants answered. He-asws said to him, ‘Say to Harsama, ‘Answer your chief-asws!’

He said, ‘I stood up quickly and grabbed my clothes upon me and I hurried to my chief Al-Reza-asws. The slave entered in front of me, and I entered behind him, and there I was with my Master-asws seated in a courtyard of his-asws house. He-asws said: ‘O Harsama!’ I said, ‘Here I am, O my Master-asws!’ He-asws said: ‘Be seated!’ I sat down.

He-asws said to me: ‘Listen and retain, O Harsama! This is the year of my-asws departure to Allah-azwj the Exalted, and my-asws joining with my-asws grandfather-asws and my-asws forefathers-asws, and the Decree has reached its term, and this tyrant is determined upon poisoning me-asws (with poison in) grapes and a pomegranate.

As for the grapes, the thread was immersed in the poison, and it was pulled by the thread into the grapes. And as for the pomegranate, the poison was dropped in a palm of his slave and he rubbed the pomegranate with his hands in order to smear its seeds in that poison, and he will be summoning me-asws in that coming day and draw the pomegranate and the grapes to me-asws, and he will be asking me-asws to eat them. So I-asws shall eat them.

Then he will enforce the order and the Decree shall present. So when I-asws am dead, he will be saying, ‘I shall wash him-asws with my hands!’ When he says that, say to him on my-asws behalf, ‘Between you and him-asws is that he-asws said that you should neither present for my-asws washing, nor for my-asws shrouding, nor for my-asws burial, for if you were to do that, it would speed up the Punishment for you that had been delayed from you, and the pain would be released with you what you were being cautious of’, so he would desist’.

He (the narrator) said, ‘I said, ‘Yes my Master-asws!’

He-asws said, ‘When he vacates between you and my-asws washing, he will go and sit in a higher place of its building, overlooking upon the place of my-asws washing, in order to look. The washing will not (begin), O Harsama, until you see a white tent having been struck by the side of the house. When you see that, then carry me-asws in my-asws clothes which I-asws would be in and place me-asws behind the tent and stop from behind it, and there would happen to be someone with you beside you.

And do not uncover from the tent to see me-asws for you will be destroyed. He (Al-Mamoun) will overlook upon you and say to you, ‘O Harsama! Didn’t you claim that the Imam-asws, no one can wash him-asws except an Imam-asws like him-asws? So who will wash Abu Al-Hassan Ali‑asws Bin Musa-asws, and his-asws son-asws is in Al-Madinah, from the country of Al-Hijaz, and we are at Toos?’

When he says that, then answer him and say to him, ‘We are saying that the Imam-asws, it is not obligatory that no one can wash him-asws except an Imam-asws, so if an exceeded were to exceed and wash the Imam-asws, it would not invalidate the Imamate of the Imam-asws due to the transgression of his-asws washer, nor would it invalidate the Imamate of the Imam-asws who would be after him-asws, by him-asws being overcome upon the washing of his-asws father-asws.

And if Abu Al-Hassan Ali-asws Bin Musa-asws had been left at Al-Madinah, his-asws son-asws Mohammed-asws would have washed him-asws apparently, uncovering, and he-asws would not be washed now as well except he-asws is from where he-asws can hide’.

When the tent is raised, you shall soon see me-asws wrapped up in my-asws shroud, so place me‑asws upon a bier and carry me-asws. When he wants to dig my-asws grave, he will make the grave of his father Haroun Al-Rasheed as a Qiblah (his feet facing) my-asws grave, and that cannot happen to be, ever!

When the shovels are struck, there would be a burst from the ground and nothing would burst out from it, and not even like the chipping of a nail. When they struggle in that and it becomes difficult upon them, then say to him on my-asws behalf that I-asws had instructed you to strike one shovel in direction (my-asws feet facing) the grave of his father Haroun Al-Rasheed. When it is struck, there would be a hole in the ground to a pre-dug grace and a standing shrine.

When that grave is split, do not descend me-asws into it until white water bursts out from its shrine and that grave is filled up from it, until the water come (level) with the surface of the ground. Then a fish would be restless in it in its length. When it is restless, do not descend me-asws into the grave except when the fish disappears, and the water sinks in the ground. Then descend me in that grave and entomb me-asws in that shrine. And do not leave them to be coming with the soil throwing it upon me-asws, for the grave would layer by itself and fill up’.

He (the narrator) said, ‘I said, ‘Yes, my Master-asws!’ Then he-asws said to me: ‘Memorise what I-asws have pacted to you, and work with it, and do not oppose’. I said, ‘I seek Refuge with Allah‑azwj from opposing you-asws in any matter, O my Master-asws!’

Harsama said, ‘Then I went out crying, grieving. I did not cease to be like the seed upon a plate. No one knew what was within me except Allah-azwj the Exalted. Then Al-Mamoun summoned me, so I entered to see him. I did not cease to be standing until the day rose. Then Al-Mamoun said, ‘Go, O Harsama, to Abu Al-Hassan-asws and convey the greetings from me, and say to him-asws, ‘Either come to us or we shall come to you-asws!’ If he-asws says to you: ‘But we-asws shall go to him’, then ask him-asws on my behalf to bring that forward’.

He said, ‘I went to him-asws. When I emerged to him-asws, he-asws said to me: ‘O Harsama! Haven’t you memorised what I-asws had bequeathed to you with?’ I said, ‘Yes’. He-asws said: ‘Bring my-asws slippers forward, for I-asws know what he has sent you with’.

He (the narrator) said, ‘I brought his-asws slippers forward and he-asws walked to him. When he-asws entered the gathering, Al-Mamoun stood up to him-asws standing and hugged him-asws and kissed between his-asws eyes and seated him-asws to his side upon his throne and faced towards him-asws discussing with him-asws for a long time from the day. Then he said to one of his slaves, ‘Bring the grapes and the pomegranates!’

Harsama said, ‘When I heard that, I had not capacity to be patient, and I saw the trembling to have presented in my body. I disliked for that to be manifested in me, so I returned backwards until I went out and threw myself in a place from the house. When it was near to midday, I sensed my Master-asws to have come out from his presence and return to his-asws house.

Then I saw the commander to have come out from the presence of Al-Mamoun with presenting the doctors and the companions. I said, ‘What is this (going on)?’ It was said to me, ‘An illness has presented to Abu Al-Hassan Ali-asws Bin Musa Al-Reza-asws’. The people were in doubt, and I was upon certainty due to what I had known from it.

He (the narrator) said, ‘When it was from the second third of the night, there was a loud shout, and I heard the noise from the house. I hurried among the ones who hurried, and there we were with Al-Mamoun, uncovered of head, loosened of the trouser, standing by his-asws feet, lamenting and crying.

He (the narrator) said, ‘I paused among the ones who paused, and I was breathing the groans. Then we came to the morning. Al-Mamoun sat for the consoling, then he stood up and walked to the place in which was our Master-asws. He said, ‘Prepare the place for us for I want to wash him-asws. I went near him and said to him what my Master-asws had said, about the washing and the enshrouding and the burial. He said to me, ‘I will not object to that’. Then he said, ‘It’s your concern, O Harsama!’

He (the narrator) said, ‘I did not cease standing until I saw the tent to have been struck its back, and everyone in the house was below me, and I heard the exclamations of Takbeer, and the Oneness, and the Glorifications, clanging of the pots, and the pouring of water, and strong fragrance of perfume I had not smelt more aromatic than it.

He (the narrator) said, ‘Behold, I was looking at Al-Mamoun who was overlooking upon me from one of the high places of his house. He shouted at me, O Harsama! Haven’t you been claiming that the Imam-asws is such, no one can wash him except an Imam-asws like him? So where is his-asws son-asws Mohammed Bin Ali-asws from him-asws, and he-asws is at the city of the Rasool-asws, and this one is at Toos, at Khurasan?’

He (the narrator) said, ‘I said to him, ‘O commander of the faithful! We are saying that the Imam-asws, it is not obligatory that he-asws can only be washed by an Imam-asws like him-asws (saying it out of dissimulation). So, if an exceeder were to exceed and washes the Imam-asws, it would not invalidate the Imamate of the Imam-asws due to the transgression of his washer, nor would it invalidate the Imamate of the Imam-asws who is to be after him-asws, by him-asws having been overcome upon the washing of his-asws father-asws.

And if Abu Al-Hassan Ali-asws Bin Musa Al-Reza-asws had been left at Al-Madinah, his-asws son-asws Mohammed-asws would have washed him-asws apparently, and he-asws will not be washed now as well except and he-asws would be from where he-asws is hidden!’

He (the narrator) said, ‘He was silent from me. Then the tent was raised, and there I was with my Master-asws wrapped up in his-asws shroud. I placed him-asws upon his-asws bier, then we carried him. Al-Mamoun prayed Salat upon him-asws and so did entirety of the ones present. Then we came to the place of the grave. We found them striking with the shovels beside the grave of Haroun in order to be a Qiblah for (his feet facing) his-asws grave, and the shovels were digging from it, not digging even a particle from the soil of the ground.

He said to me, ‘Woe be to you, O Harsama! Don’t you see the ground how it is preventing from digging a grave for him-asws?’ I said, ‘O commander of the faithful! He-asws had instructed me that I should strike one shove in the direction of the grave of commander of the faithful your father Al Rasheed. I will not strike other than it’.

He said, ‘When you have struck, O Harsama, what would happen?’ I said, ‘He-asws informed that it is not allowed for the grave of your father to be a Qiblah for his-asws grave. So, if I were to strike this one shovel, it would get to the pre-dug grace from without a hand having dug it, and a shrine would appear in its midst’.

Al-Mamoun said, ‘Glory be to Allah-azwj! How strange is this talk, and it is not strange from the matter of Abu Al-Hassan-asws, therefore strike, O Harsama, until we see!’

Harsama said, ‘I grabbed the shovel by my hand, and I struck in the direction of the grave of Haroun Al-Rasheed. It immersed to a pre-dug grave, and a shrine appeared in its midst, and the people were looking at it.

He said, ‘Descend him-asws into it, O Harsama!’ I said, ‘O commander of the faithful! My Master-asws had instructed me that I should not descend him-asws into it until white water bursts out from the ground of this grave, and the grave is filled from it, until the water becomes with the surface of the ground. Then a fish would be restless in it, in the length of the grave. When the fish disappears and the water sinks, I should place him-asws at the side of his-asws grave and vacate between him-asws and his-asws tomb’.

He said, ‘Do so, O Harsama, what you have been instructed with!’

Harsama said, ‘I awaited the appearance of water and the fish. It appeared, then disappeared, and the water sank, and the people were looking at it. Then I made the bier to be to the side of his-asws grave and covered his-asws grave with a white cloth, not spreading it. Then I descended with him-asws to his-asws grave without my hands nor the hand of anyone else present.

Al-Mamoun indicated to the people that they should take the soil with their hands and drop it into it. I said, ‘Do not do it, O commander of the faithful!’

He (the narrator) said, ‘He said, ‘Woe be to you! So who will fill it?’ I said, ‘He-asws had instructed me not to drop the soil upon him-asws, and he-asws informed me that the grave would form itself, then it would layer up, and square up upon the surface of the ground’. Al-Mamoun indicated to the people that they should stop.

He (the narrator) said, ‘They let go of whatever soil there was in their hands. Then the grave filled up and layered and squared up upon the surface of the ground. Al-Mamoun left, and I left. And Al-Mamoun summoned me and was alone with him, then he said, ‘I ask you with Allah-azwj, O Harsama! Only tell me about Abu Al-Hassan-asws, may Allah-azwj Sanctify his-asws soul, with what I heard from you!’

I said, ‘I have already informed commander of the faithful with what he-asws had said to me’. He said, ‘By Allah-azwj, only what you can tell me about what he-asws had informed you with other than which you said to me’. I said, ‘O commander of the faithful! What are you asking me about?’ He said, ‘O Harsama! Did he divulge any secret to you about anything other than this?’ I said, ‘Yes’. He said, ‘What is it?’ I said, ‘News of the grapes and the pomegranates’.

He (the narrator) said, ‘Al-Mamoun became changing colours, yellow at times, and red another (time), and black at another (time). Then he extended with unconsciousness upon him. I heard him in his fainting, and he was loud and saying, ‘Doom is for Al-Mamoun from Allah-azwj! Doom is for him from His-azwj Rasool-saww! Doom is for him from Ali-asws! Doom is for Al-Mamoun from (Syeda) Fatima-asws! Doom is for Al-Mamoun from Al-Hassan-asws and Al-Husayn-asws.

Doom is for Al-Mamoun from Ali-asws Bin Al-Husayn-asws! Doom is for him from Mohammed‑asws Bin Ali! Doom is for Al-Mamoun from Ja’far-asws Bin Mohammed-asws! Doom is for him from Musa-asws Bin Ja’far-asws! Doom is for him from Ali-asws Bin Musa Al-Reza-asws! By Allah-azwj! This, it is the manifest loss!’ – saying this word and repeating it. When I saw him to have prolonged that, I turned away from him, and I sat in one of the corners of the house.

He (the narrator) said, ‘He sat up and summoned me. I entered to see him, and he was sitting like the intoxicated one. He said, ‘By Allah-azwj! You are not dearer to me than him-asws, nor entirety of the ones in the earth and the sky. If it ever reaches me that you have repeated after what you have heard, and seen anything, your destruction would be in it!’

He (the narrator) said, ‘I said, ‘O commander of the faithful! If you were to reveal upon anything from that from me, then you are free from my blood’. He said, ‘No, by Allah-azwj! Or you will give me a pact and a covenant upon concealing this, and he left repeating it. He took the pact and covenant upon me and emphasised it upon me.

He (the narrator) said, ‘When I turned around from him, I struck his hand and said, They are concealing from the people, and they cannot conceal from Allah, and He is with them when they are spending the nights in what does not Please Him from the words; and Allah was always Encompassing with what they were doing [4:108].

And for Al-Reza-asws, from the sons was Mohammed-asws the Imam-asws. And he-asws was called ‘Al-Reza’, and ‘Al-Sadiq’, and ‘Al-Sabir’, and ‘Al-Fazil’, and ‘Qurrat Ayn Al-Momineen’, and ‘Gayz Al-Mulhideen’’.[161]

‘The one who was in the presence of Abu Al-Hassan Al-Reza-asws informed me that when the people got up, Abu Al-Hassan Al-Reza-asws said to them: ‘The word is Abu Ja’far-asws, so greet unto him-asws and renew the pact with him-asws’. When the people got up, he-asws turned to me and said: ‘May Allah-azwj have Mercy on Al-Mufazzal. He was content with less than that’’.[162]

Mohammed-asws Ibn Ali-asws (9th Imam): Year 195 to 220 (Imamat 203-220)

‘Ali Al-Reza-asws was blessed by Mohammed-asws Ibn Ali-asws on Friday the 10th of Rajab in the year 195 and he-asws was martyred in 220 on the 30th of Zeeqad at the age of 25 years, two months and eighteen days. The 9th Imam-asws began his-asws Imamate aged 8, in the year 203 AH. He-asws was buried in Baghdad in the graveyard of Quraysh, near the grave of his-asws grandfather-asws, Musa-asws Ibn Ja’far-asws. Mohammed-asws Ibn Ali-asws ‘s Kuniya is Abu Jafar-asws the 2nd.[163]

The 9th Imam and a Prisoner:

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Mohammed, who belonged to Zaydi sect, said this to me: ‘I was in the army camp and I was told that a prisoner was brought from the area of AI-Sham (Syria) tied up.’

‘Ali ibn Khalid (the narrator) has said: I went through the guards until I reached him. I found him to be a man of understanding. I asked him, ‘O you, what is your story and your case?’ He said, ‘I am a man from AI-Sham. I was praying to Allah-azwj at a place in al-Sham called the ‘Ras-al-Hussain-asws[164].’ During my prayer a man came to me and said, ‘Come with me.’ I went with him and I found myself in the Masjid of al-Kufa, He asked me, ‘Do you recognize this Masjid?’ I replied, ‘Yes, I recognize it.’ He (the prisoner) said, ‘He prayed and I prayed with him. Then I found us in the Masjid of the Rasool Allah-saww in Madinah. He offered greetings of peace to the Rasool Allah-saww and I did the same. He prayed and I prayed with him. He offered the special prayer for the Rasool Allah-saww. I was with him and we found ourselves in Makkah. I continued to find myself with him until we finished all the acts to be performed there. Then I found myself with him at the place in which I was praying to Allah in al-Sham, The man left for his own destination.

The next year I was with him again and we did as in the year before. When we finished all of the activities of prayers and he returned me to my place of prayer in Al-Sham and he was about to leave I asked him this: ‘I swear you to the One Who has given all these capabilities to you, tell me, who are you?’ He said, ‘I am Mohammed-asws ibn Ali-asws ibn Musa-asws– the 9th Imam.’ The news spread and it reached Mohammed ibn ‘Abd al-Malik al-Zayyat, He sent his people who arrested me and tied me up in chains and transferred me to Iraq. This is why I am in prison.’

‘I (the narrator) then told him to send a petition for his release to Mohammed ibn ‘Abd AI-Malik. He did so, explaining the whole story, but the answer to his petition said: ‘He should ask the one who took him from al-Sham to al-Kufa, then to al-Madinah then to al-Makkah then back to al-Sham to release him from prison.’

I felt very sad for him and tried to cheer him up and asked him to have patience. Early next morning, when I went to see him, I found people from the army, the chief of the security, the prison guard and a crowd of creatures of Allah-azwj around the area. I asked, ‘What is the matter?’ They said, ‘The prisoner from Al-Sham has disappeared and no one knows if the earth has swallowed him up or if birds have snatched him away.’[165]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Once he-asws (Abu Ja’far Mohammed-asws ibn Ali Al-Reza-asws) sat down and said, ‘O Ali, Allah-azwj’s Presentation of Proofs in support of the ‘Imamat[166] is the same as those in support of the prophet-hood of a Prophet-saww. Allah-azwj has Said, ‘ … we gave knowledge and wisdom to John during his childhood.’ (19: 12) ‘ … When he attained maturity, Allah-azwj Gave him strength, wisdom and knowledge. Thus, do We reward those who do good.’ (12:22)When he grew up to manhood and became forty years old. ‘ (46:15) Allah‑azwj may Give authority to a child and He-azwj may Do so when he is a forty year old man.’[167]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘AI-Ma’mun did all he could to prove that Abu Ja’far ( Mohammed-asws ibn Ali Al-Reza-asws) was only a young man with worldly desires. However, al-Ma’mun could not succeed. When he became frustrated, he gave his daughter in marriage to Abu Ja’far-asws, Mohammed-asws ibn Ali Al-Reza-asws.

For the ceremony, there was a man called Mukhariq who had a voice, musical skills, a guitar and a long beard. AI-Ma’mun called him and he said, ‘O Amir al-Mu’minin, if he is a worldly man I will prove it.’ He sat in front of Abu Ja’far-asws, Mohammed-asws ibn Ali Al-Reza-asws and began to bray, which made all the people of the house gather around him. He began to play his guitar and sing.

He did it for an hour but Abu Ja’far-asws did not pay any attention. Then he-asws raised his head and said, ‘O you, long-bearded one, be pious before Allah-azwj.’

