Atheist – Masomeen-asws replies to them

حَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ الْأَسَدِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ الْبَرْمَكِيِّ الرَّازِيِّ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ بُرْدٍ الدِّينَوَرِيِّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الْخُرَاسَانِيِّ خَادِمِ الرِّضَا ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ دَخَلَ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الزَّنَادِقَةِ عَلَى أَبِي الْحَسَنِ ( عليه السلام ) وَ عِنْدَهُ جَمَاعَةٌ فَقَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ ( عليه السلام ) أَيُّهَا الرَّجُلُ أَ رَأَيْتَ إِنْ كَانَ الْقَوْلُ قَوْلَكُمْ وَ لَيْسَ هُوَ كَمَا تَقُولُونَ أَ لَسْنَا وَ إِيَّاكُمْ شَرَعاً سَوَاءً لَا يَضُرُّنَا مَا صَلَّيْنَا وَ صُمْنَا وَ زَكَّيْنَا وَ أَقْرَرْنَا فَسَكَتَ الرَّجُلُ

Muhammad Bin Ja’far Al Asady narrated to me, from Muhammad Bin Ismail Al Barmakky Al Q-azy, from Al Husayn Bin Al Hassan Bin Burd Al Deynawary, from Muhammad Bin Ali,

(It has been narrated) from Muhammad Bin Abdullah Al-Khurasany, a servant of Al-Reza-asws who said, ‘A man from the atheists came over to Abu Al-Hassan-asws, and in his-asws presence was a group. So Abu Al-Hassan-asws said: ‘O you man! What is your view if the word was your word (atheism), and it is not as what you are saying it to be, wouldn’t we and you all would be both equally right, and it would not harm us what we are praying Salāt, and our Fasting, and our (payment of) Zakāt, and our acknowledgement (of Allah-azwj)?’. So the man was silent.

ثُمَّ قَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ ( عليه السلام ) وَ إِنْ كَانَ الْقَوْلُ قَوْلَنَا وَ هُوَ قَوْلُنَا أَ لَسْتُمْ قَدْ هَلَكْتُمْ وَ نَجَوْنَا فَقَالَ رَحِمَكَ اللَّهُ أَوْجِدْنِي كَيْفَ هُوَ وَ أَيْنَ هُوَ فَقَالَ وَيْلَكَ إِنَّ الَّذِي ذَهَبْتَ إِلَيْهِ غَلَطٌ هُوَ أَيَّنَ الْأَيْنَ بِلَا أَيْنٍ وَ كَيَّفَ الْكَيْفَ بِلَا كَيْفٍ فَلَا يُعْرَفُ بِالْكَيْفُوفِيَّةِ وَ لَا بِأَيْنُونِيَّةٍ وَ لَا يُدْرَكُ بِحَاسَّةٍ وَ لَا يُقَاسُ بِشَيْ‏ءٍ

Then Abu Al-Hassan-asws said: ‘And if it was so that the word was our word (Existence of Allah-azwj), and it is our word, wouldn’t you be destroyed and we would be Saved?’ So he said, ‘May Allah-azwj have Mercy on you-asws! Help me find How He-azwj is and where He-azwj is?’ So he-asws said: ‘Woe be unto you! That which goes to Him-azwj is wrong. He-azwj is ‘where’ without a ‘where’, and ‘how’ without the ‘how’, so He-azwj cannot be recognised by the ‘how-ness’ nor by the ‘where-ness’, nor can He-azwj be attained by the feelings, nor can He-azwj be compared with anything’.

فَقَالَ الرَّجُلُ فَإِذاً إِنَّهُ لَا شَيْ‏ءَ إِذَا لَمْ يُدْرَكْ بِحَاسَّةٍ مِنَ الْحَوَاسِّ فَقَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ ( عليه السلام ) وَيْلَكَ لَمَّا عَجَزَتْ حَوَاسُّكَ عَنْ إِدْرَاكِهِ أَنْكَرْتَ رُبُوبِيَّتَهُ وَ نَحْنُ إِذَا عَجَزَتْ حَوَاسُّنَا عَنْ إِدْرَاكِهِ أَيْقَنَّا أَنَّهُ رَبُّنَا بِخِلَافِ شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنَ الْأَشْيَاءِ

So the man said, ‘So He-azwj is ‘nothing’ when He-azwj cannot be realised by the feelings from the senses’. So Abu Al Hassan-asws said: ‘Woe be unto you! Your senses are unable to realise Him-azwj, so you are denying His-azwj Lordship, and us-asws, when our senses are unable to realise realise Him-azwj, we are even more convinced that He-azwj is our Lord-azwj, as a different thing from the things’.

قَالَ الرَّجُلُ فَأَخْبِرْنِي مَتَى كَانَ قَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ ( عليه السلام ) أَخْبِرْنِي مَتَى لَمْ يَكُنْ فَأُخْبِرَكَ مَتَى كَانَ قَالَ الرَّجُلُ فَمَا الدَّلِيلُ عَلَيْهِ فَقَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ ( عليه السلام ) إِنِّي لَمَّا نَظَرْتُ إِلَى جَسَدِي وَ لَمْ يُمْكِنِّي فِيهِ زِيَادَةٌ وَ لَا نُقْصَانٌ فِي الْعَرْضِ وَ الطُّولِ وَ دَفْعِ الْمَكَارِهِ عَنْهُ وَ جَرِّ الْمَنْفَعَةِ إِلَيْهِ عَلِمْتُ أَنَّ لِهَذَا الْبُنْيَانِ بَانِياً فَأَقْرَرْتُ بِهِ مَعَ مَا أَرَى مِنْ دَوَرَانِ الْفَلَكِ بِقُدْرَتِهِ وَ إِنْشَاءِ السَّحَابِ وَ تَصْرِيفِ الرِّيَاحَ وَ مَجْرَى الشَّمْسِ وَ الْقَمَرِ وَ النُّجُومِ وَ غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْآيَاتِ الْعَجِيبَاتِ الْمُبَيِّنَاتِ عَلِمْتُ أَنَّ لِهَذَا مُقَدِّراً وَ مُنْشِئاً .

The man said, ‘So inform me, when was He-azwj (from)?’ Abu Al-Hassan-asws said: ‘Inform me-asws, when He-azwj wasn’t and I-asws will inform you when He-azwj was’. The man said, ‘So what is the evidence upon it?’ So Abu Al-Hassan-asws said: ‘I-asws, when I-asws look at my-asws body, and am not enabled upon increasing it, nor reducing it in the width, and the length, and repulsing the abhorrence from it and flowing the benefits to it, I-asws know that for this construction, there is a Builder. So I-asws acknowledge with it what I-asws see from the orbiting of the planets by His-azwj Power, and the growth of the clouds, and the interchanging of the winds, and the flowing of the sun and the moon and the stars, and other than that from the wondrous clear signs, I-asws know that for this is Determiner and a Builder’.[1]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَبَّاسِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو الْفُقَيْمِيِّ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ فِي حَدِيثِ الزِّنْدِيقِ الَّذِي أَتَى أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) وَ كَانَ مِنْ قَوْلِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام )

Ali Bin Ibrahim, from his father, from Abbas Bin Amro Al Fuqaymi,

(It has been narrated) from Hisham Bin Al-Hakam in a Hadeeth of the atheist who came over to Abu Abdullah-asws, and it was from the words of Abu Abdullah-asws: –

لَا يَخْلُو قَوْلُكَ إِنَّهُمَا اثْنَانِ مِنْ أَنْ يَكُونَا قَدِيمَيْنِ قَوِيَّيْنِ أَوْ يَكُونَا ضَعِيفَيْنِ أَوْ يَكُونَ أَحَدُهُمَا قَوِيّاً وَ الْآخَرُ ضَعِيفاً فَإِنْ كَانَا قَوِيَّيْنِ فَلِمَ لَا يَدْفَعُ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا صَاحِبَهُ وَ يَتَفَرَّدُ بِالتَّدْبِيرِ

‘You are not free from your words that there are two (gods). Either they are both eternally from before, both strong, or they are both weak, and one of them happens to be strong and the other one weak. So if they were both strong, so why doesn’t each one of the two repulse his companion and be alone with the management (of the universe)?

وَ إِنْ زَعَمْتَ أَنَّ أَحَدَهُمَا قَوِيٌّ وَ الْآخَرَ ضَعِيفٌ ثَبَتَ أَنَّهُ وَاحِدٌ كَمَا نَقُولُ لِلْعَجْزِ الظَّاهِرِ فِي الثَّانِي

And if you are alleging that one of the two is strong and the other one is weak, it would be proven that He-azwj is One just as we are saying due to the inability of the second one being apparent.

فَإِنْ قُلْتَ إِنَّهُمَا اثْنَانِ لَمْ يَخْلُ مِنْ أَنْ يَكُونَا مُتَّفِقَيْنِ مِنْ كُلِّ جِهَةٍ أَوْ مُفْتَرِقَيْنِ مِنْ كُلِّ جِهَةٍ فَلَمَّا رَأَيْنَا الْخَلْقَ مُنْتَظِماً وَ الْفَلَكَ جَارِياً وَ التَّدْبِيرَ وَاحِداً وَ اللَّيْلَ وَ النَّهَارَ وَ الشَّمْسَ وَ الْقَمَرَ دَلَّ صِحَّةُ الْأَمْرِ وَ التَّدْبِيرِ وَ ائْتِلَافُ الْأَمْرِ عَلَى أَنَّ الْمُدَبِّرَ وَاحِدٌ ثُمَّ يَلْزَمُكَ إِنِ ادَّعَيْتَ اثْنَيْنِ فُرْجَةٌ مَا بَيْنَهُمَا حَتَّى يَكُونَا اثْنَيْنِ فَصَارَتِ الْفُرْجَةُ ثَالِثاً بَيْنَهُمَا قَدِيماً مَعَهُمَا فَيَلْزَمُكَ ثَلَاثَةٌ

So if you were to say that there are two (gods), and that they are both concordant from every aspect, or separate from every aspect, so when we see the creation being regulated and the planets flowing, and the strategy is one, and the night and the day, and the sun and the moon, are evidence to the wellbeing of the order and the strategy, and the coalition of the matters evidences upon that the Regulator is One. Then it would necessitate you, if you claim two (gods) that there should be a gap between the two in what is between them until they can happen to be two. Thus the gap would come to be the third (entity) between the two (gods), being eternally from before along with the two of them. Thus, it would necessitate a third (entity).

فَإِنِ ادَّعَيْتَ ثَلَاثَةً لَزِمَكَ مَا قُلْتَ فِي الِاثْنَيْنِ حَتَّى تَكُونَ بَيْنَهُمْ فُرْجَةٌ فَيَكُونُوا خَمْسَةً ثُمَّ يَتَنَاهَى فِي الْعَدَدِ إِلَى مَا لَا نِهَايَةَ لَهُ فِي الْكَثْرَةِ

So if you were to claim three, it would necessitate you what you said regarding the two, until there can happen to be a gap between them until they can happen to be five. Then you would end up in the numbering to what there is no end to it regarding the multitude’.

قَالَ هِشَامٌ فَكَانَ مِنْ سُؤَالِ الزِّنْدِيقِ أَنْ قَالَ فَمَا الدَّلِيلُ عَلَيْهِ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) وُجُودُ الْأَفَاعِيلِ دَلَّتْ عَلَى أَنَّ صَانِعاً صَنَعَهَا أَ لَا تَرَى أَنَّكَ إِذَا نَظَرْتَ إِلَى بِنَاءٍ مُشَيَّدٍ مَبْنِيٍّ عَلِمْتَ أَنَّ لَهُ بَانِياً وَ إِنْ كُنْتَ لَمْ تَرَ الْبَانِيَ وَ لَمْ تُشَاهِدْهُ

Hisham said, ‘It was so from the question of the atheist that he said, ‘So what is the evidence upon Him-azwj?’ So Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘The existence of the effects evidence upon that there is a Causer Causing these. Do you not see that you, when you look at a building constructed, you know that there is a builder for it, and even if you cannot see the builder and did not witness its (construction)?’

قَالَ فَمَا هُوَ قَالَ شَيْ‏ءٌ بِخِلَافِ الْأَشْيَاءِ ارْجِعْ بِقَوْلِي إِلَى إِثْبَاتِ مَعْنًى وَ أَنَّهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ بِحَقِيقَةِ الشَّيْئِيَّةِ غَيْرَ أَنَّهُ لَا جِسْمٌ وَ لَا صُورَةٌ وَ لَا يُحَسُّ وَ لَا يُجَسُّ وَ لَا يُدْرَكُ بِالْحَوَاسِّ الْخَمْسِ لَا تُدْرِكُهُ الْأَوْهَامُ وَ لَا تَنْقُصُهُ الدُّهُورُ وَ لَا تُغَيِّرُهُ الْأَزْمَانُ .

He said, ‘So what is He-azwj?’ He-asws said: ‘A thing which is different from the things. I return to my-asws words to prove the meaning, and He-azwj is a thing in the reality of the ‘thing-ness’. He-azwj neither has a body nor an image, nor can He-azwj be felt, nor touched, nor can He-azwj be realised by the five senses. Neither can the imaginations grasp Him-azwj, nor does the age reduce Him-azwj, nor does the time change Him-azwj’.[2]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ الْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو الْفُقَيْمِيِّ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) أَنَّهُ قَالَ لِلزِّنْدِيقِ حِينَ سَأَلَهُ مَا هُوَ قَالَ هُوَ شَيْ‏ءٌ بِخِلَافِ الْأَشْيَاءِ ارْجِعْ بِقَوْلِي إِلَى إِثْبَاتِ مَعْنًى وَ أَنَّهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ بِحَقِيقَةِ الشَّيْئِيَّةِ غَيْرَ أَنَّهُ لَا جِسْمٌ وَ لَا صُورَةٌ وَ لَا يُحَسُّ وَ لَا يُجَسُّ وَ لَا يُدْرَكُ بِالْحَوَاسِّ الْخَمْسِ لَا تُدْرِكُهُ الْأَوْهَامُ وَ لَا تَنْقُصُهُ الدُّهُورُ وَ لَا تُغَيِّرُهُ الْأَزْمَانُ

Ali Bin Ibrahim, from his father, from Al Abbas Bin Amro Al Fuqaymi, from Hisham Bin Al Hakam,

(It has been narrated) from Abu Abdullah-asws having said to the atheist when he asked him-asws, ‘What is He-azwj?’ He-asws said: ‘He-azwj is a thing different for the things. I-asws reiterate with my-asws words to prove the meaning, and He-azwj is a thing in reality of the ‘thing-ness’ apart from that He-azwj has neither a body, nor an image, nor can He-azwj be felt, nor can He-azwj be touched, nor can He-azwj be realised by the five sensory perceptions. Neither can the imaginations grasp Him-azwj, nor can the ages reduce Him-azwj, nor can the times change Him-azwj’.

فَقَالَ لَهُ السَّائِلُ فَتَقُولُ إِنَّهُ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ قَالَ هُوَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ سَمِيعٌ بِغَيْرِ جَارِحَةٍ وَ بَصِيرٌ بِغَيْرِ آلَةٍ بَلْ يَسْمَعُ بِنَفْسِهِ وَ يُبْصِرُ بِنَفْسِهِ لَيْسَ قَوْلِي إِنَّهُ سَمِيعٌ يَسْمَعُ بِنَفْسِهِ وَ بَصِيرٌ يُبْصِرُ بِنَفْسِهِ أَنَّهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَ النَّفْسُ شَيْ‏ءٌ آخَرُ وَ لَكِنْ أَرَدْتُ عِبَارَةً عَنْ نَفْسِي إِذْ كُنْتُ مَسْئُولًا وَ إِفْهَاماً لَكَ إِذْ كُنْتَ سَائِلًا فَأَقُولُ إِنَّهُ سَمِيعٌ بِكُلِّهِ لَا أَنَّ الْكُلَّ مِنْهُ لَهُ بَعْضٌ وَ لَكِنِّي أَرَدْتُ إِفْهَامَكَ وَ التَّعْبِيرُ عَنْ نَفْسِي وَ لَيْسَ مَرْجِعِي فِي ذَلِكَ إِلَّا إِلَى أَنَّهُ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ الْعَالِمُ الْخَبِيرُ بِلَا اخْتِلَافِ الذَّاتِ وَ لَا اخْتِلَافِ الْمَعْنَى

So the questioner said to him-asws, ‘But you-asws are saying that He-azwj is Hearing, Seeing’. He-asws said: ‘He-azwj is Hearing, Seeing. He-azwj Sees without an organ and Sees without an instrument, but He-azwj is Seeing by Himself-azwj and is Hearing by Himself-azwj. My-asws words that ‘He-azwj is Seeing by Himself-azwj and is Hearing by Himself-azwj’ is not that He-azwj is a thing and His-azwj Self is another thing. But, I-asws intend as an idiom from myself-asws when I-asws was asked and as an understanding for you when you asked. Thus, I-asws am saying that He-azwj Hears by all of Him-azwj, not that the for the ‘all’ of Him-azwj there are parts, but I-asws intend to make you understand and as an idiom from myself-asws and I-asws do not re-iterate in that except that He-azwj is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing, the All-Knowing, the All-Aware without a differentiation of the Self nor differentiation of the meaning’.

قَالَ لَهُ السَّائِلُ فَمَا هُوَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) هُوَ الرَّبُّ وَ هُوَ الْمَعْبُودُ وَ هُوَ اللَّهُ وَ لَيْسَ قَوْلِي اللَّهُ إِثْبَاتَ هَذِهِ الْحُرُوفِ أَلِفٍ وَ لَامٍ وَ هَاءٍ وَ لَا رَاءٍ وَ لَا بَاءٍ وَ لَكِنِ ارْجِعْ إِلَى مَعْنًى وَ شَيْ‏ءٍ خَالِقِ الْأَشْيَاءِ وَ صَانِعِهَا وَ نَعْتِ هَذِهِ الْحُرُوفِ وَ هُوَ الْمَعْنَى سُمِّيَ بِهِ اللَّهُ وَ الرَّحْمَنُ وَ الرَّحِيمُ وَ الْعَزِيزُ وَ أَشْبَاهُ ذَلِكَ مِنْ أَسْمَائِهِ وَ هُوَ الْمَعْبُودُ جَلَّ وَ عَزَّ

The questioner said to him-asws, ‘So what is He-azwj?’ Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘He-azwj is the Lord-azwj, and He-azwj is the worshipped, and He-azwj is Allah-azwj. And it is not my-asws word ‘Allah’ to prove these letters, ‘Alif’, and ‘Laam’, and ‘Ha’, nor ‘Ra’ nor ‘Ba’, but I re-iterate to a meaning and a thing, Creator of the things and its Maker, and the intention of these letters, and it is the meaning ‘Allah’ has been Named by, and ‘the Beneficent’, and the ‘Merciful’, and the ‘Mighty’, and the likes of that from His-azwj Names, and He-azwj is the worshipped One, Majestic and Mighty’.

قَالَ لَهُ السَّائِلُ فَإِنَّا لَمْ نَجِدْ مَوْهُوماً إِلَّا مَخْلُوقاً قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) لَوْ كَانَ ذَلِكَ كَمَا تَقُولُ لَكَانَ التَّوْحِيدُ عَنَّا مُرْتَفِعاً لِأَنَّا لَمْ نُكَلَّفْ غَيْرَ مَوْهُومٍ وَ لَكِنَّا نَقُولُ كُلُّ مَوْهُومٍ بِالْحَوَاسِّ مُدْرَكٍ بِهِ تَحُدُّهُ الْحَوَاسُّ وَ تُمَثِّلُهُ فَهُوَ مَخْلُوقٌ إِذْ كَانَ النَّفْيُ هُوَ الْإِبْطَالَ وَ الْعَدَمَ وَ الْجِهَةُ

The questioner said to him-asws, ‘But we do not find our imaginations except as creations’. Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘If it was that, just as you are saying, the Tawheed (Oneness) would be raised (negated), because we are not encumbered without imagination. But we are saying that every imagination with the senses realised with is limited by the senses, and is a resemblance, thus it is a creation. When it was the negation, so it is the invalidation, and the nothingness (non-entity) and the modality.

الثَّانِيَةُ التَّشْبِيهُ إِذْ كَانَ التَّشْبِيهُ هُوَ صِفَةَ الْمَخْلُوقِ الظَّاهِرِ التَّرْكِيبِ وَ التَّأْلِيفِ فَلَمْ يَكُنْ بُدٌّ مِنْ إِثْبَاتِ الصَّانِعِ لِوُجُودِ الْمَصْنُوعِينَ وَ الِاضْطِرَارِ إِلَيْهِمْ أَنَّهُمْ مَصْنُوعُونَ وَ أَنَّ صَانِعَهُمْ غَيْرُهُمْ وَ لَيْسَ مِثْلَهُمْ إِذْ كَانَ مِثْلُهُمْ شَبِيهاً بِهِمْ فِي ظَاهِرِ التَّرْكِيبِ وَ التَّأْلِيفِ وَ فِيمَا يَجْرِي عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ حُدُوثِهِمْ بَعْدَ إِذْ لَمْ يَكُونُوا وَ تَنَقُّلِهِمْ مِنَ صِغَرٍ إِلَى كِبَرٍ وَ سَوَادٍ إِلَى بَيَاضٍ وَ قُوَّةٍ إِلَى ضَعْفٍ وَ أَحْوَالٍ مَوْجُودَةٍ لَا حَاجَةَ بِنَا إِلَى تَفْسِيرِهَا لِبَيَانِهَا وَ وُجُودِهَا

The second is the resemblance. When there was the resemblance, it would be a quality of the creation, the apparent, the assembled, and the composed. So it would not happen to be inevitable from proving the Maker due to the existence of the manufactured items and the necessity to them that they are manufactured and that their Maker is other than them, and is not like them. If He-azwj was like them, He-azwj would have resembled them in the apparent, and the assemblage, and the composition, with regards to what flows upon them from their coming into being afterwards when they did not exist (beforehand), and their transformation from the smallness to the largeness, and blackness to whiteness, and strength to weakness, and their existing states. There is no need for us-asws to interpret these in order to explain these and their existences’.

قَالَ لَهُ السَّائِلُ فَقَدْ حَدَدْتَهُ إِذْ أَثْبَتَّ وُجُودَهُ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) لَمْ أَحُدَّهُ وَ لَكِنِّي أَثْبَتُّهُ إِذْ لَمْ يَكُنْ بَيْنَ النَّفْيِ وَ الْإِثْبَاتِ مَنْزِلَةٌ

The questioner said to him-asws, ‘But you-asws would have limited Him-azwj when you proved His-azwj existence’. Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘I-asws did not limit Him-azwj. But I-asws proved Him-azwj when there does not happen to be a stage between the negation and the proofs’.

قَالَ لَهُ السَّائِلُ فَلَهُ إِنِّيَّةٌ وَ مَائِيَّةٌ قَالَ نَعَمْ لَا يُثْبَتُ الشَّيْ‏ءُ إِلَّا بِإِنِّيَّةٍ وَ مَائِيَّةٍ

The questioner said to him-asws, ‘So, for Him-azwj there is a reality and an actuality?’ He-asws said: ‘Yes. The thing cannot be proven except in a reality and actuality’.

قَالَ لَهُ السَّائِلُ فَلَهُ كَيْفِيَّةٌ قَالَ لَا لِأَنَّ الْكَيْفِيَّةَ جِهَةُ الصِّفَةِ وَ الْإِحَاطَةِ وَ لَكِنْ لَا بُدَّ مِنَ الْخُرُوجِ مِنْ جِهَةِ التَّعْطِيلِ وَ التَّشْبِيهِ لِأَنَّ مَنْ نَفَاهُ فَقَدْ أَنْكَرَهُ وَ دَفَعَ رُبُوبِيَّتَهُ وَ أَبْطَلَهُ وَ مَنْ شَبَّهَهُ بِغَيْرِهِ فَقَدْ أَثْبَتَهُ بِصِفَةِ الْمَخْلُوقِينَ الْمَصْنُوعِينَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَسْتَحِقُّونَ الرُّبُوبِيَّةَ وَ لَكِنْ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ إِثْبَاتِ أَنَّ لَهُ كَيْفِيَّةً لَا يَسْتَحِقُّهَا غَيْرُهُ وَ لَا يُشَارِكُ فِيهَا وَ لَا يُحَاطُ بِهَا وَ لَا يَعْلَمُهَا غَيْرُهُ

The questioner said to him-asws, ‘So is there a ‘how-ness’ (Qualitative State) for Him-azwj?’ He-asws said: ‘No, because the qualitative state is an aspect of the quality, but it is inevitable from exiting from an aspect of the temporariness and the resemblance, because the one who negates Him-azwj, so he had denied Him-azwj and repulsed His-azwj Lordship and invalidated it; and the one who resembles Him-azwj with something else, so he has proved Him-azwj with a quality of the creation, the manufactured ones who are not rightful for the Lordship. But it is inevitable from the proofs that for Him-azwj there is a Qualitative State which others are not rightful of, nor does anything participate in it, nor is inter-mingled with it, nor is something else known by it.

قَالَ السَّائِلُ فَيُعَانِي الْأَشْيَاءَ بِنَفْسِهِ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) هُوَ أَجَلُّ مِنْ أَنْ يُعَانِيَ الْأَشْيَاءَ بِمُبَاشَرَةٍ وَ مُعَالَجَةٍ لِأَنَّ ذَلِكَ صِفَةُ الْمَخْلُوقِ الَّذِي لَا تَجِي‏ءُ الْأَشْيَاءُ لَهُ إِلَّا بِالْمُبَاشَرَةِ وَ الْمُعَالَجَةِ وَ هُوَ مُتَعَالٍ نَافِذُ الْإِرَادَةِ وَ الْمَشِيئَةِ فَعَّالٌ لِمَا يَشَاءُ .

The questioner said, ‘So do the (Creation of the) things tire His-azwj Self?’ Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘He is more Majestic than that the (Creation of) things should Tire Him-azwj by the Initiating (the things) and Processing, because that is a quality of the created beings who do not come to the things except by the production and the processing, and He-azwj is most Exalted, Implementer of the Will and the Desire, Doing whatever He-azwj so Desires to’.[3]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ الْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ فِي حَدِيثِ الزِّنْدِيقِ الَّذِي سَأَلَ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) فَكَانَ مِنْ سُؤَالِهِ أَنْ قَالَ لَهُ فَلَهُ رِضًا وَ سَخَطٌ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) نَعَمْ وَ لَكِنْ لَيْسَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى مَا يُوجَدُ مِنَ الْمَخْلُوقِينَ وَ ذَلِكَ أَنَّ الرِّضَا حَالٌ تَدْخُلُ عَلَيْهِ فَتَنْقُلُهُ مِنْ حَالٍ إِلَى حَالٍ لِأَنَّ الْمَخْلُوقَ أَجْوَفُ مُعْتَمِلٌ مُرَكَّبٌ لِلْأَشْيَاءِ فِيهِ مَدْخَلٌ وَ خَالِقُنَا لَا مَدْخَلَ لِلْأَشْيَاءِ فِيهِ لِأَنَّهُ وَاحِدٌ وَاحِدِيُّ الذَّاتِ وَاحِدِيُّ الْمَعْنَى فَرِضَاهُ ثَوَابُهُ وَ سَخَطُهُ عِقَابُهُ مِنْ غَيْرِ شَيْ‏ءٍ يَتَدَاخَلُهُ فَيُهَيِّجُهُ وَ يَنْقُلُهُ مِنْ حَالٍ إِلَى حَالٍ لِأَنَّ ذَلِكَ مِنْ صِفَةِ الْمَخْلُوقِينَ الْعَاجِزِينَ الْمُحْتَاجِينَ .

Ali Bin Ibrahim, from his father, from Al Abbas Bin Amro,

(It has been narrated) from Hisham Bin Al-Hakam in a Hadeeth of the atheist who questioned Abu Abdullah-asws. So, it was from his questions that he said to him-asws, ‘So, for Him-azwj is Pleasure and Anger?’ So Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘Yes, but that is not upon what is found from the creatures, and that is because the pleasure is a state entered upon, so you would be transferred from a state into a state, because the creature is hollow, active, compound of the things. In him is an entrance, and our Creator has no entrance for the things in Him-azwj, because He-azwj is the One-azwj. The One-azwj in the Self and One in the Meaning. Thus, His-azwj Pleasure is His-azwj Rewarding, and His-azwj Anger is His-azwj Punishment from without anything having entered Him-azwj, so it would provoke Him-azwj and He-azwj would change from a state to a state, because that is from the attributes of the creatures, the frustrated, the needy’.[4]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ مَنْصُورِ بْنِ حَازِمٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) إِنَّ اللَّهَ أَجَلُّ وَ أَكْرَمُ مِنْ أَنْ يُعْرَفَ بِخَلْقِهِ بَلِ الْخَلْقُ يُعْرَفُونَ بِاللَّهِ قَالَ صَدَقْتَ

Muhammad Bin Ismail, from Al F-azl Bin Sh-azan, from Safwan Bin Yahya, from Mansour Bin H-azim who said,

‘I said to Abu Abdullah-asws, ‘Surely Allah-azwj is more Majestic and more Benevolent than for Him-azwj to be recognised due to His-azwj creatures, but the creatures are being recognised due to Allah-azwj’. He-asws said: ‘You speak the truth’.

قُلْتُ إِنَّ مَنْ عَرَفَ أَنَّ لَهُ رَبّاً فَقَدْ يَنْبَغِي لَهُ أَنْ يَعْرِفَ أَنَّ لِذَلِكَ الرَّبِّ رِضًا وَ سَخَطاً وَ أَنَّهُ لَا يُعْرَفُ رِضَاهُ وَ سَخَطُهُ إِلَّا بِوَحْيٍ أَوْ رَسُولٍ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَأْتِهِ الْوَحْيُ فَيَنْبَغِي لَهُ أَنْ يَطْلُبَ الرُّسُلَ فَإِذَا لَقِيَهُمْ عَرَفَ أَنَّهُمُ الْحُجَّةُ وَ أَنَّ لَهُمُ الطَّاعَةَ الْمُفْتَرَضَةَ

I said, ‘Surely the one who recognises that there is a Lord-azwj for him, so it would be befitting for him that he recognises that, for that Lord-azwj is a Pleasure and Anger, and that he would not (be able to) recognise His-azwj Pleasure and His-azwj Anger except either by a Revelation or a Rasool-saww. So the one to whom the Revelation does not come, so it is befitting for him that he seeks the Rasools-saww, so when he meets up with him-saww, he should recognises that they-asws are the Divine Authorities and that for them-asws is the necessitated obedience.

فَقُلْتُ لِلنَّاسِ أَ لَيْسَ تَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) كَانَ هُوَ الْحُجَّةَ مِنَ اللَّهِ عَلَى خَلْقِهِ قَالُوا بَلَى قُلْتُ فَحِينَ مَضَى ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) مَنْ كَانَ الْحُجَّةَ قَالُوا الْقُرْآنُ فَنَظَرْتُ فِي الْقُرْآنِ فَإِذَا هُوَ يُخَاصِمُ بِهِ الْمُرْجِئُ وَ الْقَدَرِيُّ وَ الزِّنْدِيقُ الَّذِي لَا يُؤْمِنُ بِهِ حَتَّى يَغْلِبَ الرِّجَالَ بِخُصُومَتِهِ فَعَرَفْتُ أَنَّ الْقُرْآنَ لَا يَكُونُ حُجَّةً إِلَّا بِقَيِّمٍ فَمَا قَالَ فِيهِ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ كَانَ حَقّاً

So I said to the people, ‘Aren’t you knowing that Rasool-Allah-saww, he-saww was the Divine Authority from Allah-azwj upon His-azwj creatures?’ They said, ‘Yes’. I said, ‘So when he-saww passed away, who was the Divine Authority?’ So they said, ‘The Quran’. So when I looked into the Quran, so it is what the Murjiites, and the Qadiriyya, and the Atheists who do not (even) believe in it, debating with it, to the extent that they overcome the men by its debate. So I recognised that the Quran cannot happen to be a Divine Authority except by a Custodian, so that whatever he would say with regards to it, would be true.

فَقُلْتُ لَهُمْ مَنْ قَيِّمُ الْقُرْآنِ قَالُوا ابْنُ مَسْعُودٍ قَدْ كَانَ يَعْلَمُ وَ عُمَرُ يَعْلَمُ وَ حُذَيْفَةُ يَعْلَمُ قُلْتُ كُلَّهُ قَالُوا لَا فَلَمْ أَجِدْ أَحَداً يُقَالُ إِنَّهُ يَعْلَمُ الْقُرْآنَ كُلَّهُ إِلَّا عَلِيّاً صَلَوَاتُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَ إِذَا كَانَ الشَّيْ‏ءُ بَيْنَ الْقَوْمِ فَقَالَ هَذَا لَا أَدْرِي وَ قَالَ هَذَا لَا أَدْرِي وَ قَالَ هَذَا لَا أَدْرِي وَ قَالَ هَذَا أَنَا أَدْرِي

So I said to them, ‘Who is the custodian of the Quran?’ They said, ‘Ibn Masoud used to know, and Umar knew, and Huzayfa knew’. I said, ‘(They knew) all of it?’ They said, ‘No’. So I could not find anyone who could be said that he knew the Quran, all of it, except for Ali-asws; and whenever there was a thing (dispute) between the people, so this one said, ‘I don’t know’, and this one said, ‘I don’t know’, and this one said, ‘I don’t know, and this one said, ‘I do know’.

فَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً ( عليه السلام ) كَانَ قَيِّمَ الْقُرْآنِ وَ كَانَتْ طَاعَتُهُ مُفْتَرَضَةً وَ كَانَ الْحُجَّةَ عَلَى النَّاسِ بَعْدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) وَ أَنَّ مَا قَالَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ فَهُوَ حَقٌّ فَقَالَ رَحِمَكَ اللَّهُ

Thus, I tesitify that Ali-asws was a custodian of the Quran, and obedience to him-asws was a necessity, and he-asws was the Divine Authority upon the people after Rasool-Allah-saww, and that whatever he-asws said regarding the Quran, so it is true’. So he-asws said: ‘May Allah-azwj have Mercy on you!’

فَقُلْتُ إِنَّ عَلِيّاً ( عليه السلام ) لَمْ يَذْهَبْ حَتَّى تَرَكَ حُجَّةً مِنْ بَعْدِهِ كَمَا تَرَكَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) وَ أَنَّ الْحُجَّةَ بَعْدَ عَلِيٍّ الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ وَ أَشْهَدُ عَلَى الْحَسَنِ أَنَّهُ لَمْ يَذْهَبْ حَتَّى تَرَكَ حُجَّةً مِنْ بَعْدِهِ كَمَا تَرَكَ أَبُوهُ وَ جَدُّهُ وَ أَنَّ الْحُجَّةَ بَعْدَ الْحَسَنِ الْحُسَيْنُ وَ كَانَتْ طَاعَتُهُ مُفْتَرَضَةً فَقَالَ رَحِمَكَ اللَّهُ

So I said, ‘Surely Ali-asws did not go away until he-asws left a Divine Authority to be after him-asws just as Rasool-Allah-saww had left, and that the Divine Authority after Ali-asws was Al-Hassan Bin Ali-asws. And I testify that Al-Hassan-asws, he-asws did not go away until he-asws left a Divine Authority to be from after him-asws, just as his-asws father-asws and his-asws grandfather-saww had left, and that the Divine Authority after Al-Hassan-asws, was Al-Husayn-asws, and obedience to him-asws was a necessity’. So he-asws said: ‘May Allah-azwj have Mercy on you!’

فَقَبَّلْتُ رَأْسَهُ وَ قُلْتُ وَ أَشْهَدُ عَلَى الْحُسَيْنِ ( عليه السلام ) أَنَّهُ لَمْ يَذْهَبْ حَتَّى تَرَكَ حُجَّةً مِنْ بَعْدِهِ عَلِيَّ بْنَ الْحُسَيْنِ وَ كَانَتْ طَاعَتُهُ مُفْتَرَضَةً فَقَالَ رَحِمَكَ اللَّهُ

So I kissed his-asws (fore) head and I said, ‘And I testify upon Al-Husayn-asws that he-asws did not go away until he-asws left a Divine Authority to be from after him-asws, being Ali-asws Bin Al-Husayn-asws, and it was so that obedience to him-asws was a necessity’. So he-asws said: ‘May Allah-azwj have Mercy on you!’

فَقَبَّلْتُ رَأْسَهُ وَ قُلْتُ وَ أَشْهَدُ عَلَى عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ أَنَّهُ لَمْ يَذْهَبْ حَتَّى تَرَكَ حُجَّةً مِنْ بَعْدِهِ مُحَمَّدَ بْنَ عَلِيٍّ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ وَ كَانَتْ طَاعَتُهُ مُفْتَرَضَةً فَقَالَ رَحِمَكَ اللَّهُ

So I kissed his-asws (fore) head and I said, ‘And I testify upon Ali-asws Bin Al-Husayn-asws that he-asws did not go away until he-asws left a Divine Authority to be from after him-asws, being Muhammad-asws Bin Ali-asws Abu Ja’far-asws, and it was so that obedience to him-asws was a necessity’. So he-asws said: ‘May Allah-azwj have Mercy on you!’

قُلْتُ أَعْطِنِي رَأْسَكَ حَتَّى أُقَبِّلَهُ فَضَحِكَ قُلْتُ أَصْلَحَكَ اللَّهُ قَدْ عَلِمْتُ أَنَّ أَبَاكَ لَمْ يَذْهَبْ حَتَّى تَرَكَ حُجَّةً مِنْ بَعْدِهِ كَمَا تَرَكَ أَبُوهُ وَ أَشْهَدُ بِاللَّهِ أَنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْحُجَّةُ وَ أَنَّ طَاعَتَكَ مُفْتَرَضَةٌ

I said, ‘Give me your-asws head until I kiss it’. So he-asws laughed. I said, ‘May Allah-azwj Keep you-asws well! I know full well that your-asws father-asws did not go away until he-asws left a Divine Authority to be from after him-asws, just as his-asws father had left, and I testify with Allah-azwj that you-asws are the Divine Authority, and that obedience to you-asws is a necessity’.

فَقَالَ كُفَّ رَحِمَكَ اللَّهُ قُلْتُ أَعْطِنِي رَأْسَكَ أُقَبِّلْهُ فَقَبَّلْتُ رَأْسَهُ فَضَحِكَ وَ قَالَ سَلْنِي عَمَّا شِئْتَ فَلَا أُنْكِرُكَ بَعْدَ الْيَوْمِ أَبَداً .