‘The narrator has said that the musical instrument fell off his hand and he could not use his hands ever again after that. When al-Ma’mun asked him about his condition he said, ‘When Abu Ja’far-asws expressed his-asws disappointment I was struck with fear from which I have not been able to relieve myself ever since.[168]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Once a group of Shi’a from the suburbs asked permission to meet Imam Mohammed-asws Ibn Ali-asws.  The Imam-asws granted them permission and they came in his-asws presence. They asked him-asws thirty thousand questions in one meeting (place). The Imam-asws answered them all and at that time he-asws was ten years old.’[169]

The narrator says in a Hadith: ‘Once I went to see Imam Mohammed-asws Ibn Ali-asws. He-asws said ‘O Mohammed, has something happened to the family of al-Faraj (the governor of al-Madinah)?’ I said, ‘Yes, ‘Umar (a member of al-Faraj family) has died.’ The Imam-asws then said, ‘All thanks and praise belongs to Allah-azwj.’ He-asws said it twenty-four times. I then said, ‘My master-asws, had I known it could make you-asws this happy I should have come to you-asws running and barefoot with the news (to congratulate you-asws).’

The Imam-asws said, ‘Do you not know what he, may Allah condemn him, once had said to Mohammed-asws ibn Ali-asws, my-asws father-asws?’ I (the narrator) then said, ‘No, I do not know it.’ The Imam-asws said, ‘He spoke to my-asws father-asws about an issue and then said to him-asws, ‘I think you-asws are drunk.’ My-asws father-asws then said, ‘O Lord-azwj, You-azwj Know that I-asws have been fasting this day, so make him feel the wrath of war and the humiliation of captivity.’ By Allah-azwj, in just a few days his belongings were looted and he was captured. Now he is dead, may Allah-azwj Deprive him of His-azwj Mercy. Allah-azwj has Exacted revenge from him and He-azwj Continues to exact revenge for His-azwj friends-asws from His-azwj enemies.’’[170]

‘Once I prayed with Abu Ja’far-asws in the Masjid of al-Musayyib, He-asws led the prayer with us and for the direction of Makkah he-asws stood up facing straight. The Imam-asws also has said that a berry tree that was in the Masjid had dried up and had no leaves. The Imam-asws asked for water and prepared himself-asws under that tree for prayer. The berry tree came alive with leaves and fruits in that year.’[171]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Imam Al-Reza-asws (8th Imam-asws) passed away and owed me four thousand Dirhams. I said to myself, ‘My money is lost.’ Mohammed Ibn Ali-asws (9th Imam-asws) sent me a message to meet him-asws the next day and bring with me a balance and weighing stones. I went to see him-asws and he-asws said, ‘(my-asws father-asws) Ali Reza-asws has passed away. Did he-asws owe you four thousand Dirhams?’ I said, ‘Yes, he-asws did.’ The Imam-asws then lifted up his-asws prayer rug on which he-asws was sitting and there were the Dinars that he-asws gave to me.’’ (The balance and weighing stones were to weigh the money.)[172]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Mohammed-asws Ibn Ali-asws was martyred at the age of 25 years, three months and twelve days. The Imam-asws left this world on a Tuesday on the sixth of Zil-Hajj in A.H. 220. Our 9th Imam-asws lived nineteen years less twenty five days after his father.’[173]

Imam Mohammed-asws Al-Taqi-asws‘s martyrdom : 220

After Ma’mun-la’s death, Mutasim Billa-la, within the Abbasid family, took over the reins of government in the month of Shaban.  As soon as coming to power, Mutasim-la started planning to poison Imam Taqi-asws, following the footsteps of his predecessors.  He secretly convinced umul fazal-la, who was Ma’mun’s daughter (an Abbasid), to poison Imam Taqi-asws.  One day she presented poisoned grapes to Imam-asws and insisted Imam-asws to eat at least some.  When Imam-asws had eaten those grapes, she realised the consequences and started crying. Imam-asws asked her: ‘Why are you crying now? God-azwj will never forgive you and you will never escape His-azwj wrath.  You would soon see its signs through such a bad syndrome that you will never recover. She suffered from an ulcer, which proved untreatable, she spent all her wealth on its cure but got killed by it in the end.[174]

(It is narrated) in Al-manaqib Ibn Shaher Ashub that (Imam) Mohammed-asws Ibn Ali-asws’s Zahoor is as per Ibn Ayyash on Friday on the 10th of Rajab, in 195 A.H. He-asws was martyred through poisoning on the last day of Zeeqad (30th of Zeeqad) on Saturday 220 A.H. and was buried in the tombs of the Quraysh.[175]

Burial of Imam Mohammed al-Jawad-asws

Imam Mohammed Taqi-asws was buried by the side of his-asws grandfather Imam Musa ibn Ja’far-asws. Their burial place is called Kazmain, as both Imam-asws’s patience and endurance was so impressive for Muslims of that time that they called it Kazmain, the two Kazims: the enduring ones.

Bequest of the 9th Imam-asws: Year 220

‘Ahmad Bin Abu Khalid, a slave of Abu Ja’far-asws Mohammed-asws Taqi Bin Ali-asws Bin Musa-asws Bin Ja’far-asws Bin Mohammed-asws Bin Ali-asws Bin Al-Husayn-asws Bin Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws testifies, ‘I hereby testify that he-asws bequeathed to Ali-asws his-asws son-asws with himself-asws and his-asws sisters, and made the matter of Musa, when he reaches adulthood, to him-asws.

And he-asws made Abdullah Bin Al-Musawir to him on that day to be custodian upon his-asws legacy from the properties, and wealth, and the expenditure monies, and the slaves, and other than that, until Ali-asws Bin Mohammed-asws reaches adulthood. Abdullah Bin Al-Musawir, on that day, came to be standing with the matter of his-asws own self, and his-asws sisters, and the matter of Musa came to be with him, standing for himself after the two of them, upon the stipulation of their father-asws regarding his-asws charities which he-asws gave with, and that is the day of Sunday the third night of Zil Hijjah, the year two hundred and twenty.

And Ahmad Bin Abu Khalid wrote his testimony by his own handwriting it was witnessed by Al-Hassan Bin Mohammed Bin Abdullah Bin Al-Hassan Bin Ali-asws Bin Al-Husayn-asws Bin Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws, and he is Al-Jawwany, upon the like of the testimony of Ahmad Bin Abu Khalid in the beginning of this letter, and he wrote his testimony by his own hand, Nasr the servant testified and wrote his testimony by his own hand’’.[176]

Ali-asws Ibn Mohammed-asws (10th Imam): Year 212 to 254 (Imamat 220-254)

Imam Ali-asws Ibn Mohammed-asws was blessed to his-asws parents-asws on the 15th of Zil-Hajj in the year 212/214. Ali-asws Ibn Mohammed-asws was poisoned by Al-Mutawakkil (Abbassid ruler) on 3rd of Rajab in the year 254 A.H. He-asws lived for forty-one years and six months. The Imam-asws was buried in his-asws house, the name of the Imam-asws’s mother was Syeda Samana-asws.’ [177] [178][179]. The Kuniya of Ali-asws Ibn Mohammed-asws is Abu Al-Hassan-asws (Thani).

The narrator says in a Hadith: ‘Once I went to see Imam Ali-asws ibn Mohammed-asws (10th Imam) and I said, ‘May Allah-azwj Keep my soul in service for your-asws cause, they (rulers) wanted to extinguish your-asws light by all means and be unjust to you-asws. This is why they have placed you-asws in this disgraceful place (a place suitable) for the homeless.’

The Imam-asws said, ‘O ibn Sa’id, look here. He-asws pointed out with his-asws hand and said, ‘Look there.’ When I looked, I saw gardens. I saw very delightful gardens. There, lived lovely boys and girls as if they were well-protected and secure pearls. There, lived birds and beautiful deer. It had fountains and rivers that poured out and gushed forth. My sight was bewildered and my eyes turned dull. The Imam-asws then said, ‘Wherever we-asws may live, these are for us-asws. We-asws are not in the lodging for the homeless.’[180]

The narrator says in a Hadith: ‘Once I bought a large number of sheep for Imam Ali-asws ibn Mohammed-asws.  The Imam-asws called and admitted me into the barn area of his-asws house into a vast location that I could not recognise. The Imam-asws ordered me to distribute the sheep among certain people including Abu Jafar, his son and his mother and others. Thereafter, I requested permission to leave for Baghdad to see my father. It was the day of Tarwiya (eighth of the month of Zil-Haj). The Imam-asws wrote to me, ‘Stay with us tomorrow and thereafter leave.’ I stayed that day and then it was the day of ‘Arafah (ninth of Zil-haj) but I stayed with them that day as well as the tenth night in the balcony of the Imam-asws‘s house. At dawn the Imam-asws came to me and said, ‘O Ishaq, wake up.’ I then got up. I then opened my eyes and found myself at my own door in Baghdad. I went inside and met my father among my people and told them that I spent the day of ‘Arafah (ninth of Zil-Haj) in the army camp (Samarra) and for Eid (tenth of Zil-Haj) I am in Baghdad.’[181]

The narrator says in a Hadith: ‘AI-Mutawakkil became so seriously ill because of a boil that he was about to die and no one had the courage to touch him and operate on him. His mother vowed to send a large sum of money to Imam Ali-asws Ibn Mohammed-asws from her own property if her son recovered. Fath ibn Khaqan had advised him (AI-Mutawakkil) to ask the Imam-asws about it saying, ‘He-asws might know something that could help relieve you.’ He (Al-Mutawakkil) sent the message to the Imam-asws and explained his illness.

The messenger returned with a message that said, ‘Warm up oil residue from sheep mixed with extracts from roses and place it on the boil.’ When the messenger explained it to them they laughed at his-asws words. However, al-Fath said, ‘He-asws, by Allah-azwj, knows best about what he-asws has said.’ They brought the oil and prepared it as explained and placed it on the boil.

After this, the patient fell asleep, his pain calmed down and he began to recover. His mother was given the glad news of his recovery. She sent ten thousand Dinars to him-asws (Abu al-Hassan-asws) marked with her own insignia. Once he had fully recovered from his illness, Al-Mutawakkil was told by AI-Bat Al-Alawi (who was acting as a spy) that ‘large sums of money and weapons had been delivered to him-asws (Abu Al-Hassan-asws),

Al-Mutawakkil ordered Saed, the police chief, to search the Imam-asws’s house during the night and confiscate any money and weapons found. Ibrahim ibn Mohammed has said, ‘Saed, the chief of police, told me that: “when I went to the Imam-asws’s house during the night I had a ladder to climb over the wall. When I climbed on the roof and then climbed down a few steps in the dark I did not know how to reach the house.

Abu Al-Hassan-asws called me, ‘O Saed, hold on until they bring you candles. In a little while they brought me a candle, I climbed down and found him-asws with a woollen gown on him-asws and woollen cap. In front of him-asws there was a prayer rug with a mat on it and I had no doubt that he-asws was praying. He-asws said to me, ‘The rooms are over there.’ I then searched them but did not find anything except for the bag of money that was sealed with the insignia of the mother of al-Mutawakkil on it and another sealed bag of money. He-asws said to me, ‘There is the prayer rug.’ I lifted it up and there was a sword underneath in a sheath. I took them to Al-Mutawakkil. When he saw the insignia of his mother on it he called her for inquiry and she came to him. Private servants informed me that she said to him, ‘When you were very ill, I had vowed out of frustration that if you recovered I would pay the Imam-asws ten thousand Dinars from my own properties. I paid him-asws and this is my own seal.’

He opened the other bag and there were four hundred Dinars in it.  Al-Mutawakkil added another bag of money to it and asked me to deliver them to Abu Al-Hassan-asws. I returned the sword and the bags of money to him saying, ‘My master-asws, (I wish you-asws knew) how much this assignment has depressed me.’ The Imam-asws said, ‘The unjust ones will find out very soon the destination in which they will end up.’’[182]

The narrator says in a Hadith: ‘Mohammed ibn al-Faraj told me that Abu al-Hassan-asws (our 10th Imam-asws) had written to him that: ‘O Mohammed, organize your affairs and be careful.’ He (Mohammed ibn Al-Faraj) said, ‘I began to organize my affairs and I did not know what the Imam-asws meant until the police came to me and took me out of Egypt as a captive. All of my belongings were confiscated and I remained in prison for eight years. In the prison I received a letter from the Imam-asws that said, ‘O Mohammed, do not reside in the western location.’ I read the letter and said to myself, ‘The Imam-asws has told me this whilst I am still in prison. This is strange.’ Shortly afterwards, I was released, thanks to Allah-azwj.

‘The narrator has said that Mohammed ibn al-Faraj wrote to him-asws about his properties. The Imam-asws wrote to him (Mohammed ibn al-Faraj) in response, ‘Your properties will soon be returned to you and even if they are not returned to you it will not harm you.’ When Mohammed al-Faraj left for the army camp (Samarra) an order was issued to release his properties but he (Mohammed ibn al-Faraj) died before receiving them.[183]

The narrator says in a Hadith: ‘Zayd ibn Ali has said, ‘I became ill and a doctor came to see me at night. He prescribed a medicine for me to be taken at night for so and so many days. I could not find the medicine that night. The physician was still there when Nasr (the servant of Imam-asws) came in with a bottle containing the medicine that the physician had prescribed for me and said, ‘Abu Al-Hassan-asws has sent you the ‘Salam’ (greeting of peace) and has asked you to take this medicine for so and so many days.’ I took the medicine and recovered from my illness.[184]

Bequest of the 10th Imam-asws (year 254)

‘I said to Abu Al-Hassan-asws (10th Imam) ‘If death happens, and I seek Refuge with Allah-azwj, then to whom?’ He-asws said: ‘My-asws pact is to the eldest of my-asws sons-asws’ – meaning Al-Hassan-asws’’.[185]

‘Abu Al-Hassan-asws wrote: ‘My-asws son Mohammed-asws (Al-Hassan-asws) is with the most correct instinct, from the Progeny-asws of Mohammed-saww, and their most trustworthy in argument, and he-asws is the eldest of my-asws sons, and he-asws is the replacement, and to him-asws the clear Imamate and its rulings. So, whatever you had been asking of, asking him-asws about it, and in his-asws possession is whatever you are needy to’’.[186]

Abu Al-Hassan-asws bequeathed to his-asws son-asws Al-Hassan-asws four months before he-asws passed away, and he-asws indicated to him-asws being with the command from after him-asws, made me a witness upon that, and a group from the friends’’.[187]

Al-Hassan-asws Ibn Ali Al-Naqi-asws (11th Imam): Year 232 to 260 (Imamat 232-260)

‘Ali Ibn Al-Naqi-asws was blessed with Al-Hassan on the 10th of the month of Rabi’ul Thani in 232 A.H. and the Shahadat of (Imam Hassan-asws Ibn Ali-asws) was on the 8th of Rabi’ul Awwal’ 260.[188][189]. Imam Al-Hassan Al-Askari-asws Ibn Ali Al-Naqi-asws‘s Kuniya is Abu Mohammed.

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘One day I was standing next to my father (as an assistant or guard) and it was the day of his meeting people. His guards came and said; ‘Abu Mohammed‑asws ibn Al-Reza-asws is at the door.’ He said loudly, ‘Allow him-asws to come in.’ I was surprised at how boldly they announced his-asws presence, as (usually) only a Caliph, crown Caliph or one with the command of the Sultan was addressed in such a way.

A man-asws with a fair complexion came in. His-asws height was good and his-asws face looked handsome, physically very good and young. He-asws looked majestic and respectful. When my father looked at him-asws he stood up and walked toward him-asws several steps. I had not seen him doing this to a person from the clan of Banu Hashim and the officers. (After some time) He (the Imam-asws) stood up and my father also stood up and embraced him-asws and he-asws left. I asked the guards of my father and his servants, ‘Woe is you, who was the man-asws whom you addressed by his-asws Kunya before my father and my father treated him-asws as he did?’ They said, ‘This ‘Alawid man-asws is called Al-Hassan-asws Ibn Ali-asws known as Ibn Al-Reza-asws.

At night, I asked my father, who was the man-asws you showed such respect? He said, ‘My son, he was the Imam-asws (Leadership with Divine Authority) of the Al-Rafida (those who refuse to accept the leadership of people other than Ali-asws Ibn Abu Talib-asws and his-asws infallible descendants-asws).

He-asws is Al-Hassan-asws Ibn Ali-asws.’ He remained quiet for a while and then said, ‘My son if the Imamat (leadership) would be removed from the Abbassid Caliphs no one from the clan of Banu Hashim[190] could deserve to become the Imam-asws except this man-asws. He-asws deserves it because of his-asws distinctions, piety, guidance, safety (from mistakes), his-asws chastity, his-asws worship, his-asws beautiful moral characteristics and perfection. Had you had a chance to see his-asws father you would have seen a man-asws of great intelligence, nobility and excellence.’ This made me feel anxious and angry as I thought my father’s behaviour towards him-asws and his words for him-asws were excessive.

‘Thereafter, there was nothing more important to me than to ask more about him-asws and to investigate his-asws affairs. I asked members of Hashemite clan or the guards, the clerks, the judges, the scholars of the law and other people about him-asws  and always found him-asws being glorified, mentioned with greatness and a high position. I would hear very beautiful words about him-asws and see him-asws given preference over all members of Hashemite clan and their elders. A feeling of greatness for him-asws increased in my heart because I did not find anyone of his-asws friends or foe that did not speak well of him-asws and praise him-asws.[191]

The Generosity of the 11th Imam-asws:

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘We were under pressure and constraint. My father said, ‘We should go to Abu Mohammed-asws for help. People describe him-asws as very generous and considerate.’ I asked, ‘Do you know him-asws?’ He said, ‘No, I do not know him-asws and I have not even seen him-asws as yet.’

We decided to go and meet him-asws. My father said on the way, ‘I hope he-asws will grant us five hundred Dirhams: two hundred for clothes, two hundred to pay the debts and one hundred for expenses. We need this amount urgently.’ I then said to myself, ‘I hope he-asws will grant me three hundred Dirhams, one hundred to buy a donkey, one hundred for expenses and one hundred for clothes and then I will go to the mountains.’

‘The narrator has said that when we arrived at the door a slave came out and said, ‘Ali ibn Ibrahim and his son Mohammed, please come inside.’ When we were in his the Imam-asws’s presence we offered ‘Salam (the greetings of peace). The Imam-asws said to my father. ‘O Ali, what held you back from coming to us-asws until now?’ He said, ‘My master-asws, I felt shy to come to you-asws in this condition.’ When we left him-asws his-asws slave came to us and gave a bag of money to my father saying, ‘This is five hundred Dirhams. Two hundred for clothes, two hundred to pay debts and one hundred for expenses.’ He gave me a bag and said, ‘This is three hundred Dirhams, one hundred for the donkey, one hundred for clothes and one hundred for expenses. Do not go to the mountains. Go to Sawra.’ He then went to Sawra’ and married a woman and now his income from properties is a thousand Dinar.

Despite this he belongs to the waqifi[192] sect in matters of beliefs. Mohammed ibn Ibrahim has said that I said to him, ‘Woe is you! What more clear proof do you want to believe in him-asws as your Imam?’ He said, ‘This (belief in Waqifi sect) is a habit that has been with us (and it does not go away).[193]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘I requested Imam Hassan Askari-asws for something that I needed. The Imam-asws scratched the earth with his-asws whip. I (the narrator) think he-asws then covered it with a handkerchief and then took out five hundred Dinars. The Imam-asws then said, ‘O Abu Hashim this is for you.’[194]

Ishaq has said that Abu Hashim Al-Ja’fari has said the following: ‘Once I complained to Abu Mohammed-asws about the constraining cell of the prison and the weight of the shackles on me. He-asws wrote back in reply to me, ‘Today you will pray your noontime prayer in your own home.’ I was released that day and prayed the noontime prayer in my own home as he-asws had said. I was under financial constraints and I decided to ask him-asws for a certain amount of Dinars in writing but I felt shy. When I was going to my home he-asws had sent me a hundred Dinars and had written to me this: ‘If you need anything do not feel shy or embarrassed. Ask and you will find it as you wanted, by the will of Allah-azwj.[195]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘I had heard many times that Abu Mohammed-asws spoke to each of his-asws Roman, Turkish and Saqaliba (European) slaves in their own languages. It was astonishing to me and I would think that the Imam-asws was native of al-Madinah and had not been exposed to anyone until after Abu al-Hassan-asws had passed away and no one had seen him-asws (learning these languages). How it is that he-asws speaks such languages? I was talking to myself when the Imam-asws came to me and said, ‘Allah-azwj Grants distinction to the Imams-asws over the other creatures in all matters. He-azwj Gives them distinction in the matters of languages, knowledge of the genealogical issues, of the duration of lives and events. Without such distinctions there will be no difference between the Imams-asws and others.’’[196]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Two issues would tumble in my chest which made me write to Abu Mohammed-asws, I wrote about al-Qa’im-asws[197]. ‘When he-ajfj will rise, by what means will he-ajfj judge among the people and where will be his-ajfj court house?’ I also wanted to ask him-asws about a fever but I had forgotten to mention it in writing. The answer came. ‘You had asked about al-Qa‘im-asws. When he-ajfj will rise he-ajfj will judge among people through his-ajfj own knowledge just the way (Prophet) David-as would judge. He-ajfj will not call any witness to testify. You also wanted to ask about alternating fever but you forgot to do so. Write this on a sheet (of material), ‘We said to the fire, be cool and peaceful (with Abraham).’ (21 :69). The narrator has said that we did just as the Imam-asws had said and the suffering person was cured.[198]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Once I wrote to Abu Mohammed-asws requesting him-asws to pray for me because of the pain that I suffered in my eyes. One of my eyes had gone and the other was about to go. The Imam-asws wrote back to me in reply, ‘Allah-azwj has Kept your eye for you.’ My painful eye then recovered. The Imam-asws had signed at the end with these words, ‘May Allah-azwj Grant you good rewards and best recompense (as a condolence).’ I felt sad but I did not know who I have lost from my family. After a few days I received information of the death of my son, Tayyab. I then realized what his-asws condolences to me were for.’[199]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘One day I went to see Abu Mohammed-asws and I wanted him-asws to give me a certain amount of silver so I could make a ring out of it and keep it for blessing. I sat down but forgot to ask what I had come for. When I was leaving and said farewell to the Imam-asws he-asws cast a ring to me and said, ‘You wanted silver and we could give you a ring. You profited the gems and the cost of the goldsmith works.  May Allah-azwj Grant you blessings, O Abu Hashim.’ I then said, ‘I testify that you-asws are the Wali[200] of Allah-azwj, and my Imam-asws through my obedience to whom I follow the religion of Allah-azwj.’ He-asws then said, ‘May Allah-azwj Grant you forgiveness, O Abu Hashim.’’[201]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Abu Mohammed-asws was placed under the supervision of a zookeeper who caused constraints and suffering to the Imam-asws. He (the zookeeper) has said that his wife told him, ‘Woe is you, be pious before Allah-azwj. Do you not know who is in your house?’ She then explained to him the good manners of the Imam-asws and said, ‘I am afraid for you because he-asws is the Imam-asws.’ He then said, ‘I can throw him-asws to the beasts.’ He then did, and the Imam-asws was seen standing among them for prayer as the beasts circled around him-asws.[202]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Once, I went to see Abu Mohammed-asws and asked him-asws to write for me few lines so that whenever I see his-asws handwriting I can recognise it. The Imam-asws said, ‘Yes,’ and then said, ‘O Ahmad the writing with a fine pen and with thick pen will look different to you. Do not have doubts! The Imam-asws then asked for a pen and inkpot and began writing. He-asws made the pen to have ink from the bottom of the inkpot. I thought to myself when he-asws was writing, ‘I will request him-asws to gift me the pen with which he-asws is writing.’ When he-asws finished writing he-asws turned to me and began speaking while he-asws was wiping the pen with the handkerchief of the inkpot for a while and then said, ‘Here, Ahmad it is for you.’ The Imam-asws gave it to me. I then said, ‘May Allah-azwj Keep my soul in service for your-asws cause, I feel sad about something that is in my soul. I wanted to ask your‑asws father-asws about it but I did not have the chance.’

He-asws asked, ‘What is it, O Ahmad?’ I said, ‘My master-asws, it is narrated to us from your holy ancestors-asws that the Prophets-as sleep on their backs, the true believers sleep on their right side, the hypocrites sleep on their left side and Satans sleep on their belly.’

He-asws said, ‘That is how it is.’ I then said, ‘My master-asws I try to sleep on my right side but I cannot do so.’ He-asws remained calm for a while and then said, ‘O Ahmad, come close to me.’ I went close to him-asws and he-asws said, ‘Place your hand under your clothes.’ I did so. He-asws then took his-asws hand and placed it under my clothes. He-asws used his-asws right hand to wipe my left side and his-asws left hand to wipe my right side three times. Ahmad has said that ever since I have not been able to sleep on my left side:’[203]

Shahadat of 11th Imam-asws: Year 260

Ahmed Bin Ishaq narrates that when he heard of the Shahadat of the 10th Imam-asws he went to Samarra and asked for the whereabouts of the 11th Imam-asws. Ahmed was told that Mu’tazz Billahl.a had imprisoned Imam-asws. Ahmed says, after bribing the guards, he was able to visit Imam-asws one night. He described the prison as a tunnel under the Khalifa’s home where there was no space to stretch one’s legs or to be able to stand. Ahmed says he cried when he saw Imam-asws’s condition. Food was only one glass of water and a piece of dry bread a day. After this, in the six years of the Imam-asws‘s Imamate several attempts were made by the Abbasidl.a to extinguish the Light of the Imamate.  On the 1st of Rabi-ul Awwal 260 A.H. Mo’tamadl.a arranged for Imam-asws to be poisoned in prison and then sent him-asws home. Imam-asws was in great pain and difficulty for eight days. On the 8th of Rabi-ul Awwal he-asws asked his-asws son-ajfj, the 12th Imam-ajfj, to bring him-asws some water and then leave him-asws. Imam-asws left for the better world on that day and was given ‘Ghusl & Kafan’ by Imam-asws‘s son-ajfj, the 12th Imam-ajfj.  The other important responsibility of Imam Hassan Askari-asws, had been to prepare Shias for the ‘Minor Occultation’ (Ghaibat-e-Sughra) of his-asws son-asjfj, Imam Mehdi-ajfj which was met through appointing his-ajfj representatives who would receive written instructions from the 12th Imam-ajfj and communicate with the followers of Ahlul Bayt-asws, an environment they would face during the Minor Occultation which immediately took place after the martyrdom of Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws.[204]

Bequest of the 11th Imam-asws and Imamat of the 12th Imam-ajfj : Year 260

‘It is narrated to us by the one who was present at the death of Al-Hassan-asws Bin Ali-asws Bin Mohammed Al-Askari-asws and his-asws burial, from the one who had not paused at the count of their-asws numbers, nor exceeded upon their-asws like, (a narrator who did not) collude with the lies, and afterwards.

We were present in Shaban in the year two hundred and seventy-eight (278), and that was eighteen years or more after the passing away of Abu Mohammed Al-Hassan-asws Bin Ali Al-Askari-asws, in a gathering of Ahmad Bin Ubeydullah Bin Khaqan, and he was an office bearer of the sultan on that day upon the taxation and the estates in the town of Qum, and he was from the most hostile of the creatures of Allah-azwj and there severest of enmity towards them‑asws.

The discussion flowed about the ones from the progeny of Abu Talib-as at Surmanray, and their doctrines, and their righteousness, and their worth in the presence of the Sultan. Ahmad Bin Ubeydullah said, ‘I have neither seen nor known of any man from the Alawites at Surmanray being like Al-Hassan-asws Bin Ali-asws Bin Mohammed-asws Bin Al-Reza-asws, nor have I heard of him (of any man to be like him-asws), in his-asws guidance, and his-asws silence, and his-asws chastity, and his-asws nobility, and his-asws benevolence in the presence of his-asws family members and the Sultan and entirety of the clan of Hashim-as, and their advancing him-asws upon ones with seniority from them, and like that the leaders, and the ministers, and the scribes, and the common people’.

And I was standing one day by the head of my father, and it was a day of his gathering to the people, when his guards entered to see him. They said to him, ‘The son-asws of Al-Reza-asws is at the door’. He said in a loud voice, ‘Permit for him-asws!’ There entered a brown man-asws of excellent stature, handsome face, good physique, young age. There was majesty and awe for him-asws.

When my father looked at him-asws, he stood up walking some steps towards him-asws, and I had not known him to do this with anyone from the clan of Hashim-asws, nor with the leaders, nor with the prices. When he was near him-asws, he hugged him-asws, and kissed his-asws face and his-asws shoulders, and held his-asws hand, and seated him-asws upon his-asws prayer mat which he had been upon, and he seated to his-asws side facing towards him-asws with his face and went on to speak to him-asws, referring to him-asws by his-asws teknonym, and ransoming (saying, ‘May I be sacrificed for you-asws’), with himself and his fathers.

And I was surprised from what I had seen from him. And then the guards entered, they said, ‘Al-Muwafaq is coming!’ (Brother of caliph Al-Mu’tamid and commander of his army). And Al-Muwaffaq, whenever he came and entered to see my father, his guards and his special leaders would precede him. They would stand between the gathering of my father and between the door of the house in two rows until he would enter and exit.

My father did not cease to face towards him, discussing with him, until he looked at the special servants. On that day he said, ‘Whenever you-asws so desire, you-asws can stand (to go). May Allah-azwj Make me to be sacrificed for you-asws, O Abu Mohammed-asws!’

Then he said to his servants, ‘Take him-asws to be behind the two rows lest the commander sees him-asws!’ – meaning Al-Muwaffaq, and my father stood up and hugged him-asws and kissed his-asws face and went.

I said to the guards and his servants, ‘Woe be unto you all! Who is this one-asws whom my father has done this with him-asws?’ They said, ‘He-asws is a man from the Alawites call Al-Hassan-asws Bin Ali-asws, known as ‘Son-asws of Al-Reza-asws’’. I was increasingly surprised and in that day of mine, I did not cease to be worried, thinking regarding his-asws matter and the matter of my father, and what I had seen from him, until it was the night.

And it was his norm that he would pray the evening Salat, then he would sit and look into what he needs from the matters and what he should be raising to the Sultan. When he considered and was seated, I came and sat in front of him. He said, ‘O Ahmad! Is there any request for you?’ I said, ‘Yes, O father! If you allow, I shall ask you about it’. He said, ‘I am permitted for you, O my son, so say whatever you like!’

I said, ‘O father! Who is the man-asws whom I saw you at lunchtime doing with him-asws what you did, from the revering, and the honouring, and the respecting, and ransoming him-asws with yourself and your fathers?’ He said, ‘O my son! That is the son-asws of Al-Reza-asws. That is an Imam-asws of the Rafizis (Shias)’.

He was silent for a while (then) he said, ‘O my son! If the caliphate were to decline from the Abbasid caliphs, no one from the clan of Hashim-as would be more rightful for it apart from this one-asws, for this-asws one deserves it due to his-asws merits, and his-asws chastity, and his-asws guidance, and his-asws self-maintenance, and his-asws ascetism, and his-asws worship, and his-asws beautiful mannerisms, and his-asws righteousness, and had you seen his-asws father-asws, you would have seen a man-asws, majestic, noble, good, meritorious’.

I increased in worries and thinking and rage against my father from what I had heard from him regarding him-asws, and there did not happen to be any concern for me after that except the asking around about his-asws news and the searching about his-asws affairs.

I did not ask about him-asws, anyone from the clan of Hashim-as, and the leaders, and the scribes, and the judged, and the jurists, and rest of the people, except I found him-asws, in their view, to be in the peak of majesty, and the magnificence, and the lofty position, and the beautiful word, and the forefront over his-asws family and his-asws elders and others, and they were all saying, ‘He-asws is an Imam-asws of the Rafizis (Shias)’.

It magnified his-asws worth in my presence, when I did not see for him-asws, neither a friend nor an enemy except and he was of goodly word regarding him-asws and praised upon him-asws.

One of the people of the gathering, from the Asharites said to him, ‘O Abu Bakr! What is the state of his-asws brother Ja’far?’ He said, ‘And who Ja’far?’ He asked about his news, or associated with him, that Ja’far was being open with the corruption, shameless, drinking the wines (intoxications), least of the men I had seen, and the most violating of the veil by himself, habitually intoxicated, little of chastity regarding himself.

By Allah-azwj! It was being referred to the Sultan and his companions at the time of the expiry of Al-Hassan-asws Bin Ali-asws, what I was surprised from it, and I did not think that it would happen, and that is because when he had sent a message to my father that the son-asws of Reza-asws was ill, he rode at that time to the house of the caliphate. Then he returned hastily, and with him were five persons from the servants of commander, from his trusted ones and his special ones. From them was Nihreer (the lion-trainer).

And he ordered them with staying by the house of Al-Hassan-asws Bin Ali-asws and know his-asws news and his-asws situation, and he sent for a number of physicians, and he ordered them with the coming and going to him-asws and attending him-asws in morning and evening. When it was two days after that, someone came to him informing him that he-asws had weakened. He rode until he was early morning to him-asws.

Then he ordered the physicians with staying with him-asws, and he sent for the chief justice and presented him in his gathering and ordered him to choose ten from his companions, from the ones he trusted with regarding his religion and his loyalty, and his devoutness, and presented them. He dispatched them to the house of Al-Hassan-asws and ordered them with staying with him-asws night and day. They did not cease to be over there until he-asws expired on days having passed from the month of Rabbi Al-Awwal of the year two hundred and sixty (260).

Surmanray became one clamour, ‘The son-asws of Al-Reza-asws has died!’ And the Sultan sent to his-asws house someone who searched it, and searched its rooms, and sealed upon the entirety of whatever was in it, and they search for the traces of his-asws son-ajtf, and they came with the women to know their pregnancies. They entered to his-asws slave girls. They looked at them. One of them mentioned, ‘Over there is a slave girl having a pregnancy with her’.

He ordered with her, and she was made to be in a room, and Nihreer the servant and his companions were allocated with her, and the women were with them. Then they took to preparing him-asws, and the markets were closed down, and my father and the clan of Hashim-asws and the leader and the scribes, and rest of the people rode to his-asws funeral. On that day, Surmanray became resembling with the (Day of) Qiyamah.

When they were free from preparing him-asws, the Sultan sent a message to Isa Bin Al-Mutawakkil and ordered him with praying the Salat upon him-asws. When the deceased was placed for the Salat, Abu Isa went near it. He uncovered from his-asws face and displayed it to the clan of Hashim-saww, from the Alawites, and the Abbasids, and the leaders, and the scribes, and the judges, and the jurists, and the regulators.

And he said, ‘This is Al-Hassan-asws Bin Ali-asws Bin Mohammed-asws Bin Al-Reza-asws! He-asws has died. His-asws nose perished upon his-asws bed. He-asws is attended by the ones who serve commander of the faithful, and his trusted ones, so and so, and so and so, and from the physicians, so and so, and so and so, and from the judges, so and so, and so and so!’

Then he covered his-asws face and stood up to pray Salat upon him-asws, and he exclaimed five Takbeers upon him, and ordered with carrying him-asws, and he-asws was carried from the middle of his-asws house and was buried in the room in which his-asws father-asws had been buried.

When he-asws was buried and the people dispersed, the Sultan and his companions became restless in search for his-asws son-asws, and frequented the searching in the dwellings, and the houses, and they paused from distributing his-asws inheritance; and the ones who had been allocated did not cease with guarding the slave girl which they had assumed was pregnant, staying with her for two years and more, until it became clear to them, the falsity of the pregnancy.

So, his-asws inheritance was divided between his-asws mother-as, and his-asws brother Ja’far (the liar), and his-asws mother fulfilled his-asws bequest. And that was affirmed in the presence of the judge and the Sultan, based upon that, he searched for the trace of his-asws son-asws.

After the distribution of the inheritance, Ja’far came to my father and said to him, ‘Make to be for me the rank of my father-asws and my brother-asws, and I shall be sending to you twenty thousand Dinars every year’.

My father rebuked him and made him hear (harsh talk), and said to him, ‘O idiot! The Sultan, may Allah-azwj Cherish him, has bared his sword and his whip regarding those who claim that your father-asws and your brother-asws were Imams-asws, in order to retract them from that. But he was not able upon him-asws, and it did not work out for him to turn them away from this word regarding them-asws both, and he struggled to remove your father-asws and your brother-asws from that rank, but that did not work out for him.

So, if you were to be in the presence of the Shias of your father-asws and your brother-asws, then there would be no need for you to any Sultan to rank you with their-asws ranks, nor other than a Sultan, and if you do not happen to be in their view of this status, you will not achieve (anything) with it’.

And he belittled him during that and weakened him, and he instructed to bar him from him. So, he was no longer allowed with entering to see him until my father died, and we went out, and the matter was upon that state, and the Sultan has kept searching for the traces of the son-ajtf of Al-Hassan-asws Bin Ali-asws, until today’’.[205]

M.H.M.D Ibn Hassan-asws (12th Imam): Year 256 today

Al-Hassan Al-Askari Ibn Ali-asws was blessed with ‘Mohammed Ibn Al-Hassan Al-Askari-asws (12th Imam-asws) on 15th of the month of Sha’ban in the year 256 A.H.[206] The Kuniya of the 12th Imam-ajfj is Abul Qasim-asws

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘When Al-Zabayri (who revolted against ruler) was killed – this letter came from Abu Mohammed-asws ‘This is the retribution for those who lie against Allah-azwj when they possess Authority from Him-azwj. He (the Abbassid ruler) thought that he would kill me-asws and I-asws would leave no children behind. Now how has he then experienced the Power of Allah-azwj?’ A child has been awarded (By Allah-azwj), whom he-asws named M.H.M.D, in the year 256 A.H.’’[207]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Once I went to the city of Samara and kept myself at the door of Abu Mohammed-asws (our 11th Imam-asws).  The Imam-asws called me inside without any request from me. When I went inside and offered Salam (greeting of peace), the Imam-asws said to me, ‘How are you, O father of so and so?’ Then the Imam-asws told me, ‘Sit down O so and so.’ The Imam-asws then asked me about a group of men and ladies from my family. The Imam-asws said to me, ‘What brings you here?’ I said, ‘It is my wish to serve you-asws.’