So he-asws said: ‘Stop! May Allah-azwj have Mercy on you!’ I said, ‘Give me your-asws head, I shall kiss it’. So I kissed his-asws head. So he-asws laughed and said: ‘Ask me-asws about whatever you so desire to, for I-asws will not deny you (an answer) after today, ever!’.[5]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ بَكْرِ بْنِ صَالِحٍ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ عَنْ أَبِي عَمْرٍو الزُّبَيْرِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ أَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ وُجُوهِ الْكُفْرِ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ قَالَ الْكُفْرُ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ عَلَى خَمْسَةِ أَوْجُهٍ فَمِنْهَا كُفْرُ الْجُحُودُ وَ الْجُحُودُ عَلَى وَجْهَيْنِ وَ الْكُفْرُ بِتَرْكِ مَا أَمَرَ اللَّهُ وَ كُفْرُ الْبَرَاءَةِ وَ كُفْرُ النِّعَمِ

Ali Bin Ibrahim, from his father, from Bakr Bin Salih, from Al Qasim Bin Y-azeed, from Abu Amro Al Zubeyri,

(It has been narrated) from Abu Abdullah-asws, said, ‘I said to him-asws, ‘Inform me about the aspects of the Kufr (disbelief) in the Book of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic’. He-asws said: ‘The Kufr (disbelief) in the Book of Allah-azwj is upon five aspects. So, from these is the Kufr (disbelief) of the denial. And the denial is upon two aspects – the Kufr (disbelief) by neglecting what Allah-azwj Commanded for, and Kufr (disbelief) of the disownment (Tabarra); and there is the Kufr (disbelief) of the Bounties.

فَأَمَّا كُفْرُ الْجُحُودِ فَهُوَ الْجُحُودُ بِالرُّبُوبِيَّةِ وَ هُوَ قَوْلُ مَنْ يَقُولُ لَا رَبَّ وَ لَا جَنَّةَ وَ لَا نَارَ وَ هُوَ قَوْلُ صِنْفَيْنِ مِنَ الزَّنَادِقَةِ يُقَالُ لَهُمُ الدَّهْرِيَّةُ وَ هُمُ الَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ وَ ما يُهْلِكُنا إِلَّا الدَّهْرُ وَ هُوَ دِينٌ وَضَعُوهُ لِأَنْفُسِهِمْ بِالِاسْتِحْسَانِ عَلَى غَيْرِ تَثَبُّتٍ مِنْهُمْ وَ لَا تَحْقِيقٍ لِشَيْ‏ءٍ مِمَّا يَقُولُونَ

So, as for the Kufr of the denial, so it is the denial of the Lordship (of Allah-azwj), and it is the speech of the one who is saying, ‘There is neither a Lord-azwj, nor a Paradise, nor a Fire, and it is the speech of two types of the atheists called the ‘Dahriyya’ (Eternalists); and they are the ones who are saying, [45:24] and nothing destroys us but the passage of time’; and it is a religion placed for their own selves with the approval upon without there being an affirmation from them, nor any investigation of anything from what they are saying.

قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ إِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّ ذَلِكَ كَمَا يَقُولُونَ وَ قَالَ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا سَواءٌ عَلَيْهِمْ أَ أَنْذَرْتَهُمْ أَمْ لَمْ تُنْذِرْهُمْ لا يُؤْمِنُونَ يَعْنِي بِتَوْحِيدِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى فَهَذَا أَحَدُ وُجُوهِ الْكُفْرِ

Allah-azwj Mighty and Mjestic Says [45:24] they only but conjecture, if it was like as what they are saying. And He-azwj Said [36:10] And it is alike to them whether you warn them or do not warn them, they will not be believing. Meaning, (believing) in the Oneness of Allah-azwj the Exalted. Thus, this is one of the aspects of the disbelief (Kufr).

وَ أَمَّا الْوَجْهُ الْآخَرُ مِنَ الْجُحُودِ عَلَى مَعْرِفَةٍ وَ هُوَ أَنْ يَجْحَدَ الْجَاحِدُ وَ هُوَ يَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ حَقٌّ قَدِ اسْتَقَرَّ عِنْدَهُ وَ قَدْ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ جَحَدُوا بِها وَ اسْتَيْقَنَتْها أَنْفُسُهُمْ ظُلْماً وَ عُلُوًّا وَ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ كانُوا مِنْ قَبْلُ يَسْتَفْتِحُونَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَلَمَّا جاءَهُمْ ما عَرَفُوا كَفَرُوا بِهِ فَلَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْكافِرِينَ فَهَذَا تَفْسِيرُ وَجْهَيِ الْجُحُودِ

And as for the other aspect from the denial upon the recognition, and it is that the denier denies and he knows that it is true which he has already acknowledged with himself, and Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic has Said [27:14] And they denied with it unjustly and out of pride although they were certain themselves. And Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic Said [2:89] And when there came to them a Book from Allah Verifying that which was with them, and beforehand they used to pray for victory against those who disbelieve, but when there came to them what they recognised, they disbelieved in it; so the Curse of Allah is on the unbelievers. So this is the interpretation of the aspect of the denial.

وَ الْوَجْهُ الثَّالِثُ مِنَ الْكُفْرِ كُفْرُ النِّعَمِ وَ ذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى يَحْكِي قَوْلَ سُلَيْمَانَ ( عليه السلام ) هذا مِنْ فَضْلِ رَبِّي لِيَبْلُوَنِي أَ أَشْكُرُ أَمْ أَكْفُرُ وَ مَنْ شَكَرَ فَإِنَّما يَشْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَ مَنْ كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ رَبِّي غَنِيٌّ كَرِيمٌ وَ قَالَ لَئِنْ شَكَرْتُمْ لَأَزِيدَنَّكُمْ وَ لَئِنْ كَفَرْتُمْ إِنَّ عَذابِي لَشَدِيدٌ وَ قَالَ فَاذْكُرُونِي أَذْكُرْكُمْ وَ اشْكُرُوا لِي وَ لا تَكْفُرُونِ

And the third aspect from the Kufr (disbelief) is the Kufr of the Bounties, and these are the Words of the Exalted Relating the words of Suleyman-as This is from the Grace of my Lord that He may Try me whether I am grateful or ungrateful; and whoever is grateful, so he is grateful for his own soul, and whoever is ungrateful, then surely my Lord is Self-sufficient, Generous. And He-azwj Said [14:7] If you are grateful, I would Increase it more for you, and if you are ungrateful, My Punishment is truly Severe. And He-azwj Said [2:152] Therefore remember Me, I will remember you, and be thankful to Me, and do not be ungrateful to Me’.

وَ الْوَجْهُ الرَّابِعُ مِنَ الْكُفْرِ تَرْكُ مَا أَمَرَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ بِهِ وَ هُوَ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ إِذْ أَخَذْنا مِيثاقَكُمْ لا تَسْفِكُونَ دِماءَكُمْ وَ لا تُخْرِجُونَ أَنْفُسَكُمْ مِنْ دِيارِكُمْ ثُمَّ أَقْرَرْتُمْ وَ أَنْتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ ثُمَّ أَنْتُمْ هؤُلاءِ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنْفُسَكُمْ وَ تُخْرِجُونَ فَرِيقاً مِنْكُمْ مِنْ دِيارِهِمْ تَظاهَرُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِالْإِثْمِ وَ الْعُدْوانِ وَ إِنْ يَأْتُوكُمْ أُسارى تُفادُوهُمْ وَ هُوَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَيْكُمْ إِخْراجُهُمْ أَ فَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِبَعْضِ الْكِتابِ وَ تَكْفُرُونَ بِبَعْضٍ فَما جَزاءُ مَنْ يَفْعَلُ ذلِكَ مِنْكُمْ

And the fourth aspect from the Kufr (disbelief) is neglecting what Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic had Commanded with, and these are the Words of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic [2:84] And when We Took a Covenant with you: You shall not shed your blood and you shall not throw your people out of your houses; then you gave a promise while you witnessed [2:85] Then you are those who kill your people and turn a party from among you out of their homes, backing each other up against them unlawfully and exceeding the limits; and if they were to come to you as captives, you would ransom them – while their very turning out was unlawful for you. Do you then believe in a part of the Book and disbelieve in the other? What then is the Recompense of such among you as do this.

فَكَفَّرَهُمْ بِتَرْكِ مَا أَمَرَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ بِهِ وَ نَسَبَهُمْ إِلَى الْإِيمَانِ وَ لَمْ يَقْبَلْهُ مِنْهُمْ وَ لَمْ يَنْفَعْهُمْ عِنْدَهُ فَقَالَ فَما جَزاءُ مَنْ يَفْعَلُ ذلِكَ مِنْكُمْ إِلَّا خِزْيٌ فِي الْحَياةِ الدُّنْيا وَ يَوْمَ الْقِيامَةِ يُرَدُّونَ إِلى أَشَدِّ الْعَذابِ وَ مَا اللَّهُ بِغافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ

So their Kufr (disbelief) was with the neglecting of what Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic had Commanded with and their linking to the Emān, and it would not be Accepted from them and it will not benefit them in His-azwj Presence, therefore He-azwj Said What then is the Recompense of such among you as do this except for disgrace in the life of the world, and on the Day of Resurrection they shall be Sent back to the most grievous Punishment, and Allah is not at all heedless of what you are doing.

وَ الْوَجْهُ الْخَامِسُ مِنَ الْكُفْرِ كُفْرُ الْبَرَاءَةِ وَ ذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ يَحْكِي قَوْلَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ( عليه السلام ) كَفَرْنا بِكُمْ وَ بَدا بَيْنَنا وَ بَيْنَكُمُ الْعَداوَةُ وَ الْبَغْضاءُ أَبَداً حَتَّى تُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَحْدَهُ يَعْنِي تَبَرَّأْنَا مِنْكُمْ

And the fifth aspect from the Kufr (disbelief) is Kufr of the disownment, and these are the Words of the Mighty and Majestic Relating the words of Ibrahim-as [60:4] Surely we distance ourselves from you and what you are worshipping besides Allah; We deny you, and enmity and hatred have appeared between us and you and will be forever until you believe in Allah Alone, meaning ‘We disavow from you all!’.

وَ قَالَ يَذْكُرُ إِبْلِيسَ وَ تَبْرِئَتَهُ مِنْ أَوْلِيَائِهِ مِنَ الْإِنْسِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِنِّي كَفَرْتُ بِما أَشْرَكْتُمُونِ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَ قَالَ إِنَّمَا اتَّخَذْتُمْ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ أَوْثاناً مَوَدَّةَ بَيْنِكُمْ فِي الْحَياةِ الدُّنْيا ثُمَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيامَةِ يَكْفُرُ بَعْضُكُمْ بِبَعْضٍ وَ يَلْعَنُ بَعْضُكُمْ بَعْضاً يَعْنِي يَتَبَرَّأُ بَعْضُكُمْ مِنْ بَعْضٍ .

And He-azwj Said Mentioning Iblees-la and his-la disownment from his-la friends from the human beings on the Day of Judgment [14:22] surely I disbelieved in your associating me with Allah from before. [29:25] And he said: But rather, you have only taken for yourselves idols besides Allah by way of cordiality between you in the life of the world, then on the Day of Judgement some of you would deny others, and some of you will curse others – meaning some of you would be disavowing from the others’.[6]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ عَمَّارٍ السَّابَاطِيِّ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) يَقُولُ كُلُّ مُسْلِمٍ بَيْنَ مُسْلِمَيْنِ ارْتَدَّ عَنِ الْإِسْلَامِ وَ جَحَدَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) نُبُوَّتَهُ وَ كَذَّبَهُ فَإِنَّ دَمَهُ مُبَاحٌ لِمَنْ سَمِعَ ذَلِكَ مِنْهُ وَ امْرَأَتَهُ بَائِنَةٌ مِنْهُ يَوْمَ ارْتَدَّ وَ يُقْسَمُ مَالُهُ عَلَى وَرَثَتِهِ وَ تَعْتَدُّ امْرَأَتُهُ عِدَّةَ الْمُتَوَفَّى عَنْهَا زَوْجُهَا وَ عَلَى الْإِمَامِ أَنْ يَقْتُلَهُ إِنْ أَتَوْهُ بِهِ وَ لَا يَسْتَتِيبَهُ .

Muhammad Bin Yahya, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad, and Ali Bin Ibrahim, from his father, and a number of our companions, from Sahl Bin Ziyad, altogether from Ibn Mahboub, from Hisham Bin Salim, from Ammar Al Sabatany who said,

‘I heard Abu Abdullah-asws saying, ‘Every Muslim between two Muslims is an atheist, from Al-Islam, and denies Rsool-Allah-saww of his-saww Prophet-hood, and belies him-saww. Thus, his blood is allowed (to be spilled) for the one who hears than from him, and his wife is irrevocably divorced from him from the day he reneges, and his wealth would be distributed upon his inheritors, and his wife would observe the waiting period, a waiting period of the woman widowed from her husband, and it is upon the Imam-asws that he-asws kills him if they come to him-asws with him, and he-asws would not give him time to repent’.[7]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ شَمُّونٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الْأَصَمِّ عَنْ مِسْمَعٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) أَنَّ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ( عليه السلام ) أُتِيَ بِزِنْدِيقٍ فَضَرَبَ عِلَاوَتَهُ .

A number of our companions, from Sahl Bin Ziyad, from Muhammad Bin Al Hassan Bin Shamoun, from Abdullah Bin Abdul Rahman Al Asamma, from Misma’a,

(It has been narrated) from Abu Abdullah-asws that they came to Amir Al-Momineen-asws with an atheist, so he-asws struck his neck’.[8]

(Amir ul Momineen-asws said:)

أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّهُ مَنْ فَلَّ ذَلَّ وَ مَنْ جَادَ سَادَ وَ مَنْ كَثُرَ مَالُهُ رَأَسَ وَ مَنْ كَثُرَ حِلْمُهُ نَبُلَ وَ مَنْ أَفْكَرَ فِي ذَاتِ اللَّهِ تَزَنْدَقَ وَ مَنْ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ عُرِفَ بِهِ وَ مَنْ كَثُرَ مِزَاحُهُ اسْتُخِفَّ بِهِ وَ مَنْ كَثُرَ ضِحْكُهُ ذَهَبَتْ هَيْبَتُهُ فَسَدَ حَسَبُ مَنْ لَيْسَ لَهُ أَدَبٌ إِنَّ أَفْضَلَ الْفِعَالِ صِيَانَةُ الْعِرْضِ بِالْمَالِ لَيْسَ مَنْ جَالَسَ الْجَاهِلَ بِذِي مَعْقُولٍ مَنْ جَالَسَ الْجَاهِلَ فَلْيَسْتَعِدَّ لِقِيلٍ

O you people! The one who is miserly will be disgraced and the one who is generous will be the master, and the one who increases his wealth becomes the leader and the one who increases his forbearance becomes noble, and the one who ponders regarding the Essence of Allah-azwj becomes an Atheist, and the one who frequents in something becomes known for it, and the one frequently jokes will be taken lightly, and the one who frequently laughs his prestige goes away, the one who has no ethics will corrupt. The best deed is the maintenance of honour by wealth. There is none who sits with the ignorant ones who is reasonable, for the one who sits with the ignorant ones should ready himself for (a lot of) talk (against him)’. (an extract)[9]).

الحسين بن أحمد، عن أبيه، عن محمد بن بندار، عن محمد بن علي، عن محمد بن عبد الله الخراساني – خادم الرضا عليه السلام – قال: قال بعض الزنادقة لابي الحسن عليه السلام: لم احتجب الله ؟ فقال أبو الحسن عليه السلام: إن الحجاب عن الخلق لكثرة ذنوبهم فأما هو فلا يخفى عليه خافية في آناء الليل والنهار،

Al Husayn Bin Ahmad, from his father, from Muhammad Bin Bandar, from Muhammad Bin Ali, from Muhammad Bin Abdullah Al Khurasany,

‘A servant of Al-Reza-asws said, ‘One of the atheists said to Abu Al-Hassan-asws, ‘Why did Allah-azwj Veil Himself-azwj?’ Abu Al-Hassan-asws said: ‘The Veils from the creatures is due to the frequency of their sins. But, as for Him-azwj no hidden thing is hidden upon Him-azwj in the duration of the night and the day’.

قال: فلم لا تدركه حاسة البصر ؟ قال: للفرق بينه وبين خلقه الذين تدركهم حاسة الابصار، ثم هو أجل من أن تدركه الابصار أو يحيط به وهم أو يضبطه عقل،

He said, ‘So why can He-azwj not be realised by the sense of sight?’ He-asws said: ‘For the differentiation between Him-azwj and His-azwj creatures, those that understand by the sense of sight. Then, He-azwj is more Majestic than for Him-azwj to be realised by the sights, or be encompassed by imagination, or be captured by an intellect’.

قال: فحده لي قال: إنه لا يحد، قال: لم ؟ قال: لان كل محدود متناه إلى حد فإذا احتمل التحديد احتمل الزيادة، وإذا احتمل الزيادة احتمل النقصان، فهو غير محدود ولا متزائد ولا متجز ولا متوهم.

He said, ‘Then limit Him-azwj for me’. He-asws said: ‘He-azwj cannot be limited’. He said, ‘Why’. He-asws said: ‘Because every limited (thing), its extreme is to its limit. So, when the limitation is borne, it would carry the increase, and when the increase is born, it would carry the reduction. Thus, He-azwj is without limitation, or increase, or division decrease, or cannot be imagined’’.[10]

 ع: الحسين بن أحمد، عن أبيه، عن محمد بن بندار، عن محمد بن علي، عن محمد بن عبد الله الخراساني – خادم الرضا عليه السلام – قال: قال بعض الزنادقة لابي الحسن عليه السلام: لم احتجب الله ؟ فقال أبو الحسن عليه السلام: إن الحجاب عن الخلق لكثرة ذنوبهم فأما هو فلا يخفى عليه خافية في آناء الليل والنهار،

Al Husayn Bin Ahmad, from his father, from Muhammad Bin Bandar, from Muhammad Bin Ali, from Muhammad Bin Abdullah Al Khurasany,

‘A servant of Al-Reza-asws said, ‘One of the atheists said to Abu Al-Hassan-asws, ‘Why did Allah-azwj Veil Himself-azwj?’ Abu Al-Hassan-asws said: ‘The Veils from the creatures is due to the frequency of their sins. But, as for Him-azwj no hidden thing is hidden upon Him-azwj in the duration of the night and the day’.

قال: فلم لا تدركه حاسة البصر ؟ قال: للفرق بينه وبين خلقه الذين تدركهم حاسة الابصار، ثم هو أجل من أن تدركه الابصار أو يحيط به وهم أو يضبطه عقل،

He said, ‘So why can He-azwj not be realised by the sense of sight?’ He-asws said: ‘For the differentiation between Him-azwj and His-azwj creatures, those that understand by the sense of sight. Then, He-azwj is more Majestic than for Him-azwj to be realised by the sights, or be encompassed by imagination, or be captured by an intellect’.

قال: فحده لي قال: إنه لا يحد، قال: لم ؟ قال: لان كل محدود متناه إلى حد فإذا احتمل التحديد احتمل الزيادة، وإذا احتمل الزيادة احتمل النقصان، فهو غير محدود ولا متزائد ولا متجز ولا متوهم.

He said, ‘Then limit Him-azwj for me’. He-asws said: ‘He-azwj cannot be limited’. He said, ‘Why’. He-asws said: ‘Because every limited (thing), its extreme is to its limit. So, when the limitation is borne, it would carry the increase, and when the increase is born, it would carry the reduction. Thus, He-azwj is without limitation, or increase, or division decrease, or cannot be imagined’’.[11]

 ج: دخل أبو شاكر الديصاني وهو زنديق على أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فقال له: يا جعفر بن محمد دلني على معبودي، فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: اجلس – فإذا غلام صغير في كفه بيضة يلعب بها – فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: ناولنى يا غلام البيضة، فناوله إياها،

Abu Shakir Al-Daysani came, and he was an atheist, to Abu Abdullah-asws, and said to him-asws, ‘O Ja’far-asws Bin Muhammad-asws! Point me to my Deity’ (Sustainer/Lord). Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘Be seated’ – and there was a young boy playing with an egg in his hand, so Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘O boy! Give me-asws the egg’. He gave it to him-asws.

فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: يا ديصاني هذا حصن مكنون له جلد غليظ، وتحت الجلد الغليظ جلد رقيق، وتحت الجلد الرقيق ذهبة مائعة وفضة ذائبة، فلا الذهبة المائعة تختلط بالفضة الذائبة، ولا الفضة الذائبة تختلط بالذهبة المائعة، فهي على حالها لم يخرج منها خارج مصلح فيخبر عن إصلاحها، ولم يدخل فيها داخل مفسد فيخبر عن إفسادها لا يدرى للذكر خلقت أم للانثى، تنفلق عن مثل ألوان الطواويس، أترى لها مدبرا ؟

Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘O Daysani! This (egg) is a hidden fortress. There is a thick (outer) skin for it, and underneath the thick skin is a thin skin, and beneath the thin skin is gold water and silver fluid. Neither does the gold water mix with the silver fluid, nor does the silver fluid mix with the gold water. It is upon its state. Neither does a repairer come out from it so he could inform of its correctness nor does a spoiler enter into it so he could inform about its spoiling. It is not known whether it is Created to be a male or a female (to come out after incubation). It could burst out like the colours of peacocks. Do you see that there is a Mastermind for it?’

قال: فأطرق مليا ثم قال: أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له، وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله، وأنك إمام وحجة من الله على خلقه، وأنا تائب مما كنت فيه.

He (the narrator) said, ‘So he thought for a while, then said, ‘I testify that there is no god except for Allah-azwj, there being no associates for Him-azwj, and that Muhammad-saww is His-azwj servant and His-azwj Rasool-saww, and that you-asws an Imam-asws and a Divine Authority from Allah-azwj upon His-azwj creatures, and that I am repentant from what I was in’’.[12]

 يد، ن: ماجيلويه، عن عمه، عن أبي سمينة محمد بن علي الكوفي الصيرفي، عن محمد بن عبد الله الخراساني خادم الرضا عليه السلام قال: دخل رجل من الزنادقة على الرضا عليه السلام وعنده جماعة فقال له أبو الحسن عليه السلام: أرأيت إن كان القول قولكم – وليس هو كما تقولون – ألسنا وإياكم شرعا سواء، ولا يضرنا ما صلينا وصمنا وزكينا وأقررنا ؟ فسكت.

Majaylawiya, from his uncle, from Abu Sameena Muhammad Bin Ali Al-Kufi Al-Sayrafi,

‘From Muhammad Bin Abdullah Al-Khurasany, a servant of Al-Reza-asws who said, ‘A man from the atheists came to Al-Reza-asws and in his-asws presence was a group, so Abu Al-Hassan-asws said to him: ‘What is your view, if the word was your word (that there is no God) – and it isn’t as what you are saying – wouldn’t we and you (atheists) be rightfully the same, and it would not harm us, what we are praying, and are Fasting, and are giving Zakat, and our acknowledgment (of existence of God)?’ He was silent.

فقال أبو الحسن عليه السلام: إن يكن القول قولنا – وهو ما نقول – ألستم قد هلكتم ونجونا ؟ قال: رحمك الله فأوجدني كيف هو وأين هو ؟

So, Abu Al-Hassan-asws said: ‘If the word happens to be our-asws word (that God does exist) – and it is what we-asws are saying – wouldn’t you be destroyed and we-asws would be saved?’ He said, ‘May Allah-azwj have Mercy on you-asws! Summarise for me how He-azwj is and where is He-azwj?’

قال: ويلك إن الذى ذهبت إليه غلط هو أين الاين وكان ولا أين، وهو كيف الكيف وكان ولا كيف، فلا يعرف بكيفوفية ولا بأينونية ولا بحاسة ولا يقاس بشئ،

He-asws said: ‘Woe be unto you! That which you are going towards, is wrong. He-azwj is the ‘where’ of the where-ness, and He-azwj existed and there was no ‘where’, and He-azwj is ‘how’ of the ‘how-ness’, and He-azwj existed and there was no ‘how’. Therefore, He-azwj cannot be recognised by the how-ness (qualitative state) nor by the where-ness, nor by the feelings, nor can He-azwj be analogised with anything’.

قال الرجل: فإذن أنه لا شئ إذا لم يدرك بحاسة من الحواس، فقال أبو الحسن عليه السلام: ويلك لما عجزت حواسك عن إدراكه أنكرت ربوبيته، ونحن إذا عجزت حواسنا عن إدراكه أيقنا أنه ربنا، وأنه شئ بخلاف الاشياء.

The man said, ‘Then He-azwj is nothing, when He-azwj cannot be felt from the sensory perceptions’. Abu Al-Hassan-asws said: ‘Woe be unto you! When your sensory perceptions are frustrated from realising Him-azwj (so) you are denying His-azwj Lordship, and us-asws, when our-asws sensory perception are frustrated from realising Him-azwj, we-asws are convinced that He-azwj is our-asws Lord-azwj, and He-azwj something different to the things’.

قال الرجل: فأخبرني متى كان ؟ قال أبو الحسن عليه السلام: أخبرني متى لم يكن فأخبرك متى كان. قال الرجل: فما الدليل عليه ؟

The man said, ‘Inform me, when did He-azwj come into existence?’ Abu Al-Hassan-asws said: ‘Inform me-asws when He-azwj did not exist, and I-asws will inform you when He-saww came into being’. The man said, ‘So what is the evidence upon Him-azwj?’

قال أبو الحسن عليه السلام: إني لما نظرت إلى جسدي فلم يمكني فيه زيادة ولا نقصان في العرض والطول، ودفع المكاره عنه، وجر المنفعة إليه علمت أن لهذا البنيان بانيا فأقررت به، مع ما أرى من دوران الفلك بقدرته، وإنشاء السحاب، وتصريف الرياح، ومجرى الشمس والقمر والنجوم، وغير ذلك من الآيات العجيبات المتقنات علمت أن لهذا مقدرا و منشئا

Abu Al-Hassan-asws said: ‘I-asws, when I-asws look at my-asws body, and I-asws am unable upon increasing it nor reducing it regarding the width and the height, and repelling the abhorrence from it, and flow the benefits to it, I-asws know that for this built up body, there is a Builder, so I-asws acknowledge with it, along with what I-asws from the circling of the planets by His-azwj Determination, and the growth of the clouds, and the dispersal of the winds, and the flowing of the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and other than that from the wondrous signs, the Crafted, I-asws know that for these there is a Determiner, and a Grower’.

قال الرجل: فلم احتجب ؟ فقال أبو الحسن عليه السلام: إن الحجاب على الخلق لكثرة ذنوبهم فأما هو فلا تخفى عليه خافية في آناء الليل والنهار، قال: فلم لا تدركه حاسة البصر ؟ قال: للفرق بينه وبين خلقه الذين تدركهم حاسة الابصار منهم ومن غيرهم، ثم هو أجل من أن يدركه بصر، أو يحيط به وهم، أو يضبطه عقل.

The man said, ‘So why did He-azwj Veil Himself-azwj?’ Abu Al-Hassan-asws said: ‘The veils are upon the creatures due to the frequency of their sins. But, as far as He-azwj is concerned, nothing is hidden from Him-azwj in the duration of the night and the day’. He said, ‘Why can’t the sense of the sight realise Him-azwj?’ He-asws said: ‘For the differentiation between Him-azwj and His-azwj creatures, those whom the sense of sight can realise differentiating them and the from the others. Then, He-azwj is more Majestic than to be realised by a sight, or be encompassed by imagination, or be grasped by intellect’.

قال: فحده لي، فقال: لاحد له، قال: ولم ؟ قال: لان كل محدود متناه إلى حد، وإذا احتمل التحديد احتمل الزيادة، وإذا احتمل الزيادة احتمل النقصان، فهو غير محدود ولا متزائد ولا متناقص، ولا متجزى ولا متوهم،

He said, ‘Limit Him-azwj for me’. He-asws said: ‘There are no limitations for Him-azwj’. He said, ‘And why?’ He-asws said: ‘Because every limited, its extreme is up to its limit, and when the limitations are borne, the increase would be borne, and when the increase is borne, the reduction would be borne. So, He-azwj is without limitation, neither being increased nor reduced, nor frustrated, nor imagined’.

قال الرجل: فأخبرني عن قولكم: إنه لطيف وسميع وبصير وعليم وحكيم، أيكون السميع إلا بالاذن، والبصير إلا بالعين، واللطيف إلا بعمل اليدين، والحكيم إلا بالصنعة ؟

The man said, ‘Inform me about your-asws words that He-azwj is Aware of subtleties, and Hears, and Sees, and Knows, and is Wise. Can the hearing be except with the ears, and the seeing except with the eyes, and the subtleties except with the work of the hands, and the Wise except with the making?’

فقال أبو الحسن عليه السلام: إن اللطيف منا على حد اتخاذ الصنعة، أو ما رأيت الرجل يتخذ شيئا فيلطف في اتخاذه فيقال: ما ألطف فلانا ! فكيف لا يقال للخالق الجليل: لطيف إذ خلق خلقا لطيفا وجليلا وركب في الحيوان منه أرواحها، وخلق كل جنس متبائنا من جنسه في الصورة ولا يشبه بعضه بعضا ؟ فكل له لطف من الخالق اللطيف الخبير في تركيب صورته،

Abu Al-Hassan-asws said: ‘The subtle one from us is upon a limit of taking the workmanship, or did you not see the man taking something, so he is subtle in his taking, and it is said, ‘How subtle is so and so!’ So, how can it not be said to the Majestic Creator, ‘He-azwj is Subtle when He-azwj Creates a creature, Subtle and Majestic, and He-azwj Installs in the animals from it, its soul, and Created all species, filled from its genus in the image and they do not resemble each other? All of it is subtle from the Subtle Creator in the composition of its image.

ثم نظرنا إلى الاشجار وحملها أطائبها المأكولة منها وغير المأكولة فقلنا عند ذلك: إن خالقنا لطيف، لا كلطف خلقه في صنعتهم، وقلنا: إنه سميع لانه لا يخفى عليه أصوات خلقه ما بين العرش إلى الثرى، من الذرة إلى أكبر منها، في برها وبحرها، ولا تشتبه عليه لغاتها،

Then we look at the trees and its carrying its goodness, the consumable from these and non-consumables. So, we-asws said during that, that our-asws Creator is Subtle, not like the subtleness of His-azwj creation in their making, and we-asws said that He-azwj is Hearing, because He-azwj is such that no sounds of His-azwj creatures are hidden from Him-azwj, from what is between the Throne to the ground, from the particle to the thing greater than it, in its land and its sea, and their languages are not confusing upon Him-azwj.

فقلنا عند ذلك: إنه سميع لا باذن، وقلنا: إنه بصير لا ببصر لانه يرى أثر الذرة السحماء في الليلة الظلماء على الصخرة السوداء، ويرى دبيب النمل في الليلة الدجنة، ويرى مضارها ومنافعها وأثر سفادها  وفراخها ونسلها فقلنا عند ذلك: إنه بصير لا كبصر خلقه، قال: فما برح حتى أسلم.

So, we-asws say at that, that He-azwj is Hearing, not by ears, and we say that He-azwj is Seeing, not by eyes, because He-azwj sees the impacts of the small particle in the darkness of the night upon a black rock, and He-azwj Sees the walking of the ant in the dark night, and He-azwj Observes its harms and its benefits, and impacts of its procreation, and its young ones, and its offspring. So, we-asws say that He-azwj is Seeing not like the seeing of His-azwj creatures’. He (the narrator) said, ‘He did not depart until he had become a Muslim’’.[13]

 ن: الطالقاني، عن ابن عقدة، عن علي بن الحسن بن فضال، عن أبيه، عن أبي الحسن الرضا عليه السلام قال: قلت له: لم خلق الله عزوجل الخلق على أنواع شتى، ولم يخلقهم نوعا واحدا ؟

Al Talaqany, from Ibn Aqda, from Bin Al Hassan Bin Fazaal, from his father,

‘From Abu Al-Hassan Al-Reza-asws, he (the narrator) said, ‘I said to him-asws, ‘Why did Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic Create the people upon various types, and not Created them upon one type?’

فقال: لئلا يقع في الاوهام أنه عاجز فلا تقع صورة في وهم ملحد إلا وقد خلق الله عزوجل عليها خلقا، ولا يقول قائل: هل يقدر الله عزوجل على أن يخلق على صورة كذا وكذا إلا وجد ذلك في خلقه تبارك وتعالى فيعلم بالنظر إلى أنواع خلقه أنه على كل شئ قدير.

So, he-asws said: ‘Lest it may occur in the imaginations that He-azwj is frustrated, therefore there does not occur an image in the imagination of an atheist, and Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic has already Created a creature, and a speak cannot be saying, ‘If Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic was able upon creating such and such an image’, except that he finds that in His-azwj in the Creation of the Blessed and Exalted. Thus, he would know with the looking at the variety of His-azwj creatures, He-azwj is Able upon all things’’.[14]

 يد: ابن الوليد، عن الصفار، عن ابن هاشم، عن محمد بن حماد، عن الحسن بن إبراهيم، عن يونس بن عبد الرحمن، عن يونس بن يعقوب قال: قال لي علي بن منصور: قال لي هشام بن الحكم: كان زنديق بمصر يبلغه عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فخرج إلى المدينة ليناظره فلم يصادفه بها، فقيل له: هو بمكة فخرج الزنديق إلى مكة ونحن مع أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فقاربنا الزنديق – ونحن مع أبي عبد الله عليه السلام – في الطواف

Ibn Al Waleed, from Al Saffar, from Ibn Hashim, from Muhammad Bin Hamad, from Al Hassan Bin Ibrahim, from Yunus Bin Abdul Rahman, from Yunus Bin Yaqoub who said,

‘Ali Bin Mansour said to me, ‘Hisham Bin Al-Hakam said to me, ‘‘There was an atheist in Egypt. Certain things about Abu Abdullah-asws reached him. So, he went out to Al-Medina in order to debate with him-asws. But he could not come across him-asws, and it was said to him that he-asws had gone out to Makkah. So, he went out to Makkah, and we were with Abu Abdullah-asws. He came across us while we were with Abu Abdullah-asws during the Tawaaf.

فضرب كتفه كتف أبي عبد الله عليه السلام، فقال له جعفر عليه السلام: ما اسمك ؟ قال: اسمي عبد الملك، قال: فما كنيتك ؟ قال: أبو عبد الله، قال: فمن الملك الذي أنت له عبد، أمن ملوك السماء أم من ملوك الارض ؟ وأخبرني عن ابنك، أعبد إله السماء أم عبد إله الارض ؟ فسكت، فقال له أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: قل ما شئت تخصم.

He struck his-asws shoulder, a shoulder of Abu Abdullah-asws, so Ja’far-asws said to him: ‘ ‘What is your name?’ He said, ‘My name is Abdul Malik (Slave of the king)’. He-asws said: ‘What is your teknonym?’ He said, ‘My teknonym is Abu Abdullah (Father of the slave of Allah-azwj)’. Abu Abdullah-asws said to him: ‘So who is this king whose slave you are? Is he from the kings of the sky or from the kings of the earth? And, inform me-asws about your son, is he a slave of a god of the sky, or a slave of a god of the earth?’ He was silent. Abu Abdullah-asws said to him: Say whatever you like, you will be defeated’.

قال هشام بن الحكم: قلت للزنديق: أما ترد عليه ؟ فقبح قولي، فقال له أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: إذا فرغت من الطواف فأتنا، فلما فرغ أبو عبد الله عليه السلام أتاه الزنديق فقعد بين يديه ونحن مجتمعون عنده،

Hisham Bin Al-Hakam said, ‘I said to the atheist, ‘You are not replying to him-asws?’ But, he disliked my words. Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘When we are free from the Tawaaf, then come over to us’. So when Abu Abdullah-asws was free, the atheist came over to him-asws, and he sat himself in front of Abu Abdullah-asws, and we gathered in his-asws presence.

فقال للزنديق: أتعلم أن للارض تحت وفوق ؟ قال: نعم، قال: فدخلت تحتها ؟ قال: لا، قال: فما يدريك بما تحتها ؟ قال: لا أدري إلا أني أظن أن ليس تحتها شئ، قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: فالظن عجز ما لم تستيقن،

He-asws said to the atheist: ‘Do you know that for the earth there is an underneath and an above?’ He said, ‘Yes’. He-asws said: ‘So have you entered its underneath?’ He said, ‘No’. He-asws said: ‘So what would make you know what is underneath it?’ He said, ‘I don’t know except that I guess that there is nothing underneath it’. So Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘So the guess shows the frustration (inability) due to what you are not certain of’.

قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: فصعدت إلى السماء ؟ قال: لا، قال: فتدري ما فيها ؟ قال: لا، قال: فعجبا لك لم تبلغ المشرق، ولم تبلغ المغرب، ولم تنزل تحت الارض، ولم تصعد إلى السماء، ولم تجز هنالك فتعرف ما خلقهن وأنت جاحد ما فيهن وهل يجحد العاقل ما لا يعرف ؟ فقال الزنديق: ما كلمني بهذا أحد غيرك، قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: فأنت في شك من ذلك فلعل هو، أو لعل ليس هو، قال الزنديق: ولعل ذاك:

Then Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘Have you ascended to the sky?’ He said, ‘No’. He-asws said: ‘Do you know what is therein?’ He said, ‘No’. He-asws said: ‘It is strange for you that you have not reached the west and not descended into the earth and not ascended to the sky, and not exceeded over there as to what is behind these, and you are denying with what is in these? And would the intellectual deny what he does not recognise?’ The atheist said, ‘No one has spoken with me by this apart from you-asws’. Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘So you are in doubt with regards to that. Perhaps He-azwj is (Existent), and perhaps He-azwj is not (Existent)’. The atheist said: ‘And perhaps it is that’.

فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: أيها الرجل ليس لمن لا يعلم حجة على من يعلم، فلا حجة للجاهل، يا أخا أهل مصر تفهم عني فإنا لا نشك في الله أبدا، أما ترى الشمس والقمر والليل والنهار يلجان ليس لهما مكان إلا مكانهما فإن كانا يقدران على أن يذهبا ولا يرجعان فلم يرجعان ؟ وإن لم يكونا مضطرين فلم لا يصير الليل نهارا والنهار ليلا ؟ اضطرا والله يا أخا أهل مصر إلى دوامهما، والذي اضطرهما أحكم منهما وأكبر منهما، قال الزنديق: صدقت.

Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘O you man! There is no argument for the one who does not know over the one who does know, and there is no argument for the ignorance either. O brother of the people of Egypt! Understand about me-asws, for we-asws do not doubt regarding Allah-azwj, ever! But, do you not see the sun and the moon, and the night and the day following their course, so they do not get confused and do not retract, (but are) being Forced? There is no place for them except for their respective placing. If they had power upon the going, they would not be returning, and if they were not being Forced, the night would not become a day, and the day, a night. They are being forced. By Allah-azwj, O brother of the people of Egypt! The One-azwj Who Forces them to their shifts is Wiser than both of them and greater’. The atheist said, ‘You-asws speak the truth’.

ثم قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: يا أخا أهل مصر الذي تذهبون إليه وتظنونه بالوهم فإن كان الدهر يذهب بهم لم لا يردهم ؟ وإن كان يردهم لم لا يذهب بهم ؟ القوم مضطرون

Then Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘O brother of the people of Egypt! That what they (people) are going towards, and you are thinking that it is the time. If it was the time going with them, why is it not returning them, and if it was returning them, why is it not going with them. The people are being Forced.

يا أخا أهل مصر، السماء مرفوعة، والارض موضوعة، لم لا تسقط السماء على الارض ؟ ولم لا تنحدر الارض فوق طباقها فلا يتماسكان ولا يتماسك من عليهما ؟ فقال الزنديق: أمسكهما والله ربهما وسيدهما،

O brother of the people of Egypt! Why is the sky elevated and the earth is laid? Why doesn’t the sky fall upon the earth? Why doesn’t the earth stoop above its layers, and they are neither attached nor are they attached to the ones above it?’ The atheist said, ‘Allah-azwj their Lord-azwj and their Master Keeps them attached’.

فآمن الزنديق على يدي أبي عبد الله عليه السلام. فقال له حمران بن أعين: جعلت فداك إن آمنت الزنادقة على يديك فقد آمنت الكفار على يدي أبيك. فقال المؤمن الذي آمن على يدي أبي عبد الله عليه السلام: اجعلني من تلامذتك. فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام لهشام بن الحكم: خذه إليك فعلمه. فعلمه هشام فكان معلم أهل مصر وأهل الشام، وحسنت طهارته حتى رضي بها أبو عبداللله عليه السلام.

He (the narrator) said, ‘So the atheist believed upon the hands of Abu Abdullah-asws. Humran said to him-asws, ‘May I be sacrificed for you-asws! If the atheist professed belief upon your-asws hands, and the disbelievers had professed belief upon the hands of your-asws father-asws’. The Believer who had just professed belief upon the hands of Abu Abdullah-asws said, ‘Make me to be from your-asws students’. Abu Abdullah-asws said, ‘O Hisham Bin Al-Hakam! Keep him to yourself (company) and teach him’. So Hisham taught him, and he became a teacher of the people of Eman in Syria and the people of Egypt, and his purity was good to the extent that Abu Abdullah-asws was pleased with him’’.[15]

 THE HADEETH WELL KNOWN AS ‘TAWHEED OF AL-MUFAZZAL BIN UMAR’

روى محمد بن سنان قال: حدثنا المفضل بن عمر قال: كنت ذات يوم بعد العصر جالسا في الروضة بين القبر والمنبر، وأنا مفكر فيما خص الله به سيدنا محمدا صلى الله عليه وآله من الشرف والفضائل، وما منحه وأعطاه وشرفه به وحباه مما لا يعرفه الجمهور من الامة، وما جهلوه من فضله وعظيم منزلته وخطر مرتبته، فإني لكذلك إذ أقبل ابن أبي العوجاء فجلس بحيث أسمع كلامه

It is reported by Muhammad Bin Sinan who said, ‘It was narrated to us by Al Mufazzal Bin Umar who said,

‘One day, after Al-Asr (afternoon), I was seated in the garden between the grave (of Rasool-Allah-saww and the pulpit, and I was thinking regarding what Allah-azwj has Particularised our Master Muhammad-saww with, from the nobility, and the merits, and what He-azwj had Favoured him-saww, and Gave him-saww, and Ennobled him-saww with, and Gifted him-saww, from what the majority of the community do not recognise, and how ignorant they are of his-saww merits, and his-saww great status, and the importance of his-saww rank. While I was like that, when Ibn Abu Al-Awja came and sat down where I could hear his speech.

فلما استقر به المجلس إذا رجل من أصحابه قد جاء فجلس إليه فتكلم ابن أبي العوجاء فقال: لقد بلغ صاحب هذا القبر العز بكماله، وحاز الشرف بجميع خصاله، ونال الحظوة في كل أحواله،

When he settled down in sitting, a man from his companions came and sat (facing) him. Ibn Abu Al-Awja spoke, ‘The occupant of this grave has reached the honour with its perfection, and possesses the nobility with the entirety of its qualities, and attained the favours in all of its states’.

فقال له صاحبه: إنه كان فيلسوفا ادعى المرتبة العظمى والمنزلة الكبرى، وأتى على ذلك بمعجزات بهرت العقول، وضلت فيها الاحلام، وغاصت الالباب على طلب علمها في بحار الفكر فرجعت خاسئات وهي حسير، فلما استجاب لدعوته العقلاء والفصحاء والخطباء دخل الناس في دينه أفواجا

His companion said to him, ‘He-saww was a philosopher who claimed the magnificent rank and the great position, and he-saww came upon that with miracles which dazzled the intellects, and the imaginations were lost in it, and the knowledgeable ones plunged upon seeking its knowledge in the oceans of thought, but they returned as losers and it (their thoughts) were exhausted. So, when there was a response to his-saww invitation from the intellectuals, and the eloquent ones and the preachers, the people entered into his-saww Religion in hordes.

فقرن اسمه باسم ناموسه، فصار يهتف به على رؤوس الصوامع في جميع البلدان، والمواضع التي انتهت إليها دعوته، وعلت بها كلمته، وظهرت فيها حجته برا وبحرا وسهلا وجبلا في كل يوم وليلة خمس مرات، مرددا في الاذان والاقامة ليتجدد في كل ساعة ذكره، لئلا يخمل أمره.

Then he-saww paired his-saww name with the name of His-azwj Law, and went on to announce with it over the heads of the towers in the entirety of the cities, and places which his-saww invitation ended to, and his-saww ‘Kalima’ (There is no god except Allah-azwj and Muhammad-saww is a Rasool-saww of Allah-azwj) could be said with, and in it his-saww proof appeared in land, and sea, and coast, and mountain, during every day and night, five times, being repeated in the Azaan and the Iqamah (Calls to the Salat), for you to renew his mention during all times, lest his-saww matter stagnates’.

فقال ابن أبي العوجاء: دع ذكر محمد – صلى الله عليه وآله – فقد تحير فيه عقلي، وضل في أمره فكري، وحدثنا في ذكر الاصل الذي يمشى به.

Ibn Abu Al-Awja said, ‘Leave the mention of Muhammad-saww, for my intellect is confused regarding him-saww, and my thoughts are lost in his-saww matter, and let us discuss regarding the mention of the origins which he-saww walked with’.

ثم ذكر ابتداء الاشياء وزعم أن ذلك بإهمال لا صنعة فيه ولا تقدير، ولا صانع له ولا مدبر، بل الاشياء تتكون من ذاتها بلا مدبر، وعلى هذا كانت الدنيا لم تزل ولا تزال.

Then they mentioned the beginning of the things and claimed that is by negligence, there is not any workmanship in it, nor any determination, nor is there a Maker for it, nor a manager, but, the thing came into existence from their own selves, without any pre-meditation, and upon this was the existence of the world, nor is it declining nor will it be declining.

قال المفضل: فلم أملك نفسي غضبا وغيظا وحنقا فقلت: يا عدو الله ألحدت في دين الله، وأنكرت الباري جل قدسه الذي خلقك في أحسن تقويم، وصورك في أتم صورة، ونقلك في أحوالك حتى بلغ بك إلى حيث انتهيت، فلو تفكرت في نفسك و صدقك لطيف حسك لوجدت دلائل الربوبية وآثار الصنعة فيك قائمة، وشواهده – جل وتقدس – في خلقك واضحة، وبراهينه لك لائحة.

Al-Mufazzal said, ‘I could not control myself from anger, and rage and resentment, and I said, ‘O enemy of Allah-azwj! Are you reneging in the Religion of Allah-azwj, and denying the Creator, Majestic is His-azwj Holiness, Who Created you in the best formation, and Imaged you in a complete image, and Transferred you in our states until you reached where you have ended up? If you were to think regarding your own self, and you ratify the subtleness of your senses, you would find evidence of the Lordship and traces of the Making in your standing, and His-azwj Witness – Majestic and Holy – in your creation, clearly, and His-azwj proofs to you would be apparent’.

فقال: يا هذا إن كنت من أهل الكلام كلمناك، فإن ثبت لك حجة تبعناك، وإن لم تكن منهم فلا كلام لك، وإن كنت من أصحاب جعفر بن محمد الصادق فما هكذا يخاطبنا، ولا بمثل دليلك يجادلنا، ولقد سمع من كلامنا أكثر مما سمعت،

He said, ‘O you! If you were from the people of speech, I would talk to you. So, if the argument is proved for you, we would follow you, and if you do not happen to be from them, then there is not talking for you. And if you were from the companions of Ja’far-asws Bin Muhammad Al-Sadiq-asws, then this is not how you should be addressing us, nor with the likes of your evidence would you be arguing with us, and you have heard from our speech more than what you should have heard.

فما أفحش في خطابنا ولا تعدى في جوابنا، وإنه للحليم الرزين العاقل الرصين، لا يعتريه خرق ولا طيش ولا نزق، ويسمع كلامنا ويصغي إلينا ويستعرف حجتنا حتى استفرغنا ما عندنا وظننا أنا قد قطعناه أدحض حجتنا بكلام يسير وخطاب قصير يلزمنا به الحجة، ويقطع العذر، ولا نستطيع لجوابه ردا، فإن كنت من أصحابه فخاطبنا بمثل خطابه.

So, do not be foolish in addressing us, and do not exceed in answering us, and he-asws is the forbearing, the calm, and the intellectual, composed. He-asws neither gets hit by a breach, nor stupidity, nor rudeness, and he-asws hears our speech and listens to us, and he-asws recognises our arguments until when we are free from what is with us, and we think that we have cut him-asws, he-asws refutes our arguments with little speech, and short address, necessitating us with the proof with him-asws, and he-asws cuts off the excuses, and we are not able to answer him-asws in response. So, if you were from his-asws companions, then address us with the like of his-asws address’.

قال المفضل: فخرجت من المسجد محزونا مفكرا فيما بلي به الاسلام وأهله من كفر هذه العصابة وتعطيلها، فدخلت على مولاي صلوات الله عليه فرآني منكسرا، فقال: مالك ؟ فأخبرته بما سمعت من الدهريين وبما رددت عليهما،

Al-Mufazzal said, ‘I went out from the Masjid in grief, thinking regarding what Al-Islam and are people being afflicted with from the Kufr of these groups and their followers. Then I went to my Master-asws, and he-asws saw me as broken, so he-asws said: ‘What is the matter with you?’ I informed him-asws of what I had heard from the two eternalists (apostates), and of what I had responded with upon them both.

فقال: لالقين إليك من حكمة الباري – جل وعلا وتقدس اسمه – في خلق العالم والسباع والبهائم و الطير والهوام، وكل ذي روح من الانعام، والنبات والشجرة المثمرة وغير ذات الثمر والحبوب والبقول المأكول من ذلك وغير المأكول ما يعتبر به المعتبرون، ويسكن إلى معرفته المؤمنون، ويتحير فيه الملحدون فبكر علي غدا.

He-asws said: ‘I-asws shall cast to you, from the Wisdom of the Creator – Majestic and Exalted, and Holy is His-azwj Name – in the creation of the universe, and the predators, and the beasts, and the birds, and the insects, and all with a soul from the animals, and the plants, and the trees, ones with fruits and ones without fruits, and the grains, and the vegetables, the consumable from that and non-consumables, what the relying ones can be relying with, and the Momineen can be at rest to its recognition, and atheists would be bewildered, therefore come to me-asws tomorrow morning.

قال المفضل: فانصرفت من عنده فرحا مسرورا وطالت علي تلك الليلة انتظارا لما وعدني به، فلما أصبحت غدوت فاستوذن لي فدخلت وقمت بين يديه، فأمرني بالجلوس فجلست، ثم نهض إلى حجرة كان يخلو فيها، فنهضت بنهوضه فقال: اتبعني فتبعته فدخل ودخلت خلفه، فجلس وجلست بين يديه،

Al-Mufazzal said, ‘So I left from his-asws presence, happy, cheerful, and that night prolonged upon me in awaiting to what he-asws had promised me with. When it was morning, I went and he-asws permitted for me, so I entered and stood in front of him. He-asws instructed me with sitting down. So, I sat down. Then he-asws arose to go to a room where he-asws used to be alone therein, and we got up and went. He-asws said: ‘Follow me’. So, I followed him-asws. He-asws entered, and I entered (the room) behind him-asws. He-asws sat down, and I sat in front of him-asws.

فقال: يا مفضل: كأني بك وقد طالت عليك هذه الليلة انتظارا لما وعدتك ؟ فقلت: أجل يا مولاي، فقال: يا مفضل إن الله كان ولا شئ قبله، وهو باق ولا نهاية له، فله الحمد على ما ألهمنا، وله الشكر على ما منحنا، وقد خصنا من العلوم بأعلاها ومن المعالي بأسناها، واصطفانا على جميع الخلق بعلمه، وجعلنا مهيمنين عليهم بحكمه،

He-asws said: ‘O Mufazzal! I-asws am with you as if last night had prolonged upon you in awaiting to what I-asws had promised you?’ I said, ‘Yes, O my Master-asws!’ He-asws said: ‘O Mufazzal! Allah-azwj existed and there was nothing before Him-azwj, and He-azwj will remain and there is no end-point for Him-azwj. For Him-azwj is the Praise upon what He-azwj has Inspired us-asws with, and for Him-azwj are the thanks upon what He-azwj has Favoured us, and He-azwj has Especialised upon us-asws from the knowledges with its topmost, and from the excellencies of its peak, and Chose us-asws over the entirety of the creatures with His-azwj Knowledge, and Made us-asws, as controllers upon them with His-azwj Wisdom’.

فقلت: يا مولاي أتأذن لي أن أكتب ما تشرحه ؟ – وكنت أعددت معي ما أكتب فيه – فقال لي: افعل.

I said, ‘O my Master-asws! Will you permit me that I write down what your-asws explanation is?’ – and I had prepared with me what I could write in. He-asws said: ‘Do it!’

يا مفضل إن الشكاك جهلوا الاسباب والمعاني في الخلقة، وقصرت أفهامهم عن تأمل الصواب والحكمة، فيما ذرأ الباري جل قدسه وبرأ من صنوف خلقه في البر والبحر، والسهل والوعر

O Mufazzal! The doubters are ignorant of the causes and the meanings in the creation, and their imaginations are deficient from contemplating the correctness and the wisdom in what is Created by the Creator – Majestic is His-azwj Holiness – and His-azwj Creating from the types of His-azwj creatures in the land and the sea, and the coast, and the inland.

فخرجوا بقصر علومهم إلى الجحود، وبضعف بصائرهم إلى التكذيب والعنود، حتى أنكروا خلق الاشياء، وأدعوا أن كونها بالاهمال لا صنعة فيها ولا تقدير، ولا حكمة من مدبر ولا صانع، تعالى الله عما يصفون، وقاتلهم الله أنى يؤفكون.

So, they came out with the short-comings of their knowledge, to the rejection, and the weakness of their insights to the belying and being quarrelsome, until they denied the creation of the things, and claimed that their existence is with neglect, there being no Handiwork therein, nor any Determination, nor Wisdom from a Planner or a Maker. Allah-azwj is Exalted from what they are describing, and may Allah-azwj Curse them, how deluded they are!

فهم في ضلالهم وعماهم وتحيرهم بمنزلة عميان دخلوا دارا قد بنيت أتقن بناء وأحسنه، وفرشت بأحسن الفرش وأفخره، واعد فيها ضروب الاطعمة والاشربة و الملابس والمآرب التي يحتاج إليها لا يستغنى عنها، ووضع كل شئ من ذلك موضعه على صواب من التقدير وحكمة من التدبير

So, they, in their straying and their blindness and their confusion, are at the status of the blind people who enter a house which has been built, masterful in its built and excellent, and it has been furnished with the best furnishing and pride-worthy things. There have been prepared therein the food, and the drinks, and the clothes and the utensils, which they could be needy to, not being needless from it. And every thing from that is placed upon its correct placing from the determination and wisdom of the determination.

فجعلوا يترددون فيها يمينا وشمالا ويطوفون بيوتها إدبارا وإقبالا، محجوبة أبصارهم عنها، لا يبصرون بنية الدار وما اعد فيها، وربما عثر بعضهم بالشئ الذي قد وضع موضعه واعد للحاجة إليه، و هو جاهل بالمعنى فيه ولما اعد ولماذا جعل كذلك فتذمر وتسخط وذم الدار وبانيها

So, the go on to hesitate in it, left and right, and are circling backwards and forwards, their sights having been veiled from it, not seeing the construction of the house and what has been prepared in it. Sometimes, one of them would find something which had been placed in its (proper) place prepared for the need to it, and he is ignorant with the meaning with regards to it, and for what it has been prepared, and why it has been made like that. So, he grumbles and gets angered and condemns the house and its builder.

فهذه حال هذا الصنف في إنكارهم ما أنكروا من أمر الخلقة وثبات الصنعة، فإنهم لما غربت  أذهانهم عن معرفة الاسباب والعلل في الاشياء صاروا يجولون في هذا العالم حيارى، ولا يفهمون ما هو عليه من إتقان خلقته وحسن صنعته وصواب تهيئته،

So, this is the state of this type in their denial from the matter of the creation and proving the Making, so they, when their minds were set from recognising the causes and the reasons of the things, they came to be roaming around in this world in confusion, not understanding what he is upon from the mastery of His-azwj Creation, and the excellence of His-azwj Making, and the correctness of its configuration.

و ربما وقف بعضهم على الشئ لجهل سببه والارب فيه فيسرع إلى ذمه ووصفه بالاحالة والخطأ، كالذي أقدمت عليه المانوية الكفرة، وجاهرت به الملحدة المارقة الفجرة وأشباههم من أهل الضلال، المعللين أنفسهم بالمحال،

And sometimes one of them would pause upon the thing being ignorant of its cause and the purpose in it, so he is quick to condemn it, and describes it with the absurdity and the error, like the ones who preceded upon it, the Kufr of the dualists, and the atheists were aloud with it, the immoral rogues, and those that resemble them from the people of straying, the announcers of their own selves with the place (for Allah-azwj.

فيحق على من أنعم الله عليه بمعرفته وهداه لدينه، ووفقه لتأمل التدبير في صنعة الخلائق، والوقوف على ما خلقوا له من لطيف التدبير وصواب التعبير بالدلالة القائمة الدالة على صانعها، أن يكثر حمد الله مولاه على ذلك، ويرغب إليه في الثبات عليه والزيادة منه فإنه جل اسمه يقول: لئن شكرتم لازيدنكم ولئن كفرتم إن عذابي لشديد.

So, it is a right upon the one whom Allah-azwj Favoured upon him with His-azwj recognition, and His-azwj Guidance to His-azwj Religion, and his pausing for meditating upon the strategy in the making of the creatures, and the pausing upon what has been Created for him, from the subtleness of the strategy and the correct strategy, with the upright evidence pointing to its Maker, that he should frequent the Praise Allah-azwj his Master-azwj upon that, and he should be desirous to Him-azwj in the proofs to Him-azwj, and the increase from Him-azwj, for He-azwj, Majestic is His-azwj Name, is Saying: “If you are grateful, I would Increase it for you, and if you are ungrateful, then My Punishment is Severe” [14:7].

يا مفضل: أول العبر والادلة على الباري جل قدسه تهيئة هذا العالم وتأليف أجزائه ونظمها على ما هي عليه، فإنك إذا تأملت العالم بفكرك وميزته بعقلك وجدته كالبيت المبني المعد فيه جميع ما يحتاج إليه عباده،

O Mufazzal! The first of the lessons and the evidence upon the Creator, Majestic is His-azwj Holiness, is the configuration of this world, and the composition of its parts, and its system upon what it is upon. So, you, when you contemplate on the world with your thoughts, and distinguish with your intellect, you would find it to be like the built house in which is the preparation of the entirety what His-azwj servants would be needy to.

فالسماء مرفوعة كالسقف، والارض ممدودة كالبساط، والنجوم منضودة كالمصابيح، والجواهر مخزونة كالذخائر، وكل شئ فيها لشأنه معد، والانسان كالمملك ذلك البيت، والمخول جميع ما فيه، وضروب النبات مهيأة لمأربه، وصنوف الحيوان مصروفة في مصالحه ومنافعه،

The sky is raised like the ceiling, and the ground is stretched out like the rug, and the stars are bound consistently like the lanterns, and the gems are hoarded like the treasures, and all thing therein are prepared for its affair, and the human being is like the slave of that house, and the Conferment of the entirety of what is therein. And the parts of the plants are ready for its nourishment, and the variety of the animals are dispersed in its service and its benefits.

ففي هذا دلالة واضحة على أن العالم مخلوق بتقدير وحكمة، ونظام وملائمة، وأن الخالق له واحد وهو الذي ألفه ونظمه بعضا إلى بعض، جل قدسه، وتعالى جده، وكرم وجهه، ولا إله غيره، تعالى عما يقول الجاحدون، وجل وعظم عما ينتحله الملحدون

Thus, in this there is clear evidence upon that the world is a creation by a determination and wisdom, and a system, and relevance; and that (there is a) Creator for it, the One, and He-azwj is the One Who Composed it, and Organised it, some of it to the other, Majestic is His-azwj Holiness, and Exalted is His-azwj Diligence, and Honourable is His-azwj Face, and there is no god apart from Him-azwj. Exalted is He-azwj from what the rejecters are saying, and More Majestic and Magnificent from what atheists are arrogating.

يا مفضل بذكر خلق الانسان فاعتبر به، فأول ذلك ما يدبر به الجنين في الرحم، وهو محجوب في ظلمات ثلاث: ظلمة البطن، وظلمة الرحم، وظلمة المشيمة، حيث لا حيلة عنده في طلب غذاء ولا دفع أذى، ولا استجلاب منفعة ولا دفع منصرة،

O Mufazzal! With the mention of the creation of the human being, take a lesson with it. So, the first of that what can be pondered with is the foetus in the womb, and it is veiled in three (layers of) darkness – a darkness of the belly, and a darkness of the womb, and a darkness of the placenta, where there is no means with it in seeking sustenance nor to dispel any discomfort, nor bring any benefits, nor repel any harm.

فإنه يجري إليه من دم الحيض ما يغذوه كما يغذوا الماء النبات فلا يزال ذلك غذاؤه حتى إذا كمل خلقه واستحكم بدنه، وقوي أديمه على مباشرة الهواء، وبصره على ملاقات الضياء هاج الطلق بامه فأزعجه أشد إزعاج، وأعنفه حتى يولد،

So there flows to it from the blood of the menstruation, what provides it, just as the water provides the vegetation. That provision does not cease until when its creation is complete and its body is stronger, and its surface is strong enough to face the direct air, and its eyes upon meeting the light, agitated by being separated from its mother, and is uncomfortable with intense discomfort, and convolutes until it is born.

وإذا ولد صرف ذلك الدم الذي كان يغذوه من دم امه إلى ثدييها فانقلب الطعم واللون إلى ضرب آخر من الغذاء، وهو أشد موافقة للمولود من الدم فيوافيه في وقت حاجته إليه

And when it is born, that blood from the blood of its mother which used to nourish it, gets diverted to her breasts, and the taste and the colour changes to another variety of the provision, and becomes intensely compatible for the new born that the blood, and it suffices him in the time of its need to it.

فحين يولد قد تلمظ وحرك شفتيه طلبا للرضاع فهو يجد ثديي امه كالاداوتين المعلقتين لحاجته إليه، فلا يزال يغتذي باللبن مادام رطب البدن، رقيق الامعاء، لين الاعضاء، حتى إذا تحرك واحتاج إلى غذاء فيه صلابة ليشتد ويقوي بدنه

So, when the new born trembles and moves its lips seeking the breast-feeding, he finds the breast of its mother like the two instruments (fruits) hanging for his need to it. So, he does not cease to be nourished with the milk for as he is of wet body, delicate intestines, soft limbs, until when he moves and is needy to a provision wherein is solidity for the intensity and strength of his body.

طلعت له الطواحن من الاسنان والاضراس، ليمضغ به الطعام فيلين عليه، ويسهل له إساغته فلا يزال كذلك حتى يدرك

There emerge for him the grinders from the teeth and the molars, for him to chew the food with it, and it is softened for him, and easier for him to absorb. He does not cease to be like that until he becomes aware (older).

فإذا أدرك وكان ذكرا طلع الشعر في وجهه فكان ذلك علامة الذكر وعز الرجل الذي يخرج به من حد الصبا وشبه النساء، وإن كانت انثى يبقى وجهها نقيا من الشعر، لتبقى لها البهجة والنضارة التي تحرك الرجال لما فيه دوام النسل وبقاؤه.

So, when he is older, and was a male, the hair emerges in his face, and that was a sing of the male, and an honour of the man which comes out with it from the limit of the child, and (from) resembling the women. And if it was a female, her face would remain pure from the hair, or the glory and the freshness to remain for her, which makes the man move to what is in it the permanence of the lineage and its remaining.

اعتبر يا مفضل فيما يدبر به الانسان في هذه الاحوال المختلفة، هل ترى يمكن أن يكون بالاهمال ؟ أفرأيت لو لم يجر إليه ذلك الدم وهو في الرحم ألم يكن سيذوي ويجف كما يجف النبات إذا فقد الماء ؟

Consider, O Mufazzal, regarding what the human being is regulated with in these various stages. Do you see any possibility that it would happen to be with the neglect (without planning)? Do you see, if that blood had not flowed to it, and he was in the womb, wouldn’t he be impeded and whither just as the plants whither when there is absence of water?

ولو لم يزعجه المخاض عند استحكامه ألم يكن سيبقى في الرحم كالموؤود في الارض ؟ ولو لم يوافقه اللبن مع ولادته ألم يكن سيموت جوعا، أو يغتذي بغذاء لا يلائمه ولا يصلح عليه بدنه ؟ ولو لم تطلع عليه الاسنان في وقتها ألم يكن سيمتنع عليه مضغ الطعام وإساغته، أو يقيمه على الرضاع فلا يشد بدنه ولا يصلح لعمل ؟ ثم كان تشتغل امه بنفسه عن تربية غيره من الاولاد،

And if, he does not get uncomfortable with labour when it is stronger, wouldn’t it happen to remain in the womb like the deposits inside the ground? And if the milk was not compatible with its birth, would it not just die of hunger, or be provided with food which is unsuitable for it and its body would not be correct upon it? And if the teeth do not emerge upon him during its time, wouldn’t he have been prevented upon chewing the food and swallowing it, or stay upon the breastfeeding, and his body would not have strengthened nor be correct for the work? Then his mother would have been too busy from bringing up her other children.

ولو لم يخرج الشعر في وجهه في وقته ألم يكن سيبقى في هيئة الصبيان والنساء فلا ترى له جلالة ولا وقارا ؟.

And if the hair had not come out in his face during its time, would he not have remained upon the form of the children, and the women, and you have neither seen for him a majesty nor dignity?’

فقال المفضل: فقلت: يا مولاي فقد رأيت من يبقى على حالته ولا ينبت الشعر في وجهه وإن بلغ حال الكبر، فقال: ذلك بما قدمت أيديهم وأن الله ليس بظلام للعبيد،

Al-Mufazzal said, ‘I said, ‘O my Master-asws! I have seen one who remain upon his state and the hair does not grow in his face, and even if he reaches the state of being old’. He-asws said: ‘That is due to what their own hands have sent ahead, and that Allah is not in the least unjust to the servants [3:182].

فمن هذا الذي يرصده حتى يوافيه بكل شي من هذه المآرب إلا الذي أنشأه خلقا بعد أن لم يكن، ثم توكل له بمصلحته بعد أن كان فإن كان الاهمال يأتي بمثل هذا التدبير فقد يجب أن يكون العمد والتقدير يأتيان بالخطأ والمحال لانهما ضدا الاهمال، وهذا فظيع من القول وجهل من قائله، لان الاهمال لا يأتي بالصواب، والتضاد لا يأتي بالنظام، تعالى الله عما يقول الملحدون علوا كبيرا،

So, from this is which is observed until all things from these goals are achieved, except the One-azwj Who Grew the creation after it did not exist. Then, rely upon Him-azwj with His-azwj Purpose, after it has existed, for it is the neglect (without a plan), he (the atheist) should come with the like of this strategy. Thus, it is obligated that the deliberation and the determination happen to be with the errors and the impossibilities, because these two are contradictory to the neglect. And this is an exaggeration from the words and ignorance of the one saying it, because the neglect cannot come with the correctness, and the contradiction(s) are unsustainable within a (sound) system. Exalted is Allah-azwj from what the atheists are saying, Loftier, Greater.

ولو كان المولود يولد فهما عاقلا لانكر العالم عند ولادته ولبقي حيران تائه العقل إذا رأى ما لم يعرف وورد عليه ما لم ير مثله من اختلاف صور العالم من البهائم والطير إلى غير ذلك مما يشاهده ساعة بعد ساعة ويوما بعد يوم،

And if the new born had been born with understanding, intellectual, he would have denied the world at its birth and would remain confused, of lost intellect, when he sees what he does not recognise which come to him, not having had seen the like of it from the different images of the world, from the animals, and the birds to other than that, from what he witnesses hour after hour, and day after day.

واعتبر ذلك بأن من سبي من بلد إلى بلد وهو عاقل يكون كالواله الحيران فلا يسرع في تعلم الكلام وقبول الادب كما يسرع الذي يسبى صغيرا غير عاقل،

And consider that with one who is a prisoner taken from a city to another city, and he is with intellect, he would be like one puzzled and perplexed. So, he (the old prisoner) would not be quick in learning the speech and accepting the education, just as the young prisoner would be, without intellect.

ثم لو ولد عاقلا كان يجد غضاضة إذا رأى نفسه محمولا مرضعا، معصبا بالخرق، مسجى في المهد لانه لا يستغني عن هذا كله لرقة بدنه ورطوبته حين يولد، ثم كان لا يوجد له من الحلاوة والوقع من القلوب ما يوجد للطفل فصار يخرج إلى الدنيا غبيا غافلا عما فيه أهله فليقى الاشياء بذهن ضعيف ومعرفة ناقصة،

Then, if he had been born intellectual, he would find insulted when he sees himself being carried, breast-fed, wrapped with the clothes, lying down in the cradle, because he is not needless from all of this due to the fragility of his body and the wetness when he was born. Then, he would not find the sweetness for him and the occurrences in the hearts what the child finds, so he would go out into the world being stupid and heedless about what is therein from its people, so he would meet the things with a weak mind and with deficient understanding.

ثم لا يزال يتزايد في المعرفة قليلا قليلا وشيئا بعد شئ، وحالا بعد حال، حتى يألف الاشياء ويتمرن ويستمر عليها، فيخرج من حد التأمل لها والحيرة فيها إلى التصرف والاضطراب إلى المعاش بعقله وحيلته وإلى الاعتبار والطاعة والسهو والغفلة والمعصية،

Then he would not cease being increased in the understanding, little by little, and a thing after a thing, and a situation after a situation, until he is familiar with the things and continues upon them. So, he goes out from a limit of observation of it and the confusion regarding it, to the dispersing and the desperation to the livelihood with his intellect and his means, and to the learning of lessons, and the obedience, and the forgetfulness, and the heedlessness, and the disobedience.

وفي هذا أيضا وجوه آخر فإنه لو كان يولد تام العقل مستقلا بنفسه لذهب موضع حلاوة تربية الاولاد، وما قدر أن يكون للوالدين في الاشتغال بالولد من المصلحة، وما يوجب التربية للآباء على الابناء من المكلفات بالبر والعطف عليهم عند حاجتهم إلى ذلك منهم،

And in this as well, there is another aspect. If he had been born with complete intellect, independent with himself, the subject of the sweetness of the upbringing of the children would be gone, and it would not happen for the parents in their engagement with the child for its interests, and it would not obligate the upbringing for the parents upon the children from the educating with the righteousness, and the kindness upon them during their need to that from them.

ثم كان الاولاد لا يألفون آباءهم ولا يألف الآباء أبناءهم لان الاولاد كانوا يستغنون عن تربية الآباء وحياطتهم فيتفرقون عنهم حين يولدون فلا يعرف الرجل أباه وامه، ولا يمتنع من نكاح امه واخته وذوات المحارم منه إذا كان لا يعرفهن،

Then, the children would not be familiar with their parents nor would the parents be familiar with their children, because the children would have been needless from the upbringing of the parents and their protection. So, they would be separate from them when they are born, and the man would not recognise his father and his mother, not be prevented from marrying his own mother, and his sister, and the ones of sanctity from him when he does not recognise them.

وأقل ما في ذلك من القباحة – بل هو أشنع وأعظم وأفظع وأقبح وأبشع – لو خرج المولود من بطن امه وهو يعقل أن يرى منها مالا يحل له ولا يحسن به أن يراه.

And the least of the ugliness of what is in that – but, it is the most terrible, and most grievous, and the most horrible, and the ugliest, and the worst is – if the new born had come out from the belly of its mother and he is of intellect, he would see from her what is not Permissible for him, nor is it good with him that he sees it.

أفلا ترى كيف اقيم كل شئ من الخلقة على غاية الصواب، وخلا من الخطأ دقيقه وجليله ؟

Do you not see how upright everything from the creation is, being upon a peak of the correctness, and devoid of the errors, accurate and sublime?

اعرف يا مفضل ما للاطفال في البكاء من المنفعة، واعلم أن في أدمغة الاطفال رطوبة إن بقيت فيها أحدثت عليهم أحداثا جليلة، وعللا عظيمة من ذهاب البصر وغيره فالبكاء يسيل تلك الرطوبة من رؤوسهم، فيعقبهم ذلك الصحة في أبدانهم، والسلامة في أبصارهم،

Understand, O Mufazzal, what benefits there are for the children in their crying, and know that in the brain of the children there is a moisture, if it were to remain in these, a serious event would occur upon them, and a big illness, from the going away of the sight, and something else. The crying flows that moisture away from their heads, and that is followed by the health in their bodies, and the safety of their sights.

أفليس قد جاز أن يكون الطفل ينتفع بالبكاء، ووالداه لا يعرفان ذلك، فهما دائبان ليسكتاه ويتوخيان في الامور مرضاته لئلا يبكي، وهما لا يعلمان أن البكاء أصلح له وأجمل عاقبة،

Isn’t it allowed that the child would happen to be benefitting by the crying, and his parents do not understand that, so they go on to silence it and they are thinking of its pleasure not to let the baby cry, and both of them are not knowing that the crying is correct for him and of lovely consequences.

فهكذا يجوز أن يكون في كثير من الاشياء منافع لا يعرفها القائلون بالاهمال، ولو عرفوا ذلك لم يقضوا على الشئ أنه لا منفعة فيه من أجل أنهم لا يعرفونه ولا يعلمون السبب فيه فإن كل مالا يعرفه المنكرون يعلمه العارفون، وكثير مما يقصر عنه علم المخلوقين محيط به علم الخالق جل قدسه وعلت كلمته،

So, this is how it is allowed that there happen to be benefits in many things, the speakers are not understanding these with the negligence, and had they understood that, they would not decide upon the thing that there is no benefit in it, from the reason that they are not understanding it, nor are they knowing the reason of it, for everything what the deniers are not understanding, the understanding ones are knowing it, and a lot of what the knowledge of the creatures are deficient from it, the Knowledge of the Creator Encompasses it, Majestic is His-azwj Holiness, and Exalted is His-azwj Speech.

فأما ما يسيل من أفواه الاطفال من الريق ففي ذلك خروج الرطوبة التي لو بقيت في أبدانهم لاحدثت عليهم الامور العظيمة، كمن تراه قد غلبت عليه الرطوبة فأخرجته إلى حد البله والجنون والتخليط، إلى غير ذلك من الامراض المختلفة كالفالج واللقوة وما أشبههما،

As for what flows from the mouth of the child from the saliva, it that is the exit of the wetness which, had it remained in their bodies, a grievous matter would have occurred upon them, like the one who sees that the wetness have overcome upon it, so he takes it out to its apparent limit, and the insanity and the weak intellect, to other than that from the different diseases, like the paralysis of the body and the paralysis of the face, and what resembles these.

فجعل الله تلك الرطوبة تسيل من أفواهم في صغرهم لمالهم في ذلك من الصحة في كبرهم، فتفضل على خلقه بما جهلوه، ونظر لهم بما لم يعرفوه، ولو عرفوا نعمه عليهم لشغلهم ذلك عن التمادي في معصيته، فسبحانه ما أجل نعمته وأسبغها على المستحقين وغيرهم من خلقه، وتعالى عما يقول المبطلون علوا كبيرا.

Thus, Allah-azwj Makes that wetness to flow out from their mouths during their smallness, to what is healthy for them during their old age. He-azwj has Graced upon His-azwj creatures with what they are ignorant of, and Looks out for them with that they do not understand, and had they understood His-azwj Favour upon them, that would have pre-occupied them from deliberating to the acts of disobedience. Glorious is He-azwj! How Majestic are His-azwj Favours and His-azwj Bestowment upon the beneficiaries and others from His-azwj creatures, and Exalted is He-azwj from what the falsifiers are saying, Loftier, Greater.

انظر الآن يا مفضل كيف جعلت آلات الجماع في الذكر والانثى جميعا على ما يشاكل ذلك، فجعل للذكر آلة ناشزة تمتد حتى تصل النطفة إلى الرحم إذ كان محتاجا إلى أن يقذف ماءه في غيره، وخلق للانثى وعاءا قعر ليشتمل على المائين جميعا، ويحتمل الولد ويتسع له ويصونه حتى يستحكم، أليس ذلك من تدبير حكيم لطيف ؟ سبحانه وتعالى عما يشركون.

Look now, O Mufazzal, how the tools of the copulation have been Made to be in the male and the female together upon what makes it to be that. He-azwj Made an arousing tool for the male, stretching until the sperm flows to the womb, when it is needy to eject its water into something else. And He-azwj Created for the female, a concave container to contain both the waters together, and carry the child and expands for it, and protects it until it is strong. Isn’t that from the Arrangement of the Wise, the Subtle? Glorious and Exalted is He-azwj from what they are associating.

فكريا مفضل في أعضاء البدن أجمع وتدبير كل منها للارب، فاليدان للعلاج، والرجلان للسعي، والعينان للاهتداء، والفم للاغتذاء، والمعدة للهضم، والكبد للتخليص، والمنافذ لتنفيذ الفضول، والاوعية لحملها، والفرج لاقامة النسل، وكذلك جميع الاعضاء إذا تأملتها وأعملت فكرك فيها ونظرك وجدت كل شئ منها قد قدر لشئ على صواب وحكمة.

Think, O Mufazzal, regarding the parts of the body together and the arrangement of each of these for the purpose. The hands are for the work, and the legs are for the walking, and the eyes are for the guidance, and the mouth is for the feeding, and the stomach is for the digesting, and the liver is for the purifying, and the port is for the excretion of the excess, and the receptacles are for carrying it, and the private parts for establishing the lineages. And, similar to that are the entirety of the body parts, when you contemplate on it and concentrate your thoughts regarding these, and you look, you would find all things from these to have been determines for a thing, upon correctness and wisdom’.

قال المفضل: فقلت: يا مولاي إن قوما يزعمون أن هذا من فعل الطبيعة،

Al-Mufazzal said, ‘So I said, ‘O my Master-asws! There are a people who are alleging that this is from the work of nature’.

فقال: سلهم عن هذه الطبيعة، أهي شئ له علم وقدرة على مثل هذه الافعال، أم ليست كذلك ؟ فإن أوجبوا لها العلم والقدرة فما يمنعهم من إثبات الخالق ؟ فإن هذه صنعته، وإن زعموا أنها تفعل هذه الافعال بغير علم ولا عمد وكان في أفعالها ما قد تراه من الصواب و الحكمة علم أن هذا الفعل للخالق الحكيم، وأن الذي سموه طبيعة هو سنة في خلقه الجارية على ما أجراها عليه.

He-asws said: ‘Ask them about this nature. Is it something having knowledge and power for it upon the likes of these deeds, or it isn’t like that? So, if they answer that for it is that knowledge and the power, then what prevents them from proving the Creator? For, this is His-azwj Making. And if they claim that it (nature) did these deeds without knowledge of deliberation, and in its deeds is what you have seen from the correctness and the wisdom, know that this is the deed of the Creator, and that which they have named it as nature, it is a manner in His-azwj creation, flowing upon what it flows upon.