‘The narrator has said that the Imam-asws said, ‘Alright, stay here.’ I then remained in the house with the servants. I would go to the market and make purchases for them. I could go in my Mola-asws’s presence without first requesting permission when Imam-asws was present in the men’s quarters. One day I went to my Mola-asws when he-asws was in the men’s quarters. I heard the sound of movement in the house and he-asws said, ‘Do not move from your place.’ I did not dare to go outside or inside. Then a female servant came out to me, she had something with her which was covered. The Imam-asws called me inside and I went inside. The Imam-asws called the female servant and she came back. The Imam-asws told her to uncover what she had with her. She uncovered the very handsome face of a white baby boy-asws.

And she uncovered his chest. A line of hairs had grown from his neck down to his belly- button, which seemed to be greenish in colour and not totally black. He-asws said, ‘This is your master-asws (Leader with Divine Authority).’ He-asws then ordered her to take the baby-asws inside and after that I could not see him until Abu Mohammed-asws (our 11th Imam-asws) was martyred.[208]

The Introduction of the Al-Qaim-ajfj:

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘The Imam-asws when he-asws was asked about Al-Qa’im-asws, said, ‘We-asws all are Al-Qa’im-asws, the one-asws to rise with Divine Authority under the Command of Allah-azwj one-asws after the other-asws until the time when the owner-asws of the sword will rise. When the owner-asws of the sword will rise he-asws will rise with a Command different from what his-asws predecessors had (which was taqeeya- all Shia Imams-asws observed Taqeeya (dissimulation) but the 12th Imam-asws will not observe Taqeeya but take out the sword).’[209]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Once I asked Abu ‘Abdullah-asws about the meaning of, ‘On the Day when We will call every nation with their Imam (leader) … ‘ (17:71)

‘The Imam-asws then said, ‘It refers to the Imam-asws that is with them and he-asws is Al-Qa‘im‑asws of the people of that time.[210]

The Minor Occultation of 12th Imam-ajfj: Year 260 to 329 (69 years)

Our 12th Imam-asws communicated with his-asws followers through letters, sometimes directly and sometimes through some representatives.  The four representatives are quite famous but there were several of them who would communicate and correspond with the 12th Imam-ajfj during the Minor occultation of the 12 Imam-ajfj.

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘I lived in Baghdad and during one year I requested permission (from the twelfth Imam-asws) to travel out but permission was not granted. I waited for twenty-two days and the caravan had already left for Al-Naharwan (a place in Iraq), then I was granted permission. It was a Wednesday and I was told to leave. I left but I did not have any hope of reaching the caravan. However, when I arrived at al-Naharwan, the caravan was still there. I then had enough time to feed my camels before the caravan left. I journeyed with the caravan and he-ajfj had prayed for my safety. I did not face any difficulties. All praise belongs to Allah‑azwj.’[211]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘A boil had grown on my upper thigh. I spent money on treatment from several physicians but they said that they did not know of medicine for it. I then wrote a letter to him-ajfj (the twelfth Imam-ajfj) requesting him-ajfj to pray. The Imam-ajfj wrote back to me with his-ajfj signature, ‘May Allah-azwj Grant you good health and place you with us-asws in this life and in the life Hereafter.’ The narrator has said that before the coming of the Friday the boil was gone and it became like the palm of my hand (clean and flawless). I then called one of the physicians and showed him the place of the boil and he said, ‘We had no knowledge of any medicine to cure it.[212]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘A boy was born to me. I wrote to him-asws (Al-Mahdi-ajfj) for his‑ajfj permission to give the baby a special bath for the ceremony on the seventh day of his birth. The answer came back and it said, ‘Do not do so.’ The boy died on the seventh or the eighth day. I then wrote to him-asws about the death of the boy. The Imam-ajfj wrote back to me, ‘He will be succeeded by another and another. Let his name be Ahmad and the name for the one after Ahmad will be Ja’far.’ It came to be as he-ajfj had said.

‘The narrator has said, ‘Once I made preparation for the journey to Hajj, said farewell to (my) people and I was about to leave. The message came to me that said, ‘We do not like it but it is up to you.’ I felt depressed and sad and I wrote, ‘I am steadfast to obey your commands and listen to your words except that I feel sad for missing Hajj.’ The Imam-ajfj then had signed (a note to me) that said, ‘Do not be depressed. You will soon perform Hajj by the will of Allah-azwj.’ The next year I wrote to ask his-asws permission and the permission came. I then wrote that I had chosen Mohammed ibn al-’Abbass as a ride sharing partner and that I trusted him for his religion and safety. The message that then came said, ‘Al-Asadi is a good ride sharing partner. If he will come do not choose anyone else besides him.’ Al-Asadi came and I chose him as the ride sharing partner.’[213]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Imam Al-Mahdi-asws (our 12th Imam-ajfj) had sent two servants to Al-Madinah of the Rasool Allah-saww. He had written to Khafif (a person’s name) to go with them towards AI-Madinah. He then left with them and when they reached al-Kufa, one of the two servants had consumed alcohol. Before they left al-Kufa a letter came to them from the Imam-ajfj that said, ‘Send back the servant who has consumed alcohol and remove him from the service.’’[214]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Ali ibn Ziyad al-Saymari wrote a letter to request a ‘Kafan’ (a shroud). He-asws (Al-Mahdi-ajfj), wrote back to him, ‘You will need it in the year eighty.’ He died in the year eighty and the shroud was sent to him a few days before his death.’[215]

Minor Occultation Ends and Grand Occultation starts: Year 329 to today

A letter of Imam-e-Zamana-ajfj came to the last representative announcing the end of the minor occultation and the start of the Major occultation, (saying): ‘O Ali bin Mohammed Samari, Allah-azwj may give His-azwj best reward to your grieving brothers on your death, which will occur within next six days.  Thus, you better start packing up and do not nominate your deputy while making your last will.  Now the Grand occultation will take place and Allah-azwj will not Make me-ajfj reappear until after a long time.  This will not happen until people with stone cold hearts will come and fill the earth with cruelty and tyranny.  And few among my-ajfj Shias, will make claims of meeting with me-ajfj but, whoever claims to see me-ajfj before the aggression of Sufyani (who will be the leader of the enemies of Allah-azwj), he will be a big liar and filthy accuser.[216]

The Time of Re-appearance of Imam-e-Zamana-ajfj:

Our 8th Imam (Ali-asws bin Musa Al-Reza-asws) says: Allah-azwj would, through him-ajfj, purify the earth from every kind of oppression and remove every type of injustice from it. He-ajfj is the one-ajfj about whom (his-ajfj ‘Zahoor’) people would doubt and he-ajfj is the one who would have an occultation (‘Ghaibah’) before his-ajfj reappearance. And when he-ajfj arises, the earth shall be lit-up with his-ajfj brilliance. He-ajfj would establish the scales of Justice among the people so that no one may oppress the other. He-ajfj is the one-ajfj for whom the earth would wrap itself and he-ajfj would not throw a shadow (onto the earth). And he-ajfj is the one-ajfj by whose name the caller would call out from the sky inviting people to the Imam-ajfj which all the people of the earth would be able to hear.

The caller would say: Know that the Proof of Allah-azwj has appeared near the House of Allah-azwj, so follow him-ajfj as truth is with him-ajfj, and that is the meaning of the statement of the Almighty Allah: ‘If We please, We should send down upon them a sign from the heaven so that their necks would remain bowed before it.’(26:4)[217]

Imam Ali-asws Ibn Al-Hussain-asws (our 4th Imam-asws) says: Upon the rising of ‘al-Qaim-ajfj’, Allah-azwj will Award an extraordinary strength to all (Momineen) and remove any weakness from them.[218]

The Story of the Tablet:

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Abu ‘Abdullah-asws (6th Imam-asws) has said: Once, my-asws father-asws said to Jabir Ibn ‘Abd Allah Al-Ansari’, I-asws need your help in a certain issue. When will be convenient for you for us to meet privately so that I-asws can ask you about it?’ He (Jabir) said, ‘Whenever you-asws like it will be alright for me.’ One day when they met each other, he‑asws said, ‘O Jabir, tell me-asws about the tablet that you saw in the hand of my-asws great-great-great grandmother-asws, Syeda Fatima-asws, daughter-asws of the Messenger of Allah-saww. Tell me-asws of what Syeda-asws said to you about the Tablet and the writing on it?’

‘Jabir then said, ‘I ask Allah-azwj to Testify (to the truth of what I experienced that day). Once I went to see your-asws great-great-great grandmother-asws, Syeda Fatima-asws in the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah-saww. I congratulated her-asws on being blessed with al-Hussain-asws and I saw in her-asws hand a green Tablet that I think was made of Emerald (a precious gem). I saw on it white writing that was shining like the colour of sun.

‘I then said to Syeda-asws, ‘May Allah-azwj Keep my soul and the souls of my parents in service for your-asws cause, O daughter-asws of the Rasool Allah-saww what is this Tablet?’ Syeda-asws said, ‘This is a Tablet that Allah-azwj has Given as a gift to His-azwj Messenger-saww. In it there is the name of my-asws father-saww, the name of my-asws husband-asws, the names-asws of my-asws two sons-asws and the names of the executors of the wills of my-asws (special) descendants. My-asws father-saww gave it to me-asws as a gift and glad news.’

‘Jabir then said, ‘Your great-great-great grandmother-asws then gave the Tablet to me. I read it and made a copy of it.’ My-asws father-asws then said, ‘O Jabir can you show that copy (that you made from the Tablet) to me-asws?’ He said, ‘Yes, I can show it to you-asws.’ My-asws father-asws went with him to his house and he brought to light a Tablet of parchment. He-asws then said, ‘O Jabir, look carefully at your writing on the copy of the tablet and see how I-asws write it for you.’ Jabir then kept looking at his handwriting while my-asws father-asws wrote and the writing of my-asws father-asws was exactly letter by letter the same as what Jabir had in his copy.

Jabir then said, ‘I ask Allah-azwj to Testify to the truth of my words that this is what I saw was written on the Tablet: (I say) in the Name of Allah-azwj, the Beneficent, the Merciful. This is a document from Allah-azwj for Mohammed-saww, His-azwj Prophet-saww His-azwj Light, His-azwj Ambassador, His-azwj Hijab (Outwit) and His-azwj Guide (for people). The trusted Spirit has brought it from the Lord-azwj of the worlds, O Mohammed-saww, acknowledge the Greatness of My-azwj Names and pay thanks for My-azwj Bounties. Do not hide My-azwj Favours. I-azwj Am Allah-azwj and no one deserves to be worshipped and obeyed besides Me-azwj.

I-azwj Break down the transgressors and Grant wealth to the oppressed. I-azwj Am the One Who has Established the religion. I-azwj Am Allah-azwj. No one deserves to be worshipped and obeyed besides Me-azwj. Whoever expects to receive any distinction from someone other than Me-azwj or have fear of the justice of someone other than Me-azwj I-azwj will Cause him to suffer a torment the like of which I-azwj will cause no one else of the creatures of the worlds to suffer. Worship only Me-azwj and place your trust only in Me-azwj.

‘I-azwj have not Sent any Prophet-as without, upon the completion of his-as days, appointing the executor of his-as will. I-azwj have Given preference to you-saww over the Prophets-as and I-azwj have given preference to the executor of your-saww will over the executors of the wills (of the other Prophets-as). I-azwj have Granted you-saww honour through your-saww two brave grandsons-asws, Al-Hassan-asws and Al-Hussain-asws.

I-azwj have Made Al-Hassan-asws to be the treasurer of My-azwj knowledge after the completion of the time of his-asws father-asws (Imam Ali-asws).  I-azwj have Made Al-Hussain-asws to be the Keeper of My-azwj Revelation Wahhey (inspiration). I-azwj have Granted him-asws Nobility through martyrdom and Made his-asws end Triumphant. He-asws will be the best of the martyrs and of the highest degree in the rank of the martyrs. I-azwj have Kept My-azwj Perfect Word with him-asws and My-azwj extremely clear Authority and Proof available for him-asws. Through his-asws descendants-asws I-azwj will Give good Rewards to people or cause them to suffer torments (due to their disobedience).

The first of them-asws will be Ali-asws (Ibn al-Husayn), Master of the worshippers, and the beauty of My-azwj Friends of the past. Then will be his-asws son-asws who will be very similar to his-asws grandfather-asws, the praised one-asws, Mohammed Al-Baqir, the one very deeply founded in My knowledge and the source and mine of My-azwj wisdom. (And then will be Ja’far-asws), those who have doubts about Ja’far-asws will soon be destroyed. Whoever rejects him-asws will be like the one who rejects Me-azwj. The true words have already come from Me-azwj that I-azwj will Dignify the position of Ja’far-asws and will Grant him-asws joy and happiness for his-asws followers, supporters and friends.

‘After him-asws Musa-asws will live at the time of a blind, confusing and dark mischief. (He-asws will live among the people) because the system of obedience to Me-azwj does not break down and My-azwj Authority (proof of My-azwj Existence) does not remain obscure. The thirst (for knowledge and guidance) of My-azwj friends will be quenched with sufficient measures. Whoever rejects anyone of them-asws has (in fact) rejected My-azwj favours. Whoever Changes My-azwj Signs and Verses of My-azwj Book has accused Me-azwj with lies.

‘Woe is to those who fabricate lies and reject (the truth) after the completion of the time of Musa-asws, My-azwj servant, My-azwj beloved, My-azwj Chosen one about Ali-asws (Al-Reza), (Ali Al-Reza-asws) who is My-azwj Wali (the one who possesses Divine Authority), My-azwj Supporter, the one-asws on whom I-azwj will Place the task of Prophet-hood (to transmit religion) and examine how he-asws is dealt with (by others). An arrogant devil will murder him-asws. He-asws will be buried in the city built by the virtuous servant (of Allah-azwj) next to the worst of My-azwj creatures. The words of truth have already been established that I-azwj will Grant him-asws joy and happiness with the blessing of his-asws son-asws, Mohammed-asws, his-asws successor and the heir-asws of his-asws knowledge.

He-asws is the source and fountainhead of My-azwj Knowledge, the Right Place for My-azwj Secrets and My-azwj Authority over My-azwj creatures. Whoever believes in him-asws I-azwj will Make paradise his dwelling and will Grant him the ability to intercede for seventy people from his family of whom everyone may have judged to be sent to the Hell-fire.

‘I-azwj will Make the end for his-asws son-asws, Ali-asws, to arrive at salvation. Ali-asws is My-azwj Wali (the one-asws who possesses Divine Authority), My-azwj Supporter, the Testimony in My-azwj creatures and My-azwj Trustee in My-azwj Revelation. From him-asws I-azwj will Make to come out a Preacher-asws to My-azwj Way and a Treasure of My-azwj Knowledge, (his-asws name being) Al-Hassan-asws. I-azwj will Complete it with his-asws son-asws (M.H.M.D.), a blessing for the worlds. One will be able to find in him-asws the perfection of Musa-as (Moses), the beauty of Jesus-as and the patience of Ayyub-as.

My-azwj friends in his-asws time will become weak. Their heads will be sent as gifts like the heads of the Turks and Daylam (people in Turkey and people of a tribe). They will be murdered and burned. They will live in fear, frightened and fearful. The earth will be stained with their blood and wailing and crying will become widespread in their women. (At this time) They-asws will possess My-azwj Authority and through them-asws I-azwj will Remove the blind and dark mischief. Through them I-azwj will Remove uncertainties, sufferings and shackles. These are the ones-asws upon whom the blessings and forgiveness of their Lord-azwj Descend and they-asws are the ones who provide guidance.’’

‘‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Salim has said that Abu Basir said, ‘Even if you hear no other Hadith except this, it will be enough for you. Protect it against everyone except the deserving people.’[219]

How to Recognise a Divine Imam (a leader sent to all living beings by God)?

Allah-azwj has Decided to communicate to human beings and Jinns[220] through the Infallible Prophets-as. Prophets-as were assisted by their successor (Imams) to interpret, elaborate and establish the Divine Commandments, after the demise of a Prophet, to the people as well as the jinns.  However, people and jinns followed the evil powers (Iblis-Satan) and brought forward their own leaders, generations after generations, with the exception of very few sincere ones.  The last Prophet Mohammed-saww Ibn Abd Allah-asws (Rasool Allah), came with the Book (Quran) and left behind two guides – the Book and the twelve Infallible successors.  Most Muslims do not agree with the Infallibility of the Prophets nor Imams-asws, except for the twelve Imami Shias.  Proofs of Infallibility of Prophet-as was given by the 8th Imam (Ali-asws Ibn Musa-asws) in a lengthy discussion with Muslim scholars in the court of Abbasid Caliph (Mamoon Al-Rashid) and is presented elsewhere, i.e., Infallibility of Prophets (as) (hubeali.com), as for the twelve Imam or Caliphs after Rasool Allah-saww, there are many traditions reported and found in both Shia and Sunni Ahadith compilations, see Appendix I.

When general Muslims start counting the twelve Imams one after the other, they shy away upon encountering caliphs like Mauwiya and Yazid, so they take the position that the predicted twelve Caliph of Rasool Allah-saww will not come one after another (in an unbroken chain) but will be completed (randomly) and the last one will be the Mahdi, as again both Sunnis and Shia Ahadith report the coming of Imam Mahdi-ajfj near the end of time.

The break-away sects of Shias, i.e., Six Imamis (Ismailis and Agha Khanis), seven Imamis (Waqafis), do not adhere to the concept of twelve Imams after Rasool Allah-saww, so either they stop at seven Imams[221] or continue with following imams after imams from the descendants of Ismail Ibn Jafar-asws (calling their present imam as hazir imam) and now number of their imams are reaching nearly fifty.  Within the twelve Imamis, there is no except, during the occultation of the 12th Imam-ajfj, some among leaders and mullahs are calling themselves imams, even ascribing themselves as the inheritors of Prophets-as (i.e., Ahl Al-Zikr – 21:7)[222] or as standing-in imam until the time of the reappearance of the 12th Imam-ajfj – the latter ones have recently emerged during the last 40 years or so, prior to that they used to call themselves ‘Naib e Imam’ (deputy of Imam).

An obvious question comes to our minds, how do we recognise a Divine Imam? Are there any characteristics through which an Imam appointed by Allah-azwj can be recognised so that we follow the unchanged religion of Allah-azwj in its pure form and become from the sincere followers?[223].

There are several unique characteristics bestowed upon a Divine Imam-asws by Allah-azwj which can never be demonstrated by others, below we quote extracts of Ahadith only highlighting some of unique features enjoyed by a Divine Imam, complete Ahadith are given in Appendix II.

Hadith 1

وَ يَرَى مِنْ خَلْفِهِ كَمَا يَرَى مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَ لَا يَكُونُ لَهُ ظِلٌّ

And he-asws would see that (which lies) behind him-asws just as he-asws would see from in front of him-asws, and there would not happen to be a shadow for him-asws.