فكريا مفضل في وصول الغذاء إلى البدن وما فيه من التدبير، فإن الطعام يصيرإلى المعدة فتطبخه، وتبعث بصفوه إلى الكبد في عروق رقاق واشجة بينها قد جعلت كالمصفى للغذاء، لكيلا يصل إلى الكبد منه شئ فينكأها، وذلك أن الكبد رقيقة لا تحتمل العنف،

Think, O Mufazzal, regarding the arrival of the provision to the body, and what arrangement there is in it, for the meal travels to the stomach and it cooks (digests) it, and sends its clean (part) to the liver in delicate veins and the load between it has been Made to be like the cleanser of the meal, lest something from it would arrive to the liver and knock it down, and that is because the liver is delicate, it cannot tolerate the force.

ثم إن الكبد تقبله فيستحيل بلطف التدبير دما، وينفذ إلى البدن كله في مجاري مهيأة لذلك، بمنزلة المجاري التي تهيؤ للماء حتى يطرد في الارض كلها، و ينفذ ما يخرج منه من الخبث والفضول إلى مفائض قد اعدت لذلك،

Then, the liver accepts it and releases it with subtle arrangement, as blood, and implements it to the whole body in a flow prepared for that, at the status of the flow which is prepared for the water until it is dislodged in the land, all of it, and implements what comes out from it, from the waste and the excess, to a place which has been prepared for that.

فما كان منه من جنس المرة الصفراء جرى إلى المرارة، وما كان من جنس السوداء جرى إلى الطحال، وما كان من البلة والرطوبة جرى إلى المثانة، فتأمل حكمة التدبير في تركيب البدن، و وضع هذه الاعضاء منه مواضعها، وإعداد هذه الاوعية فيه لتحمل تلك الفضول، لئلا تنتشر في البدن فتسقمه وتنهكه، فتبارك من أحسن التقدير وأحكم التدبير، وله الحمد كما هو أهله ومستحقه.

So, whatever was from the genus of yellow, bitter, flows to the gall bladder, and whatever was from the genus of the blackness, flows to the spleen, and whatever was from the urine and the moisture flows to the bladder. Contemplate on the wisdom of the arrangement in the structure of the body, and the placing of these body parts in its places, and the preparation of these vessels in which these waste products are carried, lest they are dispersed in the body and make it sick and violate it (correctness). Blessed is the One-azwj of excellent Determination, and of Wise Determination, and for Him-azwj is the Praise as He-azwj is rightful of, and deserving of it’.

المفضل: فقلت: صف نشؤ الابدان ونموها حالا بعد حال حتى تبلغ التمام والكمال.

Al-Mufazzal (said), ‘I said, ‘Describe the creation of the bodies and its growth, state after state, until it reaches the completion and perfection’.

فقال عليه السلام: أول ذلك تصوير الجنين في الرحم حيث لا تراه عين ولا تناله يد، ويدبره حتى يخرج سويا مستوفيا جميع ما فيه قوامه وصلاحه من الاحشاء والجوارح والعوامل إلى ما في تركيب أعضائه من العظام واللحم والشحم والمخ والعصب والعروق والغضاريف،

He-asws said: ‘The first of that is the formation of the foetus in the womb where neither can an eye see it, nor can a hand reach it, and it is managed until it comes out complete, fully with the entirety of what is in it for its uprightness, and its interests, from the intestines, and the limbs, and the factors to what is in the composition of its body parts, from the bones, and the flesh, and the fat, and the brain, and the nerves, and the veins, and the cartilages.

فإذا خرج إلى العالم تراه كيف ينمي بجميع أعضائه وهو ثابت على شكل وهيئة لا تتزايد ولا تنقص إلى أن يبلغ أشده إن مد في عمره أو يستوفي مدته قبل ذلك، هل هذا إلا من لطيف التدبير والحكمة ؟.

So, when it comes out to the world, you see how it has been Favoured with the entirety of its body parts, and he is affirmed upon a shape and body, neither increased nor reduced, up to he reaches his strength, a term from his term, or his term expires before that. Is that, except from a subtle arrangement, and the Wisdom?’

يا مفضل انظر إلى ما خص به الانسان في خلقه تشريفا وتفضيلا على البهائم، فإنه خلق ينتصب قائما ويستوي جالسا، ليستقبل الاشياء بيديه وجوارحه، ويمكنه العلاج والعمل بهما، فلو كان مكبوبا على وجهه كذات الاربع لما استطاع أن يعمل شيئا من الاعمال.

O Mufazzal! Look at what the human being has been Specialised with in his creation, nobility and merit upon the animals, for he is a creature established upright, and sits evenly it order to face the things with his hands and his limbs, and it enables him for the treatment and the work with these. If he had been upside down upon his face, like those for-legged ones, he would not have been able to do anything from the deeds.

انظر الآن يا مفضل إلى هذه الحواس التي خص بها الانسان في خلقه وشرف بها على غيره، كيف جعلت العينان في الرأس كالمصابيح فوق المنارة ليتمكن من مطالعة الاشياء، ولم تجعل في الاعضاء التي تحتهن كاليدبن والرجلين فتعرضها الآفات، و تصيبها من مباشرة العمل والحركة ما يعللها ويؤثر فيها وينقص منها، ولا في الاعضاء التي وسط البدن كالبطن والظهر فيعسر تقلبها واطلاعها نحو الاشياء،

Look now, O Mufazzal, to the senses which the human being has been Specialised with in his creation, and Ennobled with upon others. How the eyes have been made to be in the head like the two lamps above the minaret, in order to enable to notice the things, and these were not Made to be in the limbs which are under these, like the hands, and the legs, so they would be exposed to the afflictions and be hurt by the direct actions and the movement what would affect these and its sight would be reduced from these, nor in the body parts which are in the middle of the body, like the belly, and the back, so it would be difficult for him to turn around and notice the nearby things.

فلما لم يكن لها في شئ من هذه الاعضاء موضع كان الرأس أسنى المواضع للحواس، وهو بمنزلة الصومعة لها، فجعل الحواس خمسا تلقي خمسا لكي لا يفوتها شئ من المحسوسات، فخلق البصر ليدرك الالوان فلو كانت الالوان ولم يكن بصر يدركها لم يكن منفعة فيها،

So, when there does not happen to be for these (eyes) a place from these body parts, the head would be the best of the places for the senses, and it would be at the status of the monastery for it. Thus, the five senses have been Made to obtain five, lest nothing would be lost from the sensing. The sight has been Created to realise the colour, and if the colours were not perceived by the sight, there would not be any benefit in these.

وخلق السمع ليدرك الاصوات فلو كانت الاصوات ولم يكن سمع يدركها لم يكن فيها إرب وكذلك سائر الحواس، ثم هذا يرجع متكافئا، فلو كان بصر ولم يكن ألوان لما كان للبصر معنى، ولو كان سمع ولم يكن أصوات لم يكن للسمع موضع،

And the sky has been Created to realise the sounds, and if the sounds could not be realised by the hearing, there would not be any need in these. And similar to that are the rest of the senses. Then this returns sufficiently. If there was sight and the colours were not there, there would not have been any meaning for the sight; and if the hearing was there and there did not happen to be any sounds, there would not have been any place for the hearing.

فانظر كيف قدر بعضها يلقي بعضا فجعل لكل حاسة محسوسا يعمل فيه، ولكل محسوس حاسة تدركه، و مع هذا فقد جعلت أشياء متوسطة بين الحواس والمحسوسات، لا يتم الحواس إلا بها، كمثل الضياء والهواء فإنه لو لم يكن ضياء يظهر اللون للبصر لم يكن البصر يدرك اللون،

Therefore, look at how is the measure of some of it facing the other, between the sensory organ and the sensation. The sensory organ cannot be complete except by these, like an example of the illumination, and the air, for if there did not happen to be any illumination manifesting the colours for the sight, the sight would not have realised the colour.

ولو لم يكن هواء يؤدي الصوت إلى السمع لم يكن السمع يدرك الصوت، فهل يخفى على من صح نظره وأعمل فكره أن مثل هذا الذي وصفت من تهيئة الحواس والمحسوسات بعضها يلقي بعضا وتهيئة أشياء آخربها تتم الحواس لا يكون إلا بعمد وتقدير من لطيف خبير ؟.

And if the air would not deliver the sound to the hearing, the hearing would not have realised the sound. So, is it hidden upon the one of healthy sight, and functional, though that the likes of this which I-asws have described, from the formation of the senses and the sensations, some of it linked with others, and formation of the other things with these, the senses are complete, cannot happen except with deliberation and the determination from a Subtle, Aware?’

فكريا مفضل فيمن عدم البصر من الناس وما يناله من الخلل في اموره، فإنه لا يعرف موضع قدمه، ولا يبصر ما بين يديه، فلا يفرق بين الالوان، وبين المنظر الحسن والقبيح، ولا يرى حفرة إن هجم عليها ولا عدوا إن أهوى إليه بسيف، ولا يكون له سبيل إلى أن يعمل شيئا من هذه الصناعات مثل الكتابة والتجارة والصياغة حتى أنه لولا نفاذ ذهنه لكان بمنزلة الحجر الملقى،

Think, O Mufazzal, regarding one from the people who has lack of sight, and what he faces from the impediments in his affairs, for he cannot recognise the place of his own feet, nor does he see what is in front of him, nor can he differentiate between the colours, and between the good scenery and the ugly, nor does he see a hole if he comes upon it, nor an enemy who comes to him with a sword, nor can there happen to be a way for him to doing something from these works, like the writing, and the business, and the goldsmithing, to the extent that if he does not implement his mind, he would be at the status of the rock thrown away.

وكذلك من عدم السمع يختل في امور كثيرة فإنه يفقد روح المخاطبة والمحاورة، ويعدم لذة الاصوات واللحون بالشجية المطربة، ويعظم المؤونة على الناس في محاورته، حتى يتبر موابه ولا يسمع شيئا من أخبار الناس وأحاديثهم، حتى يكون كالغائب وهو شاهد، أو كالميت وهو حي،

And similar to that is one who has lack of hearing. He gets confused in many matters, for he has lost the spirit of the address and the dialogue, and he lacks the pleasure of the sounds and the tones with the singing winds, and reveres the support for the dialogue with the people, until they get bored and angry with, and he cannot hear the news of the people and their discussion, until he becomes like the absentee although he is present, or like the dead although he is alive.

فأما من عدم العقل فإنه يلحق بمنزلة البهائم بل يجهل كثيرا مما يهتدي إليه البهائم، أفلا ترى كيف صارت الجوارح والعقل وسائر الخلال التي بها صلاح الانسان والتي لو فقد منها شيئا لعظم ما يناله في ذلك من الخلل يوافي خلقة على التمام حتى لا يفقد شيئا منها، فلم كان كذلك إلا لانه خلق بعلم وتقدير ؟.

As for one with lack of intellect, so he is attached with the status of the beasts, but he is ignorant of many things from what the beasts are guided to. Do you not see how the body parts and the intellect and the rest of the traits by which the human being can be correct, and which, if he were to lose something from these, he would be determined to attain it, regarding that from the traits to be in accordance with the complete creation, until nothing is lost from these? So why is he like that except that he has been Created with knowledge and discretion?

قال المفضل: فقلت: فلم صار بعض الناس يفقد شيئا من هذه الجوارح فيناله في ذلك مثل ما وصفته يا مولاي

Al-Mufazzal said, ‘I said, ‘So why did some of the people come to be losing something from these limbs, so he could get it regarding that, the like of what you-asws described, O my Master-asws?’

قال عليه السلام: ذلك للتأديب والموعظة لمن يحل ذلك به ولغيره بسببه، كما قد يؤدب الملوك الناس للتنكيل والموعظة فلا ينكر ذلك عليهم بل يحمد من رأيهم ويصوب من تدبيرهم، ثم للذين ينزل بهم هذه البلايا من الثواب بعد الموت إن شكروا وأنابوا ما يستصغرون معه ما ينالهم منها، حتى أنهم لو خيروا بعد الموت لاختاروا أن يردوا إلى البلايا ليزدادوا من الثواب.

He-asws said: ‘That is for the discipline and the preaching for one to justify that with him, and for others by his reason, just as the disciplining by the king of the people for the teaching a lesson and the preaching, so he does not deny that upon them, but he is praised by the one sees them and the correction of their management. Then those afflictions which descended with them, resulted in the Rewards after the death if they were thankful and were frequently belittling with Him-azwj what He-azwj had Given them from these, to the extent that, if they had the choice after the death, they would choose to return to the affliction, in order to get an increase from the rewards.

فكريا مفضل في الاعضاء التي خلقت أفرادا وأزواجا، وما في ذلك من الحكمة والتقدير، والصواب في التدبير، فالرأس مما خلق فردا ولم يكن للانسان صلاح في أن يكون أكثر من واحد،

Think, O Mufazzal, regarding the body, which have been Created as individual and as pairs, what is in that from the wisdom and the determination, and the correct arrangement. The head is from what is Created as individual, and the correct cannot happen to be for the human being if there happens to be more than one.

ألا ترى أنه لو اضيف إلى رأس الانسان رأس آخر لكان ثقلا عليه من غير حاجة إليه، لان الحواس التي يحتاج إليها مجتمعة في رأس واحد، ثم كان الانسان ينقسم قسمين لو كان له رأسان

Do you not see that if another head is added to the head of the human being it would be heavy upon him from without there being a need to it, because the senses which he is needy to are all gathered in one head. Then the human being would be divided in to two parts if there were two heads for him.

فإن تكلم من أحدهما كان الآخر معطلا لا إرب فيه ولا حاجة إليه، وإن تكلم منهما جميعا بكلام واحد كان أحدهما فضلا لا يحتاج إليه، وإن تكلم بأحدهما بغير الذي تكلم به من الآخر لم يدر السامع بأي ذلك يأخذ، و أشباه هذا من الاخلاط،

So, if he were to speak from one of them, the other would be irrelevant, there being neither a reason for it nor any need to it. And if he were to speak from both of these together with one speech, one of these would be extra, there being no need to it. And if he were to speak with one of them with other than the speech which the other one speaks with, the listener would not know with which he should take to, and other such things from the mix-ups.

واليدان مما خلق أزواجا ولم يكن للانسان خير في أن يكون له يد واحدة لان ذلك كان يخل به فيما يحتاج إلى معالجته من الاشياء ألا ترى أن النجار والبناء لو شلت إحدى يديه لا يستطيع أن يعالج صناعته، وإن تكلف ذلك لم يحكمه ولم يبلغ منه ما يبلغه إذا كانت له يدان يتعاونان على العمل.

And the two hands are from what has been Created as pairs, and it would not happen to be good if there happens to be one hand for him, because that would be a hindrance for him regarding what he would be needy to handle the things. Do you not see that if the carpenter and the builder were to cripple one hand, would not be able to handle his world, and if he were to undertake that, it would not be administered and would not reach with it what he would have otherwise reached if there were two hands for him, assisting each other upon the work.

أطل الفكر يا مفضل في الصوت والكلام وتهيئة آلاته في الانسان، فالحنجرة كالانبوبة لخروج الصوت، واللسان والشفتان والاسنان لصياغة الحروف والنغم، ألا ترى أن من سقطت أسنانه لم يقم السين، ومن سقطت شفته لم يصحح الفاء، ومن ثقل لسانه لم يفصح الراء، وأشبه شئ بذلك المزمار الاعظم،

Stretch the thinking, O Mufazzal, regarding the sounds and the speech, and the preparation of the tools in the human being. The throat is like the tube for the voice to come out, and the tongue and the lips and the teeth for formulating the letters and the sounds. Do you not see that the one whose teeth fall off cannot pronounce the (letter) ‘Seen’, and one whose lips fall off cannot be correct with the (letter) ‘FA’, and one whose tongue is heavy cannot be eloquence with the (letter) ‘RA’, and it resembles with that, the great flute?

فالحنجرة يشبه قصبة المزمار والرية يشبه الزق الذي ينفخ فيه لتدخل الريح، والعضلات التي تقبض على الرية ليخرج الصوت كالاصابع التي تقبض على الزق حتى تجري الريح في المزمار،

The throat is resembled by the rod of a flute, and the mouth is resembled by the mouth (of the flute) in which the wind is blown, and the muscles that hold the lung to bring out the voice are like the fingers which grab upon the holes until the wind flows in the flute.

والشفتان والاسنان التي تصوغ الصوت حروفا ونغما كالاصابع التي يختلف في فم المزمار فتصوغ صفيره ألحانا، غير أنه وإن كان مخرج الصوت يشبه المزمار بالدلالة والتعريف فإن المزمار بالحقيقة هو المشبه بمخرج الصوت.

And the lips and the teeth which formulate the voice of letters and songs are like the fingers which alternate in a mouth of the flute, like the formulation of selectable melodies, apart from that if the exit of the voice resembles the flute with the evidence, and the introduction, so the flute in reality, it resembles the exit of the voice (in the human being).

قد أنبأتك بما في الاعضاء من الغناء في صنعة الكلام وإقامة الحروف، وفيها مع الذي ذكرت لك مآرب اخرى، فالحنجرة ليسلك فيها هذا النسيم إلى الرية فتروح على الفؤاد بالنفس الدائم المتتابع الذي لو احتبس شيئا يسيرا لهلك الانسان،

I-asws have informed you with what is in the body parts, from the songs in the making of the speech, and establishing the letters, and therein, along with that which I-asws mentioned to you, are other uses. The throat, for this gentle breeze to travel though it to the running through, going to the heart with the perpetual breaths, the consecutive, which if something small was withheld, would destroy the human being.

و باللسان تذاق الطعوم فيميز بينها ويعرف كل واحد منها حلوها من مرها، وحامضها من مزها، ومالحها من عذبها، وطيبها من خبيثها، وفيه مع ذلك معونة على إساغة الطعام والشراب،

And with the tongue he tastes the foods, and he discerns between these and recognises every one of these, its sweetness from its bitterness, and its sourness from its acidity, and its saltiness from its freshness, and its good from its bad, and in it, along with that, is an assistance upon absorption of the food and the drink.

والاسنان تمضغ الطعام حتى تلين ويسهل إساغته، وهي مع ذلك كالسند للشفتين تمسكهما وتدعمهما من داخل الفم، واعتبر ذلك بأنك ترى من سقطت أسنانه مسترخى الشفة ومضطربها، وبالشفتين يترشف الشراب حتى يكون الذي يصل إلى الجوف منه بقصد وقدر لا يثج ثجا فيغص به الشارب أو ينكا في الجوف، ثم هما بعد ذلك كالباب المطبق على الفم يفتحهما الانسان إذا شاء، ويطبقهما إذا شاء،

And the teeth chew the food until it is soft and easy to absorb, and it, along with that, is like the support for the lips, to hold them and support them from inside the mouth. And take a lesson that if you were to see one whose teeth have fallen off, of relaxed and fluffy lips, is desperate with these, and with the lips he sips the drink until that from it flows to the insides by a purpose and measure that does not reap a morsel so the moustache may be chewed by it, or wounds in the inside. Then these two (lips), after that, are like the layered gates upon the mouth. The human being opens these whenever he so desires to, and closes them whenever he so desires to.

ففيما وصفنا من هذا بيان أن كل واحد من هذه الاعضاء يتصرف وينقسم إلى وجوه من المنافع، كما تتصرف الاداة الواحدة في أعمال شتى، وذلك كالفاس يستعمل في النجارة والحفر وغيرهما من الاعمال،

So, in what we-asws described from this explanation is that everyone from these body parts is utilised and divided to its aspect from the benefits, just as the one tool is used in various works, and that is like the poleaxe being used in the carpentry, and the digging, and other from the works.

ولو رأيت الدماغ إذا كشف عنه لرأيته قد لف بحجب بعضها فوق بعض لتصونه من الاعراض وتمسكه فلا يضطرب، ولرأيت عليه الجمجمة بمنزلة البيضة كيما يفته هد الصدمة والصكة التي ربما وقعت في الرأس،

And if you were to see the brain when it is uncovered, you will see it as enveloped by veils on top of each other in order to fortify it from the exposure and withhold it so it does not tremble. And you will see upon it the skull at the status of the egg, what protects it from the shock and the violent strike which sometimes occurs in the head.

ثم قد جللت الجمجمة بالشعر حتى صار بمنزلة الفر وللرأس يستره من شدة الحر والبرد، فمن حصن الدماغ هذا التحصين إلا الذي خلقه وجعله ينبوع الحس والمستحق للحيطة والصيانة بعلو منزلته من البدن وارتفاع درجته وخطر مرتبته ؟

Then, the skull has been rolled out with the hair being at the status of the fur for the head, veiling it from the intensity of the heat and the cold. So, who can fortify the brain with this fortress except the One-azwj Who Created it and Made it a fountain of sense, and worthy of the caution, and maintenance at its highest level from the body, and of lofty degree, and high rank?

تأمل يا مفضل الجفن على العين، كيف جعل كالغشاء، والاشفار كالاشراج، و أولجها في هذا الغار، وأظلها بالحجاب وما عليه من الشعر.

Contemplate, O Mufazzal, on the eyelid upon the eye. How it is Made like the membrane, and the lashes are like the vent, and inserted in this cave, and it is shaded with the veil and whatever is upon it from the hair.

يا مفضل من غيب الفؤاد في جوف الصدر، وكساه المدرعة التي هي غشاؤه، وحصنه بالجوانح وما عليها من اللحم والعصب لئلا يصل إليه ما ينكؤه ؟ من جعل في الحلق منفذين ؟ أحدهما لمخرج الصوت وهو الحلقوم المتصل بالرية، والآخر منفذ الغذاء وهو المرئ المتصل بالمعدة الموصل الغذاء إليها، وجعل على الحلقوم طبقا يمنع الطعام أن يصل إلى الرية فيقتل،

O Mufazzal! Who Hid the heart in the middle of the chest, and cloaked it with the armour which it is covering, and fortified it with the thin strips and whatever is upon it from the flesh, and the nerves, lets something would flow to it what could damage it? Who Made two outlets to be in the throat? One of them is for exiting the voice, and it is the throat connected with the aeration, and the other is the outlet for the provision (food), and it is the oesophagus connected with the stomach, the deliverer of the provision (food) to it, and Made the outlets as layers preventing the food to arrive to the aeration which could kill.

من جعل الرية مروحة الفؤاد ؟ لا تفتر ولا تخل لكيلا تتحيز الحرارة في الفؤاد فتؤدي إلى التلف. من جعل لمنافذ البول والغائط أشراجا تضبطهما ؟ لئلا يجريا جريانا دائما فيفسد على الانسان عيشه فكم عسى أن يحصي المحصي من هذا ؟ بل الذي لا يحصى منه ولا يعلمه الناس أكثر، من جعل المعدة عصبانية شديدة وقدرها لهضم الطعام الغليظ ؟

Who made the aeration as a ventilator of the heart? It neither stalls nor does it get disturbed lets the heat in the heart gets exaggerated, so it ends up causing damage. Who Made the outlets of the urine and the faeces are two arrows controlling them? Lest they flow perpetually and spoil upon the human being, his life. So, how much can one count from this? But, it is that which cannot be counted from, nor do the people know most of it. Who Made the stomach as severely active, and Determined it for digestion of the hard food?

ومن جعل الكبد رقيقة ناعمة لقبول الصفوا للطيف من الغذء ولتهضم وتعمل ما هو ألطف من عمل المعدة إلا الله القادر ؟ أترى الاهمال يأتي بشئ من ذلك ؟ كلا، بل هو تدبير من مدبر حكيم، قادر عليم بالاشياء قبل خلقه إياها، لا يعجزه شئ وهو اللطيف الخبير.

Who Made the liver to be thin, delicate to accept the cleansed, subtle from the food to digest and work on what is subtle than the word of the stomach, except Allah-azwj the Determiner? Do you not see the chaos to come with something from that? Never! But, it is the arrangement from a Wise Arranger, Able, Knower of the things before He-azwj Created these. Nothing Frustrates Him-azwj and He-azwj is the Subtle, the Informed.

فكريا مفضل لم صار المخ الرقيق محصنا في أنابيب العظام ؟ هل ذلك إلا ليحفظه ويصونه ؟ لم صار الدم السائل محصورا في العروق بمنزلة الماء في الظروف إلا لتضبطه فلا يفيض ؟ لم صارت الاظفار على أطراف الاصابع إلا وقاية لها ومعونة على العمل ؟ لم صار داخل الاذن ملتويا كهيئة الكوكب إلا ليطرد فيه الصوت حتى ينتهي إلى السمع وليتكسر حمة الريح فلا ينكأ في السمع ؟

Think, O Mufazzal! Why did the thin brain become fortified among the bony tubes? Is that except to protect it and fortify it? Why did the blood become flowing limitedly in the veins at the status of the water in the circumstances except to control it so it does not overflow? Why did the nails come to be on the edges of the fingers, except as a safeguard for these and an assistance upon the work? Why did interior of the ear become coiled like the prison except to expel the sounds until it ends up to the hearing and to break heat of the wind so it does not damage in the hearing?

لم حمل الانسان على فخذيه وإليتيه هذا اللحم إلا ليقيه من الارض فلا يتألم من الجلوس عليهما، كما يألم من نحل جسمه وقل لحمه إذا لم يكن بينه وبين الارض حائل يقيه صلابتها ؟ من جعل الانسان ذكرا وانثى إلا من خلقه متناسلا ؟ ومن خلقه متناسلا إلا من خلقه مؤملا ؟

Why does the human being carry upon his thigs and his buttocks except to save him from the ground, so that he would not be pained from the sitting on these, just as he would be pained from the bottom of his body and the scarcity of his flesh when there does not happen to be between him and the ground any obstacle preventing its hardness? Who Made the human being as male and female except One-azwj Who Created it for reproduction? And Who Created it for reproduction except One-azwj Who Created it hopeful?

ومن خلقه مؤملا ومن أعطاه آلات العمل إلا من خلقه عاملا ؟ ومن خلقه عاملا إلا من جعله محتاجا ؟ ومن جعله محتاجا إلا من ضربه بالحاجة ؟ ومن ضربه بالحاجة إلا من توكل بتقويمه ؟ من خصه بالفهم إلا من أوجب له الجزاء ؟ ومن وهب له الحيلة إلا من ملكه الحول ؟ ومن ملكه الحول إلا من ألزمه الحجة ؟

And who created it as hopeful, and Who Gave it the tools of the work except One-azwj Who Created it as a worker? And who created it as a worker except One-azwj Who Made it needy? And who made it needy except One-azwj Who Hit it with the need? And who hit it with the need except One-azwj Who Made it reliant with its formation? Who specialised it with the understanding except One-azwj Who Obligated the Recompense for it? And who gifted the means for it except One Controls the Might? And who controls the mighty except One-azwj Who Necessitated the Proof?

من يكفيه ما لا تبلغه حيلته إلا من لم يبلغ مدى شكره ؟ فكر وتدبر ما وصفته، هل تجد الاهمال على هذا النظام والترتيب ؟ تبارك الله عما يصفون.

Who sufficed him with what he could not reach his means, except One-azwj Who did not reach extent of His-azwj thanks? Think, and ponder what I-asws have described. Can you find the chaos upon this system and the arrangement?

أصف لك الآن يا مفضل الفؤاد، اعلم أن فيه ثقبا موجهة نحو الثقب التي في الرية تروح عن الفؤاد، حتى لو اختلفت تلك الثقب وتزايل بعضها عن بعض لما وصل الروح إلى الفؤاد ولهلك الانسان، أفيستجيز ذو فكر وروية أن يزعم أن مثل هذا يكون بالاهمال ولا يجد شاهدا من نفسه ينزعه عن هذا القول ؟ لو رأيت فردا من مصراعين فيه كلوب أكنت تتوهم أنه جعل كذلك بلا معنى ؟

I-asws shall now describe the heart for you, O Mufazzal. Know, that in it is a directed hole approximate to the hole, which is in the aeration circulating from the heart, to the extent that if that hole was different and continued upon each other, the blood would not reach to the heart and the human being would be destroyed. And the one with thinking get up and claim that the like of this has happened with the chaos and he cannot find a witness from himself to snatch him away from this word? If you were to see one of the two parts in which are valves, would you imagine that it has been made like that without meaning?

بل كنت تعلم ضرورة أنه مصنوع يلقي فردا آخر فتبرزه ليكون في اجتماعهما ضرب من المصلحة، وهكذا تجد الذكر من الحيوان كأنه فرد من زوج مهيأ من فرد انثى فيلتقيان لما فيه من دوام النسل وبقائه، فتبا وخيبة وتعسا لمنتحلي الفلسفة، كيف عميت قلوبهم عن هذه الخلقة العجيبة حتى أنكروا التدبير والعمد فيها ؟

But, you know the necessity that it is made so, meeting another individual (valve), so it passes it to become together out of interest. And like this you will find the male beast, as if he is an individual from a spouse prepared from an individual female. So, they both meet to what in it is the perpetuation of the lineage and its remaining. Woe, and disappointment, and wretchedness for the imposters, the philosophers, how their hearts are blinded from this wondrous creation, until they are denying the arrangement and the deliberation in it?

لو كان فرج الرجل مسترخيا كيف كان يصل إلى قعر الرحم حتى يفرغ النطفة فيه ؟ ولو كان منعظا أبدا كيف كان الرجل يتقلب في الفراش أو يمشي بين الناس وشئ شاخص أمامه ؟ ثم يكون في ذلك مع قبح المنظر تحريك الشهوة في كل وقت من الرجال والنساء جميعا،

If the private part of the man was relaxed, how would it arrive to the bottom of the womb until the sperm is released in it? And if it was upright for ever, how would the man turn around in the bed, or walk in between the people and something personal is in front of him? Then there would happen to be in that, along with the ugly scene, movement of the desire during all the time from the men and the women together.

فقدر الله جل اسمه أن يكون أكثر ذلك لا يبدو للبصر في كل وقت، ولا يكون على الرجال منه مؤونة، بل جعل فيه القوة على الانتصاب وقت الحاجة إلى ذلك لما قدر أن يكون فيه دوام النسل وبقاؤه.

Thus, Allah-azwj, Majestic is His-azwj Name, Determined that most of that would not happen to manifest to the sight during all the time, nor would it happen to be a supported upon the man from it. But, He-azwj Made the strength in it upon the erection in the time of need to that, to what He-azwj has Determined that there would happen to be the perpetuity of the lineage and its remaining.

اعتبر الآن يا مفضل بعظيم النعمة على الانسان في مطعمه ومشربه وتسهيل خروج الاذى، أليس من حسن التقدير في بناء الدار أن يكون الخلاء في أستر موضع فيها ؟ فكذا جعل الله سبحانه المنفذ المهيأ للخلاء من الانسان في أستر موضع منه، فلم يجعله بارزا من خلفه، ولا ناشرا من بين يديه،

Learn a lesson now, O Mufazzal, with the great Favour upon the human being in his food and his drink, and the easiness of the exit of the harmful (substance). Isn’t the one who is good at determination regarding building the house, that the toilet would happen to be in the most veiled place in it? That is how Allah-azwj, Glorious is He-azwj, Made a port configured for the toilet to be in the most veiled place from him, and He-azwj did not Make it prominent from behind him, not openly in front of him.

بل هو مغيب في موضع غامض من البدن، مستور محجوب يلتقي عليه الفخذان، وتحجبه الاليتان بما عليهما من اللحم فيواريانه فإذا احتاج الانسان إلى الخلاء وجلس تلك الجلسة ألفى ذلك المنفذ منه منصبا مهيئا لانحدار الثفل، فتبارك الله من تظاهرت آلاؤه ولا تحصى نعماؤه.

But, it is hidden in an obscure place of the body, veiled, concealed, two thighs meeting upon it, and it is veiled by the two tools (buttocks) with whatever is upon them from the flesh, and they cover it. So, when the human being is needy to the toilet, and he sits that sitting, you will find that port to be positioned for the rolling out the weight. Blessed is Allah-azwj from His-azwj Favours been shown, nor His-azwj Bounties to be counted.

فكر يا مفضل في هذه الطواحن التي جعلت للانسان فبعضها حداد لقطع الطعام وقرضه، وبعضها عراض لمضغه ورضه  فلم ينقص واحد من الصفتين إذ كان محتاجا إليهما جميعا.

Think, O Mufazzal, regarding these grinders, which are made to be for the human being. Some of these are to cut the food and nibble it, and some are presented for chewing and softening, so he is not deficient from even one of the two qualities when he was needy to them both.

تأمل واعتبر بحسن التدبير في خلق الشعر والاظفار فإنهما لما كانا مما يطول ويكثر حتى يحتاج إلى تخفيفه أولا فأولا جعلا عديمي الحس لئلا يولم الانسان الاخذ منهما، ولو كان قص الشعر وتقليم الاظفار مما يوجد له مس من ذلك لكان الانسان من ذلك بين مكروهين: إما أن يدع كل واحد منهما حتى يطول فيثقل عليه، وإما أن يخففه بوجع وألم يتألم منه.

Contemplate and learn a lesson with the excellent arrangement in the creation of the hair and the nails, for these two if they were too long and too much until they are needy to its lightening or not. First, they had been made to be senseless, lest they would be in pain when the human being takes from these. And if the shortening of the hair and clipping of the nails are what from the touch is to be found from that, the human being would be between two abhorrence(s) – Either he leaves each one of these until they are elongated so it become heavy upon him, or he lightens it by suffering pain and hurting from it’.

قال المفضل: فقلت فلم لم يجعل ذلك خلقة لا تزيد فيحتاج الانسان إلى النقصان منه ؟

Al-Mufazzal said, ‘I said, ‘Why has that not made to be created, not to increase, so the human being would not be needy to reduce from it?’

فقال عليه السلام: إن لله تبارك اسمه في ذلك على العبد نعما لا يعرفها فيحمد عليها، اعلم أن آلام البدن وأدواءه تخرج بخروج الشعر في مسامه، وبخروج الاظفار من أناملها، ولذلك أمر الانسان بالنورة وحلق الرأس وقص الاظفار في كل اسبوع ليسرع الشعر والاظفار في النبات،

He-asws said: ‘Allah-azwj, Blessed is His-azwj Name has Favoured the servant upon that which he does not recognise so he would praise upon it. Know that the aches of the body and its symptoms exit by the coming of the hair from its pores, and by the clipping out of the nail from its finger tips, and for that the human being has been instructed with the waxing and shaving the head, and shortening the nails every week in order to accelerate the growth of the hair and the nails.

فتخرج الآلام والادواء بخروجها، وإذا طالا تحيرا وقل خروجهما فاحتبست الآلام والادواء في البدن فأحدثت عللا وأوجاعا، ومنع مع ذلك الشعر من المواضع التي يضر بالانسان ويحدث عليه الفساد والضرر،

The pain and the disease come out with their coming out. And when they are long, they stall (slower growth), and they coming out is little, so the aches and the diseases get withheld in the body and innovates (new) pains and aches, and with that (shortening), the hair would be prevented from the placed which would harm the human being and the occurrence(s) upon him of the spoiling and the harm.

لو نبت الشعر في العين ألم يكن سيعمى البصر ؟ ولو نبت في الفم ألم يكن سيغص على الانسان طعامه و شرابه ؟ ولو نبت في باطن الكف ألم يكن سيعوقه عن صحة اللمس وبعض الاعمال ؟ فلو نبت في فرج المرأة أو على ذكر الرجل ألم يكن سيفسد عليهما لذة الجماع ؟

If the hair were to grow in the eyes, would it not have blinded the sight? And if it had grown in the mouth, would it not have clung upon the human being, to his food and his drink? And if it had grown in the bottom of the palm, would it not have hindered him upon the correct touch, and some of the works? And if it had grown in the private part of the woman or upon the private part of the male, would it not have spoilt the pleasure of the copulation upon them?

فانظر كيف تنكب الشعر هذه المواضع لما في ذلك من المصلحة، ثم ليس هذا في الانسان فقط بل تجده في البهائم والسباع وسائر المتناسلات فإنك ترى أجسامهن مجللة بالشعر وترى هذه المواضع خالية منه لهذا السبب بعينه،

Look at how the hair is deviated from these places to what is in that from the interest. Then, this isn’t in the human beings only, but you will find it in the beasts, and the predators, and the rest of the intermediaries. You will see their bodies veered (enriched) with the hair, and you will see these places empty from it, for this reason exactly.

فتأمل الخلقة كيف تتحرز وجوه الخطأ والمضرة، وتأتي بالصواب والمنفعة، إن المنانية وأشباههم حين اجتهدوا في عيب الخلقة والعمد عابوا الشعر النابت على الركب والابطين ولم يعلموا أن ذلك من رطوبة تنصب إلى هذه المواضع فينبت فيها الشعر، كما ينبت العشب في مستنقع المياه،

Contemplate on the creation, how it protects the aspects of mistakes and harm, and comes with the correct and the benefit. The old religious beliefs and their likes where they strived in faulting the creation and the deliberation, faulted the growth of hair on the knees and the armpits, and they did not know that, that is from the humidity hitting to these places, so the hair would grow in these, just as the grass grows in the swampy water.

أفلا ترى إلى هذه المواضع أستر وأهيأ لقبول تلك الفضلة من غيرها ؟ ثم إن هذه تعد مما يحمل الانسان من مؤونة هذا البدن وتكاليفه لما له في ذلك من المصلحة فإن اهتمامه بتنظيف بدنه وأخذ ما يعلوه من الشعر مما يكسر به شرته، ويكف عاديته، ويشغله عن بعض ما يخرجه إليه الفراغ من الاشر والبطالة.

Do you not look at these places are more concealed and more facilitated for accepting that refuse than others? Then, in these excess from that the human being carries from the provisions of this body, and its encumberment to what, for him is an interest in that. So, it is in his interest with cleanliness of his body to take from what is the top of the hair, from what he breaks its violations with it, and restrains his habits, and pre-occupies him from some of what would come out to him, being free from the evil and idleness.

تأمل الريق وما فيه من المنفعة فإنه جعل يجري جريانا دائما إلى الفم ليبل الحلق واللهوات فلا يجف، فإن هذه المواضع لو جعلت كذلك كان فيه هلاك الانسان، ثم كان لا يستطيع أن يسيغ طعاما إذا لم يكن في الفم بلة تنفذه، تشهد بذلك المشاهدة.

Contemplate on the saliva and what is therein from the benefits, for it has been made to flow a perpetual flow to the mouth, to lubricate the throat and the stomach so they do not dry up. In these places, if it had not been like that, there would have been destruction of the human beings. Then he would not have been able to chew the food, when there did not happen to be any dampness in the mouth to implement it. You can witness that, watching.

وأعلم أن الرطوبة مطية الغذاء. وقد تجري من هذه البلة إلى موضع آخر من المرة فيكون في ذلك صلاح تام للانسان، ولو يبست المرة لهلك الانسان،

And know that the wetness is a ride for the food, and it has flowed from this wetness to another place from the bile, and there happens to be in that, the complete correctness for the human being. And if the bile were to dry up the human being would be destroyed.

ولقد قال قوم من جهلة المتكلمين وضعفة المتفلسفين بقلة التميز وقصور العلم: لو كان بطن الانسان كهيئة القباء يفتحه الطبيب إذا شاء فيعاين ما فيه ويدخل يده فيعالج ما أراد علاجه ألم يكن أصلح من أن يكون مصمتا محجوبا عن البصر واليد، لا يعرف ما فيه إلا بدلالات غامضة كمثل النظر إلى البول وحس العرق وما أشبه ذلك مما يكثر فيه الغلط والشبهة حتى ربما كان ذلك سببا للموت.