وَ يَكُونُ دُعَاؤُهُ مُسْتَجَاباً حَتَّى إِنَّهُ لَوْ دَعَا عَلَى صَخْرَةٍ لَانْشَقَّتْ بِنِصْفَيْنِ

And his-asws supplications are Answered to the extent that even if he-asws were to supplicate against a rock it would split into two halves,

وَ تَكُونُ عِنْدَهُ صَحِيفَةٌ فِيهَا أَسْمَاءُ شِيعَتِهِمْ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَ صَحِيفَةٌ فِيهَا أَسْمَاءُ أَعْدَائِهِمْ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ

And there would happen to be a manuscript with him-asws having names of their-asws (previous Imams) Shias in it up to the Day of Qiyamah, and a manuscript having names of their-asws (previous Imams) enemies in it up to the Day of Qiyamah; (An extract, see Appendix II)

Hadith 2

الخصال الْعِجْلِيُّ عَنِ ابْنِ زَكَرِيَّا الْقَطَّانِ عَنِ ابْنِ حَبِيبٍ عَنِ ابْنِ بُهْلُولٍ عَنْ أَبِي مُعَاوِيَةَ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ: عَشْرُ خِصَالٍ مِنْ صِفَاتِ الْإِمَامِ الْعِصْمَةُ وَ النُّصُوصُ‏ وَ أَنْ يَكُونَ أَعْلَمَ النَّاسِ وَ أَتْقَاهُمْ لِلَّهِ وَ أَعْلَمَهُمْ بِكِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَ أَنْ يَكُونَ صَاحِبَ الْوَصِيَّةِ الظَّاهِرَةِ وَ يَكُونَ لَهُ الْمُعْجِزُ وَ الدَّلِيلُ وَ تَنَامُ عَيْنُهُ وَ لَا يَنَامُ قَلْبُهُ وَ لَا يَكُونُ لَهُ فَيْ‏ءٌ وَ يَرَى مِنْ خَلْفِهِ كَمَا يَرَى مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ.

(The book) ‘Al Khisaal’ – Al Ijaly, from Ibn Zakariya Al Qattan, from Ibn Habeeb, from Ibn Bahloul, from Abu Muawiya, from Suleyman Bin Mihran,

‘From Abu Abdullah-asws (sixth Imam) says: ‘Ten characteristics are from the attributes of the Imam-asws – The infallibility, and the texts, and he-asws would happen to be the most knowledgeable of the people, and their most fearing of Allah-azwj, and their most knowledgeable with the Book of Allah-azwj, and he-asws would be the owner of the apparent bequest, and there would happen to be for him-asws, the miracles and the evidences, and his-asws eyes would sleep but his-asws heart would not sleep, and there would not happen to be any shadow for him-asws, and he-asws will see that which (lies) behind him-asws just as he-asws sees from in front of him-asws’’.[224]

Hadith 3

The narrator asked the 7th Imam-asws. By what is the Imam-asws recognised?’

وَ يُسْأَلُ فَيُجِيبُ وَ يُسْكَتُ عَنْهُ فَيَبْتَدِئُ وَ يُخْبِرُ النَّاسَ بِمَا فِي غَدٍ وَ يُكَلِّمُ النَّاسَ بِكُلِّ لِسَانٍ

And when he-asws (Divine Imam-asws) is asked, he-asws answers, and if they are silent from him-asws, he-asws initiates and tells the people what will happen tomorrow, and he-asws speaks to the people in every language’.

ثُمَّ قَالَ يَا أَبَا مُحَمَّدٍ إِنَّ الْإِمَامَ لَا يَخْفَى عَلَيْهِ كَلَامُ أَحَدٍ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَ لَا طَيْرٍ وَ لَا بَهِيمَةٍ وَ لَا شَيْ‏ءٍ فِيهِ رُوحٌ بِهَذَا يُعْرَفُ الْإِمَامُ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ فِيهِ هَذِهِ الْخِصَالُ فَلَيْسَ هُوَ بِإِمَامٍ‏.

Then he-asws said: ‘O Abu Mohammed! The Imam-asws is such, no speech is hidden unto him-asws from anyone of the people, nor a bird, nor an animal, nor anything having a soul in it. The Imam-asws is recognised by this, so if there does not happen to be this characteristic in him-asws, then he is not an Imam-asws’’. (An extract, Hadith in Appendix II)[225]

Hadith 4

(the narrator says) ‘I asked Abu Ja’far Al-Baqir-asws (5th Imam-asws) ‘By what is the Imam-asws recognised?’

وَ أَنْ يُسْأَلَ فَيُجِيبَ وَ أَنْ يُسْكَتَ عَنْهُ فَيَبْتَدِئَ وَ يُخْبِرَ النَّاسَ بِمَا يَكُونُ فِي غَدٍ وَ يُكَلِّمَ النَّاسَ بِكُلِّ لِسَانٍ وَ لُغَةٍ.

And he-asws would inform the people with what would be happening tomorrow (future), and he-asws would speak to the people in every tongue and language’’.[226]

Hadith 5

In another Hadith, when asked how to recognise the Imam, 5th Imam-asws replied:

قَالَ بِالْهَدْيِ وَ الْإِطْرَاقِ وَ إِقْرَارِ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ ص لَهُ بِالْفَضْلِ وَ لَا يُسْأَلُ عَنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ إِلَّا بَيَّنَ‏.

He-asws said: ‘By the guidance, and being articulate, and by the approval of the Progeny-asws of Mohammed-saww to him-asws with the merit, and he-asws is not asked about anything unless he-asws clarifies’’.[227]

Hadith 6

Amir Al-Momineen-asws says, while describing the characteristics of a Divine Imam:

وَ كَيْفَ يَفْرِضُ اللَّهُ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ طَاعَةَ مَنْ يُحْجَبُ عَنْهُ مَلَكُوتُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَ الْأَرْضِ

And how can Allah-azwj Obligate upon His-azwj servants, the obedience of one from whom the kingdoms of the skies and the earth are hidden? (An extract, Hadith in Appendix II)[228]

Hadith 7

Rasool Allah-saww, described the Virtues of a Divine Imam to a woman:

فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص إِنَّ لِي وَصِيّاً وَاحِداً فِي حَيَاتِي وَ بَعْدَ وَفَاتِي قُلْتُ لَهُ مَنْ هُوَ فَقَالَ ايتِينِي بِحَصَاةٍ فَرَفَعْتُ إِلَيْهِ حَصَاةً مِنَ الْأَرْضِ فَوَضَعَهَا بَيْنَ كَفَّيْهِ ثُمَّ فَرَكَهَا بِيَدِهِ كَسَحِيقِ الدَّقِيقِ ثُمَّ عَجَنَهَا فَجَعَلَهَا يَاقُوتَةً حَمْرَاءَ خَتَمَهَا بِخَاتَمِهِ فَبَدَا النَّقْشُ فِيهَا لِلنَّاظِرِينَ

Rasool-Allah-saww said: ‘There is one successor-asws for me-saww during my-saww lifetime and after my-saww expiry’. I (lady) asked him-saww, ‘Who is he?’ He-saww said: ‘Bring me-saww a pebble’. So, I raised a pebble to him-saww from the ground and he-saww placed it between his-saww palms, then rubbed it by his-saww hand like flour powder. Then he-saww kneaded it and made it to be a red ruby, stamped it with his-saww ring, and the engraving appeared in it for the onlookers (to see).

ثُمَّ أَعْطَانِيهَا وَ قَالَ يَا أُمَّ سُلَيْمٍ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ مِثْلَ هَذَا فَهُوَ وَصِيِّي

Then he-saww gave it to me and said: ‘O Umm Suleym! One who has the ability like this, so he is my-saww successor-asws’…(An extract, see Appendix II).[229]

Hadith 8

لَيْسَ مِنْ يَوْمٍ وَ لَا لَيْلَةٍ إِلَّا وَ جَمِيعُ الْجِنِّ وَ الشَّيَاطِينِ تَزُورُ أَئِمَّةَ الضَّلَالَةِ وَ يَزُورُ إِمَامَ الْهُدَى عَدَدُهُمْ مِنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ حَتَّى إِذَا أَتَتْ لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ فَيَهْبِطُ فِيهَا مِنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ إِلَى وَلِيِّ الْأَمْرِ خَلَقَ اللَّهُ أَوْ قَالَ قَيَّضَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ مِنَ الشَّيَاطِينِ بِعَدَدِهِمْ

There isn’t from a day, nor a night except that the entirety of the Jinn and the Satans-la are visiting the imams of misguidance, and (the like of) their number from the Angels would be visiting the Imam-asws of the Guidance, to the extent that when the Night of Predetermination (Laylat Al-Qadr) comes, so there descend during it, unto a Master-asws of the Command, the Angels whom Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic Created’ (An extract, Appendix II)….

Hadith 9

وَ مَا مِنْ لَيْلَةٍ تَأْتِي عَلَيْنَا إِلَّا وَ أَخْبَارُ كُلِّ أَرْضٍ عِنْدَنَا وَ مَا يَحْدُثُ فِيهَا وَ أَخْبَارُ الْجِنِّ وَ أَخْبَارُ أَهْلِ الْهَوَاءِ مِنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ

And there is none from a night coming to us-asws except and the news of every land is with us-asws and what had occurred during it, and news of the Jinn and news of the inhabitants of the air, from the Angels (an extract, Appendix II)

Hadith 10

عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَمَّنْ ذَكَرَهُ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جَحْرَشٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَتْنِي حَكِيمَةُ بِنْتُ مُوسَى قَالَتْ رَأَيْتُ الرِّضَا ( عليه السلام ) وَاقِفاً عَلَى بَابِ بَيْتِ الْحَطَبِ وَ هُوَ يُنَاجِي وَ لَسْتُ أَرَى أَحَداً فَقُلْتُ يَا سَيِّدِي لِمَنْ تُنَاجِي فَقَالَ هَذَا عَامِرٌ الزَّهْرَائِيُّ أَتَانِي يَسْأَلُنِي وَ يَشْكُو إِلَيَّ فَقُلْتُ يَا سَيِّدِي أُحِبُّ أَنْ أَسْمَعَ كَلَامَهُ فَقَالَ لِي إِنَّكِ إِنْ سَمِعْتِ بِهِ حُمِمْتِ سَنَةً فَقُلْتُ يَا سَيِّدِي أُحِبُّ أَنْ أَسْمَعَهُ فَقَالَ لِيَ اسْمَعِي فَاسْتَمَعْتُ فَسَمِعْتُ شِبْهَ الصَّفِيرِ وَ رَكِبَتْنِيَ الْحُمَّى فَحُمِمْتُ سَنَةً .

Ali Bin Mohammed, and Mohammed Bin Al Hassan from Sahl Bin Ziyad, from the one who mentioned it, from Mohammed Bin Jahrash who said, ‘Hakeema Bint Musa narrated to me saying,

‘I saw Al-Reza-asws pausing upon the door of Al-Hatab and he-asws was whispering and I couldn’t see anyone (else). So I said, ‘O my Master-asws! Whom are you-asws whispering to?’ So he-asws said: ‘This is Aamir Al-Zahraby (a Jinn). He has come to me-asws to ask me-asws and complain to me’. So, I said, ‘My Master-asws! I would love to hear his speech’. So he-asws said to me: ‘You, if you were to listen to it, would have fever for a year’. So I said, ‘O my Master-asws! I would love to hear him’. So he-asws said to me: ‘Listen’. So I listened intently, and I heard (a sound) resembling the whistle, and the fever overcame me, and I was feverish for a year’.[230]

Recapitulation of Virtues through which a Divine Imam-asws is recognised:

From the above Ahadith, one can easily distinguish between a false imam and an Imam appointed by Allah-azwj.  The Divine Imam-asws will possess the following capabilities bestowed upon him-asws by Allah-azwj:

  1. A Divine Imam-asws will have 360 degrees vision (can see from the front and what is lies behind);
  2. There is no shadow for him-asws;
  3. His-asws prayers are instantly answered, if he-asws were to supplicate against a rock it would split into two halves;
  4. He-asws is able to show in a manuscript the names of all sincere believers as well as the name of all enemies from previous generations up to the day of Qiyamah;
  5. There would happen to be for him-asws, the miracles and the evidences, and his-asws eyes would sleep but his-asws heart would not sleep;
  6. And when he-asws is asked, he-asws answers and tells the people what will happen tomorrow, and he-asws communicates with the people in every language’.
  7. No speech (language) is hidden to him-asws from anyone of the people, nor a bird, nor an animal, nor anything having a soul in it. The Imam-asws is recognised by this, so if there does not happen to be this characteristic in him-asws, then he is not an Imam-asws’’.[231]
  8. An Imam-asws is able to engrave his signatures on a stone, as a rock would become soft in his-asws palm.
  9. An Imam-asws receives Commands on Laylatul Qadar[232], thus communicates with both Jinn(s) and human beings.

The above traits of a Divine Imam-asws are often denied and evaded by the false imams, as they come with several excuses to hide their incapabilities, e.g., laws of physics are made by Allah-azwj so how would Allah-azwj break these by Himself-azwj? They also deny the physical ascension of Rasool Allah-saww to the Heavens, by saying that the fastest journey would be through the speed of light so it’s impossible to go to and return from Heaven in such a short time.[233]  Well Allah-azwj has Power beyond our imaginations, Allah-azwj Created Adam and Eve without parents, Sent Down Prophet Isa-as (Jesus) without a father, Recued Prophet Yousif-as from falling to the bottom of the well through angel Gabrail-as, who descended from the Heavens to save Yousif-as in a flash. There are numerous such examples where miracles[234] were performed by the Prophets-as and their successor-as which cannot be explained by the laws of physics and through the scientific knowledge we have – if it’s possible then that won’t be a miracle!

Therefore, whoever claims to be an Imam, either ‘Hazir Imam’ of ‘Six Imamis’ or an imam claiming to be the successors of the ‘12th Imam-ajfj’ or deceitfully posing to be the 12th Imam-ajfj should be asked to demonstrate the ‘God’ Gifted abilities of a Divine Imam-asws and that must not upset him, otherwise these are self-proclaimed imams, misguided ones and misleading others from the Path of Allah-azwj.

For further details, see for example: https://www.hubeali.com/article/recognition-of-a-divine-imam-asws/

Some additional Ahadith on 12th Imam-ajfj are cited in the Appendix II.

Appendix I: A short biography of Rasool Allah-saww

The Holy Prophet Mohammed Ibn Abdullah-saww was Sent down to earth by Allah-azwj on the 17th of Rabi’ al-Awwal, in the year of the Elephant on a Friday at noon.[235].

Prophet Mohammed-saww remained in Makkah for 13 years after receiving Divine Commands (through Angel Jabrail-as to announce his-saww Prophet-hood) as the Rasool Allah-saww. Thereafter he-saww moved to Madinah where he lived for ten years. Prophet Mohammed-saww left this world after being poisoned on the 28th of Safar, at the age of 63 years.

Prophet Mohammed-saww’s father Abd Allah-asws ibn Abd Al-Muttalib-asws died in Madinah when Prophet Mohammed-saww was only two months old. His-saww mother Syeda Amina-asws daughter of Wahab, died when he-saww was a boy of four years old.

Abd Al-Muttalib-asws (the grandfather of the Prophet-saww who started taking care of him-saww after the death of his-saww parents-asws) also died when the Holy Prophet-saww was about eight years old. After the death of Abd Al-Muttalib-asws , the Prophet-saww’s uncle Syed Abu Talib (ibn Abd Al-Muttalib-asws) and his-asws wife (Syeda Fatimah-asws binte Asad-asws) starting looking after Prophet Mohammed-saww.

Prophet Mohammed-saww married Syeda Khadija-asws. Allah-asws blessed them-asws with Syeda Fatimah-asws. Syeda Khadija-asws left this world one year before the Prophet-saww moved to Madinah. Syed Abu Talib-asws who brought up the Holy Prophet-saww and protected him-saww from ‘Mushraqeen’ (polytheists who believe in more than one god) of Mecca also left this world shortly.

When the Rasool Allah-saww lost these two people it became very difficult for him-saww to live in Makkah. He-saww became extremely sad and prayed to Allah-azwj. Allah-azwj then Sent him-saww the Message to ‘leave the town, the town of the unjust people’; after Syed Abu Talib-asws there was no one in Makkah to support him-saww. This is why he-saww was Commanded to migrate to Madinah .[236]

Ahadith on the Divine Virtues of the Holy Prophet-saww

Once someone asked Abu Abd Allah-asws (Imam Jafar e Sadiq-asws) ‘Was the Rasool Allah-saww the master of the children of (Prophet) Adam-as?’ The Imam-asws replied: ‘By Allah-azwj, he-saww was the master of all whom Allah-azwj has Created. Allah-azwj has not Created any creature better than Prophet Mohammed-saww.[237] Amir Al-Momineen-asws (Imam Ali-asws ibn Abi Talib-asws) has also said this.

Abu Abd Allah-asws says that Allah-azwj has said, ‘O Mohammed I-azwj have Created you-saww and Ali-asws from a ‘Noor’ (Divine Light) as a ‘Ruh’ (Spirit), without body before I-azwj Created My‑azwj Heavens, My-azwj Earth, My-azwj Throne, and My-azwj ocean. You continued to acknowledge Me‑azwj as your Lord-azwj and Speak of My-azwj Glory.

I-azwj then Collected the spirits of both of you-asws and Made it one spirit. This spirit continued to speak of My-azwj Glory, My-azwj Holiness and acknowledge Me-azwj as the Lord-azwj.

I-azwj then Divided it into two and these two became four: two became Prophet Mohammed‑saww and Imam Ali-asws while the other two became Imam Al-Hassan-asws and Imam Al-Hussain-asws.

Then Allah-azwj Created Syeda Binte Rasool Allah-asws from a ‘Noor’ (Divine Light), with a Spirit that was Created first. Allah-azwj then Wiped us-asws so closely with Himself-azwj that His-azwj ‘Noor’ Started flowing into us.[238]

Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws says, ‘Allah-azwj Sent a revelation to Prophet Mohammed-saww, ‘O Mohammed I-azwj Created you. You-saww did not exist. I-azwj Blew into you-saww from My ‘Ruh’ (Spirit). It was an honour with which I-azwj Honoured you-saww that I-azwj Made it an obligation on all of My-azwj creatures to obey you-saww.

Whoever will obey you-saww obeys Me-azwj and whoever will disobey you disobeys Me-azwj. Similarly, I-azwj have Made the obedience to Ali-asws also obligatory as well as to those of his-asws descendants whom I-azwj have Chosen for Myself-azwj’. (As the Divine Imams-asws, the 11 children of Imam Ali-asws).[239]

Imam Musa-e-Kazim-asws (our 7th Imam-asws) said: Allah-azwj is One-azwj and Eternal. He-azwj Created Prophet Mohammed-saww, Imam Ali-asws and Syeda Binte Rasool Allah-asws. They were there for a thousand Dahr (one Dahr equals the amount of time from the beginning to the present of Earth’s existence).

Then Allah-azwj Created all other things. Allah-azwj Made them-asws witness on the creation of all other things. Allah-azwj Made obedience to them-asws obligatory and Gave them-asws control of the affairs of the creation.