And a group has said, from the ignorant speakers, and weak philosophers due to the scarcity of the discipline, and deficiency of the knowledge, ‘If the belly of the human being had been in the shape of a robe, the physician could have opened it whenever he so desired, and he could have witnessed what is in it, and insert his hand and treat whatever treatment he wanted. Would it not have happened to be more correct that from it happening to be solid, barred from the sight and the hand? No one can recognise what is in it except by the ambiguous evidence, like the looking at the urine, and feeling the nerves, and what resembles that, from what most of it is wrong, and doubtful, until sometimes that would be the cause of death’.

فلو علم هؤلاء الجهلة أن هذا لو كان هكذا كان أول ما فيه أنه كان يسقط عن الانسان الوجل من الامراض والموت، وكان يستشعر البقاء ويغتر بالسلامة فيخرجه ذلك إلى العتو والاشر،

If these ignoramuses knew that this, had it been like that, the first of what is in it, it would have fallen from the human being, the feeling from the sickness and the death, and he would feel safe for the remaining and stay with the safety. That would exit him to the transgression and the evil.

ثم كانت الرطوبات التي في البطن تترشح وتتحلب فيفسد على الانسان مقعده ومرقده وثياب بذلته وزينته، بل كان يفسد عليه عيشه، ثم إن المعدة والكبد والفؤاد إنما تفعل أفعالها بالحرارة الغريزية التي جعلها الله محتبسة في الجوف، فلو كان في البطن فرج ينفتح حتى يصل البصر إلى رؤيته واليد إلى علاجه لوصل برد الهواء إلى الجوف فمازج الحرارة الغريزية وبطل عمل الاحشاء فكان في ذلك هلاك الانسان.

Then, that wetness (from the open stomach) which is in the belly would sprinkle and spill over, spoiling upon the human being, his seat, and his abode, and his garments, and his adornments, but it would spoil his life upon him. Then the stomach, and the liver, and the heart, rather do their work with the innate (inherent) heat, which Allah-azwj Made to be withheld in the inside. If in the belly was a hole to be opened until the sight would arrive to see it, and the hand to treat it, the cold air would arrive to the inside, and it would be mixed with the innate heat, and invalidate the works of the guts, so in that would be the destruction of the human being.

أفلا ترى أن كل ما تذهب إليه الاوهام سوى ما جاءت به الخلقة خطأ وخطل ؟

Do you not see that everything what the imaginations go to, besides what the creation has come with, is a mistake and wrong?

فكريا مفضل في الافعال التي جعلت في الانسان من الطعم والنوم والجماع وما دبر فيها فإنه جعل لكل واحد منها في الطباع نفسه محرك يقتضيه ويستحث به

Think, O Mufazzal, regarding the deeds, which had been made to be in the human beings, from the meals, and the sleep, and the copulation, and whatever is conducted in these, for it has been made for each one from these, in the nature of his self, a movement he fulfils, and is induced by it.

فالجوع يقتضي الطعم الذي به حياة البدن وقوامه، والكرى تقتضي النوم الذي فيه راحة البدن وإجمام قواه، والشبق يقتضي الجماع الذي فيه دوام النسل وبقاؤه،

The hunger is fulfilled by the food by which is the life of the body and its strength; and the slumber is fulfilled by the sleep wherein is rest of the body and the recuperation of its forces; and the eroticism is fulfilled by the copulation in which is the perpetuity of the lineage and its remaining.

ولو كان الانسان إنما يصير إلى أكل الطعام لمعرفته بحاجة بدنه إليه ولم يجد من طباعه شيئا يضطره إلى ذلك كان خليقا أن يتوانى عنه أحيانا بالتثقل والكسل حتى ينحل بدنه فيهلك، كما يحتاج الواحد إلى الدواء بشئ مما يصلح ببدنه فيدافع به حتى يؤديه ذلك إلى المرض والموت،

And if the human being had rather come to eating the food for recognising the needs of his body to it, and did not find anything from his nature compelling him to that, he would be a creature discouraged from it due to the heaviness and the laziness until his body slims and he is destroyed, just as the one is needy to the medicine of something from what his body would be correct, but he puts it off until that leads him to the sickness and death.

وكذلك لو كان إنما يصير إلى النوم بالتفكر في حاجته إلى راحة البدن وإجمام قواه كان عسى أن يتثاقل عن ذلك فيدمغه حتى ينهك بدنه، ولو كان إنما يتحرك للجماع بالرغبة في الولد كان غير بعيد أن يفتر عنه حتى يقل النسل أو ينقطع، فإن من الناس من لا يرغب في الولد ولا يحفل به،

And similar to that, if he was to come to the sleep with the thinking regarding his need to rest the body and recuperate his strength, it is possible that he would be heavy from that, so it would smite him until his body is exhausted; and if he were to move to the copulation with the desire of having children, it would not be far that he would cool down from it until the lineage would be little or be cut off, for, from the people there is one who does not desire the children nor is he overwhelmed with it.

فانظر كيف جعل لكل واحد من هذه الافعال التي بها قوام الانسان وصلاحه محرك من نفس الطبع يحركه لذلك ويحدوه عليه واعلم أن في الانسان قوى أربعا: قوة جاذبة تقبل الغذاء وتورده على المعدة، وقوة ممسكة تحبس الطعام حتى تفعل فيه الطبيعة فعلها، وقوة هاضمة وهي التي تطبخه وتستخرج صفوه وتبثه في البدن، وقوة دافعة تدفعه وتحدر الثفل الفاضل بعد أخذ الهاضمة حاجتها،

Look at how it has been made to be for each one from these deeds, that, by which is the strength of the human being, and his correctness, moving from himself the nature, moving him to that, and ushering him to it. And know that in the human being there are four forces – a force of attraction accepting the food and supplying it to the stomach; and a holding force withholding the food until nature does its work; and a force of digestion, and it is which absorbs and brings out its clean and sends it in the body; and a driving force, driving the heavy excess, after the digestion has taken its need.

تفكر في تقدير هذه القوى الاربعة التي في البدن وأفعالها وتقديرها للحاجة إليها والارب فيها، وما في ذلك من التدبير والحكمة، و لولا الجاذبة كيف يتحرك الانسان لطلب الغذاء التي بها قوام البدن ؟ ولولا الماسكة كيف كان يلبث الطعام في الجوف حتى تهضمه المعدة ؟ ولولا الهاضمة كيف كان ينطبخ حتى يخلص منه الصفو الذي يغذوا البدن ويسد خلله ؟ ولولا الدافعة كيف كان الثفل الذي تخلفه الهاضمة يندفع ويخرج أولا فأولا ؟

Think regarding the evaluation of these four forces which are in the body, and their words, and their measurement for the need to these, and the purpose in these, and what is in that from the arrangement and the Wisdom; and had it not been for the attraction, how would the human being be move to seek the food by which his body can stand? And had it not been for the holding, how would the food remain in the inside until the stomach digests it? And had it not been for the digestion, how would it be absorbed until it is purified from it, the clean which sustains the body and fills the void? And had it not been for the driving, how would the weight which the digestion has left behind, be driven and exited or not done?

أفلا ترى كيف وكل الله سبحانه بلطيف صنعه وحسن تقديره هذه القوى بالبدن والقيام بما فيه صلاحه ؟ وسأمثل لك في ذلك مثالا: إن البدن بمنزلة دار الملك، وله فيها حشم وصبية وقوام موكلون بالدار،

Do you not see how Allah-azwj, Glorious is He-azwj, has Allocated with the subtleness of His-azwj Making, and excellence of His-azwj measurement, these forces with the body, and the standing with what is therein from his correction? And, I-asws shall give you an example regarding that: The body is at the status of the house of the king, and for it therein are servants, and maids, and infrastructure allocated with the house.

فواحد لاقضاء حوائج الحشم وإيرادها عليهم، وآخر لقبض ما يرد وخزنه إلى أن يعالج ويهيأ، وآخر لعلاج ذلك وتهيئته وتفريقه، وآخر لتنظيف ما في الدار من الاقذار و إخراجه منها، فالملك في هذا هو الخلاق الحكيم ملك العالمين، والدار هي البدن، والحشم هي الاعضاء، والقوام هي هذه القوي الاربع،

So, one is for fulfilling the needs of the servants and its delivery to them; and the other is to withhold whatever comes, and collect it until it is processed and prepared; and another is to treat that and prepare it and disperse it; and another is to clean whatever rubbish is there in the house and take it out from it. So, the king in (all) this, he is the Creator, the Wise, King of the worlds, and the house is the body, and the servants, these are the body parts, and the infrastructure, these are the four forces.

ولعلك ترى ذكرنا هذه القوى الاربع وأفعالها بعد الذي وصفت فضلا وتزدادا، وليس ما ذكرته من هذه القوى على الجهة التي ذكرت في كتب الاطباء، ولا قولنا فيه كقولهم، لانهم ذكروها على ما يحتاج إليه في صناعة الطب وتصحيح الابدان، وذكرناها على ما يحتاج في صلاح الدين وشفاء النفوس من الغي، كالذي أوضحته بالوصف الشافي والمثل المضروب من التدبير والحكمة فيها.

And perhaps you view that we-asws mentioned these four forces and their works which I-asws described as an extra and additional, and I-asws didn’t mention it from these forces upon the aspect which is mentioned in the books of the physicians, nor is our-asws word like their word, because they mention it upon what they are needy to in the workings of the medicine and health of the bodies, and we-asws mention these upon what he is needy to regarding the health of the body, and healing of the souls from the error, like that which I-asws clarified with the description of the Healer, and the examples struck from the arrangement and the Wisdom in it.

تأمل يا مفضل هذه القوى التي في النفس وموقعها من الانسان، أعني الفكر والوهم والعقل والحفظ وغير ذلك، أفرأيت لو نقص الانسان من هذه الخلال الحفظ وحده كيف كانت تكون حاله ؟

Contemplate, O Mufazzal, on these powers which are in the self, and their locations from the human being, I-asws mean the thinking, and the imagination, and the intellect, and the memory and other than that. Do you see if the human being was deficient from these, the process of memorising alone, how would his state happen to be?

وكم من خلل كان يدخل عليه في اموره ومعاشه وتجاربه إذا لم يحفظ ما له وعليه، وما أخذه وما أعطى، وما رأى وما سمع، وما قال وما قيل له، ولم يذكر من أحسن إليه ممن أساء به، وما نفعه مما ضره،

And how many drawbacks would enter upon him in his affairs and his life and his experiences, when he cannot memorise what is for him and against him, and what he takes and what he gives, and what he sees and what he hears, and what he says and what is said to him, and he does not remember the one who is good to him from the one who is evil with him, and what benefits him from what harms him.

ثم كان لا يهتدي لطريق لو سلكه ما لا يحصى، ولا يحفظ علما ولو درسه عمره، ولا يعتقد دينا، ولا ينتفع بتجربة، ولا يستطيع أن يعتبر شيئا على ما مضى، بل كان حقيقا أن ينسلخ من الانسانية أصلا فانظر إلى النعمة على الانسان في هذه الخلال، وكيف موقع الواحدة منها دون الجميع ؟

Then he would not be guided to a path if he had travelled it what he cannot count, nor memorise a knowledge and even if he has studied it his whole life, nor beliefs of a religion, nor benefit from his experiences, nor be able to learn something upon what has passed. But, in reality, he would be cut off from the humanity originally. Therefore, look at the Favour upon the human being in these traits, and how to locate the one from these besides all?

وأعظم من النعمة على الانسان في الحفظ النعمة في النسيان، فإنه لولا النسيان لما سلا أحد عن مصيبة، ولا انقضت له حسرة، ولا مات له حقد، ولا استمتع بشئ من متاع الدنيا مع تذكر الآفات، ولا رجا غفلة من سلطان، ولا فترة من حاسد،

And greater than the Favour upon the human being regarding the memory, is the forgetfulness, for had it not been for the forgetfulness, no one would have been inattentive of his calamity, nor would the regret be terminated for him, nor would a grudge die for him, nor would be enjoy with anything from the enjoyments of the world along with the remembrance of the affliction, nor be hopeful of neglect from a ruling authority, nor would then be an interval from an envier.

أفلا ترى كيف جعل في الانسان الحفظ والنسيان، وهما مختلفان متضادان، وجعل له في كل منهما ضرب من المصلحة ؟ وما عسى أن يقول الذين قسموا الاشياء بين خالقين متضادين في هذه الاشياء المتضادة المتبائنة وقد تراها تجتمع على ما فيه الصلاح والمنفعة ؟

Do you not see how it has been made to be in the human being, the memorising, and the forgetfulness, and these are both of different, opposites, and there has been made for in each of these, a portion of interest? And what would they say, those who are dividing the things between two opposing creators, regarding these opposite things being joined, and you have seen these two gathered upon what therein is the interest and the benefits?

انظر يا مفضل إلى ما خص به الانسان دون جميع الحيوان من هذا الخلق، الجليل قدره، العظيم غناؤه، أعني الحياء فلولاه لم يقر ضيف، ولم يوف بالعدات، ولم تقض الحوائج، ولم يتحر الجميل، ولم يتنكب القبيح في شئ من الاشياء، حتى أن كثيرا من الامور المفترضة أيضا

Look, O Mufazzal, at what the human being has been specialised with besides the entirety of the animals from this creation. The Majestic has Determined it, and the Magnificent is its formation, meaning the life. Had it not been it, a guest would not be entertained, and the entrustments would not be paid, and the needs would not be fulfilled, and the adorable would not be asked for, and the obnoxious would not be avoided in a thing from the things, to the extent as many of the necessary matters as well.

إنما يفعل للحياء، فإن من الناس من لولا الحياء لم يرع حق والديه، ولم يصل ذا رحم، ولم يؤد أمانة، ولم يعف عن فاحشة  أفلا ترى كيف وفي للانسان جميع الخلال التي فيها صلاحه وتمام أمره ؟

But rather, he does it for the life for, from the people there is one who, had it not been for the living would not see the right of the wergild, and would not help the ones with relationships, and would not pay back an entrustment, and would not absolve (liberate) himself from immoralities. Do you not see how it has been fulfilled for the human beings, the entirety of the traits in which are his interests, and completion of his life?

تأمل يا مفضل ما أنعم الله تقدست أسماؤه به على الانسان من هذا النطق الذي يعبر به عما في ضميره، وما يخطر بقلبه، ونتيجة فكره، وبه يفهم عن غيره ما في نفسه، ولولا ذلك كان بمنزلة البهائم المهملة التي لا تخبر عن نفسها بشئ، ولا تفهم عن مخبر شيئا،

Contemplate, O Mufazzal, what Allah-azwj, Holy are His-azwj Names, has Favoured upon the human being with, from this pronunciation which he expresses of what is in his conscience, and what he notices with his heart, and the result of his thoughts, and by it he understands about others what is within himself, and had it not been that, he would be at the status of the neglected beasts which are not informed about their own selves with anything, nor do they understand anything about the informer.

وكذلك الكتابة التى بها تقيد أخبار الماضين للباقين، وأخبار الباقين للآتين، وبها تخلد الكتب في العلوم والآداب وغيرها، وبها يحفظ الانسان ذكر ما يجري بينه وبين غيره من المعاملات والحساب،

And similar to that is the writing by which you observe the news of the past for the remaining ones, and the news of the remaining ones for the two, and by it the books are eternal in the knowledge, and the education and other such things, and by it the human being preserves the mention of what has flowed between him and others from the dealings and the accounting.

ولولاه لانقطع أخبار بعض الازمنة عن بعض، وأخبار الغائبين عن اوطانهم، ودرست العلوم، وضاعت الآداب، وعظم ما يدخل على الناس من الخلل في امورهم ومعاملاتهم، وما يحتاجون إلى النظر فيه من أمر دينهم، وما روي لهم مما لا يسعهم جهله،

And had it not been for it (writing), the news of some of the eras would be cut off from some, and the news of the ones absent from their homelands, and obliteration (destruction) of the knowledges, and the literature would be lost, and it would be grievous what would enter upon the people from the disturbances in their matters and their dealings and what they would be needy to the looking into from the matters of their Religion, and what is reported to them from what there is no leeway for them of its ignorance.

ولعلك تظن أنها مما يخلص إليه بالحيلة والفطنة، وليست مما اعطيه الانسان من خلقه وطباعه، وكذلك الكلام إنما هو شئ يصطلح عليه الناس فيجرى بينهم، ولهذا صار يختلف في الامم المختلفة بألسن مختلفة، وكذلك الكتابة ككتابة العربي والسرياني والعبراني والرومي وغيرها من سائر الكتابة التي هي متفرقة في الامم،

And perhaps you think that it is from what you can conclude to with the means and the wisdom, and it isn’t from what is Given to the human being from his creation and his nature. And similar to that is the speech, but rather it is something the people are agreeable upon. So, it flowed between them, and for this it became different in the different communities with the different tongues (languages). And similar to that is the writing like the writing of Arabic, and Assyrian, and Hebrew, and Roman, and others from the rest of the writings which it different in the communities.

إنما اصطلحوا عليها كما اصطلحوا على الكلام، فيقال لمن ادعى ذلك: إن الانسان وان كان له في الامرين جميعا فعل أو حيلة فإن الشئ الذي يبلغ به ذلك الفعل والحيلة عطية وهبة من الله عزوجل في خلقه فإنه لو لم يكن له لسان مهيؤ للكلام وذهن يهتدي به للامور لم يكن ليتكلم أبدا، ولو لم يكن له كف مهياة وأصابع للكتابة لم يكن ليكتب أبدا،

But rather, they are as agreeable upon it as they are agreeable upon the speech, so it is said to the one who claims that, the human being, and if there were two matters for him together, be it a deed or a means, so the thing which he can reach that deed and the means with is a Present, a Gift from Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic among His-azwj creatures. So, if there did not happen to be a tongue for him prepared for the speech, and a mind to be guided with for the affairs, he would not happen to speak, ever; and if there did not happen to be for him a wrist and fingers prepared for the writing, he would not happen to write, ever!

واعتبر ذلك من البهائم التي لا كلام لها ولا كتابة، فأصل ذلك فطرة الباري عزوجل وما تفضل به على خلقه، فمن شكر اثيب ومن كفر فإن الله غني عن العالمين.

And consider that from the animal who does not have the speech for it nor a writing. So, the origin of that is the nature by the Creator Mighty and Majestic, and what he has been merited with over His-azwj creatures. So, the one who thanks, is affirmed, and one who commits Kufr, then Allah-azwj is needless of the worlds.

ذكر يا مفضل فيما اعطي الانسان علمه وما منع فإنه اعطي علم جميع ما فيه صلاح دينه ودنياه، فمما فيه صلاح دينه معرفة الخالق تبارك وتعالى بالدلائل والشواهد القائمة في الخلق، ومعرفة الواجب عليه من العدل على الناس كافة وبر الوالدين، وأداء الامانة، ومواساة أهل الخلة، وأشباه ذلك مما قد توجد معرفته والاقرار والاعتراف به في الطبع والفطرة من كل امة موافقة أو مخالفة،

Remember, O Mufazzal! Among what the human being has been Given is his knowledge and what is Forbidden, and he has been Given the knowledge of the entirety of whatever wherein is the correction of his Religion and his world. So, from what is correct for his Religion is the recognition of the Creator Blessed and Exalted, with the evidences, and the existing signs in the creation, and recognition of the Obligations upon him from the justice upon the people altogether, and righteousness with the parents, and giving the entrustments, and comforting the lonely people, and the like of that, from what you would find His-azwj recognition, and the acceptance, and the acknowledgment with Him-azwj in the habits and nature of every community, be it harmonious or different.

وكذلك اعطي علم ما فيه صلاح دنياه كالزراعة والغراس، واستخراج الارضين، واقتناء الاغنام والانعام، واستنباط المياه،  ومعرفة العقاقير التي يستشفى بها من ضروب الاسقام، والمعادن التي يستخرج منها أنواع الجواهر، وركوب السفن والغوص في البحر، وضروب الحيل في صيد الوحش والطير والحيتان، والتصرف في الصناعات، ووجوه المتاجر والمكاسب، و غير ذلك مما يطول شرحه ويكثر تعداده مما فيه صلاح أمره في هذه الدار،

And similar to that is the Gift of knowledge what is therein from the correction of his world, like the planting and the sowing and the ploughing of the land, and the acquisition of the sheep and the cattle, and the development of the waters, and the recognition of the medicines which can be cured with when ones hit by the sickness, and the mines from which the variety of the gems are extracted, and sailing the ship and the diving in the ocean, and striking the tricks in hunting the wild animals, and the birds, and the fishes, and the working in the industries, and variety of the trades and the earnings, and other than that from what would prolong his life and increase his numbers from what wherein is the correction of his life in this house (world).

فاعطي علم ما يصلح به دينه ودنياه، ومنع ما سوى ذلك مما ليس في شأنه ولا طاقته أن يعلم، كعلم الغيب وما هو كائن وبعض ما قد كان أيضا كعلم ما فوق السماء وما تحت الارض وما في لجج البحار وأقطار العالم وما في قلوب الناس وما في الارحام وأشباه هذا مما حجب على الناس علمه،

So, he is Given knowledge on what he can correct his Religion and his world with it, and has been Prevented from what is besides that, from what isn’t in his occupation, nor his strength that he knows, like knowledge of the unseen and what would be coming into existence, and some of what has happened as well, like the knowledge of what is above the sky, and what is beneath the ground, and what is in the waves of the sea, and the horizons of the universe, and what is in the hearts of the people, and what is in the wombs, and the likes of this from the knowledge of what is veiled upon the people.

وقد ادعت طائفة من الناس هذه الامور فأبطل دعواهم ما بين من خطائهم فيما يقضون عليه ويحكمون به فيما ادعوا علمه، فانظر كيف اعطي الانسان علم جميع ما يحتاج إليه لدينه ودنياه، وحجب عنه ما سوى ذلك ليعرف قدره ونقصه، وكلا الامرين فيهما صلاحه.

And a group of the people had claimed these matters, so it invalidated their calls what is between from their errors regarding what they judged against, and are being judged with, regarding the knowledge of what they claimed. Therefore, look how the human being has been Given the knowledge of the entirety of which he is needy to for his Religion and his world, and it is veiled from him what is besides that, for him to recognise his worth and his faults, and both the matters in what is his interest.

تأمل الآن يا مفضل ما ستر عن الانسان علمه من مدة حياته فإنه لو عرف مقدار عمره وكان قصير العمر لم يتهنأ بالعيش مع ترقب الموت وتوقعه لوقت قد عرفه، بل كان يكون بمنزلة من قد فنى ماله أو قارب الفناء فقد استشعر الفقر والوجل من فناء ماله وخوف الفقر،

Contemplate now, O Mufazzal, from the knowledge of what is veiled from the human being, from the term of his life-span, for he, if he had known his age, and he was of a short life-span, he would not be welcoming with the life being so close to the death, and his expectation of the time he had known. But, he would be at the status of the one whose wealth has perished, or near to the perishing, so he begun to feel the poverty and the grief from the perishing of his wealth and the fear of poverty.

على أن الذي يدخل على الانسان من فناء العمر أعظم مما يدخل عليه من فناء المال لان من يقل ماله يأمل أن يستخلف منه فيسكن إلى ذلك، ومن أيقن بفناء العمر استحكم عليه اليأس وإن كان طويل العمر، ثم عرف ذلك وثق بالبقاء وانهمك في اللذات والمعاصي وعمل، على أنه يبلغ من ذلك شهوته ثم يتوب في آخر عمره، وهذا مذهب لا يرضاه الله من عباده ولا يقبله.

On top of that is, that which enters upon the human being from the perishing of the age is more grievous than what enters upon him from the perishing of the wealth, because the one who is of little wealth, things that there can be a replacement of it, and he is tranquil to that, but one who is certain of the perishing of the life, the despair would take a position upon him, and even if he was of a long life. Then he would recognise that and he would grab on with the remaining (in the world), and he would engage in the pleasures and the acts of disobedience and (such) deeds. On top of that he would reach from that desires of his, then repent at the end of his life-span, and this is a doctrine which Allah-azwj is not Pleased with from His-azwj servants, nor would He-azwj Accept it.

ألا ترى لو أن عبدا لك عمل على أنه يسخطك سنة ويرضيك يوما أو شهرا لم تقبل ذلك منه، ولم يحل عندك محل العبد الصالح دون أن يضمر طاعتك ونصحك في كل الامور وفي كل الاوقات عى تصرف الحالات.

Do you not see, if a servant of yours were to work upon that he would anger you for a year, and please you for a day, or a month, you would not accept that from him, and he would not be placed in your presence at the place of the righteous servant, besides that, he would harbour your obedience and your advice in all matters and during all times on the conduct of the situations.

فإن قلت: أو ليس قد يقيم الانسان على المعصية حينا ثم يتوب فتقبل توبته ؟ قلنا: إن ذلك شئ يكون من الانسان لغلبة الشهوات وتركه مخالفتها من غير أن يقدرها في نفسه ويبني عليه أمره فيصفح الله عنه ويتفضل عليه بالمغفرة،

So, if you were to say, ‘Or isn’t it the case that the human being stays upon the disobedience for a while, then repents, so his repentance is Accepted?’ We-asws say: ‘That is something which would happen from the human being due to being overcome by the desires and his neglecting opposing it, from other than being able upon in within himself, and he builds his life upon it, so Allah-azwj Excuses him from it, and Merits upon him with the Forgiveness.

فأما من قدر أمره على أن يعصي ما بدا له ثم يتوب آخر ذلك فإنما يحاول خديعة من لا يخادع بأن يتسلف التلذذ في العاجل ويعد ويمني نفسه التوبة في الآجل، ولانه لا يفي بما يعد من ذلك فان النزوع من الترفه والتلذذ ومعاناة التوبة ولاسيما عند الكبر وضعف البدن أمر صعب، ولا يؤمن على الانسان مع مدافعته بالتوبة أن يرهقه الموت فيخرج من الدنيا غير تائب،

As for one who determines his age upon that he would disobey whatever comes to him, then he would repent at the end of that, so rather he tries to deceive One-azwj Who cannot be deceived, by that the immediate pleasures would be fulfilled, and he would leave and prevent his self the repentance in the future, and because he does not fulfil with what he leaves from that, the tendency of the luxury and the pleasure, and the suffering of the repentance, and there is no limit in the old after and weakness of the body, it is a difficult matter, nor it is safe upon the human being with the defence of the repentance, that the death could overwhelm him, and he would exit from the world without having repented.

كما قد يكون على الواحد دين إلى أجل وقد يقدر على قضائه فلا يزال يدافع بذلك حتى يحل الاجل وقد نفد المال فيبقى الدين قائما عليه، فكان خير الاشياء للانسان أن يستر عنه مبلغ عمره فيكون طول عمره يترقب الموت فيترك المعاصي ويؤثر العمل الصالح.

It is like one upon whom is a debt for the near term, and he has ability upon fulfilling it, be he does not cease to postpone with until the next term, and the wealth has depleted, so the debt remains standing upon him. So, the best of the things for the human being would be that He-azwj Veils from him the age of his life-span, and the prolongation of his life awaiting the death, and he would avoid the acts of disobedience and he would prefer the righteous deeds.

فإن قلت: وها هو الآن قد ستر عنه مقدار حياته وصار يترقب الموت في كل ساعة يقارف الفواحش وينتهك المحارم، قلنا: إن وجه التدبير في هذا الباب هو الذي جرى عليه الامر فيه، فإن كان الانسان مع ذلك لا يرعوي ولا ينصرف عن المساوي فإنما ذلك من مرحه ومن قساوة قلبه لا من خطأ في التدبير،

So, if you were to say, ‘And here, now the measurement of his life-span is veiled from him, and he has become awaiting the death during all times, committing the immoralities and violating the sanctity’. We-asws say: ‘An aspect of the Providence in this chapter, it is which flows upon him, the Command regarding him. So, if the human being, along with that does not refrain and does not turn away from the evil action, so rather that is from his happiness and from the hardness of his heart, not from an error in his arrangement.

كما أن الطبيب قد يصف للمريض ما ينتفع به فإن كان المريض مخالفا لقول الطبيب لا يعمل بما يأمره ولا ينتهي عما ينهاه عنه لم ينتفع بصفته ولم يكن الاساءة في ذلك للطبيب بل للمريض حيث لم يقبل منه،

(It is) just as the physician who has prescribed for the patient what he would benefit with, but if the patient opposes the word of the physician, not acting by what he had instructed him, nor refraining from what he had forbidden him from, he would not benefit with his prescription, and it would not happen to be the damage in that for the physician, but it would be for the patient, where he did not accept from him.

ولئن كان الانسان مع ترقبه للموت كل ساعة لا يمتنع عن المعاصي فإنه لو وثق بطول البقاء كان أحرى بأن يخرج إلى الكبائر الفظيعة، فترقب الموت على كل حال خير له من الثقة بالبقاء،

And if the human being, along with waiting for the death all the time, does not refrain from the acts of disobedience, then if he had been documented with the length of the remaining, would be free with going out to the terrible major sins. Thus, awaiting the death upon all states is better for him than the confidence with the remaining (alive).

ثم إن ترقب الموت وإن كان صنف من الناس يلهون عنه ولا يتعظون به فقد يتعظ به صنف آخر منهم، وينزعون عن المعاصي ويؤثرون العمل الصالح، ويجودون بالاموال والعقائل النفيسة في الصدقة على الفقراء والمساكين، فلم يكن من العدل أن يحرم هؤلاء الانتفاع بهذه الخصلة لتضييع اولئك حظهم منها.

Then, if he awaits the death, and even if a type of the people take it easy from it and are not caring about it, and another type from them cares about it, and they are removed from the disobedience and are preferring the righteous deeds, and are being generous with the wealth, and the wise souls are giving the charity upon the poor and the needy. It would not happen to be from the justice if they are deprived the benefits of these characteristics, to waste those, their share from it.

فكر يا مفضل في الاحلام كيف دبر الامر فيها فمزج صادقها بكاذبها فإنها لو كانت كلها تصدق لكان الناس كلهم أنبياء، ولو كانت كلها تكذب لم يكن فيها منفعة بل كانت فضلا لا معنى له، فصارت تصدق أحيانا فينتفع بها الناس في مصلحة يهتدي لها، أو مضرة يتحذر منها، وتكذب كثيرا لئلا يعتمد عليها كل الاعتماد.

Think, O Mufazzal, regarding the dreams, how the matters are managed in these. The truthful of these (dreams) are mixed with its false. If all of these had been true, all of the people would have been Prophets-as; and if all of these (dreams) had been false, there would not have been any benefit, but these would have been excess with no meaning for it. Sometimes there are true, and the people benefit by these in the interest of being guided to these, or a harm they could be cautious from, and most are false, lest relying ones relying with all the reliance.

فكر في هذه الاشياء التي تراها موجودة معدة في العالم من مأربهم، فالتراب للبناء، والحديد للصناعات، والخشب للسفن وغيرها، والحجارة للارحاء وغيرها، والنحاس للاواني، والذهب والفضة للمعاملة، والجوهر للذخيرة، والحبوب للغذاء، والثمار للتفكه، واللحم للمأكل، والطيب للتلذذ، والادوية للتصحيح، والدواب للحمولة، والحطب للتوقد، والرماد للكلس، والرمل للارض،

Think, regarding these things, which you see existing in the universe, from their purpose. The soil is for the building, and the iron is for the manufacturing, and the wood is for the ship and other such things, and the stones are for the grinding and other such things, and the brass is for the utensils, and the gold and silver are for the dealings, and the gems are for the hoarding treasures, and the grains are for the provisions, and the fruits are for the enjoyment, and the meat is for the consuming, and the perfume is for the pleasure, and the medicines are for the health, and the animal are for the carrying loads, and the firewood is for the igniting, and the ash is for the lime, and the sand is for the ground.

وكم عسى أن يحصي المحصي من هذا وشبهه، أرأيت لو أن داخلا دخل دارا فنظر إلى خزائن مملوة من كل ما يحتاج إليه الناس ورأى كل ما فيها مجموعا معدا لاسباب معروفة لكان يتوهم أن مثل هذا يكون بالاهمال ومن غير عمد ؟ فكيف يستجيز قائل أن يقول هذا في العالم وما اعد فيه من هذه الاشياء.

And how many can the counter count from these, and the likes of it. Do you see, if a comer were to enter a house and he looks at the treasures filled, from all what the people could be needy to, and he sees that all what is therein is gathered, prepared for known reasons, would he imagine that the like of this would happen with the chaos (without planning), and from without a deliberation? So, how can a speaker have the audacity to be saying this regarding the world, and whatever has been prepared in it from these things?

اعتبر يا مفضل بأشياء خلقت لمأرب الانسان وما فيها من التدبير فإنه خلق له الحب لطعامه، وكلف طحنه وعجنه وخبزه، وخلق له الوبر لكسوته فكلف ندفه وغزله ونسجه، وخلق له الشجر فكلف غرسها وسقيها والقيام عليها، وخلقت له العقاقير لادويته فكلف لقطها وخلطها وصنعها، وكذلك تجد سائر الاشياء على هذا المثال،

Consider, O Mufazzal, the things, which are created for the purpose of the human beings, and what is therein from the arrangement, for the grain is Created for him for his food, and he is encumbered with the grinding, and the kneading, and the baking. And the fur is Created for him for his clothing, and he is encumbered with its combing, and its spinning, and its weaving. And the tree is Created for him, and he is encumbered with planting it, and irrigating it, and the looking after it. And the medication has been Created for him for his cures, and he is encumbered with clipping it, and mixing it, and making it. And similar to that, you will find the rest of the things to be upon this example.

فانظر كيف كفي الخلقة التي لم يكن عنده فيها حيلة وترك عليه في كل شئ من الاشياء موضع عمل وحركة لما له في ذلك من الصلاح، لانه لو كفي هذا كله حتى لا يكون له في الاشياء موضع شغل وعمل لما حملته الارض أشرا وبطرا، ولبلغ به كذلك إلى أن يتعاطي امورا فيها تلف نفسه،

So, look at how the creation sufficed that which does not happen to be with him, wherein is a means, and he is left upon it regarding all things from the things, a place of work, and movement to what there is for him an interest in that, because if he had been sufficed with all of it to the extent that there does not happen to be for him regarding the things, a place of occupation and work, the earth would be carrying him as being evil and boastful, and he would reach with it like that up to he would deal with things that damage himself.

ولو كفي الناس كل ما يحتاجون إليه لما تهنؤوا بالعيش ولا وجدوا له لذة، ألا ترى لو أن امرءا نزل بقوم فأقام حينا بلغ جميع ما يحتاج إليه من مطعم و مشرب وخدمة لتبرم  بالفراغ ونازعته نفسه إلى التشاغل بشئ ؟ فكيف لو كان طول عمره مكفيا لا يحتاج إلى شئ ؟

And if the people had been sufficed with all what they are needy to, they would not be happy to live not would they find any pleasure for it. Do you not see, if a man were to be a guest of a people, and stays, they would deliver to him the entirety of what he is needy to, from food and drink and service, he would be upset with the free time and remove himself to be occupied with something? So how would it be for the length of his life he is suffice and not be needy to anything?

وكان من صواب التدبير في هذه الاشياء التي خلقت للانسان أن جعل له فيها موضع شغل لكيلا تبرمه البطالة ولتكفه عن تعاطي ما لا يناله ولا خير فيه إن ناله.

And it would be from the correct arrangement in these things which are Created for the human beings that there should be made for him a place of occupation, lest his free time does not end and he will refrain from doing harm of what he cannot get, and there is no good in it if he does get it.

واعلم يا مفضل أن رأس معاش الانسان وحياته الخبز والماء، فانظر كيف دبر الامر فيهما، فإن حاجة الانسان إلي الماء أشد من حاجته إلى الخبز، وذلك أن صبره على الجوع أكثر من صبره على العطش،

And know, O Mufazzal, that the head of the live of the livelihood of the human being and his life is the bread and the water, therefore look at the arrangement of the matter regarding these two, for the need of the human being to the water is more intense than his need to the bread, and that is because he can be patient upon the hunger more than he can be patient upon the thirst.

والذي يحتاج إليه من الماء أكثر مما يحتاج إليه من الخبز، لانه يحتاج إليه لشربه ووضوئه وغسله وغسل ثيابه وسقي أنعامه وزرعه، فجعل الماء مبذولا لا يشترى لتسقط عن الانسان المؤونة في طلبه وتكلفه، وجعل الخبز متعذرا لا ينال إلا بالحيلة والحركة ليكون للانسان في ذلك شغل يكفه عما يخرجه إليه الفراغ من الاشر والعبث،

By that which he is needy to the water is more than what he is needy to the bread, because he is needy to it for his drinking, and his ablution, and his bathing, and washing his clothes, and quenching his cattle and his plantation. Thus, the water is made to be offered (free), not bought (neither sold), to drop the provision from the human being in his seeking it and being encumbered for it; and (to make) the bread is made to be unreachable. It cannot be attained except by the means and the movement to happen for the human being, an occupation in that sufficing him from what would come out to him, being free from the evil and the absurdity.

ألا ترى أن الصبي يدفع إلى المؤدب وهو طفل لم يكمل ذاته للتعليم كل ذلك ليشتغل عن اللعب والعبث اللذين ربما جنيا عليه وعلى أهله المكروه العظيم، وهكذا الانسان لو خلا من الشغل لخرج من الاشر والعبث والبطر إلى ما يعظم ضرره عليه وعلى من قرب منه، واعتبر ذلك بمن نشأ في الجدة ورفاهية العيش والترفه والكفاية وما يخرجه ذلك إليه.

Do you not see that the child is handed over to the teacher, and he is a child, not perfect in his self for the learning all that being too pre-occupied from the playing and the frivolities, those sometimes are a problem upon him and upon his family, being a great dislike. And like this is the human being, if he was empty from the occupation, to come out from the evil, and the frivolities, and the boasting to what is a great harm upon him and upon the ones near to him. And consider that with one who grows up in the novelty and the well-being and luxury of whatever that brings to him.

اعتبر لم لا يتشابه الناس واحد بالآخر كما يتشابه الوحوش والطير وغير ذلك ؟ فإنك ترى السرب من الظباء والقطا تتشابه حتى لا يفرق بين واحد منها وبين الاخرى، وترى الناس مختلفة صورهم وخلقهم حتى لا يكاد إثنان منهم يجتمعان في صفة واحدة،

Consider how the people do not resemble one with another, just as the resemblance of the wild animals, and the birds, and other than that? You can see a flock of the antelopes and the cats resembling until there is no difference between one from these and the other. And you see the people being of difference faces and bodies until almost two of them cannot be gathering in on quality.

والعلة في ذلك أن الناس محتاجون إلى أن يتعارفوا بأعيانهم وحلاهم لما يجري بينهم من المعاملات وليس يجري بين البهائم مثل ذلك فيحتاج إلى معرفة كل واحد منها بعينه وحليته، ألا ترى أن التشابه في الطير والوحش لا يضرهما شيئا، وليس كذلك الانسان فإنه ربما تشابه التوأمان تشابها شديدا فتعظم المؤونة على الناس في معاملتهما حتى يعطى أحدهما بالآخر ويؤخذ أحدهما بذنب الآخر، وقد يحدث مثل هذا في تشابه الاشياء فضلا عن تشابه الصورة،

And the reason in that is that the people are needy to recognise each other with their eyes and their garments for what flows between them from the dealing, and it doesn’t flow between the animals like that. So, he (the human being) is needy to recognise each one from them with his eyes and his shape. Do you not see that the resemblance in the birds and the wild animal do not harm them of anything? And it isn’t like that for the human being, for he, sometimes the twins resemble each other a lot, so the people need to be better equipped in dealing with them, until one of them is taken for the other, and one of them is seized for the sins of the other, and the like of this has occurred in the resemblances of the things as well as the image similarity.