They-asws can, thus, make lawful whatever they-asws wish and unlawful whatever they-asws wish but they-asws never wish anything unless Allah-azwj Wishes.[240]

Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws said: ‘We are the first family whose names Allah-azwj has Exalted (Given higher status). When Allah-azwj Created the Heavens and Earth He-azwj Commanded an announcer to proclaim three times:

أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ )ثَلَاثاً( أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللَّهِ )ثَلَاثاً( أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ حَقّاً )ثَلَاثاً(

“I testify that no one other than Allah Deserves to be worshipped, 3 times, I testify that Mohammed is the Rasool Allah, 3 times: and that Ali is Amir Al-Momineen (Leader with Divine Authority) in all truth, 3 times.[241]

(A narrator of a Hadith says) Once Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws said to me, ‘O Jabir, the first thing that Allah-azwj Created was Prophet Mohammed-saww and his-saww children-asws (the people of Kisa) who are the rightly guided Imams-asws (Divine Guides). They-asws existed in ‘Ashbah (form) of ‘Noor’ (Divine Light) in the presence of Allah-azwj.’

I then asked, ‘What is ‘Ashbah? The Imam-asws said, ‘It is the shadow of the ‘Al-Noor’ (Divine Light), the lighting bodies without the spirit. It was supported by one spirit, the Holy Spirit. In that state he-saww and his offspring-asws worshipped Allah-azwj and for this reason Allah-azwj Created them-asws forbearing Scholars, careful pure Ones who worship Allah-azwj through ‘Salat’ (Prayer), ‘Soam’ (Fasting), ‘Sajda’ (Prostration), ‘Tasbeh’ (speaking of His-azwj Glory) and the acknowledgment that He-azwj is the only Lord-azwj. They perform Salat, perform Hajj and fast.[242]

Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws (our 5th Imam-asws) has said, ‘The Rasool Allah-saww had three qualities that no (human being) had.

  1. Prophet Mohammed-saww did not have any shadow.
  2. Whatever path Prophet Mohammed-saww walked on even after two or three days one could still notice his passing thereby due to his-saww fragrance that remained along the path.
  3. On Prophet Mohammed-saww‘s passing by, out of respect, every stone and tree did ‘Sajada’ (prostrated/bowed) before him-saww.[243]

Imam Jafar e Sadiq-asws has said, ‘Once Syed Jibril-as came to the Holy Prophet-saww and said, “O Mohammed-saww, Allah-azwj Offers you ‘Salam’ (greetings of peace) and Says, ‘I have Prohibited the fire to harm your parents and the people whose laps provided you protection and guardianship. The father is ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib-asws and the woman who brought you to the world is ‘Amina-asws, daughter of Wahab, and the people whose laps provided you protection and guardianship are Syed Abu Talib-asws ibn Abdul Muttalib -asws and Fatimah-asws daughter of Asad-asws.[244]

Once, Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws (our 5th Imam-asws) was asked: ‘How many times was the Rasool Allah-saww taken for ‘Miraj’ (The ascension- when he rose to the Heavens)[245]? The Imam-asws said, ‘It happened twice. Syed Jibril-as asked him-saww to stop at a place saying wait right there, O Mohammed-saww, you-saww have stood at a place where no angel-as or Prophet-as has ever stood before you-saww.

Your-saww Lord-azwj is Praying.’ The Rasool Allah-saww asked, ‘O Jibril, how does He-azwj pray?’ Jibril said, ‘He-azwj Says,

سُبُّوحٌ قُدُّوسٌ أَنَا رَبُّ الْمَلَائِكَةِ وَ الرُّوحِ سَبَقَتْ رَحْمَتِي غَضَبِي‏

The Glorious, the Holy, I Am the Lord of the angels and the Spirit. My Mercy exceeds My Anger.“:

The Holy Prophet-saww then said, ‘O Allah-azwj, I-saww beg forgiveness from You-azwj, I-saww beg forgiveness from You-azwj (on behalf of my-saww followers).’

The Imam-asws said, ‘They were as close, as Allah-azwj has Said, ” … as the distance of two bows, or even less.” (53:9)

Abu Basir then asked, ‘May Allah-azwj keep my soul in service for your-asws cause, what is ” … the distance of two bows, or even less?” (53:9) The Imam-asws said, ‘It is the distance of the radius of the bow.’ The Imam-asws then said, ‘Between the two there was a barrier (curtain) that shone.’ I (narrator) only know it was made of Zabarjad (Beryl, chrysotile). He (the Holy Prophet-saww) looked into the Noor of Greatness through the size of a needle’s eye or so, as this is what Allah-azwj Willed.

Allah-azwj Said, ‘O Mohammed-saww.’ He replied, ‘Yes, my Lord-azwj.’ Allah-azwj Asked, ‘Who will be after you to guide your followers’?’ Prophet Mohammed-saww replied, ‘Allah-azwj Knows best.’ Allah-azwj Said, ‘Ali-asws Ibn Abu Talib-asws will be Amir Al-Momineen-asws (Leader with Divine Authority), the master of the Muslims, the leader of the ones marked with brightness on their foreheads.’

‘The narrator has said that then the Imam-asws said to Abu Basir, ‘O Abu Mohammed, by Allah-azwj, Wilayah (Mastership) of Amir Al-Momineen Ali-asws did not come from Earth. It (Wilayah) came from the Heavens in Words that Allah-azwj Personally Spoke.[246]

Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws was once asked: ‘What is the meaning of ‘Salam on the Rasool of Allah‑saww’ (offering him the greetings of peace)?’ The Imam-asws said, ‘When Allah-azwj Created His Nabi (the Holy Prophet-saww), Wasi (Imam Ali-asws), the daughter of His Nabi (Syeda Binte Rasool Allah-asws, and their two sons-asws, (Imams Hassan-asws and Hussain-asws) and all ‘A’immah-asws (Leaders with Divine Authority), and their Shia (followers), He-azwj Made a ‘Misaaq’ (a promise) with them to exercise patience, establish good relations and live devotedly before Allah-azwj.

He-azwj Promised to give them the blessed land, the sacred sanctuary, to bring down to them the constructed house (al-Bayt al-Ma ‘mur), to show them the raised ceiling (Al-Saqf Al-Marfu‘) and grant them-asws relief against their enemies.

Also, Allah-azwj Grants them the earth that He-azwj will Change with peace and protect all that is therein for them-asws without any quarrels therein against the enemies and there will exist all that they-asws love.

The Rasool Allah-saww made a similar ‘Misaaq’ with all (12) Imams-asws and also from their-asws Shia . ‘Offering to peace (Salam) to him is a mention of that promise and renewing it before Allah-azwj, so that perhaps He-azwj will allow that peace to take place soon for all of you with all that is therein.[247]

The Physical Appearance of The Holy Prophet-saww:

The narrator says: Once I asked Imam Abu Ja’far (our 5th Imam – Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws), ‘Describe to me the (appearance of) the Rasool Allah-saww.’ The Imam-asws said, ‘The Holy Prophet-saww had a white reddish complexion, large sharp black and white eyes, the eyebrows almost joined, beautiful hands and feet as if gold moulded to the form of his-saww fingers and toes and with clear shoulder bones. When he-saww would turn to a person he did so with the whole of his body, due to kind and tender heartiness.  His-saww neck was long and clear, his‑saww nose almost touched the water when he-saww wanted to drink and when walking he-saww somehow leaned forward as if walking on a downward slope. No one similar to him-saww was seen as such before or after the Holy Rasool Allah-saww.[248]

Imam Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws has said, ‘If one looked at the Rasool Allah-saww in the dark night he could see a light like that from the moon radiating from him-saww.[249]

Our 5th Imam-asws says that the Rasool Allah-saww has said, “Allah-azwj has Presented my ‘Umma (followers) to me-saww in the realm of clay and taught me-saww their names just as He-azwj had taught all the names to Prophet Adam-as. (In the heavens) the (groups of) people bearing flags passed by and I prayed and asked forgiveness for Imam Ali-asws’s followers. My Allah-azwj has Promised me a quality for the Shi’a of Ali-asws.

‘It was asked, ‘What is that quality O Rasool Allah-saww?  He-saww replied, ‘It is forgiveness for those of them who are believers and that none of their minor or major sins will be left without being changed to good deeds.[250]

Our 6th Imam-asws said, ‘Once the Rasool Allah-saww addressed the people and he-saww raised his-saww right hand while holding his-saww fingers closed and said, ‘Do you know, O people, what is in my hand?’ They said, ‘Allah-azwj and His Rasool-saww know the best.’ Rasool Allah-saww then said, ‘In my hand there are the names of the people of ‘Jannah’ (the Paradise) along with the names of their fathers and the names of their tribes up to the Day of ‘Qiyamat’ (Judgement).

The Rasool Allah-saww then raised his left hand and said, ‘O people, do you know what is my-saww hand?’ They said, ‘Allah and His Rasool-saww know the best.’ The Rasool Allah-saww then said, ‘In my-saww hand there are the names of the people of hell along with the names of their fathers and the names of their tribes up to the day of ‘Qiyamat’ Judgement.’

Then the Rasool Allah-saww said, ‘Allah-azwj has Decided and He-azwj has Done Justice. One group will go to ‘Jannah’ (Paradise) and the other group to ‘Naar’ (The Hell).[251]

In a special sermon (speech) on the Holy Rasool Allah-saww and Divine Imams-asws and their qualities, our 6th Imam-asws said the following:

The great sins and people’s bad deeds did not prevent Our Lord-azwj, due to His-azwj Patience, Caring and Kindness, from choosing for the people the best of His Prophets-asws.

(Allah-azwj Chose) Prophet Mohammed Ibn ‘Abd Allah-saww, the most respectable one to Him_-azwj, and he-saww was sent to a noble family.

The glad news of his-saww coming was mentioned in the Books of the previous Prophets-as and and his-saww qualities were preserved in the memories of the people of wisdom. No person of Hashimite descent (the family tree of the Holy Prophet-saww) has ever reached the level of his-saww discipline and no person of the inhabitants of ‘Abtah’ (Arab) has ever climbed to his-saww high position.

Self-control (from meaningless matters) was of his-saww attributes and generosity was part of his-saww nature. He-saww was made with the dignity of prophet-hood and its discipline

Every nation and every father delivered glad news about him-saww to the next generation. No indecency ever touched him-saww and no illegal relation ever made him unclean.

He was in the best group and of most honourable descent, the tribe of glory, in the well-preserved mother and in the best protective hands. Allah-azwj had Chosen the Holy Prophet-saww as it pleased Him-azwj, Selected him-saww, and Gave him-saww the keys to knowledge and the sources of wisdom. Allah-azwj Raised him-saww as the mercy and blessings for His-azwj servants and as the season of spring for His-azwj lands.

Allah-azwj Sent to him-saww the Book in which there is communication and explanations. The Rasool Allah-saww has explained it (the Book) to people. He-saww has arranged it into a system with the knowledge that explains in detail and a religion in which Allah-azwj has clearly Defined its obligations, determined its limits for the people and has clarified for people (what is expected from them).

There are matters that Allah-azwj has Stated to His-azwj servants openly. In it (the Book) there is guidance to salvation and evidence to show the right guidance. The Rasool Allah-saww has preached the message that he had brought and demanded obedience to what he was ordered to preach and delivered the responsibilities of a Prophet-saww towards his-saww followers.

He-saww exercised patience for the sake of his Allah-azwj and worked hard in the way of Allah-azwj. The Rasool Allah-saww gave good advice to his followers and called them to salvation (Jannah- the Paradise). He-saww encouraged them in the matters of al-Dhikr (Remembrance of Allah-azwj) and showed them the ‘Sabeel’ (Imam Ali-asws – the right path). The Rasool Allah-saww did so with knowledge and with the sources of ‘Noor’ (Divine Light) which he-saww left with the Holy Imam-asws after him-saww. He-saww did that to make sure that Muslims will not be misled after him-saww and he-saww was very compassionate and kind to them.[252]

The narrator of a Hadith says:

‘Abu Abdullah-asws (our 6th Imam-asws) said: ‘Do you know how the women pledge their Allegiances to the Rasool-Allah-saww?’ I said, ‘Allah-azwj Knows, and the son-asws of His-azwj Rasool-saww knows’. He-asws said: ‘They gathered around him-saww, then he-saww called for a container, and poured water into it, and immersed his-saww hand in it, then said: ‘Hear me-saww, O those who are around. You will be pledging Allegiance upon the (conditions) that you will not associate anything with Allah-azwj, nor will you steal, nor kill your children, nor slander by forging with your hands and your feet, nor disobey me-saww regarding the good. Do you accept?’ They said, ‘Yes’. So he-saww took his-saww hand out from the container, then said to them: ‘Immerse your hands’. So they did that’. The hand of the Rasool-Allah-saww was pure, and clean from being touched by a female who was not a ‘Mahram’ to him-saww’.[253]

The Holy Prophet-saww’s Grand Father Abd Al-Muttalib-asws

Imam Jafar e Sadiq-asws said: On the Day of ‘Qiyamat’ (Judgement) ‘Syed Abd Al-Muttalib-asws (the grandfather of the Holy Prophet Mohammed-saww), who is the first who believed in ‘Bada’ (Allah-azwj’s Divine Plan for people), will be brought as a whole nation and he-asws will have a complexion like those of the Prophets-asws and a majestic presence like those of the kings.[254]

Once, Syed Abd Al-Muttalib-asws sent the Rasool Allah-saww to the shepherds of his camels to help them with a runaway camel.

The Rasool Allah-saww collected them all but had delayed in returning home. Syed ‘Abd Al-Muttalib-asws out of anxiety was holding the ring of the door of Ka’ba. He-asws kept pleading, ‘Our Allah-azwj, will You-azwj Destroy your own people? (Please do not do so). Then it means that You-azwj have Changed Your-azwj Decision.’ The Rasool Allah-saww came with camels and Syed Abd Al-Muttalib-asws had sent people to search him-saww in all directions and valleys of (Makkah). When he-asws saw the Rasool Allah-saww he-asws held him-saww to kiss and said, ‘Son, I-asws will never send you thereafter for anything. I am afraid for you-saww to be kidnapped and killed.[255]

The narrator of the Hadith says:

‘I heard Amir Al-Momineen-asws saying: ‘By Allah-azwj! Neither my-asws father-as, nor my-asws grandfather-as Abdul Muttalib-as, nor Hashim-as, nor Abd Manaf-as worshipped idols at all’. It was said to him-asws, ‘So what were they-as worshipping?’ He-asws said: ‘They were Praying to the House (Kabah), upon the Religion of Ibrahim-as, being attached to it’.[256]

(Our sixth Imam-asws) Imam Jafar e Sadiq-asws said: At a certain place around the Ka’bah ‘Syed Abd Al-Muttalib-asws’s people would spread house furnishings for him only and for no one else. His sons stood around him-asws for protection. Once the Rasool Allah-saww, then a small child who had just begun to walk, came to ‘Syed Abd Al-Muttalib-asws’ and sat in his lap. One of the people standing as a guard came to remove the child away but Syed Abd Al-Muttalib-asws’said, ‘Leave my-asws child-saww alone. The angel-as has just come to him.[257]

The Holy Prophet-saww’ was brought up and protected by his-saww Uncle Abu Talib-asws:

Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq-asws said: They (non-Shias) think that Syed Abu Talib-asws was an unbeliever. They speak lies. How could he be an unbeliever when he said such words as these: ‘Do they not know that we found Mohammed-saww as a prophet like Musa-as (Moses) whose name is written in the ancient books’!’”

Imam Jafar e Sadiq-asws said: Once when the Holy Prophet-saww was in the sacred Masjid wearing new clothes, the pagans threw the contents of the stomach of camel on him and his new clothes were ruined. Allah-azwj Knows how hard it was for him-saww. The Holy Prophet-saww went to Syed Abu Talib-asws and asked, ‘What is my honour worth to you-as?

Syed Abu Talib-asws asked, ‘What is the matter, O son of my brother?’ The Holy Prophet-saww informed him-asws of the incident.

Syed Abu Talib-asws, while picking up a sword, called and asked Hamza-asws to take up arms. He-asws then asked Hamza-asws to pick up the stomach of the camel and they came to the people along with the Holy Prophet-saww.

They found people of Quraysh around the Ka’bah. When they saw Syed Abu Talib-asws they read trouble from his-asws face. Syed Abu Talib-asws asked Hamza-asws to spread the contents of the stomach of the camel against everyone’s moustache and Hamza-asws did so to the last person. Abu Talib then turned to the Holy Prophet-saww and said, ‘Son of my brother, this is how much we value your honour (we are ready to face such a great risk for it).[258]

Someone once asked Imam Ali-asws, ‘Did the Rasool Allah-saww live under the authority of Syed Abu Talib-asws?’ The Imam-asws said, ‘No, but Syed Abu Talib-asws was the Trustee of certain (items) of ‘Will’ (which a Prophet-as would pass on to the one after him-as) that he delivered to the Holy Prophet-saww

They then said, ‘So Syed Abu Talib-asws delivered the ‘Wills’ to the Holy Prophet-saww because of his Authority over him’?

The Imam-asws said, ‘If so he did not have to deliver the wills to him-saww (the Holy Prophet‑saww).’

The person then asked. ‘What was the condition of Syed Abu Talib-asws?’ The Imam-asws said. ‘Syed Abu Talib-asws acknowledged the Holy Prophet-saww and his-saww Divine Message and delivered to him-saww the (items of) Wills and died on that day.[259]

Imam Jafar e Sadiq-asws said: “When Syed Abu Talib-asws passed away, Angel Jibril-as came to the Rasool Allah-saww and said, ‘O Mohammed-saww, migrate from Makkah. There is no one to help and protect you.’ Quraysh revolted against the Holy Prophet-saww and he-saww came out of Makkah running away (from disbelievers).[260]

Shahadat of Rasool Allah-saww

The narrator of a Hadith says that the Soul of Rasool Allah was taken (to the Heavens) when two nights of Safar were remaining (therefore on the 28th of Safar).[261]

Our 6th Imam (Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq-asws was asked by a companion: Inform us (please) if the Holy Prophet-saww died (by natural death) or was killed/murdered?

(The Imam-asws replied) Indeed Allah-azwj Says: ‘When he dies or is killed, will you turn back upon your heels? (Qur’an 3:144). The two women poisoned him-saww before death.” (narrator and his-asws companions) said: ‘Those two women and their fathers were the worst creation of Allah-azwj.[262]

Once Imam Abu Ja’far-asws was asked: ‘How was the prayer for the dead body of the Holy Prophet-saww?’

The Imam-asws said, ‘When Amir Al-Momineen-asws washed his-saww body and covered him-saww, ten people came in and walked around him. Amir Al-Momineen-asws, then stood in the middle of them and said, Allah-azwj Showers His blessings upon the Prophet -saww and the angels send ‘Salawat’ (peace upon him) for him. Believers, pray for the Prophet and greet him with the greeting of peace.” (33:56) The group also continued reciting what the Imam-asws said until the people of Madinah and people of ‘Awali also said the prayer (for burial) in the same way.[263]

Imam Jafar e Sadiq-asws said: (after the Shahadat of Rasool Allah-saww who was given poison) ‘Al-Abbass came to Amir Al-Momineen-asws Ali-asws and said, ‘Ya Ali-asws, people have come in a group to bury the Rasool Allah-saww in ‘Baqi al-Musali’, (the Baqi praying place), and one of them came as an imam to lead the Salat.’ Amir Al-Momineen-asws Ali-asws then came out to the people and said, ‘O people, the Rasool Allah-saww is the Imam whether living or absent (from you). He-saww had said that he-saww must be buried in the place where he-saww had met His Allah‑azwj (Passed away). Imam Ali-asws then stood at the door and prayed for him. Then he-asws commanded every ten people to come in and pray for him and leave.[264]

From him (Al Kulayni), by his chain, who said,

‘Amir Al-Momineen-asws said to Abu Bakr one day: ‘[3:169] And reckon not those who are killed in Allah’s Way as dead; but, they are alive (and) are being provided sustenance from their Lord, and I-asws testify that Mohammed-saww, the Rasool-saww of Allah-azwj died as a martyr. And, by Allah-azwj he-saww will be coming to you. When he-saww does come to you, believe that it is him-saww, for the Satan-la cannot impersonate him-saww. So Ali-asws grabbed the hand of Abu Bakr and showed him the Prophet-saww. The Prophet-saww said: ‘O Abu Bakr! Believe in Imam Ali-asws and in eleven from his-asws sons-asws. They-asws are all like me-saww except for the Prophet-hood. You have no right in it (taking the position as a successor and an Imam).’ (The narrator) said, ‘Then he-saww went away and was not seen’.[265]

Climbing Over the Grave of the Holy Prophet-saww is Prohibited

The narrator says ‘I was in Madinah when the section of the roof of the Masjid (Masjid) that covers the grave of the Holy Prophet-saww had crumbled down and the workers were climbing up and down (for repairs). We were asked: ‘Who has an appointment with Abu ‘Abd Allah‑asws?

‘Mihran ibn Abu Nasr and Isma’il ibn ‘Ammar al-Sayrafi both said, ‘I have an appointment with the Imam-asws.’ I said to them ‘Ask the Imam-asws if it is permissible to climb up and look on to the grave of the Holy Prophet-saww.

Next day we met them’ and we all came together. ‘Isma’il said, ‘We asked your question and he-asws said this: “I-asws do not want anyone to climb above his-saww grave. I-asws do not feel safe for anyone whose eyesight may go away because of catching sight of something that causes him such loss or sees him-saww (the Holy Prophet-saww) standing in prayer.’[266]

Appendix II: Additional Ahadith on the 12 Imams-asws:

The narrator of the Hadith says:

‘I heard Ali-asws Ibn Al-Hussain-asws say, ‘Allah-azwj Created Mohammed-saww, Ali-asws and the remaining 11 ‘A’immah-asws (Leaders with Divine Authority) from his-asws descendants out of the Al-Noor (the Divine Light) of His-azwj Greatness. Allah-azwj then Placed them-asws as Figures in the brightness of His-azwj ‘Al-Noor’ (Divine Light) where they-asws worshipped Him-azwj before the creation of all beings. They-asws would speak of the Glory of Allah-azwj and of His-azwj Holiness. They-asws are the ‘A’immah-asws (Leaders with Divine Authority) from the descendants of the Rasool Allah-saww.[267]

The narrator of the Hadith says:

‘I heard Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws (our 5th Imam-asws) say, ‘The 12 Imams-asws (Leaders with Divine Authority) all from the family-asws of Mohammed-saww are Muhaddath (the ones to whom Angels-as speak). They-asws all are from the descendants of the Messenger of Allah-saww and the descendants of Ali-asws. The Messenger of Allah-saww and Ali-asws are their-asws ancestors.’[268]

The narrator of the Hadith says:

‘I was (in the city of al-Madinah) when Abu Bakr was no more and he had appointed ‘Umar as his successor. Once, one of the great Jewish men of Yasrab came to ‘Umar. The Jewish man thought that he, ‘Umar, was the most knowledgeable person of his time. He came to ‘Umar and said, ‘O ‘Umar, I have come to accept Islam if you can answer what I will ask. Are you the most knowledgeable person among the companions of Mohammed-saww in the matters of the Book, the Sunnah (Rasool Allah-saww’s traditions) and all that I want to ask from you?’

‘The narrator has said that ‘Umar than said to him, ‘I am not the one you are looking for. However, I can guide you to the one-asws who is the most knowledgeable person-asws in our nation in the matters of the Book, the Sunnah (traditions of the Holy Prophet-saww) and all that you would like to ask.’ He directed him to Imam Ali-asws. The Jewish man then said, ‘If what you say is true then why have you taken the oath of allegiance from people, if the most knowledgeable among you is that man-asws?.’

Umar then treated him harshly. The Jewish man went to Ali-asws and said, ‘Are you-asws as such as ‘Umar has said?’ Imam Ali-asws then asked, ‘What has ‘Umar said?’ He then informed him-asws of what ‘Umar had said. The Jewish man then said, ‘If you-asws are as he has said you-asws are, I would like to ask you-asws certain questions to know if anyone (of your-asws nation) knows the answer so I will know that your-asws claim is true that you-asws are the best and the most truthful among the nations. In such case I will accept your-asws religion, Islam.

‘Amir Al-Momineen-asws said, ‘Yes, I-asws am as ‘Umar has said I-asws am. Ask whatever you want to ask. I-asws will give the answer by the Will of Allah-azwj.’ He said, ‘Tell me about three and three and one.’ Ali-asws said, ‘O Jewish man, why do you not say, ‘Tell me about the seven?’ The Jewish man then said, ‘If you-asws can tell me the answer to the three then I will ask you‑asws other questions, otherwise, I will abstain. If you-asws provide me the answer to these seven , then you-asws are the most knowledgeable person on earth, the best of them and have more authority over the people than they themselves do.’ Imam-asws then said, ‘Ask your questions O Jewish man.’ He said, ‘Tell me about the first stone that was placed on the face of earth, the first tree that was planted on earth and the first water fountain that gushed out of earth.’

‘Amir Al-Momineen-asws answered his questions.

The Jewish man then said to him-asws, ‘Tell me how many Imams-asws (Leaders with Divine Authority) will this nation have’? Tell me about your-asws Prophet-saww: where will be his place in Paradise and who will be with him-saww therein’?’

‘Amir Al-Momineen-asws (Imam Ali-asws) said, ‘This nation will have 12 ‘A’immah-asws. All of them-asws will be from the descendants of the Holy Prophet-saww of this nation. They-asws will be from my-asws descendants. The place of our Holy Prophet-saww in Paradise will be the best and holiest of them in Eden. With him-saww , in his-saww dwelling, will be these 12 people-asws from his-saww descendants. Their-asws mothers-asws and grandmothers-asws and the mothers-asws of their mothers-asws and their-asws descendants will live with them-asws. No one else will live therein as their-asws partners.[269]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Once I went to visit the (house of) the daughter-asws of the Holy Prophet-saww and I saw with Syeda-asws a tablet in which the names of the executors (implementers) of the Wills (of Leaders with Divine Authority) from her descendants were written. I then (with Syeda-asws ‘s permission) counted them to twelve. The last one-asws’s name was Al-Qa’im-ajfj (the one-asws who will rise with Divine Authority and power). The name of three of them was Mohammed-asws and the name of another three was Ali-asws.’[270]

The narrator of the Hadith says: Our 5th Imam-asws said: ‘Allah-azwj Sent Mohammed-saww to all Jinn and man and appointed twelve executors of the will after him. Of these twelve ones-asws, there are those-asws who have already left this world and there are those-asws who will enter this world and complete their task. All the executors-asws of the Wills (of the Prophets-as) experienced certain traditions, Sunnah. The number executors-asws of the Will after Mohammed-saww, who explain the ‘Sunnah’, is the same as the number of executors of the will of Jesus-as (twelve.) Amir Al-Momineen-asws explained the tradition of Jesus-as.’[271]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Amir Al-Momineen-asws said to ibn ‘Abbas, ‘Layla al-Qadr (the night of destiny Verse 97:1-6) comes every year and in that night the command for the whole year is sent down. The Command is (only) received by the Leaders with Divine Authority after the Rasool Allah-saww.’

‘Ibn ‘Abbas then asked, ‘Who are they?’ Amir Al-Momineen-asws replied: ‘I-asws and the 11 persons-asws from my-asws descendants-asws who all are ‘A’immah-asws (Leaders with Divine Authority), and Muhaddathun-asws, such persons to whom angels speak.’[272]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘The Messenger of Allah-saww once said to his-saww companions, ‘You must believe in the Layla al-Qadr (Night of Destiny: Verse no. 97 in the Holy Quran). It is Ali-asws Ibn Abu Talib-asws and his-asws eleven descendants-asws after me-saww.[273]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Amir Al-Momineen Ali-asws one day recited (the following Verses of the Holy Quran) to Abu Bakr, Do not think of those slain for the cause of Allah as dead. ‘They are alive with their Lord and receive sustenance from Him.’ (3: 169) I testify that Mohammed-saww, the Messenger of Allah-azwj, died as a martyr. He-saww, by Allah-azwj, is going to come to you so do not have any doubts when he-saww comes to you. Satan-la cannot disguise in his-saww appearance.’ Ali-asws took the hand of Abu Bakr and showed the Holy Prophet-saww to him, who said, ‘O abu Bakr, believe in Ali-asws and in the eleven ‘A’immah-asws (Leaders with Divine Authority) from his-asws descendants. They are all like me-saww except the Prophet-hood. Repent before Allah-azwj because of what you are involved in. You have no right to it (taking the position of an Infallible Imam-asws).’

‘The narrator has said that then he-saww vanished and could not be seen around.’[274]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘I heard Abu Ja’far-asws say, ‘There will be 12 ‘A’immah-asws (Leaders with Divine Authority) from the family of Mohammed-saww and they-asws all will be Muhaddathun-asws, persons to whom angels speak. They-asws will be of the descendants of the Messenger of Allah-saww and Ali-asws Ibn Abu Talib-asws. The Messenger of Allah-saww and Ali-asws are their-asws ancestors-asws.[275]

The narrator of the Hadith says: Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws (our 5th Imam-asws) has said, ‘After Al-Hussain-asws ibn Ali-asws there will be nine ‘A’immah-asws (Leaders with Divine Authority). The ninth of them will be Al-Qa’im-ajfj (the one who will rise with Divine Authority and Power).[276]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘I heard Abu Ja’far-asws say, ‘We are twelve ‘A’immah-asws (Leaders with Divine Authority). Al-Hassan-asws and Al-Hussain-asws are of them-asws. Thereafter ‘A’immah-asws (Leaders with Divine Authority) are from the descendants of Al-Hussain-asws.’’[277]

The narrator of the Hadith says: Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws (our 5th Imam-asws) said: ‘The Messenger of Allah-saww has said, ‘I-saww and twelve persons-asws from my-saww descendants and you-asws, O Ali-asws, are the safety anchor of the Earth, that is, the pillars thereof and its ropes. Through us-asws Allah-azwj has Secured the earth from devouring the inhabitants. If all the twelve persons-asws from my-saww family-asws were not to be there, the earth will devour her inhabitants without delay.[278]

The narrator of the Hadith says: Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws (our 5th Imam-asws) said: ‘The Messenger of Allah-saww has said, ‘From my-saww descendants there will be twelve noble supervisors-asws, who are Muhaddathun-asws, persons to whom angels-as speak, and very intelligent. The last of them will be Al-Qa’im-ajfj (the one-asws who will rise with Divine Authority and Power and with Truth) who will fill the earth with justice after being taken over by the injustice.[279]

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Once I took an oath with myself that I would not eat any food during the day until the rise of Al-Qa‘im-asws (the rise of Al-Mahdi-ajfj with Divine Authority and power). I then went to see Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq-asws.

‘The narrator has said, ‘A man from your Shi’a (followers) has imposed on himself an oath not to eat any food during the day until the rise of Al-Qa’im-ajfj from the family of Mohammed-saww?

‘The Imam-asws said, ‘Fast, then, O Karrarn. Do not fast on the two ‘Eid days and the three days of Tashriq (11, 12, 13th) of the month of Zil-Haj. Also do not fast when you are on a journey or when you will have an illness.

It is because when Al-Hussain-asws was martyred, the heavens and the earth and all the Angels-as in them mourned before the Lord. They said, ‘Lord-azwj, grant us permission to destroy the creatures and purge the earth from them because of their disregard of Your-azwj reverence and their murdering Your-azwj Chosen people-asws.’

Allah-azwj then Inspired them, ‘My-azwj Angels-as, My-azwj Heavens and My-azwj Earth be patient and relieved.’ Allah-azwj then Removed a barrier and Mohammed-saww appeared as well as the twelve executors-asws of his-saww will. He-saww held the hand of al-Qa’im-ajfj (the one who will rise with Divine Authority and power) from among them-asws. Allah-azwj said, ‘O My-azwj angels-as, My-azwj Heavens and My-azwj Earth through this one-ajfj, I-azwj will Grant support for this (the revenge of Al-Hussain-asws).’ Allah-azwj Said it three times.[280]

A Fact-Finding Journey of an Indian Man:

The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘I lived in interior Kashmir, India. My friends would sit on chairs on the right and left of the King. They were forty people and all of them read the four books, Torah, Gospel, Psalms and the books of Abraham. We judged among the people, providing them understanding of their religion and issued legal opinions for them in the lawful and unlawful matters. All people sought assistance from us including the King.

Once we discussed about the Rasool Allah-saww (Prophet Mohammed-saww) and said that this Prophet who is mentioned in the books has remained unidentified to us. We must investigate about him-saww and lead a fact-finding task in his-saww affairs. All agreed that I should go out and lead the fact-finding task. I then set out with a large amount of money and journeyed for twelve months until I reached near Kabul. Turkish bandits robbed and wounded me seriously. They sent me to Kabul where their King saved my life. When he learned about my case, he sent me to Balkh which was under the control of Dawud Ibn al’Abbass ibn abu al-Aswad. Information had reached him that I have come out of India in search of religion and that I have learned Persian and have debated the scholars of law and theology.

Dawud ibn Al-Abbass summoned me to his presence. He gathered the scholars of law against me. They debated me. I then informed them that I have come in search of the Prophet-saww about whom we have learned in the books.

‘They asked, ‘Who is he-saww and what is his-saww name?’ I said, ‘His name is Mohammed-saww.’ They said, ‘You are searching for our Prophet-saww.’ I asked them about his-saww laws and they provided me information. I said, ‘I know that Mohammed-saww is the Prophet but I do not know the one-saww you describe to me. Is he-saww the one I search for or not? You should show where he-saww is so I can go and find out whether the signs that I have are found about are in him-saww or not. If he-saww is the one-saww I am looking for I will accept his-saww religion.’

‘They said, ‘He-saww has passed away.’ I asked them, ‘Who is the executor of his-saww will and his-saww successor?’ They said, ‘Abu Bakr was his-saww successor.’ I asked them, ‘Tell me about his name. This is (Abu Bakr) his Kunya?’ They said, ‘It is ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Uthman.’ They ascribed him to the Quraysh. I then asked them to tell me about the family-asws tree of your Prophet Mohammed-saww.

They informed me of his-saww family history. I said ‘This is not the person I am looking for. The one I am searching for is the one whose successor is his-saww brother in religion and his-saww cousin from his-saww bloodline, the husband of his-saww daughter-asws and the father-asws of his-saww sons-asws. This Prophet-saww will have no children on earth except the sons of this man-asws who is his-saww successor.’

‘He has said that they attacked me and said, ‘O commander, this man has come out a ‘Mushrik’ (polytheist) and has entered disbelief. It is lawful to tip out his blood.’ I said to them, ‘O people, I already have a religion and I strongly believe in it. I do not want to give it up until I find a religion stronger than this. I have found the description of this man-saww in the books that Allah-azwj has Revealed to His-azwj Prophets-as. I came out of my country, India, leaving behind all the honour and respect that I had so that I could find him-saww. When I examined your Prophet the way you described him to me I found out that it did not match the description of the Prophet-saww mentioned in the books. So leave me alone.’

‘The agent (of the government) sent for a man called Al-Husayn Ibn Eshkib and said to him, ‘Debate with this Indian man.’ He said, ‘May Allah-azwj Grant you well-being. There are the scholars of the law and the other scholars. They know better how to debate with him.’ He said to him, ‘Debate with him as I say, and you can meet privately and be kind to him.’

AI-Husayn ibn Eshkib said to me after our consultations. ‘The Prophet-saww that you are looking for is the one these people have described for you but their description of his successor is not the true description. This Prophet-saww is Mohammed-saww Ibn ‘Abdullah-asws ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib-asws. His-saww successor is Ali-asws Ibn Abu Talib-asws ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib-asws. He-asws is the husband of Fatima-asws, the daughter of Mohammed-saww, and the father of Al-Hassan-asws and Al-Hussain-asws, the grandsons of Mohammed-saww.

‘Ghanim Abu Sa’id has said that: I then said, ‘Allahu Akbar, (Allah-azwj is Great beyond description). This is the one I have been looking for.’ I then returned to Dawud ibn al-Abbass and said to him, ‘O commander, I have found what I was searching for. I testify that no one deserves to be worshipped and obeyed besides Allah-azwj and I testify that Mohammed-saww is the Messenger of Allah-saww.’

‘The narrator has said that he treated and helped me with kindness and asked al-Husayn Ibn Eshkib to look after me. Thereafter I went to him until we were acquainted properly and he taught me understanding of the law of the matters that I needed such as prayer, fasting and the obligations.

‘I (the narrator) then said to him, ‘We read in our books that Mohammed-saww is the last of the Prophets and there will be no other prophet after him-saww. The task (Leadership with Divine Authority) after him-saww will be with the executor of his-saww will, his successor-asws and heir-asws. Thereafter it will be with the executor of the will of the preceding one and so on in their descendants until the end of the world. Who is the executor of the will of the executor of the will of Mohammed-saww. He said, ‘They are Al-Hassan-asws then Al-Hussain-asws, the grandsons of Mohammed-saww.  He then continued speaking of the executors of the will of the Holy Prophet-saww until the ‘Sahib al-Zaman-ajfj (the one who possesses Divine Authority today). Then he explained to me what had happened (with ‘A’immah-asws, the Leaders with Divine Authority). Thereafter, I had no other goals but to search for the Holy Location.

He (Amiri) has said that he came to us in Qum. He sat with our people in the year 264 A.H . He then left with them and arrived in Baghdad with his friend from al-Sind who had accompanied him in religion. ‘Amiri has said that Ghanim said to me, ‘I disliked certain things from there I went out to al-’Abbassia and prepared myself for prayer. I began the prayer but I was anxious and thinking about my goal.

At this time someone came to me and called me with my Indian name. I replied, ‘Yes, it is me’ He said, ‘Your master-ajfj is calling you.’ I went with him and he walked from this to that street until he came to a house and a garden and I saw him-ajfj sitting. The Imam-ajfj said, ‘Welcome, O so and so,’ in Indian language. ‘How are you’? How was so and so,’ until he-ajfj mentioned all the forty people (mentioned in the beginning of the Hadith). The Imam-ajfj then asked me about every one of them. Then he-asws told all that had happened among us, all in Indian language. Then the Imam-ajfj asked, ‘did you want to perform Hajj with people of Qum’?’ I said, ‘Yes, my master.’ The Imam-ajfj then said, ‘Do not go to Hajj with them this year. Go back and perform Hajj in future.’ He-ajfj then gave me a bag of money that was in front of him-asws. The Imam-ajfj said to me, ‘Spend it for your needs and do not go to Baghdad to so and so.’ The Imam-ajfj mentioned his (so and so’s) name and said, ‘Do not tell him anything.’