فمن لطف لعباده بهذه الدقائق التي لا تكاد تخطر بالبال حتى وقف بها على الصواب إلا من وسعت رحمته كل شئ ؟ لو رأيت تمثال الانسان مصورا على حائط فقال لك قائل: إن هذا ظهر ههنا من تلقاء نفسه لم يصنعه صانع أكنت تقبل ذلك ؟ بل كنت تستهزئ به فكيف تنكر هذا في تمثال مصور جماد ولا تنكر في الانسان الحي الناطق ؟

So, Who is the One-azwj Subtle with His-azwj servants with these intricacies, which do not even come to might, and Pauses with these upon the correct, except One-azwj of Capacious Mercy on all things? If you were to see a sculpted statue of the human being standing upon a wall, and a speaker says to you, ‘This appeared over here from itself, a maker did not make it, will you accept that? But you will mock with him. So, how can you deny this in the inanimate sculpted statue, and you do not deny in the living, speaking human being?

لم صارت أبدان الحيوان وهي تغتذي أبدا لا تنمي، بل تنتهي إلى غاية من النمو ثم تقف ولا تتجاوزها لولا التدبير في ذلك ؟ فإن من تدبير الحكيم فيها أن يكون أبدان كل صنف منها على مقدار معلوم غير متفاوت في الكبير والصغير، وصارت تنمي حتى تصل إلى غايتها ثم يقف ثم لا يزيد والغذاء مع ذلك دائم لا ينقطع،

Why did the bodies of the animal come to be nourished for ever, and not nourishing (other animals), but, it ends up at the peak of the growth, then it stops and does not exceed it, if there was not arrangement in that? In the arrangement of the Wise in it is that there happen to be bodies of every type from these upon a known measurement, apart from the differences in the old and young, and it come to be at a growth until it reaches to its peak (most), then it stops, then it does not exceed, and the provision with that is perpetual, not cut off.

ولو كانت تنمي نموا دائما لعظمت أبدانها واشتبهت مقاديرها حتى لا يكون لشئ منها حد يعرف، لم صارت أجسام الانس خاصة تثقل عن الحركة والمشي ويجفو عن الصناعات اللطيفة إلا لتعظيم المؤونة فيما يحتاج إليه الناس للملبس والمضجع والتكفين وغير ذلك،

And if they had developed a permanent growth, their bodies would have grown larger and their measurements would have been obscured to the extent that there would not have happened to be for anything from these, a limit you could recognise. The bodies of the human beings did not become especially heavy from the moving, and the walking, and they look nice of the making, except for maximising the provision the people would be needy to, for the clothing and the mantle, and the stitching, and other than that.

لو كان الانسان لا يصيبه ألم ولا وجع بم كان يرتدع عن الفواحش ويتواضع لله ويتعطف على الناس؟ أما ترى الانسان إذا عرض له وجع خضع واستكان ورغب إلى ربه في العافية وبسط يديه بالصدقة ؟ ولو كان لا يألم من الضرب بم كان السلطان يعاقب الدعار ويذل العصاة المردة ؟ وبم كان الصبيان يتعلمون العلوم والصناعات ؟ وبم كان العبيد يذلون لاربابهم ويذعنون لطاعتهم ؟

If the human being was such that he would neither be hit by the aches and the pains, by what would he be deterred from the immoralities and humbling to Allah-azwj, and be king upon the people? Do you not see the human being when an ache is presented to him, he would succumb and be hopeful to his Lord-azwj regarding the wellbeing and extend his hand with the charity? And if he would not be pained from the strike, by what would the ruling authority punish the obscenities and disgrace the rebellious apostates? And by what would the children learn the knowledges and the manufacturing? And by what would the slaves be abased to their masters and submit to their obedience?

أفليس هذا توبيخ لابن أبي العوجاء وذويه اللذين جحدوا التدبير، والمانوية الذين أنكروا الالم والوجع، لو لم يولد من الحيوان إلا ذكر فقط أو اناث فقط ألم يكن النسل منقطعا، وباد مع ذلك أجناس الحيوان ؟ فصار بعض الاولاد يأتي ذكورا و بعضها يأتي اناثا ليدوم التناسل ولا ينقطع.

Isn’t this a rebuke to Ibn Abu Al-Awja and his family, those who are rejecting the (Divine) arrangement, and the old religious beliefs of those who are denying the pains and the aches, if there were not born from the animals except for males only, or females only, wouldn’t the lineages be cut off, and afterwards the races of the animals? Therefore, some of the children came to be males, and some of them came as female for the perpetuity of the lineages not being cut-off.

لم صار الرجل والمرأة إذا أدركا نبتت لهما العانة ثم نبتت اللحية للرجل وتخلفت عن المرأة لولا التدبير في ذلك ؟ فإنه لما جعل الله تبارك وتعالى الرجل قيما ورقيبا على المرأة وجعل المرأة عرسا وخولا للرجل أعطى الرجل اللحية لما له من العزة والجلالة والهيبة، ومنعها المرأة لتبقى لها نضارة الوجه والبهجة التي تشاكل المفاكهة والمضاجعة،

Why did the man and the woman become such, when they are adults, the pubic hair grows for them, then the beard grows for the man, and is different from the woman, if there was not arrangement in that? It is so, when Allah-azwj Blessed and Exalted Made the man as a custodian and a watcher upon the woman, and Made the woman as a bride and a comfort for the man, Gave the man the beard what would be the honour for him and the majesty and the prestige, and Prevented it from the woman for there to remain for her the freshness of the face, and glory which is similar to the fruits and (for) the love making.

أفلا ترى الخلقة كيف يأتي بالصواب في الاشياء و تتخلل مواضع الخطأ فتعطي وتمنع على قدر الارب والمصلحة بتدبير الحكيم عزوجل ؟

Do you not see the creation, how it comes with the correctness in the things, and is empty of the room for errors, and so it gives and prevents upon a measurement of the purpose and the interest, by an arrangement of the Wise, Mighty and Majestic?

قال المفضل: ثم حان وقت الزوال فقام مولاي إلى الصلاة وقال: بكر إلى غدا إن شاء الله، فانصرفت من عنده مسرورا بما عرفته، مبتهجا بما اوتيته، حامدا لله على ما أنعم به علي، شاكرا لانعمه على ما منحني بما عرفنيه مولاي وتفضل به علي، فبت في ليلتي مسرورا بما منحنيه، محبورا بما علمنيه.

Al-Mufazzal said, ‘Then the time of midday arrived, so my Master-asws arose to (perform) the Salat, and said: ‘Early tomorrow morning, if Allah-azwj so Desires’. So, I left from his-asws presence cheerful with what I had understood, excited with what he-asws had given me, praising Allah-azwj upon what He-azwj had Favoured upon me, thankful for His-azwj Favour upon what my Master-asws has made me incline to understand, and preferred with upon me. I spent my night in cheerfulness with what I had been inclined to, glad with what I had been taught.

تم المجلس الاول ويتلوه المجلس الثاني من كتاب الادلة على الخلق والتدبير والرد على القائلين بالاهمال ومنكري العمد برواية المفضل عن الصادق صلوات الله عليه وعلى آبائه.

The first sitting is complete and it is followed by the second, from the book of the evidence upon the creation and the arrangement, and the rebuttal upon the speakers with the chaos and deniers of the deliberation, by a report of Al-Mufazzal, from Al-Sadiq-asws, may the Salawaat of Allah-azwj be upon him-asws and upon his-asws forefathers-asws.

قال المفضل: فلما كان اليوم الثاني بكرت إلى مولاي فاستوذن لي فدخلت فأمرني بالجلوس فجلست، فقال: الحمد لله مدير الادوار ومعيد الاكوار طبقا عن طبق و عالما بعد عالم ليجزي الذين أساؤوا بما عملوا ويجزي الذين أحسنوا بالحسنى، عدلا منه تقدست أسماؤه وجلت آلاؤه،

Al-Mufazzal said, ‘So, when it was the second day, I went early to my Master-asws and he-asws permitted for me, so I entered and he-asws instructed me with the sitting, so I sat down. He-asws said: ‘The Praise is for Allah-azwj, Director of the orbits, and Repeater of the planetary motions, layer on a layer, and a world after a world, in order to suffice those who are evil with what they do, and suffice those who are good with the good deeds, being Just from it. Holy are His-azwj Names and Majestic are His-azwj Favours.

لا يظلم الناس شيئا ولكن الناس أنفسهم يظلمون يشهد بذلك قوله جل قدسه: فمن يعمل مثقال ذرة خيرا يره ومن يعمل مثقال ذرة شرا يره، في نظائر لها في كتابه الذي فيه تبيان كل شئ، ولا يأتيه الباطل من بين يديه ولا من خلفه تنزيل من حكيم حميد، ولذلك قال سيدنا محمد صلوات الله عليه وآله إنما هي أعمالكم ترد إليكم.

He-azwj is not unjust to the people of anything, but the people are being unjust to themselves. That is testified by His-azwj Words, Majestic is His-azwj Holiness: So, one who does good of the weight of a particle would see it [99:7] And one who does evil of the weight of a particle would see it [9:8], in the counterpart of it in His-azwj Book in which is a clarification of all things [16:89] Neither did the falsehood come from before it, nor (would it come) from after it. (It is) a Revelation from the most Wise, the most Praised [41:42]. Our Chief Muhammad-saww said: ‘But rather these are your deeds being returned to you’.

ثم أطرق هنيئة ثم قال: يا مفضل الخلق حيارى عمهون سكارى في طغيانهم يترددون، وبشياطينهم وطواغيتهم يقتدون، بصراء عمي لا يبصرون، نطقاء بكم لا يعقلون، سمعاء صم لا يسمعون، رضوا بالدون وحسبوا أنهم مهتدون،

Then he-asws lowered his-asws head for a while, then said: ‘O Mufazzal! The people are confused, blinded by the intoxication, dithering in their tyranny, and they are believing in their Satan’s and their tyrants. Their sights are blinded, they are not seeing. They are spoken with, but they are not understanding, their hearing is deafened, they are not listening. They are satisfied with the world and they reckon they are guided

حادوا عن مدرجة الاكياس، ورتعوا في مرعى الارجاس الانجاس، كأنهم من مفاجاة الموت آمنون وعن المجازات مزحزحون، يا ويلهم ما أشقاهم وأطول غناءهم وأشد بلاءهم يوم لا يغني مولى عن مولى شيئا ولا هم ينصرون إلا من رحم الله.

They have strayed from the original ranks, and they rambled in the pastures of the dirt and the filth, as if they were secure from the suddenness of death, scattered from the way. O, woe be unto them! How their wretched ones are prolonging their singing, and how severe would be their affliction on A Day, neither will a friend avail anything from a friend, nor would they be helped [44:41] Except one Allah Mercies [44:42]’. 

قال المفضل: فبكيت لما سمعت منه، فقال: لا تبك تخلصت إذ قبلت، ونجوت إذ عرفت،

Al-Mufazzal said, ‘I cried at what I heard from him-asws, so he-asws said: ‘Do not cry. You will be finished off (from it) when you accept, and saved, when you understand’.

ثم قال: أبتدئ لك بذكر الحيوان ليتضح لك من أمره ما وضح لك من غيره. فكر في أبنية أبدان الحيوان وتهيئتها على ما هي عليه، فلا هي صلاب كالحجارة ولو كانت كذلك لا تنثني ولا تتصرف في الاعمال، ولا هي على غاية اللين والرخاوة فكانت لا تتحامل ولا تستقل بأنفسها،

Then he-asws said: ‘I-asws shall begin for you with the mention of the animal in order to clarify for you, from its matter, what would be clear for you, from others. Think regarding the built of the bodies of the animal, and its shape upon what it is upon. It is not solid like the rocks, and had it been like that, neither could it have bent nor disperse in the works; nor is it upon the peak of softness and the looseness, for it would not have been able to carry load, nor take it off by themselves.

فجعلت من لحم رخو تنثني، تتداخله عظام صلاب، يمسكه عصب وعروق تشده ويضم بعضه إلى بعض، وغلفت فوق ذلك بجلد يشتمل على البدن كله،

It has been Made from flesh, loose, flexible, inside it are solid bones, withheld by the nerves and the veins, strengthening it, and conjoined to each other, and enveloped above that with a skin covering the whole of the body.

ومن أشباه ذلك هذه التماثيل التي تعمل من العيدان وتلف بالخرق وتشد بالخيوط ويطلى فوق ذلك بالصمغ فيكون العيدان بمنزلة العظام، والخرق بمنزلة اللحم، والخيوط بمنزلة العصب والعروق، والطلا بمنزلة الجلد،

And from the likes of that are these statues which you work from the wood, and puncture it with the holes, and tighten with the threads and apply the glue above that. So, the woods are at the status of the bones, and the holes at the status of the flesh, and the threads at the status of the nerves and the veins, and the covering at the status of the skin.

فإن جاز أن يكون الحيوان المتحرك حدث بالاهمال من غير صانع جاز أن يكون ذلك في هذه التماثيل الميتة، فإن كان هذا غير جائز في التماثيل فبالحري أن لا يحوز في الحيوان.

So, if it is allowed that the animal would happen to be the mobile occurrence due to the chaos from without there being a Maker, it would be allowed that, that would happen regarding these dead statues. So, if this is not allowed regarding the statues, then it is appropriate that it is not allowed regarding the animal.

وفكر بعد هذا في أجساد الانعام فإنها حين خلقت على أبدان الانس من اللحم والعظم والعصب اعطيت أيضا السمع والبصر ليبلغ الانسان حاجته، فإنها لو كانت عميا صما لما انتفع بها الانسان، ولا تصرفت في شئ من مآربه،

Think after this, regarding the bodies of the cattle, for these, where the flesh, and the bones, and the nerves were Created upon the bodies of the human being, it was Given as well, the hearing, and the sight, for the human being to reach his need. If it was blind, deaf, the human being would not have benefitted with it, nor utilise it in anything from its purpose.

ثم منعت الذهن و العقل لتذل للانسان فلا تمتنع عليه إذا كدها الكد الشديد وحملها الحمل الثقيل. فإن قال قائل: إنه قد يكون للانسان عبيد من الانس يذلون ويذعنون بالكد الشديد وهم مع ذلك غير عديمي العقل والذهن،

Then it was prevented the mind, and the intellect to it to be humbled to the human being, so he would not be prevented upon it, when its structure is strong enough to carry the heavy load. So, if the speaker were to say, ‘It does happen for the human being to have slaves from the humans, humbled and loaded due to the strong body, and they, along with that, are not without the intellect and the mind’.

فيقال في جواب ذلك: إن هذا الصنف من الناس قليل، فأما أكثر الناس فلا يذعنون بما تذعن به الدواب من الحمل والطحن وما أشبه ذلك، ولا يغرون بما يحتاج إليه منه، ثم لو كان الناس يزاولون مثل هذه الاعمال بأبدانهم لشغلوا بذلك عن سائر الاعمال، لانه كان يحتاج مكان الجمل الواحد والبغل الواحد إلى عدة أناسي

So, it would be said in answer to that: ‘This type is a small minority from the people, as for most of the people, they are not being loaded with what the animals are being loaded with, from the load, and the grinders, and what resembles that, nor are they being allured by what is need to it, from it. Then, if the people were to work the likes of these works, they would be pre-occupied with that from the rest of the works, because there would be needed in place of one camel, and the one mule, to a number of the people.

فكان هذا العمل يستفرغ الناس حتى لا يكون فيهم عنه فضل لشئ من الصناعات، مع ما يلحقهم من التعب الفادح في أبدانهم، والضيق والكد في معاشهم.

Thus, this work would free up the people until there would not happen to be among them any merit for anything from the manufacturing, along with what would, they would face, from the gross exhaustion in their bodies, and the constriction and the hardness in their lives.

فكريا مفضل في هذه الاصناف الثلاثة من الحيوان وفي خلقها على ما هي عليه بما فيه صلاح كل واحد منها، فالانس لما قدروا أن يكونوا ذوي ذهن وفطنة وعلاج لمثل هذه الصناعات من البناء والتجارة والصياغة وغير ذلك خلقت لهم أكف كبار ذوات أصابع غلاظ، ليتمكنوا من القبض على الاشياء وأوكدها هذه الصناعات،

Think, O Mufazzal, regarding these three types of the animals, in their creation upon what it is upon, with what is therein an interest of each one of these. The human beings, at what they have been Determined that they would happen to be with a mind, and acumen, and treatment of these manufactures, from the construction, and the trade, and the formulation, and other than that, there was Created for them large hands with strong fingers, in order to be enabled for the grabbing upon the things, and produce these works.

وآكلات اللحم لما قدر أن يكون معايشها من الصيد خلقت لهم أكف لطاف مدمجة ذوات براثن ومخاليب تصلح لاخذ الصيد، ولا تصلح للصناعات،

And the flesh eaters – when it was determined that their livelihood would happen to be from the hunting, He-azwj Created for them soft hands with clutching claws, correct for taking the hunt, and it is not correct for the manufacturing.

وآكلات النبات لما قدر أن يكونوا لا ذات صنعة ولا ذات صيد خلقت لبعضها أظلاف تقيها خشونة الارض إذا حاول طلب الرعي، ولبعضها حوافر ململمة ذوات قعر كأخمص القدم تنطبق على الارض ليتهيأ للركوب والحمولة،

And the plant eaters – when it was Determined that there would neither be with manufacturing nor with hunting, He-azwj Created hooves for some of them, to protect them from the roughness of the ground when it moves around seeking the pasture; and for some of them filled hooves with a bottom like the soles of the feet applied to the ground, ready for the riding and the load bearing.

تأمل التدبير في خلق آكلات اللحم من الحيوان حين خلقت ذوات أسنان حداد، وبراثن شداد، وأشداق وأفواه واسعة، فإنه لما قدر أن يكون طعمها اللحم خلقت خلقة تشاكل ذلك واعينت بسلاح وأدوات تصلح للصيد وكذلك تجد سباع الطير ذوات مناقير ومخاليب مهيأة لفعلها،

Contemplate on the arrangement in the creation of the flesh eaters from the animals where they have been Created with iron-like teeth and with strong claws, and firm wide mouths. So, when it was Determined that its food would happen to be the flesh, He-azwj Created a creature consistent to that, and aided with weapons and tools correct for the hunting. And like that, you will find the predatory birds being with scary beaks ready for its work.

ولو كانت الوحوش ذوات مخالب كانت قد اعطيت مالا يحتاج إليه لانها لا تصيد ولا تأكل اللحم، ولو كانت السباع ذوات أظلاف كانت قد منعت ما تحتاج إليه أعني السلاح الذي به تصيد وتتعيش، أفلا ترى كيف اعطي كل واحد من الصنفين ما يشاكل صنفه وطبقته بل ما فيه بقاؤه وصلاحه.

If the wild animals had been with scary beaks, it would have been given what it is not needy to, because it does not hunt nor eat the flesh; and if the predators were with hooves, it would have been prevented what it would be needy to, I-asws mean the weapons by which it could hunt and live. Do you not see how each one from the two types has been Given what is compatible with its type and its application, but what therein is its remaining and its interest?

انظر الآن إلى ذوات الاربع كيف تراها تتبع اماتها مستقلة بأنفسها لا تحتاج إلى الحمل والتربية كما تحتاج أولاد الانس، فمن أجل أنه ليس عند امهاتها ما عند امهات البشر من الرفق والعلم بالتربية والقوة عليها بالاكف والاصابع المهيأة لذلك اعطيت النهوض والاستقلال بأنفسها،

Look now at the ones with four (legs – quadrupeds), how you see is following its mother independently by itself, not being needy to being carried and upbringing just as the children of the human beings. So, from the reason that, it isn’t with its mother what is with the mothers of the human, from the kindness, and the knowledge with the upbringing, and the strength upon it with the palms and the fingers prepared for that, have been Given the advancement and the independence by itself.

وكذلك ترى كثيرا من الطير كمثل الدجاج و الدراج والقبج تدرج وتلقط حين ينقاب عنها البيض. فأما ما كان منها ضعيفا لا نهوض فيه كمثل فراخ الحمام واليمام والحمر فقد جعل في الامهات فضل عطف عليها فصارت تمج الطعام في أفواهها بعدما توعيه حواصلها فلا تزال تغذوها حتى تستقل بأنفسها

And, similar to that you see from the birds like the chicken, and the pheasant, and the partridge insert and pick up when the egg scatters away from it. As from whoever was weak from these, they do not rise like the dove, and the wild pigeon, and the (Australian) red pigeon. There has been made in the mothers, the grace of kindness upon it, so it began feeding its food in its mouth after being aware of its dedication. So, it does not cease feeding it until it (chick) is independent by itself.

ولذلك لم ترزق الحمام فراخا كثيرة مثل ما ترزق الدجاج لتقوى الام على تربية فراخها فلا تفسد ولا تموت فكل اعطي بقسط من تدبير الحكيم اللطيف الخبير.

And due to that, the dove does not sustain its chicks a lot like what the chicken sustains for the strength of the mother upon the upbringing of its chick, so it does not spoil nor does it die. Therefore, each has been Given a measure from the arrangement of the Wise, the Subtle, the Informed.

انظر إلى قوائم الحيوان كيف تأتي أزواجا لتتهيأ للمشي، ولو كانت أفرادا لم تصلح لذلك لان الماشي ينقل قوائمه  ويعتمد على بعض، فذو القائمتين ينقل واحدة ويعتمد على واحدة، وذو الاربع ينقل اثنين ويعتمد على اثنين، وذلك من خلاف لان ذا الاربع لو كان ينقل قائمتين من أحد جانبيه ويعتمد على قائمتين من الجانب الآخر لما يثبت على الارض كما لا يثبت السرير وما أشبهه فصار ينقل اليمنى من مقاديمه مع اليسرى من مآخيره، وينقل الاخريين أيضا من خلاف فيثبت على الارض ولا يسقط إذا مشى.

Look at the legs of the animal how it has been Given pairs prepared for the walking, and if were individual, it would not be correct for that, because the walking moves its leg and relies upon the other, therefore the ones with two legs, moves one and relies upon one, and one with four moves the two and relies upon two, and that different because the one with four, if it were to move two legs from one side and relied upon two legs from the other side, it would not be affirmed upon the ground just as the bed is affirmed, and what resembles it, so the movement of the right is from its front along with the left from its back, and the movement of the other two as well from opposite, thus affirming it upon the ground, and it does not fall when it walks.

أما ترى الحمار كيف يذل للطحن والحمولة وهو يرى الفرس مودعا منعما، والبعير لا يطيقه عدة رجال لو استعصى، كيف كان ينقاد للصبي ؟ والثور الشديد كيف كان يذعن لصاحبه حتى يضع النير على عنقه ويحرث به ؟ والفرس الكريم يركب السيوف والاسنة بالمواتاة لفارسه، والقطيع من الغنم يرعاه رجل واحد ولو تفرقت الغنم فأخذ كل واحد منها في ناحية لم يلحقها، وكذلك جميع الاصناف مسخرة للانسان فبم كانت كذلك ؟ إلا بأنها عدمت العقل والروية

Do you not see the donkey how it is humbled for the grinding and the load bearing, and he see the horse left safely, and the camel, a number of men cannot tolerate it if it becomes stubborn, how would it be obedient to the child? And the strong bull, how it bows to its master until he places the yoke upon its neck and ploughs with it? And the honourable horse, gets hit by the swords and the arrows in helping its knight (rider), and the flock of sheep a single man pastures it, and if the sheep were to separate and each one of them takes to a corner he would not recapture these. And similar to that is the entirety of the types, subjugated for the human being. Why is it like that? Except that these are without the intellect and the forethought.

فإنها لو كانت تعقل وتروى في الاموركانت خليقة أن تلتوي على الانسان في كثير من مآربه، حتى يمتنع الجمل على قائده، والثور على صاحبه، وتتفرق الغنم عن راعيها، وأشباه هذا من الامور،

So, these, if they had intellect and forethought in the affairs, it would have been disobedient upon the human being in most of its purposes, until the camel would prevent upon its guide, and the bull upon its master, and the sheep would disperse from its shepherd, and the likes of this from the affairs.

و كذلك هذه السباع لو كانت ذات عقل وروية فتوازرت على الناس كانت خليقة أن تجتاحهم فمن كان يقوم للاسد والذئاب والنمورة والدببة لو تعاونت وتظاهرت على الناس ؟ أفلا ترى كيف حجر ذلك عليها وصارت مكان ما كان يخاف من إقدامها ونكايتها تهاب مساكن الناس وتحجم عنها ثم لا تظهر ولا تنشر لطلب قوتها إلا بالليل ؟

And similar to that are these predators. Had they been with the intellect and forethought, they would have backed each other against the people, becoming creatures, which destroyed them. So, who could have withstood to the lions, and the wolves, and the tigers, and the bears, if they had backed each other against the people? Do you not see how that is Forbidden upon them, and they became to a place what would have been fearful from its advent, and its snakes terrorising the dwellings of the people and are refraining from it, then they do not back each other, and do not disperse to seek their livelihood except at night?

فهي مع صولتها كالخائف للانس بل مقموعة ممنوعة منهم، ولولا ذلك لساورتهم في مساكنهم وضيعت عليهم

These, along with their access, are like scared of the human beings, but (as if) oppressed, prevented from them. And had it not been that, they would have been in their dwelling and constricted upon them.

ثم جعل في الكلب من بين هذه السباع عطف على مالكه ومحاماة عنه و حفاظ له فهو ينتقل على الحيطان والسطوح في ظلمة الليل لحراسة منزل صاحبه، وذب الدغار عنه ويبلغ من محبته لصاحبه أن يبذل نفسه للموت دونه ودون ماشيته وماله، ويألفه غاية الالف حتى يصبر معه على الجوع والجفوة فلم طبع الكلب على هذا الالف إلا ليكون حارسا للانسان، له عين بأنياب ومخالب ونباح هائل ليذعر منه السارق ويتجنب المواضع التي يحميها ويخفرها.

Then, it has been Made to be in the dog, from between these predators, kindness upon its owner and defending from him, and protecting for him. So, it moves upon the walls and the rooves in the darkness of the night to safeguard the house of its master, and defend the treachery from him, and reaches from its love for its master that it gives itself for the death instead of him and his livelihood and his wealth, and is intimate at the peak of intimacy to the extent that it is patient upon the hunger and the disloyalty. So, why is the dog natured upon this intimacy except for it to become a safeguard for the human being, for it being eyes, with fangs, and claws, and a loud bark to frighten the thief from it to avoid the places which are to be protected, and discourages him?

يا مفضل تأمل وجه الدابة كيف هو، فإنك ترى العينين شاخصتين أمامها لتبصر ما بين يديها لئلا تصدم حائطا أو تتردى في حفرة، وترى الفم مشقوقا شقا في أسفل الخطم، ولو شق كمكان الفم من الانسان في مقدم الذقن لما استطاع أن يتناول به شيئا من الارض ألا ترى أن الانسان لا يتناول الطعام بفيه ولكن بيده تكرمة له على سائر الآكلات ؟

O Mufazzal! Contemplate on the face of an animal, how it is, and you will see the two eyes as two fixed in from of it to see what is in front of it, lest it bangs into a wall of falls into a hole. And you see the mouth as ripped, cracked at the bottom of the nose, and if the mouth had been ripped just as it was from the human being in the front of the chin it would not have been able to attain anything with it from the ground. Do you not see that the human being cannot attain the food with his mouth, but with his hand, being an honour for him over the rest of the eaters?

فلما لم يكن للدابة يد تتناول بها العلف جعل خطمها مشقوقا من أسفلهل تقبض به على العلف ثم تقضمه، واعينت بالجحفلة تتناول بها ما قرب وما بعد.

So, when there does not happen to be a hand for the animal to take the fodder with it, its mouth has been Made to be ripped from its bottom to grab upon the fodder with it, then cut it, and it is assisted by the lips to take with these what is near and what is far.

اعتبر بذنبها والمنفعة لها فيه فإنه بمنزلة الطبق على الدبر والحيأ جميعا يواريهما ويسترهما، ومن منافعها فيه أن ما بين الدبر ومراقي البطن منها وضر يجتمع عليه الذباب والبعوض فجعل لها الذنب كالمذبة تذب بها عن ذلك الموضع،

Consider its tail and the benefit for it in it, for it is at the status of the lid upon the back, and the shame altogether, covering these and hiding these. And from its benefits is that what is between the back and the stomach from these is excreta upon which the flies and the mosquitoes gather, so the tail has been Made for it like the whisk to drive them away from that place.

ومنها أن الدابة تستريح إلى تحريكه وتصريفه يمنة ويسرة فإنه لما كان قيامها على الاربع بأسرها وشغلت المقدمتان بحمل البدن عن التصرف والتقلب كان لها في تحريك الذنب راحة، وفيه منافع اخرى يقصر عنها الوهم يعرف موقعها في وقت الحاجة إليها

And from it is that the animal rests to move it and discharge it right and left, for if was standing upon the four (legs) as a whole, and the two front (legs) were occupied with carrying the body from the discharging and the moving, for it in the movement of the tail, there is rest. And in it are other benefits which the imaginations are deficient from knowing its occurrences in the time of need to it.

فمن ذلك أن الدابة ترتطم في الوحل فلا يكون شئ أعون على نهوضها من الاخذ بذنبها، وفي شعر الذنب منافع للناس كثيرة يستعملونها في مأربهم، ثم جعل ظهرها مسطحا مبطوحا على قوائم أربع ليتمكن من ركوبها، وجعل حياها بارزا من ورائها ليتمكن الفحل من ضربها، ولو كان أسفل البطن كمكان الفرج من المرأة لم يتمكن الفحل منها، ألا ترى أنه لا يستطيع بأن يأتيها كفاحا كما يأتي الرجل المرأة.

So, from that is that the animal falls in the mud, and there does not happen to be anything more assisting upon extracting it than grabbing it by its tail. And in the hair of the tail there are many benefits for the people utilising these in their purposes. Then, its back is Made as a flat surface upon the four legs to enable one to ride them, and its shame has been made prominent from its back in order to enable the stallion from achieving it. And if it was below the belly just as the private part of the woman, the stallion would not have been able from it. Do you not see that it would not be able to come to its spouse just as the man come to the woman?

تأمل مشفر الفيل وما فيه من لطيف التدبير فإنه يقوم مقام اليد في تناول العلف والماء وازدرادهما إلى جوفه، ولولا ذلك ما استطاع أن يتناول شيئا من الارض لانه ليست له رقبة يمدها كسائر الانعام،

Contemplate on the lips of the elephant and is therein from the subtleness of the arrangement, so it stands of a place of the hand in taking the fodder and the water, and delivers these to its inside. And had it not been that, it would not have been able to take anything from the ground, because there isn’t for it an extended neck like the rest of the animals.

فلما عدم العنق اعين مكان ذلك بالخرطوم الطويل ليسدله فيتناول به حاجته، فمن ذا الذي عوضه مكان العضو الذي عدمه ما يقوم مقامه إلا الرؤوف بخلقه ؟ وكيف يكون هذا بالاهمال كما قالت الظلمة ؟

So, when the neck was fixed, there in place of that the long trunk for it in order to attain its needs. Who is that Who Replaced it in place of the organ which is fixed, what could stand in its place except the One-azwj Who is Kind with His-azwj creatures? And can this happen with the chaos (non-planning) just as the unjust ones are saying?

فإن قال قائل: فما باله لم يخلق ذا عنق كسائر الانعام ؟ قيل له: إن رأس الفيل واذنيه أمر عظيم وثقل ثقيل، ولو كان ذلك على عنق عظيمة لهدها وأوهنها فجعل رأسه ملصقا بجسمه لكيلا ينال منه ما وصفنا، وخلق له مكان العنق هذا المشفر ليتناول به غذاءه فصار مع عدمه العنق مستوفيا ما فيه بلوغ حاجته.

If the speaker says, ‘What is the matter with Him-azwj not Creating that neck (of the elephant) like the rest of the animals?’ It would be said to him, ‘The head of the elephant, and its ears are a great matter and a heavy load, and had that great load been upon a neck, it would break it and weaken it. Its head is Made to be stuck to its body, lest it would face from it what we-asws described, and there has been Created for it in place of the neck, this trunk to attain its fodder with it. Thus, its fixed neck has been sufficed with what therein is a reachability of its need.

انظر الآن كيف جعل حيا الانثى من الفيلة في أسفل بطنها فإذا هاجت للضراب ارتفع وبرز حتى يتمكن الفحل من ضربها، فاعتبر كيف جعل حيا الانثى من الفيلة على خلاف ما عليه في غيرها من الانعام ثم جعلت فيه هذه الخلة ليتهيأ للامر الذي فيه قوام النسل ودوامه.

Look not, how the shame of the female of the elephant has been Made to be in the lower part of its belly. So, when there is a need for the copulation, it raises and comes out until the (male) elephant is enabled from attaining it. Take a lesson, how the shame of the female has been Made to be differently of what is in others from the animal. Then this manner has been Made to be in it for the matter in which is the establishment of the lineage and its perpetuity.

فكر في خلق الزرافة واختلاف أعضائها وشبهها بأعضاء أصناف من الحيوان، فرأسها رأس فرس، وعنقها عنق جمل، وأظلافها أظلاف بقرة، وجلدها جلد نمر، وزعم ناس من الجهال بالله عزوجل أن نتاجها من فحول شتى ! قالوا: وسبب ذلك أن أصنافا من حيوان البر إذا وردت الماء تنزو على بعض السائمة وينتج مثل هذا الشخص الذي هو كالملتقط من أصناف شتى، وهذا جهل من قائله وقلة معرفته بالبارئ جل قدسه،

Think regarding the creation of the giraffe and its different body part and its resemblance with the body parts of a variety of the animals. Its head is a head of a horse, and its neck is a neck of the camel, and its hooves are the hooves of a cow, and its skin is a skin of a tiger, and the people from the ones ignorant with Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic claim that it is a product from a variety of types! They are saying, ‘And the reason of that is that types of animals of the land, when they came to the water, they imaged upon some of the livestock, and it resulted in the likes of this individual which it is like a collection from various types. And this is ignorance of the one who says it, and scarcity of his understanding of the Creator, Majestic is His-azwj Holiness.

وليس كل صنف من الحيوان يلقح كل صنف، فلا الفرس يلقح الجمل، ولا الجمل يلقح البقر، وإنما يكون التلقيح من بعض الحيوان فيما يشاكله ويقرب من خلقه كما يلقح الفرس الحمارة فيخرج بينهما البغل، ويلقح الذئب الضبع فيخرج بينهما السمع،

And it isn’t so that every type of animal can impregnate every type. The horse cannot impregnate the camel, nor can the camel impregnate the cow, and rather the impregnation happens from some of the animals in what is similar to it and is near from its own creation, just like the horse impregnates the donkey, so the mule comes out from between the two, and the wolf impregnates the hyena so the mongoose comes out between the two.

على أنه ليس يكون في الذي يخرج من بينهما عضو من كل واحد منهما كما في الزرافة عضو من الفرس، وعضو من الجمل، وأظلاف من البقرة، بل يكون كالمتوسط بينهما الممتزج منهما كالذي تراه في البغل، فإنك ترى رأسه واذنيه وكفله وذنبه وحوافره وسطا بين هذه الاعضاء من الفرس والحمار، وشحيجه كالممتزج من صهيل الفرس ونهيق الحمار،

On top of that, it cannot happen to be in the one who comes out from between the two, a body part from each on the two, just as is in the giraffe, a part from the horse, and a part from the camel, and the hooves from the cow. But, it would happen to be in the middle of the two, the mixed one from them like that which you see in the mule, for you see its head, and its ears, and its posterior, and its tail, and its hooves to be as a compromise between these body part from the horse and the donkey, and its diffusion like the mixture of a racing of the horse and sharpness of the donkey.

فهذا دليل على أنه ليست الزرافة من لقاح أصناف شتى من الحيوان كما زعم الجاهلون، بل هي خلق عجيب من خلق الله للدلالة على قدرته التي لا يعجزها شئ، وليعلم أنه خالق أصناف الحيوان كلها، يجمع بين ما يشاء من أعضائها في أيها شاء ويفرق ما شاء منها في أيها شاء، ويزيد في الخلقة ما شاء، وينقص منها ما شاء، دلالة على قدرته على الاشياء، وأنه لا يعجزه شئ أراده جل وتعالى،

So, this is evidence upon that the giraffe isn’t from an impregnation of a variety of types from the animals just as the ignorant ones are alleging. But, it is a wondrous creation from the creatures of Allah-azwj, evidencing upon His-azwj Power which He-azwj is not frustrated by anything, and for it to be known that He-azwj is the Creator of all the types of the animals, Gathering between whatever He-azwj so Desires from their body parts into whichever He-azwj so Desires, and Differentiating whatever He-azwj so Desires from these, and Increasing in the creation whatever He-azwj so Desires, and Reducing whatever He-azwj so Desires, evidencing upon His-azwj Power upon the things, and nothing frustrates Him-azwj, Majestic and Exalted, in His-azwj Intentions.

فأما طول عنقها والمنفعة لها في ذلك فإن منشأها ومرعاها في غياطل ذوات أشجار شاهقة ذاهبة طولا في الهواء فهي تحتاج إلى طول العنق لتناول بفيها أطراف تلك الاشجار فتتقوت من ثمارها.

As for the length of its neck and the benefits for it in that, so its feed and its pastures are in high-rise foliage from the trees that go up in the air, therefore it is needy to the long neck in order to take by its mouth the ends of those trees, and it feeds from its fruits.

تأمل خلق القرد وشبهه بالانسان في كثير من أعضائه أعني الرأس والوجه و المنكبين والصدر، وكذلك أحشاؤه شبيهة أيضا بأحشاء الانسان، وخص من ذلك بالذهن والفطنة التي بها يفهم عن سائسه ما يومي إليه، ويحكي كثيرا مما يرى الانسان يفعله حتى أنه يقرب من خلق الانسان وشمائله في التدبير في خلقته على ما هي عليه

Contemplate on the creation of the monkey and its resemblance with the human being in most of its body parts. I-asws mean the head, and the face, and the shoulders, and the chest, and like that. And similar to that are its bones as well resembling the bones of the humans, and especially from that with the mind, and the acumen by which its feelings can be understood by what it is gestured to, and relates a lot from what it sees the human being does, to the extent that it is the closest from the creation of the human being and his beauty in the arrangement in its creation upon what it is upon.

أن يكون عبرة للانسان في نفسه فيعلم أنه من طينة البهائم وسنخها إذ كان يقرب من خلقها هذا القرب، وأنه لولا فضيلة فضله الله بها في الذهن والعقل والنطق كان كبعض البهائم،

That would happen to be a lesson for the human being in himself, so he would know that he is from the essence of the animals and their origins, when he was so close from its creation with this closeness, and he, if he had not been for a Grace which Allah-azwj Graced him with, regarding the mind, and the intellect, and the talking, he would be like some of the animals.

على أن في جسم القرد فضولا اخرى يفرق بينه وبين الانسان كالخطم والذنب المسدل والشعر المجلل للجسم كله، وهذا لم يكن مانعا للقرد أن يلحق بالانسان لو اعطي مثل ذهن الانسان وعقله ونطقه، والفصل الفاصل بينه وبين الانسان بالصحة هو النقص في العقل والذهن والنطق.

On top of that, in the body of the monkey are other extras which differentiate between it and the human beings, like the snout and the uncurled tail, and the hair covering the whole body. And this, would not prevent the monkey that he catches up with the human being if it had been Given a mind similar to the human being, and his intellect, and his talk, and the distance distancing between it and the human being with the correctness, it is deficient in the intellect, and the mind, and the talking.

انظر يا مفضل إلى لطف الله جل اسمه بالبهائم كيف كسيت أجسامهم هذه الكسوة من الشعر والوبر والصوف ليقيها من البرد وكثرة الآفات، وألبست قوائمها الاظلاف والحوافر والاخفاف ليقيها من الحفا، إذ كانت لا أيدي لها ولا أكف ولا أصابع مهيأة للغزل والذ ؟

Look, O Mufazzal, at the Subtlety of Allah-azwj, Majestic is His-azwj Name, with the animals, how He-azwj Cladded them with this cladding, from the hair, and the fur, and the wool for its facing the cold and a lot of the afflictions, and Clothed their legs with the pointed hooves, and the flat hooves, and the footwear to protect them from the bare-footedness, when there was neither any hand for it, nor a palm, nor fingers prepared for the spinning and weaving?

ج فكفوا بأن جعل كسوتهم في خلقتهم باقية عليهم ما بقوا لا يحتاجون إلى تجديدها والاستبدال بها، فأما الانسان فإنه ذو حيلة وكف مهيأة للعمل فهو ينسج و يغزل ويتخذ لنفسه الكسوة، ويستبدل بها حالا بعد حال، وله في ذلك صلاح من جهات،

Thus, they are stopped, that their cladding is Made to be remaining on their bodies for as long as they remain, not been needy to renew these, and the replacing it. As for the human being, so he is with the mean and a palm ready for the work, so he weaves and he spins and takes the clothing for himself, and changes it year after year, and for him, in that, is an interest from some aspects.

من ذلك: أنه يشتغل بصنعة اللباس عن العبث وما يخرجه إليه الكفاية، ومنها: أنه يستريح إلى خلع كسوته إذا شاء، ولبسها إذا شاء، ومنها: أن يتخذ لنفسه من الكسوة ضروبا لها جمال وروعة فيتلذذ بلبسها وتبديلها.

From that – he is busy in making the clothing’s from the tampering and whatever comes out as sufficient. And from it is that he rests to take off his clothes whenever he so desires and wears whenever he so desires. And from it is that he takes the various clothes for himself as a beauty and splendour, and he derives pleasure by wearing it and changing it.

وكذلك يتخذ بالرفق من الصنعة ضروبا من الخفاف والنعال يقي بها قدميه، وفي ذلك معايش لمن يعمله من الناس ومكاسب يكون فيها معاشهم، ومنها أقواتهم وأقوات عيالهم، فصار الشعر والوبر والصوف يقوم للبهائم مقام الكسوة والاظلاف والحوافر، والاخفاف مقام الحذاء.

And similar to that he takes with the gentleness from the making of various types of shoes, and slippers to save his feet with these, and in that is a livelihood for one who makes it, from the people, and an earning for a livelihood to happen to be for them. And from it is their subsistence and the subsistence for their dependants. Thus, the hair, and the fur, and the wool become stand for the animals in the place of the clothing, and the pointed hooves, and the flat hooves, and the footwear in the place of the shoes.

فكريا مفضل في خلقة عجيبة جعلت في البهائم، فإنهم يوارون أنفسهم إذا ماتوا كما يواري الناس موتاهم، وإلا فأين جيف هذه الوحوش والسباع وغيرها لا يرى منها شئ ؟ وليست قليلة فتخفى لقلتها، بل لو قال قائل: إنها أكثر من الناس لصدق،

Think, O Mufazzal, regarding the wondrous creation Made to be in the animals, for they are burying themselves when they are dying just as the people bury their deceased, or else so where is the decay (carcasses) of these beasts and the predators and others, nothing is seen from these? And they aren’t a few, so they could be hidden for their scarcity. But, if a speaker were to say, ‘These are more (in number) than the people’, he would have spoken the truth.

فاعتبر ذلك بما تراه في الصحاري والجبال من أسراب الظبا والمها والحمير والوعول والايائل وغير ذلك من الوحوش، وأصناف السباع من الاسد والضباع والذئاب والنمور وغيرها، وضروب الهوام والحشرات ودواب الارض،

So, consider that with what you see in the deserts, and the mountains from the flocks of the antelopes, and the oxen, and the donkeys, and ibexes, and the deers, and other than that from the animals, and the types of predators from the lions, and the hyenas, and the wolves, and the tigers, and others, and variety of the vermins, and the insects, and the livestock of the earth.

وكذلك أسراب الطير من الغربان و القطا والاوز والكراكي والحمام وسباع الطير جميعا وكلها لا يرى منها شئ إذا ماتت إلا الواحد بعد الواحد يصيده قانص أو يفترسه سبع

And similar to that are the flocks of the birds from the crows, and the pigeons, and the geese, and the shorebirds, and the doves, and predatorily birds altogether, and all of these, nothing is seen from them when they die, except the one after the one gets hunted or devoured by a predator.

فإذا أحسوا بالموت كمنوا في مواضع خفية فيموتون فيها، ولولا ذلك لامتلات الصحاري منها حتى تفسد رائحة الهواء، ويحدث الامراض والوباء،

So, when they sense the death, they disappear in a hidden place and they are dying therein, and had it not been that, the deserts would be filled up from these to the extent that it would spoil the smell of the air, and diseases and the plague would occur.

فانظر إلى هذا الذي يخلص إليه الناس وعملوه بالتمثيل الاول الذي مثل لهم كيف جعل طبعا وادكارا في البهائم وغيرها ليسلم الناس من معرة ما يحدث عليهم من الامراض والفساد.

Therefore, look at this which the people are ending up to, and understand it with the first example which had been struck for them (Qabeel-la burying Habeel-as), how it has been Made to be a nature and burying among the animals and others, for the safety of the people from the harm which would occur upon them from the diseases and the spoiling.

فكر يا مفضل في الفطن التي جعلت في البهائم لمصلحتها بالطبع والخلقة لطفا من الله عزوجل لهم، لئلا يخلو من نعمه جل وعز أحد من خلقه لا بعقل وروية

Think, O Mufazzal regarding the acumen which has been Made to be in the animals for their interests with the natures and the subtle creation from Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic for them, lest anyone from His-azwj creatures would be devoid from the Favour of the Majestic and Mighty, not by intellect and acumen.

فإن الايل يأكل الحيات فيعطش عطشا شديدا فيمتنع من شرب الماء خوفا من أن يدب السم في جسمه فيقتله، ويقف على الغدير وهو مجهود عطشا، فيعج عجيجا عاليا ولا يشرب منه ولو شرب لمات من ساعته، فانظر إلى ما جعل من طباع هذه البهيمة من تحمل الظماء الغالب خوفا من المضرة في الشرب، وذلك مما لا يكاد الانسان العاقل المميز يضبطه من نفسه،

So, the deer eats the snake, and it gets thirsty with intense thirst, but it prevents from drinking the water fearing from spread of the poison in its body which would kill it, and it pauses upon the well and it is a thirsty effort, so it shrieks a loud shriek and does not drink from it, and if it were to drink, it would die immediately. Look at what is Made to be from the nature of these animals from the overwhelming thirst fearing from the harm in the drinking, and that is from what the intellectual human almost cannot grasp in himself.

والثعلب إذا أعوزه الطعم تماوت ونفخ بطنه حتى يحسبه الطير ميتا فإذا وقعت عليه لتنهشه وثب عليها فأخذها، فمن أعان الثعلب العديم النطق والروية بهذه الحيلة إلا من توكل بتوجيه الرزق له من هذا وشبهه ؟

And the fox, when it lacks food and blows its belly until the bird reckons it is dead. But, when it falls upon it, it surprises it and leaps upon it and grabs it. Who assisted the fox who is speechless and the deliberateness with this trick, except the One-azwj Who Guaranteed its sustenance for it from this, and it’s like?

فإنه لما كان الثعلب يضعف عن كثير مما يقوى عليه السباع من مساورة الصيد اعين بالدهاء والفطنة والاحتيال لمعاشه، والدلفين يلتمس صيد الطير فيكون حيلته في ذلك أن يأخد السمك فيقتله و يشرحه حتى يطفوا على الماء، يكمن تحته ويثور الماء الذي عليه حتى لا يتبين شخصه، فإذا وقع الطير على السمك الطافي وثب إليها فاصطادها، فانظر إلى هذه الحيلة كيف جعلت طبعا في هذه البهيمة لبعض المصلحة ؟.

It is so that when the fox is weak from most of the predators which are stronger upon him, from acquiring the hunt, eyes with the plotting, and the acumen, and the trickery for its livelihood, and the dolphins seeking a prey of the bird, so its trickery in that would happen to be that it would take the fish and kill it, and tear it until it floats upon the water. He hides under it and the water which is upon it, its person not being seen. So, when the bird falls upon the floating fish, it leaps towards it and catches it. Therefore, look at this trickery, how it is made to be a nature in this animal for some of its interests?’

قال المفضل: فقلت: خبرني يا مولاي عن التنين والسحاب،

Al-Mufazzal said, ‘I said, ‘Inform me, O my Master-asws, about the dragon and the cloud’.

فقال عليه السلام: إن السحاب كالموكل به يختطفه حيثما ثقفه، كما يختطف حجر المقناطيس الحديد، فهو لا يطلع رأسه في الارض خوفا من السحاب ولا يخرج إلا في القيظ مرة إذا صحت السماء فلم يكن فيه نكتة من غيمة،

He-asws said: ‘The cloud is allocated with it, snatching it away wherever it may be, just as a rock snatches away the magnetism of the iron, and it does not emerge its head in the ground fearing from the cloud, not does it come out except in the heat when the sky is correct and there does not happen to be in it a speck of a cloud’.

قلت: فلم وكل السحاب بالتنين يرصده ويختطفه إذا وجده ؟ قال: ليدفع عن الناس مضرته.

I said, ‘So, why is the cloud allocated with the dragon, lying in wait for it, and snatching it when it finds it?’ He-asws said: ‘To defend the people from being wounded’.

قال المفضل: فقلت: قد وصفت لي يا مولاي من أمر البهائم ما فيه معتبر لمن اعتبر فصف لي الذرة والنمل والطير،

Al-Mufazzal said, ‘I said, ‘You-asws have described to me, O my Master-asws, from the matters of the animals what is there in a deliberation for one who considers, so described to me the small red bee, and the ant, and the bird’.

فقال عليه السلام: يا مفضل تأمل وجه الذرة الحقيرة الصغيرة هل تجد فيها نقصا عما فيه صلاحها ؟ فمن أين هذا التقدير والصواب في خلق الذرة إلا من التدبير القائم في صغير الخلق و كبيره ؟.

He-asws said: ‘O Mufazzal! Contemplate on the face of the small red bee, the petty, the little. Do you find any deficiency in it from what wherein is its interest? From where is this determination and the correctness in the creation of the red bee except from the arrangement of the Custodian in the small of the creatures and its large ones?

انظر إلى النمل واحتشادها في جمع القوت وإعداده، فإنك ترى الجماعة منها إذا نقلت الحب إلى زبيتها بمنزلة جماعة من الناس ينقلون الطعام أو غيره، بل للنمل في ذلك من الجد والتشمير ما ليس للناس مثله،

Look at the ant and its accumulation in collecting the subsistence and its preparation, and you will see the community from it transferring the grain to its home, being at the status of a community from the people transferring the food or something else. But, for the ant, in that, from the struggle and the activity what isn’t for the people, the like of it.

أما تريهم يتعاونون على النقل كما يتعاون الناس على العمل ؟ ثم يعمدون إلى الحب فيقطعونه قطعا لكيلا ينبت فيفسد عليهم  فإن أصابه ندى أخرجوه فنشروه حتى يجف، ثم لا يتخذ النمل الزبية إلا في نشر من الارض كي لا يفيض السيل فيغرقها  فكل هذا منه بلا عقل ولا روية بل خقلة خلق عليها لمصلحة لطفا من الله عزوجل.

But, do you not see them assisting each other upon the transfer just as the people assist each other upon the work? Then, they are deliberating to the grain, and they are cutting it into pieces lest it grows, and it spoils upon them, and if wetness hits it, so they separate it until it dries up. Then, the ant does not take to a place except in a high part from the ground so that the flood does not flow to it and drowns it. (Is) all this without intellect or acumen (insight)? But, it is a manner Created upon it for its subtle interest from Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic.

انظر إلى هذا الذي يقال له: الليث، وتسميه العامة أسد الذباب، وما اعطي من الحيلة والرفق في معاشه، فإنك تراه حين يحس بالذباب قد وقع قريبا منه تركه مليا حتى كأنه موات لا حراك به، فإذا رأى الذباب قد اطمأن وغفل عنه دب دبيبا دقيقا حتى يكون منه بحيث يناله وثبه ثم يثب عليه فيأخذه فإذا أخذه اشتمل عليه بجسمه كله مخافة أن ينجو منه فلا يزال قابضا عليه حتى يحس بأنه قد ضعف واسترخى ثم يقبل عليه فيفترسه ويحيى بذلك منه،

Look at this which is called ‘Al Las’ (dragonfly?), and the generality have named it as ‘lion of the flies’, and what it has been Given from the tricks, and the kindness in its life, and you will see it senses as being with the flies to be nearby from it, leave it for a while until as if it is dead, there being no movement with it. So, when the fly sees it, and feels secure and become neglectful from it, until it is at a precise distance from it where it can attain it, then leaps upon it and grabs it. When it does take it, covers upon it with its whole body fearing that it might be rescued from it. It does not cease to be capturing upon it until it senses that it has weakened and relaxed, then it faces towards it and pierces it, so it eats it and live with that from it.

فأما العنكبوت فإنه ينسج ذلك النسج فيتخذه شركا ومصيدة للذباب ثم يكمن في جوفه فإذا نشب فيه الذباب أجال عليه يلدغه ساعة بعد ساعة فيعيش بذلك منه فكذلك يحكى صيد الكلاب والفهود، وهكذا يحكى صيد الاشراك والحبائل.

As for the spider, so it weaves that web and takes it as a trap and a snare for the flies, then it hides inside it. When the fly thrusts into it, it attacks upon it, stinging it time after time, and it live with that from it. Like that, it is related of the prey of the dogs and the leopards, like this is related of the prey of the snares and the ropes.

فانظر إلى هذه الدويبة الضعيفة كيف جعل في طبعها ما لا يبلغه الانسان إلا بالحيلة واستعمال آلات فيها، فلا تزدر بالشئ إذا كانت العبرة فيه واضحة كالذرة والنملة وما أشبه ذلك فإن المعنى النفيس قد يمثل بالشئ الحقير فلا يضع منه ذلك كما لا يضع من الدينار وهو من ذهب أن يوزن بمثقال من حديد.

Look at these weak animals how it has been Made to be in its nature what the human being cannot reach except by means and utilising the tools in it. So, do not be despising with anything when there was a clear lesson in it, like the red bee and the ant, and what resembles that, for the noble meaning has been represented with the despicable thing, therefore do not waste that just as one does not waste the Dinar, and it is from gold, that one would weight its weight from iron.

تأمل يا مفضل جسم الطائر وخلقته فإنه حين قدر أن يكون طائرا في الجو خفف جسمه وادمج خلقه، فاقتصر به من القوائم الاربع على اثنتين، ومن الاصابع الخمس على أربع، ومن منفذين للزبل والبول على واحد يجمعهما،

Contemplate, O Mufazzal, on the body of the bird and its creation, for where it is able to be able to fly in the air, lightness of its body and integration of its creation. It has been reduced with from the four legs, to be upon two, and from the five fingers to be upon four, and from the two implements of the droop and the urine upon one combined.

ثم خلق ذا جؤجؤ محدد ليسهل عليه أن يخرق الهواء كيف ما أخذ فيه، كما جعل السفينة بهذه الهيئة لتشق الماء وتنفذ فيه، وجعل في جناحيه وذنبه ريشات طوال متان لينهض بها للطيران، وكسي كله الريش ليداخله الهواء فيقله،

Then, it has been Created with limited breasts to ease upon it when it breaks through the atmosphere, how it takes off in it, just as the ship has been made with these preparations to break the water and be implemented in it. And there has been Made to be long feathers in its wings and its tail to ease with it for the flying, and the whole of it is covered with the feathers to enter into the air and stay there.

ولما قدر أن يكون طعمه الحب واللحم يبلعه بلعا بلا مضغ نقص من خلقه الاسنان، وخلق له منقار صلب جاس يتناول به طعمه فلا ينسجح من لقط الحب، ولا يتقصف من نهش اللحم، ولما عدم الاسنان وصار يزدرد الحب صحيحا واللحم غريضا اعين بفضل حرارة في الجوف تطحن له الطعم طحنا يستغني به عن المضغ،

And when it is determined that its food should happen to be the seed and the flesh, it swallows without chewing, being deficient of the teeth in its creation, and there has been created for it a solid, rigid beak, taking by its food by it, and it does not wear off from picking the seed, not does it break from piercing the meat. And when it has no teeth and becomes swallowing the whole grain, and the chunks of meat, it is assisted by the extra heat in the inside grinding the food for it, becoming needless with it from the chewing.

واعتبر ذلك بأن عجم العنب وغيره يخرج من أجواف الانس صحيحا، ويطحن في أجواف الطير لا يرى له أثر، ثم جعل مما يبيض بيضا ولا يلد ولادة لكيلا يثقل عن الطيران فإنه لو كانت الفراخ في جوفه تمكث حتى تستحكم لاثقلته وعاقته عن النهوض والطيران فجعل كل شئ من خلقه مشاكلا للامر الذي قدر أن يكون عليه

And consider that the seed of the grape and other comes out from the inside of the human being, whole, and it gets grinded in the inside of the bird, no trace being seen for it. Then it is Made from what lays the eggs and does not give birth directly, lets it becomes too heavy from the flying, for had it been a chick in its inside, it would remain until it is burdened and weighed down from the advancing and the flying. All things from its creation has been Made similar for the matter, which is Ordained to happen upon it.

ثم صار الطائر السائح في هذا الجو يقعد على بيضه فيحضنه اسبوعا، وبعضها اسبوعين، وبعضها ثلاثة أسابيع حتى يخرج الفرخ من البيضة ثم يقبل عليه فيزقه الريح لتتسع حوصلته للغذاء ثم يربيه ويغذيه بما يعيش به فمن كلفه أن يلقط الطعم ويسخرجه بعد أن يستقر في حوصلته ويغذو به فراخه ؟ ولاي معنى يحتمل هذه المشقة وليس بذي روية ولا تفكر ؟

Then the travelling bird comes in the air and sits upon its egg preparing it for a week, and some of them for two weeks, and some of them for three weeks until the chick hatches from the egg. Then it turns towards it and opens (its throat) for the wind to widen its throat for the food intake. Then it raises it and feeds it with what it can live with.  So, who encumbered it that it should hold the food and bring it out after it had settled in his throat, and feed its chick with it? And for which meaning does it bear these difficulties and it isn’t with acumen nor any thinking?

ولا يأمل في فراخه ما يأمل الانسان في ولده من العز والرفد وبقاء الذكر ؟ فهذا هو فعل يشهد بأنه معطوف على فراخه، لعله لا يعرفها ولا يفكر فيها وهي دوام النسل وبقاؤه لطفا من الله تعالى ذكره.

And it does not hope in its chick what the human being hopes for in his children from the honour and the help, and remaining of the male? So, this, it is a deed testifying that it is king upon its chick, perhaps it does not recognise it nor does it think regarding it, and it is a perpetuation (propagation) of the lineage and its remaining, a kindness from Allah-azwj, Exalted is His-azwj Mention.

انظر إلى الدجاجة كيف تهيج لحضن البيض والتفريخ وليس لها بيض مجتمع ولا وكر موطى بل تنبعث وتنتفخ وتقوقى وتمتنع من الطعم حتى يجمع لها البيض فتحضنه وتفرخ فلم كان ذلك منها إلا لاقامة النسل ؟ ومن أخذها بإقامة النسل ولا روية ولا تفكر لولا أنها مجبولة على ذلك ؟.

Look at the chicken, how it gets excited for the incubation of the egg and the hatching, gathering of eggs for it or a nest as a home, but it emits, and swells, and clenches and refrains from the food until the eggs are gathered for it, so it incubates and hatches. So, why was that from it except for the establishment of the lineage? And who took it with establishing the lineage, and there is neither any acumen nor any thinking, if it had not been a natural propensity (inclination) upon that?

اعتبر بخلق البيضة وما فيها من المح الاصفر الخاثر، والماء الابيض الرقيق، فبعضه لينتشر منه الفرخ، وبعضه ليغذي به، إلى أن تنقاب عنه البيضة، وما في ذلك من التدبير فإنه لو كان نشؤ الفرخ في تلك القشرة المستحصنة التى لا مساغ لشئ إليها لجعل معه في جوفها من الغذاء ما يكتفي به إلى وقت خروجه منها، كمن يحبس في حبس حصين لا يوصل إلى من فيه فيجعل معه من القوت ما يكتفي به إلى وقت خروجه منه.

Consider the creation of the egg and what is therein from the yellow coagulated yolk, and the thin while water. Part of it, the chick would come from it, and part of it would feed with it, until the egg is broken from it, and what is therein from the arrangement. If the chick had been born in that fortified crust which nothing can reach to it, it is made to be with it in its inside from the feed what it could be sufficed with until the time of its exit from it, like the one who is withheld in a fortified prison, no one can arrive to him in it, so it is made to be with him, from the feed, what he could be sufficed with up to the time of his exit from it.

فكر في حوصلة الطائر وما قدر له، فإن مسلك الطعم إلى القانصة ضيق لا ينفذ فيه الطعام إلا قليلا قليلا، فلو كان الطائر لا يلقط حبة ثانية حتى تصل الاولى إلى القانصة لطال عليه، ومتى كان يستوفي طعمه ؟ فإنما يختلسه اختلاسا لشدة الحذر،

Think regarding the crop (food collection pouch) of the bird and what is determined for it, for the course of the food to its stomach is narrow, the food cannot go through it except little by little. So, if the bird cannot swallow a second seed until the first one arrives to its stomach, it would be prolonged upon it, and when would it finish its meal? So, rather, the misappropriation confuses it due to the severity of the caution.

فجعلت الحوصلة كالمخلاة المعلقة أمامه ليوعي فيها ما أدرك من الطعم بسرعة ثم تنفذه إلى القانصة على مهل، وفى الحوصلة أيضا خلة اخرى، فإن من الطائر ما يحتاج إلى أن يزق فراخه فيكون رده للطعم من قرب أسهل عليه.

The crop has been Made to be like the temporary storage for undigested (feed) in order to store in it whatever it gets from the food quickly, then move it to the stomach upon an opportunity. And in the crop as well there is another behaviour, for, from the birds is one which is needy to feed it’s chick, so its return to the feed from nearby would be easy upon it.

قال المفضل: فقلت يا مولاي إن قوما من المعطلة يزعمون أن اختلاف الالوان والاشكال في الطير إنما يكون من قبل امتزاج الاخلاط واختلاف مقاديرها بالمرج و الاهمال.

Al-Mufazzal said, ‘I said, ‘O my Master-asws! There are a people from the philosophers are alleging that the variation of the colours and the faces in the bird are, rather existing from before a mixture of inter-mingling and different pastures of theirs, and the chaos.

فقال: يا مفضل هذا الوشي الذي تراه في الطواويس والدراج والتدارج على استواء ومقابلة كنحو ما يخط بالاقلام كيف يأتي به الامتراج المهمل على شكل واحد لا يختلف ؟ ولو كان بالاهمال لعدم الاستواء ولكان مختلفا.

He-asws said: ‘O Mufazzal! This decoration which you see in the peacock, and the pheasant, and the parrots are upon the same and parallel, like what is written with the pens, how it comes with the mixture borne upon one face, not different? And if it was with the chaos, the sameness would not be there, but it would be different.

تأمل ريش الطير كيف هو ؟ فإنك تراه منسوجا كنسج الثوب من سلوك دقاق قد الف بعضه إلى بعض كتأليف الخيط إلى الخيط والشعرة إلى الشعرة، ثم ترى ذلك النسج إذا مددته ينفتح قليلا ولا ينشق لتداخله الريح فيقل الطائر إذا طار،

Contemplate a feather of the bird, how it is, and you will see it inter-woven like the weaving of the cloth from thin thread interlaced upon each other, like a composition of the thread to the thread, and the hair to the hair. Then, you see that weaving, if it is extended, it opens up a little but it does not go apart for the wind to enter, so the bird would drop off when it (nest) flies.

وترى في وسط الريشة عمودا غليظا متينا قد نسج عليه الذي هو مثل الشعر ليمسكه بصلابته، وهو القصبة التي هو في وسط الريشة، وهو مع ذلك أجوف ليخف على الطائر ولا يعوقه عن الطيران.

And you see in the middle of the feather, a heavy, solid column which has been woven upon by that which is like the hair to withhold it by its hardness, and it is the reed which is in the middle of the feather, and it, along with that, is hollow for it to be light upon the bird, and not hinder it from the flying.

هل رأيت يا مفضل هذا الطائر الطويل الساقين ؟ وعرفت ماله من المنفعة في طول ساقيه: فإنه أكثر ذلك في ضحضاح من الماء فتراه بساقين طويلين كأنه ربيئة فوق مرقب وهو يتأمل ما يدب في الماء فإذا رأى شيئا مما يتقوت به خطا خطوات رقيقا حتى يتناوله، ولو كان قصير الساقين وكان يخطو نحو الصيد ليأخذه يصيب بطنه الماء فيثور و يذعر منه فيتفرق عنه فخلق له ذلك العمودان ليدرك بهما حاجته ولا يفسد عليه مطلبه.

Have you seen, O Mufazzal, this bird with long legs? And you will understand what is for it from the benefits in having long legs, for most of the time it is in shallow water, and you see it with long legs as if it is a guard above a watchtower, and it is contemplating what is crawling in the water. So, when it sees something from what it anticipates with it gradually, with delicate steps until it catches it. And had it been of short legs, and stepped near to the prey in order to seize it, its belly would have hit the water and it would have rippled and shook from it. Therefore, those pillars (long legs) have been Created for it, to achieve its needs by them and its aim would not be spoilt upon it.

تأمل ضروب التدبير في خلق الطائر فإنك تجد كل طائر طويل الساقين طويل العنق وذلك ليتمكن من تناول طعمه من الارض ولو كان طويل الساقين قصير العنق لما استطاع أن يتناول شيئا من الارض، وربما اعين مع طول العنق بطول المناقير ليزداد الامر عليه سهولة له وإمكانا أفلا ترى أنك لا تفتش شيئا من الخلقة إ ؟ وجدته على غاية الصواب والحكمة؟.

Contemplate the variety of arrangements in the creation of the bird, and you will find every bird with long legs being with the long neck, and that is to enable it to attain its food from the ground, and if the legs were long and a short neck, it would not have been able to attain anything from the ground. And sometimes it is assisted with the long neck by the long beak, in order to increase the matter of ease upon it, and enablement. Do you not see it; you do not investigate anything from the creation? And you would have it upon a peak of correctness and the Wisdom?

انظر إلى العصافير كيف تطلب أكلها بالنهار فهي لا تفقده ؟ ولا هي تجده مجموعا معدا بل تناله بالحركة والطلب، وكذلك الخلق كله فسبحان من قدر الرزق كيف قوته ؟ فلم يجعل مما لا يقدر عليه إذ جعل للخلق حاجة إليه ولم يجعله مبذولا وينال بالهوينا إذ كان لا صلاح في ذلك فإنه لو كان يوجد مجموعا معدا كانت البهائم تتقلب عليه ولا تنقلع حتى تبشم فتهلك،

Look at the sparrow how it seeks its meal by the day and it does not lose it? And it does not find it gathered deliberately, but it attains it by the movement and the seeking. And, similar to that is the whole of creation. So, the Glorious is the One-azwj Who Determined the sustenance, how is His-azwj Strength? He-azwj has not Made, from what He-azwj has not Determined upon it, When He-azwj Made for the people, a need to it, and did not Made it a waste, and it can be attained with ease, what if there was no interest in that. If it had count (food) gathered, prepared, the animals would have fluctuated upon it, and not moved (from it) until they slept, and be destroyed.

وكان الناس أيضا يصيرون بالفراغ إلى غاية الاشر والبطر حتى يكثر الفساد ويظهر الفواحش. أعلمت ما طعم هذه الاصناف من الطير التي لا تخرج إلا بالليل كمثل البوم والهام  والخفاش ؟

And the people as well, being with the free time, are coming to the peak of evil and the wicked until the corruption abound and the immoralities appear. Didn’t I-asws let you know what food there is for these types from the birds which do not come out except at night, like the owl, and the masked owl, and the bat?’

قلت: لا يا مولاي،

I said, ‘No, my Master-asws!’

قال: إن معاشها من ضروب تنتشر في هذا الجو من البعوض والفراش وأشباه الجراد واليعاسيب، وذلك أن هذه الضروب مبثوثة في الجو لا يخلو منها موضع واعتبر ذلك بأنك إذا وضعت سراجا بالليل في سطح أو عرصة دار اجتمع عليه من هذا شئ كثير فمن أين يأتي ذلك كله إلا من القرب ؟. فإن قال قائل: أنه يأتي من الصحاري والبراري: قيل له: كيف يوافي تلك الساعة من موضع بعيد ؟ وكيف يبصر من ذلك البعد سراجا في دار محفوفة بالدور فيقصد إليه ؟

He-asws said: ‘Their livelihood is from a variety scattered in the air, from the mosquitoes, and the butterflies, and it’s like the grasshopper, and the dragonflies, and that is because these varieties are sent in the air and no place is empty from these. And consider that when you place a lantern at night or a roof, or a courtyard of a house, a lot of these would gather to it. From where do all of that come from, except from nearby? So, if a speaker says, ‘They come from the desert and the prairies’, it would be said to him, ‘How can they meet up at that very moment from a remote place? And how can they see a lantern in a house from that distance, perilous (dying for) with the circling, so it aims to it?’

مع أن هذه عيانا تتهافت على السراج من قرب فيدل ذلك على أنها منتشرة في كل موضع من الجو، فهذه الاصناف من الطير تلتمسها إذا خرجت فتتقوت بها. فانظر كيف وجه الرزق لهذه الطيور التي لا تخرج إلا بالليل من هذه الضروب المنتشرة في الجو، واعرف مع ذلك المعنى في خلق هذه الضروب المنتشرة التي عسى أن يظن ظان أنها فضل لا معنى له،

Along with that is that these can been seen altered to the lantern from nearby, so that evidence upon that these are scattered in every place from the air. These types of the birds seek them when they come out and live by it. Look at how is the aspect of the sustenance for these birds which do not come out except at night, from these varieties scattered in the air, and recognise along with that, the meaning in the creation of these scattered varieties which perhaps a thinker would think that it is an extra, there being no meaning for it.

خلق الخفاش خلقة عجيبة بين خلقة الطير وذوات الاربع أقرب، وذلك أنه ذو اذنين ناشزتين وأسنان ووبر وهو يلد ولادا ويرضع ويبول ويمشي إذا مشى على أربع، وكل هذا خلاف صفة الطير، ثم هو أيضا مما يخرج بالليل ويتقوت مما يسري في الجو من الفراش وما أشبهه،

Creation of the bat is a wondrous creation between the birds, and with the four is closer, and that is because it is with two protruding ears, and teeth and furs, and it begets children, and breastfeeds, and urinates, and walks when it walks upon four. And all this is opposite to the attributes of the bird. Then it, as well, is from what comes out at night and feeds from what flies in the air, from the butterflies and what resembles it.

وقد قال قائلون: إنه لا طعم للخفاش، وإن غذاءه من النسيم وحده، وذلك يفسد ويبطل من جهتين: إحديهما خروج ما يخرج منه من الثفل والبول فإن هذا لا يكون من غير طعم، والاخرى أنه ذو أسنان ولو كان لا يطعم شيئا لم يكن للاسنان فيه معنى، وليس في الخلقة شئ لا معنى له،

And the speakers have said, ‘There is no food for the bat, and that its feed is from the gentle breeze alone’. And that is invalid and false from two aspects – one of that is the excretion what comes out from it from the excreta and the urine, and that cannot happen from without food; and the other is that it is with teeth, and if it was not eating anything, there would have been no meaning for the teeth in it, and there is nothing in the creation which has no meaning to it.

وأما المآرب فيه فمعروفة حتى أن زبله يدخل في بعض الاعمال، ومن أعظم الارب فيه خلقته العجيبة الدالة على قدرة الخالق جل شأنه، وتصرفها فيما شاء كيف شاء لضرب من المصلحة.

And as for the purpose in it, it is well known to the extent that its droop entered into some of the treatments, and from the great purpose in it is that its wondrous creation evidences upon the Determination of the Creator, Majestic is His-azwj Glory, and His-azwj Utilisation in whatever He-azwj so Desires, howsoever He-azwj Desires from for a variety of interests.

فأما الطائر الصغير الذي يقال له: ” ابن تمرة ” فقد عشش في بعض الاوقات في بعض الشجر فنظر إلى حية عظيمة قد أقبلت نحو عشه فاغرة فاها لتبلعه فبينما هو يتقلب ويضطرب في طلب حيلة منها إذا وجد حسكة فحملها فألقاها في فم الحية، فلم تزل الحية تلتوي وتتقلب حتى ماتت. أفرأيت لو لم اخبرك بذلك كان يخطر ببالك أو ببال غيرك أنه يكون من حسكة مثل هذه المنفعة العظيمة أو يكون من طائر صغير أو كبير مثل هذه الحيلة ؟

As for the small bird which is called ‘Ibn Tamrat’ (Pipit). It lives in some of the times in some of the trees. Look at a great snake which has come around its nest and opened its mouth to devour it. While it turns around and is desperate in seeking a means from it, when it finds bones, so it carries it and throws it in the mouth of the snake, and the snake does not cease to twist and turn until it dies. Do you see that if I-asws had not informed you with that, it would have come in your mind or in someone else’s mid that it happens from the bone, a great benefit like this, or it happens from a small bird or a big one, the like of this ploy?

اعتبر بهذا وكثير من الاشياء تكون فيها منافع لا تعرف إلا بحادث يحدث به أو خبر يسمع به. انظر إلى النحل واحتشاده في صنعة العسل، وتهيئة البيوت المسدسة وما ترى في ذلك اجتماعه من دقائق الفطنة فانك إذا تأملت العمل رأيته عجيبا لطيفا، وإذا رأيت المعمول وجدته عظيما شريفا موقعه من الناس، وإذا رجعت إلى الفاعل ألفيته غبيا جاهلا بنفسه فضلا عما سوى ذلك،

Consider this and a lot of things happening to have benefits in these which you do not recognise except by an event occurring with it or a news you hear with it. Look at the bee and its confluence in making the honey, and the construction of the hexagonal homes, and what you see in that is its gathering from the miniscule cleverness. So, when you contemplate the work, you will see it as wondrous, subtle; and when you see the worker you will find it great, nobler than the people. And when you return to the doer, you will find him stupid, ignorant with himself, and more from besides that.

ففي هذا أوضح الدلالة على أن الصواب والحكمة في هذه الصنعة ليس للنحل بل هي للذي طبعه عليها وسخره فيها لمصلحة الناس.

In this, there is clear evidence upon that the correctness and the wisdom in this construction isn’t of the bee, but it is of the One-azwj Who Natured it upon this and Subdued it with regards to it for the interest of the people.

انظر إلى هذا الجراد ما أضعفه وأقواه فإنك إذا تأملت خلقه رأيته كأضعف الاشياء، وإن دلفت عساكره نحو بلد من البلدان لم يستطع أحد أن يحميه منه. ألا ترى أن ملكا من ملوك الارض لو جمع خيله ورجله ليحمي بلاده من الجراد لم يقدر على ذلك ؟ أفليس من الدلائل على قدرة الخالق أن يبعث أضعف خلقه إلى أقوى خلقه فلا يستطيع دفعه ؟

Look at this locust how weak it is and how strong (at the same time). When you contemplate its creation (body), you would see it like a weak thing, and if it advances its army to a city from the cities, no one is able to protect himself from it. Do you not see that a king from the kings of the earth, if he were to gather his cavalry and his infantry to protect his country from the locust, he would not be able upon that? Isn’t it from the evidence upon the Power of the Creator that He-azwj Sends the weakest of His-azwj creatures to the strongest of His-azwj creatures, but they are not able to repel it?

انظر إليه كيف ينساب على وجه الارض مثل السيل فيغشي السهل و الجبل والبدو والحضر، حتى يستر نور الشمس بكثرته فلو كان هذا مما يصنع بالايدي متى كان يجتمع منه هذه الكثرة، وفي كم من سنة كان يرتفع فاستدل بذلك على القدرة التي لا يؤودها شئ ويكثر عليها.

Look at how its glides upon the surface of the earth like the flood, and it overwhelms the coast, and the mountain, and the valleys and the rural areas, until it veils the light of the sun due to their numbers. If this had been from what the hands make, when would this number of them gather, and in how many years would they arise. Thus, it evidences with that upon the Power of the One-azwj Who, is not assisted upon anything, and He-azwj Multiplies upon it.

تأمل خلق السمك ومشاكلته للامر الذي قدر أن يكون عليه فإنه خلق غير ذي قوائم لانه لا يحتاج إلى المشي إذا كان مسكنه الماء، وخلق غير ذي رية لانه لا يستطيع أن يتنفس وهو منغمس في اللجة، وجعلت له مكان القوائم أجنحة شداد يضرب بها في جانبيه كما يضرب الملاح بالمجاذيف من جانبي السفينة، وكسي جسمه قشورا متانا متداخلة كتداخل الدروع والجواشن لتقيه من الآفات

Contemplate of the creation of the fish and its similarities for the affairs which have been Determined to happen upon it, for it has been Created without legs because there is no need for it to walk when its dwelling is the water, and Created without aeration because it is not able to breathe while it is immersed in the depths of the sea. And there have been Made for it, in place of the legs, strong fins to strike with these by its side just as the sailor strikes with the paddles from the two sides of the ship. And its body is cladded with hard interlocking crusts like overlapping shields to protect it from the afflictions.

فاعين بفضل حسن في الشم لان بصره ضعيف والماء يحجبه، فصار يشم الطعم من البعد البعيد فينتجعه، وإلا فكيف يعلم به وبموضعه ؟ واعلم أن من فيه إلى صماخيه منافذ فهو يعب الماء بفيه ويرسله من صماخيه فتروح إلى ذلك كما يتروح غيره من الحيوان إلى تنسم هذا النسيم.

Thus, it is assisted by the excellent sense of smell because its sight is weakened and the water veils it, so it comes smelling the food from a remote distance and seeks it, or else how would it know of its place?

And know that from its mouth to its inner ear, there are outlets, and it takes in the water with its mouth and sends it out from its outlets, and it circulates to that just as the others from the animals circulate to a breeze, this gentle breeze.