‘Amiri has said that he came to us at Qum. He then informed us of the triumph and that our people had returned from Al-Aqaba. Ghanim went to Khurasan. Next year he went for Hajj and sent us souvenirs from Khurasan. He lived there for some time and then he died. May Allah-azwj Grant him blessings.’[281]

[1] Some online references wrongly refer to Christian of Ethiopian origin but king of Yemen.

[2] Bihar Al Anwaar – V 12, The book of our Prophet-saww, Ch 1 H 87

[3] The Year when Abraha came with elephants to demolish Kabahh (House of Allah-azwj in Makkahh).

[4] Daughter

[5] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, Amir-ul-Momineen-asws, h 1.

[6]Rawzatul Waizeen Vol-1.Page-82 and also in  Bihar Vol-35.Page-23

[7] Polytheists who believe in more than one God

[8] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History.

[9] Before Hijra (Migration to Medinah)

[10] God Forbid

[11] Tafseer e Furat, H. 407

[12] Before Hijra (Migration to Medinah)

[13] An extract taken from Hyait ul Qalub, vol. 2, Chapter 26.

[14] Noor Al Saqalayn – Ch 36 H 21

[15] Ahtijaj e Tabrasy, vol. 1, pg 117, شواهدالتنزيل ج : 1 ص : 124

[16] Tafseer Imam Hassan Askari-asws, H. 329

[17] Al-Kafi, Vol. 8, H. 14983

[18] Hadith, 312, Tafseer e Imam Hassan Askari–asws

[19] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 19, The book of our Prophet–saww, P 3 Ch 10 H 1

[20] تفسير القمي 2: 385

[21] Al-Kafi, Vol. 8, H. 14867

[22] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, Imam Hassan-asws

[23] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 20

[24] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, Imam Al-Hussain-asws.

[25] Bihar ul Anwaar, Vol. 20

[26] Bihar Al-Anwaar V 89 – The Book of Quran – Ch 7 H 47

[27] Two big idols which were worshiped by the infidels at that time

[28] Al-Kafi, Vol. 8, H. 14951

[29] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 21, The book of our Prophet–saww, P 3 Ch 22 H 21

[30] Bihar Al-Anwaar V 89 – The Book of Quran – Ch 7 H 47

[31] تفسير العياشي عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ سِرْحَانَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ: كَانَ الْفَتْحُ فِي سَنَةِ ثَمَانٍ وَ بَرَاءَةُ فِي سَنَةِ تِسْعٍ وَ حَجَّةُ الْوَدَاعِ فِي سَنَةِ عَشْر.

Tafseer Al-Ayyashi, from Dawood Bin Sirhan,

‘From Abu Abdullah–asws having said: ‘The conquest was in the year eight, and disownment (Surah Al-Tawbah) was in the year nine, and the farewell Hajj was in the year ten’’.

[32] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 21, The book of our Prophet–saww, P 3 Ch 26 H 3

[33] Bihar Al Anwaar – V 19, The book of our Prophet-saww, P 3 Ch 28 H 16

[34] Bihar ul Anwaar, Vol. 21

[35] A city southwest of Saudi Arabia

[36] Bihar Al Anwaar – V 19, The book of our Prophet-saww, P 3 Ch 32 H 18

[37] Hercules was a Roman general, son of Jupiter and the mortal Alcmena and was famous for his strength.

[38] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 21, The book of our Prophet–saww, P 3 Ch 29 H 27

[39] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 21, The book of our Prophet–saww, P 3 Ch 29 H 15

[40] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 21, The book of our Prophet–saww, P 3 Ch 21 H 6

[41] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 21, The book of our Prophet–saww, P 3 Ch 36 H 10

[42] Kitab Suleym Bin Qays Al Hilali – H 25 (Extract)

[43] تفسير العيّاشي 1: 200/ 152.

[44] Bihar Al Anwaar – V 22, The book of our Prophet-saww, P 4 Ch 4 H 17

[45] Sulaym ibn Qais Hilali, Hadith no. 42

[46] بحارالأنوار     22     514    باب 2- وفاته و غسله و الصلاة عليه و    16-  ص

[47] Helpers (who offered help to Immigrants of Makkahh and embraced them as brothers for the sake of Islam)

[48] See for example, Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 28, The book of Fitna (Strife) And Ordeals, Ch 4 H 13 a (Introduction ref. 7)

[49] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 29, The book of Fitna (Strife) And Ordeals, Ch 15 H 26

[50] Bihar Al Anwaar – V 29, The book of Fitna (Strife) And Ordeals, Ch 9 H 3

[51] See for example: Ghadeer-e-Khum (hubeali.com)

[52] See for example, Kitab Sulaym bin Qays Al-Hilali, H 4, Bihar Al Anwaar – V 28, The book of Fitna (Strife) And Ordeals, Ch 3 H 3

[53] Al Kafi – V 6 – The Book of Aqeeqa Ch 10 H 2

[54] Bihar Al-Anwaar V 74 – The book ‘Al Rawza’ – Ch 15 H 5, التوحيد (للصدوق)، ص: 73

[55] From Kitab Sulaym Ibn Qais Hilali, H. 4

[56] Bayt those days was to accept one as his leader by forwarding one’s right hand as a gesture of one’s support.

[57] He was freed by the Messenger of Allah-saww after the conquest of Makkahh.

[58] Kitab Sulaym Ibn Qais Hilali, H. 3

[59] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, Syeda Fatimah-asws, h 1.

[60] Ibid, h 9.

[61] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 22, The book of our Prophet–saww, P 5 Ch 3 H 5

[62] The Book Of Sulaym Bin Qays Al-Hilali, Hadith 37.

[63] Nomination

[64] The Book Of Sulaym Bin Qays Al-Hilali, Hadith 37

[65] The Book Of Sulaym Bin Qays Al-Hilali, Hadith 11

[66] The Book Of Sulaym Bin Qays Al-Hilali, Hadith 11

[67] The Book Of Sulaym Bin Qays Al-Hilali, Hadith 14

[68] The Book Of Sulaym Bin Qays Al-Hilali, Hadith 14

[69] Traditions of Holy Prophet Mohammed-saww.

[70] She was an Abyssinian slave of Muhammad-saww‘s parents, Abdullah ibn Abd Al-Muttalib-asws and Aminah-asws bint Wahb-asws.

[71] In requirement of Major ablution (bath/shower).

[72] The Book Of Sulaym Bin Qays Al-Hilali, Hadith 14

[73] The Book of Sulaym Bin Qays Al-Hilali, Hadith 37

[74] The Book Of Sulaym Bin Qays Al-Hilali, Hadith 10

[75] The Book Of Sulaym Bin Qays Al-Hilali, Hadith 10

[76] The Book Of Sulaym Bin Qays Al-Hilali, Hadith 67

[77] Bihar Al Anwaar – V 31, The book of Fitna (Strife) And Ordeals, Ch 28 H 2 b

[78] The Book Of Sulaym Bin Qays Al-Hilali, Hadith 67

[79] See for example, Nahjul Balagha

[80] تفسير القمّي 2: 210.

[81] The first and second Muslim caliphs

[82] Kitab Sulaym Bin Qays Al Halali – H 22

[83] Kitab Sulaym Ibn Qais Halali, H. 53.

[84] Kitab Sulaym Ibn Qais Halali, H. 59.

[85] Nahjul Balagha, Sermon 36.

[86] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 33, The book of Fitna (Strife) And Ordeals, Ch 23 H 587 a

[87] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 33, The book of Fitna (Strife) And Ordeals, Ch 23 H 587 d

[88] Ibid, h 22

[89] كمال الدين و تمام النعمة: 174/ 32.

[90] Kitab Suleym Bin Qays Al Hilali – H 25 (Extract)

[91] Ibid, h 5

[92] Ibid, h 8.

[93] Ibid, h 9.

[94] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 42, The book of History – Amir Al-Momineen–asws, Ch 127 H 11

[95] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 10, pp 173.

[96] A’Yan al-Shia, vol. 4, pp. 78.

[97] Tuhaf al Uqool, pp. 391.

[98] The Book Of Sulaym Bin Qays Al-Hilali, Hadith 77

[99] Referring to the 12th Imam-asws.

[100] Kamil Al-Ziyarat, Ch. 16, H. 5.

[101] Kamil Al-Ziyarat, Ch. 16, H. 6.

[102] Kamil Al-Ziyarat, Ch. 23, H. 12.

[103] This statement refers to the afflictions which will befall the progeny of the Rasool Allah-asws before the reappearance of the Qaim-ajfj. (as commented by Al-Majlisi)

[104] Kamil Al-Ziyarat, Ch. 23, H. 13.

[105] Kamil Al-Ziyarat, Ch. 27, H. 17

[106] Kamil Al-Ziyarat, Chap. 36, H. 3.

[107] The act of isolating oneself in the Masjid and remaining in seclusion for worship.

[108] Kamil Al-Ziyarat, Chap. 37, H. 4.

[109]   بحار الأنوار (ط – بيروت)، ج‏46، ص: 13 (After Hijri (Migration from Makkahh), the Islamic Year.

[110] Abu Abdullah–asws having said: ‘Ali–asws Bin Al-Husayn–asws passed away and he–asws was fifty-seven years old, during the year ninety-five (A.H.). He–asws lived after Al-Husayn–asws for thirty five years’ (Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 117 H 6)

[111] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter Ali-asws ibn Hussain-asws, h 1

[112] Ibid, h 2.

[113] Ibid, h 4.

[114] Ibid, h 5.

[115]This Verse is the answer from Prophet Yaqub (in the Holy Quran) to his sons when they said:  ‘By Allah! You will not cease remembering Yusuf till you are on the verge of death, or until you die (12:85)

[116] كامل الزيارات، النص، ص: 107, chapter 35, H. 1.

[117] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 46, The book of History – Ali Bin Al-Husayn–asws, Ch 5 H 19

[118] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 46, The book of History – Ali Bin Al-Husayn–asws, Ch 5 H 17

[119] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 46, The book of History – Muhammad Al Baqir–asws, Ch 4 H 7

[120] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 118 H 6

[121] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 46, The book of History – Muhammad Al Baqir–asws, Ch 1 H 1

[122] Prophet Mohammed-asws name

[123] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on Imam Abu Jafar-asws, h 1.

[124] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on Imam Abu Jafar-asws, h 2.

[125] Ibid, h 3.

[126] The children of Bani Umayyad (the descendants of Umayyad) who were the enemies of the children of the Rasool Allah-saww.

[127] Ibid, h 5.

[128] Bihar ul Anwar, vol. 4, pg. 9

[129] Ibid, h 6.

[130] الكافي (ط – الإسلامية)، ج‏5، ص: 117, Al Kafi – V 5 – The Book of Subsistence Ch 35 H 1

[131] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 46, The book of History – Muhammad Al Baqir–asws, Ch 1 H 24

[132] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 46, The book of History – Muhammad Al Baqir–asws, Ch 1 H 10

[133] Bihar Al-Anwaar V 89 – The Book of Quran – Ch 127 H 7 a

[134] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 119 H 7, Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 47, The book of History – Ja’far Al-Sadiq-asws, Ch 1 H 1, Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 47, The book of History – Ja’far Al-Sadiq–asws, Ch 1 H 2-3

[135] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq-asws, h. 1.,

[136] Ibid, h. 2.

[137] Ibid, h 4.

[138] Ibid, h 5.

[139] Bihar ul Anwar, vol. 8, pp6

[140] Ibid, h 7.

[141] Two large white sheets worn during Hajj

[142] Ibid, h 8.

[143] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 47, The book of History – Ja’far Al-Sadiq–asws, Ch 1 H 11

[144] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 47, The book of History – Ja’far Al-Sadiq–asws, Ch 8 H 22

[145] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 120 H 9

[146] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 120 H 3

[147] The 12th Imam with Divine Authority to fill the Earth with peace and justice as it will be full of corruption and vice

[148] The infallible members of the family of Mohammed-saww.

[149] Ibid, h, 5.

[150] Ibid, h, 6.

[151] UYUN AKHBAR AL-REZA, Chapter 7, H. 14

[152] Uyun Akhbar Al-Reza, vol. 1, Chater 8, H. 6.

[153] Uyun Akhbar Al-Reza, Chapter 10, H. 3.

[154] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 48, The book of History – Musa Al-Kazim–asws, Ch 11 H 1

[155] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 121 H 11, Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 49, The book of History – Ali Al-Reza–asws, Ch 1 H 3

[156] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 4.

[157] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 6.

[158] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 7.

[159] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 10.

[160] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 11.

[161] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 49, The book of History – Ali Al-Reza–asws, Ch 21 H 8

[162] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 50, The book of History – Muhammad Bin Ali–asws, Ch 2 H 16

[163] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 122 H 12, Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 50, The book of History – Muhammad Bin Ali–asws, Ch 1 H 1

[164] Place of the head of al-Hussain-asws.

[165] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 1.

[166] People with Divine Authority.

[167] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 3.

[168] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 4.

[169] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 7.

[170] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 9.

[171] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 10.

[172] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 11.

[173] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 12.

[174]Biharul Anwaar vol 9-10 p22

[175]    , H. 8,  بحار الأنوار (ط – بيروت)، ج‏50، ص: 7

[176] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 50, The book of History – Ali Bin Muhammad–asws, Ch 2 H,2, 4

[177] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 50, The book of History – Ali Bin Muhammad–asws, Ch 1 H 2

[178] بحار الأنوار (ط – بيروت)، ج‏50، ص: 115

[179] H. 9, بحار الأنوار (ط – بيروت)، ج‏50، ص: 117

[180] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 2.

[181] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 3.

[182] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 4.

[183] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 5.

[184] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 9.

[185] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 50, The book of History – Al Hassan Bin Ali–asws, Ch 2 H 15

[186] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 50, The book of History – Al Hassan Bin Ali–asws, Ch 2 H 18

[187] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 50, The book of History – Al Hassan Bin Ali–asws, Ch 2 H 20

[188]   , H.3,   بحار الأنوار (ط – بيروت)، ج‏50، ص: 236

[189] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 50, The book of History – Al Hassan Bin Ali–asws, Ch 4 H 1

[190] The Tribe of the Rasool Allah-saww

[191] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws Ibn Ali Al-Naqi-asws, h 1

[192] A break-away Shia sect who believed in a line of seven Imams with the seventh, Musa al-Kazim-asws, as the Qa’im-asws (or Mahdi-asws)

[193] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws Ibn Ali Al-Naqi-asws, h 3

[194] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws Ibn Ali Al-Naqi-asws, h 5

[195] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws Ibn Ali Al-Naqi-asws, h 10

[196] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws Ibn Ali Al-Naqi-asws, h 11

[197] The 12th Imam-asws who will rise with Divine Authority and Power.

[198] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws Ibn Ali Al-Naqi-asws, h 13

[199] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws Ibn Ali Al-Naqi-asws, h 17

[200] Authority of Allah-azwj

[201] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws Ibn Ali Al-Naqi-asws, h 21

[202] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws Ibn Ali Al-Naqi-asws, h 26

[203] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws Ibn Ali Al-Naqi-asws, h 27

[204] Bihar-ul-Anwar, vol. 9, pp. 320

[205] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 50, The book of History – Al Hassan Bin Ali–asws, Ch 4 H 1

[206] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Bab Mulud Al-Sahib-asws

[207] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, 12th Imam–ajfj Ibn Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws, h 1

[208] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, 12th Imam-ajfj Ibn Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws, h 2

[209] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History- 128, h 2

[210] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History- 128, h 3

[211] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, 12th Imam-ajfj Ibn Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws, h 10

[212] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, 12th Imam-ajfj Ibn Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws, h 11

[213] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, 12th Imam-ajfj Ibn Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws, h 17

[214] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, 12th Imam-ajfj Ibn Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws, h 21

[215] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, 12th Imam-ajfj Ibn Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws, h 27

[216] See for example in “Kitab-ul-Ghaibah”, of Shaykh Tusi and “Kamaaluddin” of Ibne Babuwayh

[217] كمال‏الدين ج : 2 ص : 372, H. 5.

[218] Bihar-ul-Anwar, vol. 52, h, 138   بحارالأنوار ج : 52 ص : 364

[219] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History- 126, h 3

[220] Allah–azwj Sent Prophets in the physical shape of a human being who guided both human beings as well as the Jinns.

[221] In common with the 12 Imamis

[222] Ask the people of Ahl Al-Zikr if you don’t know (21:7)

[223] إِلَّا عِبَادَكَ مِنْهُمُ الْمُخْلَصِينَ {40}

Except for Your servants from them, the sincere ones’ [15:40]


[224] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 25, The book of Imamate, P 3 Ch 4 H 13

[225] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 25, The book of Imamate, P 3 Ch 4 H 5

[226] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 25, The book of Imamate, P 3 Ch 4 H 14

[227] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 25, The book of Imamate, P 3 Ch 4 H 28

[228] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 25, The book of Imamate, P 3 Ch 4 H 39

[229] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 25, The book of Imamate, P 3 Ch 5 H 6

[230] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 98 H 5

[231] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 25, The book of Imamate, P 3 Ch 4 H 5

[232] Verse 97 (Inna Anzalna…)

[233] As there are many Ahadith which say that ascension of Rasool Allah–saww, from the time frame of earth was of few seconds/minutes.

[234] Unexplainable wonders

[235] The Year when Ibrah came with elephants to demolish Kabahh (House of Allah-azwj in Makkahh).

[236] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History.

[237] Ibid, h 1.

[238] Ibid, h 3.

[239] Ibid, h 4.

[240] Ibid, h 5.

[241] Ibid, h 8.

[242] Ibid, h 10.

[243] Ibid, h 11.

[244] Ibid, h 21

[245] Trip to the Heavens

[246] Ibid, h 13.

[247] Ibid, h 40

[248] Ibid, h 14.

[249] Ibid, h 20

[250] Ibid, h 15.

[251] Ibid, h 16.

[252] Ibid, h 17

[253] الكافي 5: 526/ 2.

[254] Ibid, h 22

[255] Ibid, h 24

[256] كمال الدين و تمام النعمة: 174/ 32.

[257] Ibid, h 26

[258] Ibid, h 30

[259] Ibid, h 18

[260] Ibid, h 31

[261] Bihar ul Anwar, Vol. 22, Chapter 514, pg. 16

[262] Tafseer al ayyashi Vol.1 Pg.200

[263] Ibid, h 35

[264] Ibid, h 37

[265] الكافي 1: 448/ 13

[266] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1 Chapter on History, Ch. 2, h 1.

[267] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History- 126, h 6

[268] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History- 126, h 7

[269] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History- 126, h 8

[270] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History- 126, h 9

[271] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History- 126, h 10

[272] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History- 126, h 11

[273] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History- 126, h 12

[274] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History- 126, h 13

[275] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History- 126, h 14

[276] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History- 126, h 15

[277] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History- 126, h 16

[278] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History- 126, h 17

[279] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History- 126, h 18

[280] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History- 126, h 19

[281] Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, 12th Imam-ajfj Ibn Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws, h 3