فكر الآن في كثرة نسله وما خص به من ذلك فإنك ترى في جوف السمكة الواحدة من البيض ما لا يحصى كثرة، والعلة في ذلك أن يتسع لما يغتذي به من أصناف الحيوان فإن أكثرها يأكل السمك حتى أن السباع أيضا في حافات الآجام عاكفة على الماء أيضا كي ترصد السمك فإذا مر بها خطفته

Think now regarding the abundance of its species and what it has been specialised with from that, and you will see in the inside of the one fish, the eggs which its numbers cannot be counted, and the reason regarding that is that there is capacity for the variety of the animal to feed from it, for most of it is eaten by the fish, to the extent that the predators as well in the edges of the depths engaging upon the water as well preying upon the fish, and when it passes by it, ravishes (overcomes) it.

فلما كانت السباع تأكل السمك والطير يأكل السمك والناس يأكلون السمك والسمك يأكل السمك كان من التدبير فيه أن يكون على ما هو عليه من الكثرة.

So, when the predators eat the fish, and the bird eat the fish, and the people are eating the fish, and the fish eat the fish, it was from the arrangement in it that these would happen to be upon an abundance.

فإذا أردت أن تعرف سعة حكمة الخالق وقصر علم المخلوقين فانظر إلى ما في البحار من ضروب السمك، ودواب الماء والاصداف، والاصناف التي لا تحصى ولا تعرف منافعها إلا الشئ بعد الشئ يدركه الناس بأسباب تحدث، مثل القرمز

When you want to recognise the capacious Wisdom of the Creator and the deficient knowledge of the created beings, then look at that is in the seas from the variety of the fishes, and creatures of the sea and the shells, and the varieties which cannot be counted nor can its benefits be recognised except the thing after the thing, which the people realise by the causes of the occurrences, like the cochineal.

فإنه إنما عرف الناس صبغه بأن كلبة تجول على شاطئ البحر فوجدت شيئا من الصنف الذي يسمى الحلزون فأكلته فاختضب خطمها بدمه فنظر الناس إلى حسنه فاتخذوه صبغا، وأشباه هذا مما يقف الناس عليه حالا بعد حال وزمانا بعد زمان.

But rather the people recognised its colour by a dog wandering upon the beach of the sea, and it finds something from the type which is called a snail, so it ate it, and its nose was coloured by its blood. So, the people looked are its beauty and took it as a dye, and the likes of this from what the people pause upon, year after year, and era after an era’.

قال المفضل: حان وقت الزوال فقام مولاي عليه السلام إلى الصلاة، وقال: بكر إلي غدا إن شاء الله تعالى فانصرفت وقد تضاعف سروري بما عرفنيه، مبتهجا بما منحنيه، حامدا لله على ما آتانيه فبت ليلتي مسرورا مبتهجا. تم المجلس الثاني.

Al-Mufazzal said, ‘The time for midday came, so my Master-asws arose to perform the Salat, and said: ‘Come to me-asws early tomorrow, if Allah-azwj the Exalted so Desires’. I left and my cheerfulness has doubled with what he-asws had made me understand, excited with what he-asws had inclined me towards, praising to Allah-azwj upon what I had been given, and I spent my night cheerful, happy’. The second sitting was complete.

المجلس الثالث: قال المفضل: فلما كان اليوم الثالث بكرت إلى مولاي فاستوذن لي فدخلت فأذن لي بالجلوس فجلست،

The third sitting – Al-Mufazzal said, ‘So when it was the third day, I went early morning to my Master-asws, and he-asws permitted for me and I entered, and he-asws permitted for me with the sitting, so I sat.

فقال عليه السلام: الحمد لله الذي اصطفانا ولم يصطف علينا، اصطفانا بعلمه، وأيدنا بحلمه، من شذ عنا فالنار مأواه، ومن تفيأ بظل دوحتنا فالجنة مثواه،

He-asws said: ‘The Praise is for Allah-azwj Who Chose us-asws and did not Choose against us-asws. He-azwj Chose us-asws by His-azwj Knowledge, and Assisted us-asws by His-azwj Forbearance. One who turns against us-asws, so the Fire would be his abode, and one who suffices with the shade of our-asws tree (Family), the Paradise would be his resting place.

قد شرحت لك يا مفضل خلق الانسان وما دبر به و تنقله في أحواله وما فيه من الاعتبار، وشرحت لك أمر الحيوان، وأنا أبتدئ الآن بذكر السماء والشمس والقمر والنجوم والفلك والليل والنهار والحر والبرد والرياح والجواهر الاربعة: الارض والماء والهواء والنار، والمطر والصخر والجبال والطين و الحجارة والمعادن والنبات والنخل والشجر وما في ذلك من الادلة والعبر.

I-asws have expounded for you, O Mufazzal, the creation of the human being and what is arranged with him, and his transfer in his situation and what is therein from the lessons, and I-asws expounded for you the matter of the animals, and I-asws am beginning now with the mention of the sky, and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the orbits, and the night, and the day, and the heat, and the cold, and the winds, and the four seasons, the earth, and the water, and the air, and the fire, and the rain, and the rocks, and the mountains, and the clay, and the stones, and the mines, and the vegetation, and the palm trees, and the tree, and what is in that from the evidence and the lesson.

فكر في لون السماء وما فيه من صواب التدبير فإن هذا اللون أشد الالوان موافقة للبصر وتقوية حتى أن من صفات الاطباء لمن أصابه شئ أضر ببصره إدمان النظر إلى الخضرة وما قرب منها إلى السواد، وقد وصف الحذاق منهم لمن كل بصره الاطلاع في إجانة خضراء مملوة ماءا،

Think, regarding the colour of the sky and what is therein from the correctness of the arrangement, for if this colour is the most intense of the colours compatible with the sight and strength to the extent that from the qualities of the physicians to one who has been hit by something harmful for his sight, to habituate the looking at the green and whatever is closer from it to the black (dark green) to the extent that he would prescribe one to look with all his view into a green container filled with water.

فانظر كيف جعل الله جل وتعالى أديم السماء بهذا اللون الاخضر إلى السواد ليمسك الابصار المنقلبة عليه فلا ينكأ فيها بطول مباشرتها له فصار هذا الذي أدركه الناس بالفكر والروية والتجارب يوجد مفروغا منه في الخلقة حكمة بالغة ليعتبر بها المعتبرون، ويفكر فيها الملحدون، قاتلهم الله أنى يؤفكون.

Look at how Allah-azwj, Majestic and Exalted, has Made the lining of the sky in this green colour to the black, in order to hold the gaze turned towards it, and he does not give up in it with the prolonged looking at it. So, this has come by which the people realised with the thinking and the seeing, and the experimentation found, taken for granted from it regarding the creation, a conclusive Wisdom for the lesson learners to take lessons from it, and the atheists to think with regards to it, May Allah Fight them! How deluded they are [9:30].

فكر يا مفضل في طلوع الشمس وغروبها لاقامة دولتي النهار والليل فلولا طلوعها لبطل أمر العالم كله فلم يكن الناس يسعون في معايشهم ويتصرفون في امورهم والدنيا مظلمة عليهم، ولم يكونوا يتهنؤون بالعيش مع فقدهم لذة النور وروحه، والارب في طلوعها ظاهر مستغن بظهوره عن الاطناب في ذكره والزيادة في شرحه

Think, O Mufazzal, regarding the rising of the sun and its setting for the establishment of the two states of the day and the night. Had it not been for its rising, the affairs of the world would have been invalidated and the people would not have strived in the livelihood and disperse regarding their affairs, and the world would have been dark upon them, and they would have been welcoming with the live along with losing their pleasure of the light and its cheerfulness. And the purpose in its rising is apparent. It is needless from exaggerating its mention and the increase in its explanation.

بل تأمل المنفعة في غروبها، فلولا غروبها لم يكن للناس هدء ولا قرار مع عظم حاجتهم إلى الهدء والراحة لسكون أبدانهم وجموم حواسهم وانبعاث القوة الهاضمة لهضم الطعام وتنفيذ الغذاء إلى الاعضاء ثم كان الحرص يستحملهم من مداومة العمل ومطاولته على ما يعظم نكايته في أبدانهم فإن كثيرا من الناس لولا جثوم هذا الليل لظلمته عليهم لم يكن لهم هدء ولا قرار حرصا على الكسب والجمع والادخار

But, contemplate on the benefits in its setting. If there did not happen to be for the people any calm or tranquillity along with a great need of theirs to the relaxation and the rest to settle their bodies, and resting of their senses, and recuperation of the strength of the digestion to digest the food, and implement the food to the body parts, then the greed would have carried them from the perpetual work and its prolongation upon what would magnify its complaint in their bodies, for a lot of people, if it hadn’t been for the squatting of the night of the darkness upon them, there would neither have been any calm nor tranquillity for them, being greedy upon the earning and amassing and hoarding.

ثم كانت الارض تستحمي بدوام الشمس بضيائها وتحمي كل ما عليها من حيوان ونبات فقدرها الله بحكمته وتدبيره تطلع وقتا وتغرب وقتا بمنزلة سراج يرفع لاهل البيت تارة ليقضوا حوائجهم ثم يغيب عنهم مثل ذلك ليهدؤوا ويقروا فصار النور والظلمة مع تضادهما منقادين متظاهرين على بما فيه صلاح العالم وقوامه.

Then the earth would have heated up by the perpetual sunshine and heat up all what is upon it, from the animals, and vegetation. Therefore, Allah-azwj Determined it, by His-azwj Wisdom, and His-azwj Arrangement, to emerge it at a time and set at a time, being at the status of a lamp sometimes raised for the people of the house for them to fulfil their needs, the it disappears from them like them, for them to calm down and acknowledge. So, the light and the darkness came to be with their opposite (qualities) Guided demonstrators upon with what is therein an interest of the world and its standing.

ثم فكر بعد هذا في ارتفاع الشمس وانحطاطها لاقامة هذه الازمنة الاربعة من السنة وما في ذلك من التدبير والمصلحة، ففي الشتاء تعود الحرارة في الشجر والنبات فيتولد فيهما مواد الثمار، ويستكثف الهواء فينشأ منه السحاب والمطر، وتشد أبدان الحيوان وتقوي،

Then think after this, regarding the rising of the sun and its setting to establish these four times (seasons) of the year, and what is in that from the arrangement and the interest. In the winter, the heat acclimatises in the tree and the vegetation, and there are born fruit plants in these, and the air condenses and from it the clouds and the rains are raised, and the bodies of the animals are strengthened.

وفي الربيع تتحرك وتظهر المواد المتولدة في الشتاء فيطلع النبات، وتنور الاشجار، ويهيج الحيوان للسفاد،

And in the spring, the plants which were born in the winter stir and appear and the vegetation appears, and the trees radiate, and the animals get excited for the copulation.

وفي الصيف يحتدم الهواء فتنضج الثمار، وتتحلل فضول الابدان، ويجف وجه الارض فتهيأ للبناء والاعمال،

And in the summer, the air rages and the fruits ripen, and the excretion of the bodies disintegrates, and the surface of the earth dries up preparing for the construction and the work.

وفي الخريف يصفو الهواء، ويرتفع الامراض، ويصح الابدان ويمتد الليل فيمكن فيه بعض الاعمال لطوله، و يطيب الهواء فيه إلى مصالح اخرى لو تقصيت لذكرها لطال فيها الكلام.

And in the autumn the air clears, and the diseases are raised, and the bodies are healthy, and the night is extended, and some of the works are enabled due to its length, and the air is good in it to other interest, if you were to search its mention, the speech would be prolonged regarding it.

فكر الآن في تنقل الشمس في البروج الاثنى عشر لاقامة دور السنة، وما في ذلك من التدبير فهو الدور الذي تصح به الازمنة الاربعة من السنة: الشتاء، والربيع، والصيف، والخريف، ويستوفيها على التمام، وفي هذا المقدار من دوران الشمس تدرك الغلات والثمار، وتنتهي إلى غاياتها، ثم تعود فيستأنف النشوء والنمو،

Think now regarding the transfer of the sun in the twelve constellations to establish the circle of the year, and what is in that from the arrangement, for it is the circle which the four times from the year are correct with it – the winter, and the spring, and the summer, and the autumn, and are fulfilled upon the perfection; and in that is the measurement from the rotation of the sun and the achievement of the   yields and the fruits, and these to their peaks, then repeats to resume the development and growth.

ألا ترى أن السنة مقدار مسير الشمس من الحمل إلى الحمل فبالسنة وأخواتها يكال الزمان من لدن خلق الله تعالى العالم إلى كل وقت وعصر من غابر الايام، وبها يحسب الناس الاعمال والاوقات الموقتة للديون والاجارات والمعاملات وغير ذلك من امورهم، وبمسير الشمس يكمل السنة ويقوم حساب الزمان على الصحة.

Do you not see the year is measured by the sun from the (constellation) Aries to the Aries. So, by the year and its counterparts the times are weighed from the time Allah-azwj the Exalted Created the world to all times and period from the bygone days, and by it the people account the deeds, and the timings timed for the debts, and the wages, and the dealings and other than that from their matters. And the course of the sun perfects the year and establishes the accounting of the times upon the correctness.

انظر إلى شروقها على العالم كيف دبر أن يكون فإنها لو كانت تبزغ في موضع من السماء فتقف لا تعدوه لما وصل شعاعها ومنفعتها إلى كثير من الجهات لان الجبال و الجدران كانت تحجبها عنها فجعلت تطلع في أول النهار من المشرق فتشرق على ما قابلها من وجه المغرب ثم لا تزال تدور وتغشى جهة بعد جهة حتى تنتهي إلى المغرب فتشرق على ما استتر عنها في أول النهار فلا يبقى موضع من المواضع إلا أخذ بقسطه من المنفعة منها،

Look at its rising upon the world, how it is regulation to happen, for it were to emerge in a particular place of the sky and it stops, not returning to what its rays have arrive to, and their benefits to a lot of the entities, because the mountains and the walls would be obstructing these (rays). Therefore, the emergence has been Made to be in the first part of the day from the east, and its shines upon what is in front of it from the face of the west, then it does not cease to circle and overwhelm an entity after an entity until it ends up to the west, so it shines upon what had been veiled from it in the beginning of the day. Thus, there does not remain any place from the places except it takes its instalment from the benefits from it.

والارب التي قدرت له، ولو تخلفت مقدار عام أو بعض عام كيف كان يكون حالهم ؟ بل كيف كان يكون لهم مع ذلك بقاء ؟ أفلا يرى الناس كيف هذه الامور الجليلة التي لم تكن عندهم فيها حيلة ؟ فصار تجري على مجاريها لا تعتل ولا تتخلف عن مواقيتها لصلاح العالم وما فيه بقاؤه.

And the purpose which has been Determined for it, and if the measurement of the year or part of the year was to differ, how would their state come to be? But, how would it happen for them, along with that, any survival? Don’t the people see how these sublime affairs are for which there are no means with them regarding these? Thus, the flow upon its flows came to be not to be suspended, nor delayed from its timings for the interest of the world and what is therein in its survival.

استدل بالقمر ففيه دلالة جليلة تستعملها العامة في معرفة الشهور، ولا يقوم عليه حساب السنة، لان دوره لا يستوفي الازمنة الاربعة ونشوء الاثمار وتصرمها، ولذلك صارت شهور القمر وسنوه تتخلف عن شهور الشمس وسنيها، وصار الشهر من شهور القمر ينتقل فيكون مرة بالشتاء ومرة بالصيف.

Deduce with the moon, for in it is sublime evidence which the general people are using in recognising the months, and the accounting of the year cannot stand upon it, because its rotation does not equate to the four seasons and emergence of the fruits and their ripening, and due to that the months came to be the moon (lunar), and its year is difference from the sun and its (solar) year, and the month from the lunar months came to be changing, so these happen to be with the winter at times, and at times with the summer.

فكر في إنارته في ظلمة الليل والارب في ذلك فإنه مع الحاجة إلى الظلمة لهدء الحيوان وبرد الهواء على النبات لم يكن صلاح في أن يكون الليل ظلمة داجية لا ضياء فيها فلا يمكن فيه شئ من العمل، لانه ربما احتاج الناس إلى العمل بالليل لضيق الوقت عليهم في تقصي الاعمال بالنهار أو لشدة الحر وإفراطه فيعمل في ضوء القمر أعمالا شتى كحرث الارض، وضرب اللبن، وقطع الخشب، وما أشبه ذلك

Think regarding its radiating in the darkness of the night and the purpose in that, for it is with the need to the darkness to guide the animals and cool the air upon the vegetation. It is not correct in the night becoming completely dark, there being no illumination in it, so nothing from the work is enabled, because sometime the people are needy to the work at night due to the constriction of the time upon them to fulfil the deeds by the day, or due to the intensity of the heat and its excessiveness, so he works in the illumination of the moonlight, various works like ploughing the ground, and milking, and cutting the wood, and what resembles that.

فجعل ضوء القمر معونة للناس على معايشهم إذا احتاجوا إلى ذلك، وانسا للسائرين، وجعل طلوعه في بعض الليل دون بعض، ونقص مع ذلك من نور الشمس وضيائها لكيلا تنبسط الناس في العمل انبساطهم بالنهار، ويمتنعوا من الهدء والقرار فيهلكهم ذلك وفي تصرف القمر خاصة في مهله ومحاقه وزيادته ونقصانه وكسوفه من التنبيه على قدرة الله خالقه المصرف له هذا التصريف لصلاح العالم ما يعتبر به المعتبرون.

So, the illumination of the moon was Made as an assistance to the people upon their lives when they are needy to that, and a comfort for the walkers, and its ascent in some of the night besides some, and a reduction with that from the light of the sun and its illumination, lest the people spread in the word, their spreading by the day, and be prevented from the calm and the tranquillity, and that would destroy them. And in the behaviour of the moon especially in its crescent and its fullness, and its increase and its reduction, and its eclipse is an alertness upon the Power of Allah-azwj, its Creator, the behaviour of it with this behaviour is for the interest of the world, what the lesson learners take a lesson from.

فكر يا مفضل في النجوم واختلاف مسيرها فبعضها لا تفارق مراكزها من الفلك ولا تسير إلا مجتمعة، وبعضها مطلقة تنتقل في البروج وتفترق في مسيرها فكل واحد منها يسير سيرين مختلفين: أحدهما عام مع الفلك نحو المغرب، والآخر خاص لنفسه نحو المشرق، كالنملة التي تدور على الرحى فالرحى تدور ذات اليمين والنملة تدور ذات الشمال والنملة في تلك تتحرك حركتين مختلفتين: إحديهما بنفسها فتتوجه أمامها، والاخرى مستكرهة مع الرحى تجذبها إلى خلفها،

Think, O Mufazzal, regarding the stars and the difference in their courses. Some of these do not separate from their place from the orbits not travels except together, and some of these are separately transferring in the constellation in their courses. Each one of these travel two difference courses – one of it is a year from the orbit around the west, and other especially for itself around the east, like the ant, which circles upon the hand-mill. So, the hand-mill turn clockwise and the ant travels counter-clockwise, and the ant, in that movement has two different movements – one of these is with itself, so it heads in front of it, and the other reclining with the hand-mill attracting it backwards.

فاسئل الزاعمين أن النجوم صارت على ما هي عليه بالاهمال من غير عمد ولا صانع لها ما منعها أن تكون كلها راتبة ؟ أو تكون كلها منتقلة ؟ فإن الاهمال معنى واحد فكيف صار يأتي بحركتين مختلفتين على وزن وتقدير ؟ ففي هذا بيان أن مسير الفريقين على ما يسيران عليه بعمد وتدبير وحكمة وتقدير، وليس بإهمال كما تزعم المعطلة.

So, ask the claimants, if the stars came to be what these are upon, by the chaos from without there being any deliberation nor a Maker for it, what is its meaning that all of it happens to be in rotation? Or all of it happens to be moving? If the meaning of chaos was one, then how did these come to be two different movements upon a weight and determination? In this is an explanation of the two courses upon what they are travelling with deliberation, and wisdom, and determination, and it isn’t with chaos just as the philosophers are alleging.

فإن قال قائل: ولم صار بعض النجوم راتبا وبعضها منتقلا ؟ قلنا: إنها لو كانت كلها راتبة لبطلت الدلالات التي يستدل بها من تنقل المنتقلة ومسيرها في كل برج من البروج، كما قد يستدل على أشياء مما يحدث في العالم بتنقل الشمس والنجوم في منازلها،

If a speaker says, ‘And why did some of the stars become rotating and some of them moving?’ We-asws say: ‘If all of these had been in rotation it would have invalidated the evidences which can be evidenced with from the Mover of the movement and its course in every constellation from the constellations, just as it evidences upon the things from what occurs in the world by the movement of the sun and the stars in their places.

ولو كانت كلها منتقلة لم يكن لمسيرها منازل تعرف ولا رسم يوقف عليه لانه إنما يوقف بمسير المنتقلة منها بتنقلها في البروج الراتبة كما يستدل على سير السائر على الارض بالمنازل التي يجتاز عليها، ولو كان تنقلها بحال واحدة لاختلط نظامها وبطلت المآرب فيها، ولساغ لقائل أن يقول: إن كينونتها على حال واحدة توجب عليها الاهمال من الجهة التي وصفنا ففي اختلاف سيرها وتصرفها وما في ذلك من المآرب والمصلحة أبين دليل على العمد والتدبير فيها.

And if all of these had been moving, there would not have been any places in its course which could be recognised nor a mark to stop upon, because it would stop in a course of the movement from it by its movement in the constellation rotating, just as it would evidence upon the course of the rest upon the earth by station which traverses upon it. And if had been moving with ones state its system not mixing, it would invalidate the purpose in it, and it would be allowed for a speaker that he should be saying, ‘Its being upon one state obligates the chaos upon it’, from the aspect which we-asws described and in the difference in its courses and its behaviour and what is in that from the purpose and the interest, clear evidence upon the deliberation and the arrangement in it.

فكر في هذه النجوم التي تظهر في بعض السنة وتحتجب في بعضها كمثل الثريا والجوزاء والشعريين وسهيل فإنها لو كانت بأسرها تظهر في وقت واحد لم تكن لواحد فيها على حياله دلالات يعرفها الناس ويهتدون بها لبعض امورهم كمعرفتهم الآن بما يكون من طلوع الثور والجوزاء إذا طلعت، واحتجابها إذا احتجبت

Think regarding these stars which appear in part of the year and are hidden in part of it, like the Pleiades, and the Betelgeuse, and the ‘Al-Sha’rayn’ (The star emerging after Betelgeuse), and the Canopus, so these had been its prisoners, would have appeared in one time, it would not happen for one among these upon its state, any evidence the people could have recognise and be guided by these to some of their matters, like their recognising now with at what would happen from the emergence of the Taurus and the Betelgeuse when they emerge, and their hiding when they are hidden.

فصار ظهور كل واحد واحتجابه في وقت غير وقت الآخر لينتفع الناس بما يدل عليه كل واحد منها على حدته، وكما جعلت الثريا وأشباهها تظهر حينا وتحجب حينا لضرب من المصلحة كذلك جعلت بنات النعش ظاهرة لا تغيب لضرب آخر من المصلحة فإنها بمنزلة الاعلام التي يهتدي بها الناس في البر والبحر للطرق المجهولة، وذلك أنها لا تغيب ولا تتوارى،

Thus, the appearance of each one and its hiding in a time other than another time came to be of benefit to the people with what evidence upon it by each one from these upon its limit, and just as the Pleiades and the likes of it have been Made to appear for a while and be hidden for a while is for a variety of interests. Similar to that the daughters of Canopus have been Made to be visible, not hiding, is for another variety of interests, for these are at the status of the world by which the people are guided with in the land, and the sea, and to the unknown roads, and that is because these are not hidden and do not get covered.

فهم ينظرون إليها متى أرادوا أن يهتدوا بها إلى حيث شاؤوا وصار الامران جميعا على اختلافهما موجهين نحو الارب والمصلحة، وفيهما مآرب اخرى: علامات ودلالات على أوقات كثيرة من الاعمال كالزراعة والغراس والسفر في البر والبحر، وأشياء مما يحدث في الازمنة من الامطار والرياح والحر والبرد، وبها يهتدى السائرون في ظلمة الليل لقطع القفار الموحشة، واللجج الهائلة، مع ما في ترددها في كبد السماء مقبلة ومدبرة ومشرفة ومغربة من العبر فإنها تسير أسرع السير وأحثه.

So, they are looking at it whenever they want to be guided with it to wherever they like, and the two matters together came to be upon their difference as two dipoles for the purpose and the interest. And in these two there is another purpose – Signs, and the evidences upon the many timing from the works like the cultivation, and the planting, and the travelling in the land and the sea, and things from what occurs in the times, from the rains, and the winds, and the heat, and the cold, and by it are guided the walkers in the darkness of the night to cut through the lonely desolate parts, and the demanding vastness, along with what is in its hesitation in the middle of the sky, frontwards, and backwards, and eastwards, and westwards from the crossing, for it is a course of the quickest travel and its familiar one.

أرأيت لو كانت الشمس والقمر والنجوم بالقرب منا حتى يتبين لنا سرعة سيرها بكنه ما هي عليه ألم تكن ستخطف الابصار بوهجها وشعاعها ؟ كالذي يحدث أحيانا من البروق إذا توالت واضطرمت في الجو، وكذلك أيضا لو أن اناسا كانوا في قبة مكللة بمصابيح تدور حولهم دورانا حثيثا لحارت أبصارهم حتى يخروا لوجوههم

Do you see, if the sun and the moon and the stars were near to us until the quickness of their courses what these are upon were seen by us, wouldn’t the sights be snatched due to their brightness and radiance? Like that which occurs in your lifetime, from the lightning when it rolls out and flashes in the atmosphere. And similar to that as well, if the people were in an inside a dome covered with lights circling around them in rapid rotations, their sights would be dazzled until they would fall upon their faces.

فانظر كيف قدر أن يكون مسيرها في البعد البعيد لكيلا تضر في الابصار وتنكأ فيها، وبأسرع السرعة لكيلا تتخلف عن مقدار الحاجة في مسيرها، وجعل فيها جزء يسير من الضوء ليسد مسد الاضواء إذا لم يكن قمر، ويمكن فيه الحركة إذا حدثت ضرورة كما قد يحدث الحادث على المرء فيحتاج إلى التجافي في جوف الليل، وإن لم يكن شئ من الضوء يهتدي به لم يستطع أن يبرح مكانه

Look at how it has been Determined that their courses happen in the far distance lest it harms the sights and the effects of it, and as fast as possible lest there is a variation of the need it is course, and there has been Made to be in these a small part of the light to fill the gap when there does not happen to be a moon, and enable the movement in it when a necessity occurs just as an event may occur for the person and he becomes needy to go in the middle of the night, and if there does not happen to be anything from the light to be guided with, he would not be able to go to a place.

فتأمل اللطف والحكمة في هذا التقدير حين جعل للظلمة دولة ومدة لحاجة إليها، وجعل خلالها شئ من الضوء للمأرب التي وصفنا.

Contemplate the subtleness and the Wisdom in this arrangement where there has been Made to be for the darkness, a state and a period to a need to it, and Made to be during it, something from the light for the purpose which we-asws described.

فكر في هذا الفلك بشمسه وقمره ونجومه وبروجه تدور على العالم في هذا الدوران الدائم بهذا التقدير والوزن لما في اختلاف الليل والنهار، وهذه الازمان الاربعة المتوالية على الارض، وما عليها من أصناف الحيوان والنبات من ضروب المصلحة كالذي بينت وشخصت لك آنفا، وهل يخفى على ذي لب أن هذا تقدير مقدر، وصواب وحكمة من مقدر حكيم ؟.

Think regarding this orbit with its sun, and its moon, and its stars, and its constellations orbiting upon the universe in these perpetual orbits, with this arrangement and mass to what is an alternation of the night and the day, and these four consecutive seasons upon the earth, and what is upon it from the types of animals and the various vegetation for the interest like that which I-asws explained especially for you just now, and is it hidden upon the one with understanding that this arrangement has a measurement, and correctness, and wisdom from a Determiner, Wise One-azwj?

فإن قال قائل: إن هذا شئ اتفق أن يكون هكذا فما منعه أن يقول مثل هذا في دولاب تراه يدور ويسقي حديقة فيها شجر ونبات ؟ فترى كل شئ من آلته مقدرا بعضه يلقى بعضا على ما فيه صلاح تلك الحديقة وما فيها، وبم كان يثبت هذا القول لو قاله ؟ و ما ترى الناس كانوا قائلين له لو سمعوه منه،

If a speaker says, ‘This thing is co-incidental that it is happening like this’, so what prevents him the he should be saying the like of this in a cartwheel you see rotating and quenching a garden wherein are trees and vegetation? You see all things from a tool as measured, part of it meeting a part upon what therein is an interest for that garden and whatever is in it; and with what would he prove this word if he says it? And do you view that people would be saying to him if they hear from him.

أفينكر أن يقول في دولاب خشب مصنوع بحيلة قصيرة لمصلحة قطعة من الارض: إنه كان بلا صانع ومقدر، ويقدر أن يقول في هذا الدولاب الاعظم المخلوق بحكمة يقصر عنها أذهان البشر لصلاح جميع الارض وما عليها: إنه شئ اتفق أن يكون بلا صنعة ولا تدبير، لو اعتل هذا الفلك كما تعتل الآلات التي تتخذ للصناعات وغيرها أي شئ كان عند الناس من الحيلة في إصلاحه ؟.

Is he denying to be saying regarding the wooden cartwheel as being manufactured by small mean in a piece of the earth, ‘It is without a maker and a measurement’, and he is able to be saying regarding this great cartwheel Created with Wisdom, the minds of the mortals are limited from it for the interest of the entire earth and what is upon it, ‘It is a co-incidental thing and that it is happening without a maker or an arrangement’. If this orbit were to be suspended just as the as the tools are taken from the making and other such, which thing would be with the people, from the means, regarding its interests?

فكر يا مفضل في مقادير النهار والليل كيف وقعت على ما فيه صلاح هذا الخلق فصار منتهى كل واحد منهما إذا امتد إلى خمس عشرة ساعة لا يجاوز ذلك، أفرأيت لو كان النهار يكون مقداره مائة ساعة أو مائتي ساعة ألم يكن في ذلك بوار كل ما في الارض من حيوان ونبات ؟.

Think, O Mufazzal, regarding the measurements of the day and the night, how they occur upon what is therein an interest of this people, each one of them ends up, when it extends to fifteen hours, it does not exceed that. Do you see, if the measurement of the day was a hundred hours or two hundred hours, would there not happen to be a ruination in that of all what is in the earth, from animals and vegetation?

أما الحيوان فكان لا يهدأ ولا يقر طول المدة، ولا البهائم كانت تمسك عن الرعي لودام لها ضوء النهار، ولا الانسان كان يفتر عن العمل والحركة، وكان ذلك سيهلكها أجمع ويؤديها إلى التلف، وأما النبات فكان يطول عليه حر النهار ووهج الشمس حتى يجف ويحترق،

As for the animals, they would neither settle nor calm down for the prolonged duration, nor the beasts withheld from the pastures if the light of the day was perpetual on them, nor the human being would have stopped the work and the movement; and that would destroy them all and lead to the damage. And as for the vegetation, the heat of the day and the glare of the sun would be prolonged upon these until they would dry and burn up.

وكذلك الليل لو امتد مقدار هذه المدة كان يعوق أصناف الحيوان عن الحركة والتصرف في طلب المعاش حتى تموت جوعا، وتخمد الحرارة الطبيعية من النبات حتى يعفن ويفسد، كالذي تراه يحدث على النبات إذا كان في موضع لا تطلع عليه الشمس.

And similar to that is the night, if it is extended by a measurement of this period, would hamper the types of animals from moving and dispersing in seeking the livelihood until they would die of hunger. And the natural heat would be extinguished from the vegetation until they would decompose and decay, like that which you see occurring upon the vegetation when it was in a place upon which the sun does not shine.

اعتبر بهذه الحر والبرد كيف يتعاوران العالم ويتصرفان هذا التصرف من الزيادة والنقصان والاعتدال لاقامة هذه الازمنة الاربعة من السنة وما فيهما من المصالح ثم هما بعد دباغ الابدان التي عليها بقاؤها وفيها صلاحها فإنه لو لا الحر والبرد وتداولهما الابدان لفسدت وأخوت وانتكثت.

Consider this heat and cold how they are covering the world and they are both being utilised in this utilisation, from the increase and the decrease, and the moderation set up in these four seasons of the year and what is in these from the interests. Then these two, after tanning the bodies upon which is their survival; and in it is its interest, for if there was no heat or cold and the circulation of the bodies, these would spoil and fall down and be neglected.

فكر في دخول أحدهما على الآخر بهذا التدريج والترسل فإنك ترى أحدهما ينقص شيئا بعد شئ، والآخر يزيد مثل ذلك حتى ينتهي كل واحد منهما منتهاه في الزيادة والنقصان، ولو كان دخول إحديهما على الاخرى مفاجاة لاضر ذلك بالابدان وأسقمها كما أن أحدكم لو خرج من حمام حار إلى موضع البرودة لضره ذلك وأسقم بدنه

Think regarding of the entering of one upon the other with this arrangement and the gradualness, and you will see one of them reducing by something after something, and the other increasing the like of that until each one of them ends up to its end point in the increase and the reduction. And if the entry of one of them upon the other was sudden, that would harm the bodies and sicken them just as if one of you comes out from the bath heat to a cold place, that would be harmful and his body would become sick.

فلم جعل الله عزوجل هذا الترسل في الحر والبرد إلا للسلامة من ضرر المفاجاة ؟ ولم جرى الامر على ما فيه السلامة من ضر المفاجاة لولا التدبير في ذلك؟

So, why did Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic Make this gradualness in the heat and the cold except for the safety from the harm of the suddenness? And why did the matter flow upon what wherein is the safety from harm of the suddenness, if there was no arrangement in that?

فإن زعم زاعم أن هذا الترسل في دخول الحر والبرد إنما يكون لابطاء مسير الشمس في الارتفاع والانحطاط سئل عن العلة في إبطاء مسير الشمس في ارتفاعها وانحطاطها، فإن اعتل في الابطاء ببعد ما بين المشرقين سئل عن العلة في ذلك فلا تزال هذه المسألة ترقى معه إلى حيث رقى من هذا القول حتى استقر على العمد والتدبير،

If a claimer were to claim that this gradualness in the entry of the heat and the cold, rather happens to slow down the course of the sun in the rising, would be asked about the reason in the slowdown in the course of the sun in its rising and its declining. If there is a rise in the slow down with the remoteness of what is between the east and the west, would be asked about the reason regarding that. So, these questions would not cease to progress with it up to where there is preferable that this word, until it settles upon the deliberation and the arrangement.

لولا الحر لما كانت الثمار الجاسية المرة تنضج فتلين وتعذب حتى يتفكه بها رطبة ويابسة، ولولا البرد لما كان الزرع يفرخ هكذا، ويريع الريع الكثير الذي يتسع للقوت وما يرد في الارض للبذر

Had it not been for the heat, the bitter solid (unripen) fruits would not mature, so it softens and freshens until the wetness and the dryness disassociate with it. And had it not been for the cold, the plantations would not have germinated like this, and speed up the income a lot which is capacious for the strength, and what it provides in the land for the sowing.

أفلا ترى ما في الحر والبرد من عظيم الغناء والمنفعة وكلاهما مع غنائه والمنفعة فيه يولم الابدان ويمضها، وفي ذلك عبرة لمن فكر، ودلالة على أنه من تدبير الحكيم في مصلحة العالم وما فيه.

Do you not see what is in the heat and the cold, from the great abundance and the benefits, and each of these it with its abundance and the benefit in it, it (also) hurts the bodies and can burn these; and in that there is a lesson for one who thinks, and evidence upon that it is from an arrangement of the Wise in the interests of the world and whatever is in it.

وانبهك يا مفضل على الريح وما فيها ألست ترى ركودها إذا ركدت كيف يحدث الكرب الذي يكاد أن يأتي على النفوس، ويحرض الاصحاء وينهك المرضى، ويفسد الثمار، ويعفن البقول، ويعقب الوباء في الابدان، والآفة في الغلات ؟ ففي هذا بيان أن هبوب الريح من تدبير الحكيم في صلاح الخلق.

And wake yourself up, O Mufazzal, upon the wind and what is in it. Don’t you see its stagnation when it does stagnate, how the distress occurs which almost comes upon the breathing, and incites the healthy and weakens the sick, and spoils the fruits, and decays the vegetables, and followed by the plague in the bodies, and the pests in the harvests? In this, there is an explanation that the blowing of the wind is from an arrangement of the Wise One-azwj in the interests of the people.

وانبئك عن الهواء بخلة اخرى فإن الصوت أثر يؤثره اصطكاك الاجسام في الهواء، والهواء يؤديه إلى المسامع، والناس يتكلمون في حوائجهم ومعاملاتهم طول نهارهم وبعض ليلهم، فلو كان أثر هذا الكلام يبقى في الهواء كما يبقى الكتاب في القرطاس لامتلا العالم منه، فكان يكربهم ويفدحهم، وكانوا يحتاجون في تجديده والاستبدال به إلى أكثر مما يحتاج إليه في تجديد القراطيس لان ما يلقى من الكلام أكثر مما يكتب

And I-asws shall inform you about the air in another manner, for the sound is an effect, impacted by the friction of the bodies in the air, and the air delivers it to the ears, and the people are talking regarding their needs and their affairs the (entire) length of their day and some of their night. If the effect of this speech was to remain in the air just as the writing remain in the paper, the world would be filled from it, and it would have disturbed them and scared them, and they would have been needy to renewing it and the replacement with it to more than what it needed to in renewing the papers, because whatever one faces from the speech is more than what is written.

فجعل الخلاق الحكيم جل قدسه هذا الهواء قرطاسا خفيا يحمل الكلام ريثما يبلغ العالم حاجتهم ثم يمحى فيعود جديدا نقيا، ويحمل ما حمل أبدا بلا انقطاع، وحسبك بهذا النسيم المسمى ” هواء ” عبرة وما فيه من المصالح فانه حياة هذه الابدان والممسك لها من داخل بما تستنشق منه، ومن خارج بما تباشر من روحه، وفيه تطرد هذه الاصوات فيؤدي بها من البعد البعيد، وهو الحامل لهذه الاراييح ينقلها من موضع إلى موضع.

So, the Wise Creator, Majestic is His-azwj Holiness, Made this air as a hidden paper carrying the speech, awaiting delivery to the world of their needs, and it gets deleted and returns to be as new, clean, and it carries what it carries for ever without termination, and it should suffice you with this gentle breeze, the name ‘Hawa’ (air), as a lesson and what is therein from the interests, for the life of these bodies and the holder for these is from inside with what it inhales from it, and from outside with what it faces from its wind, and in which these voices are expelled and it (air) deposits these from the far distances, and it is the carrier of these smells, transferring it from a place to a place.

ألا ترى كيف تأتيك الرائحة من حيث تهب الريح فكذلك الصوت، وهو القابل لهذا الحر والبرد اللذين يتعاقبان على العالم لصلاحه، ومنه هذه الريح الهابة فالريح تروح عن الاجسام وتزجي السحاب من موضع إلى موضع ليعم نفعه حتى يستكثف فيمطر، وتفضه حتى يستخف فيتفشي، وتلقح الشجر، وتسير السفن، وترخي الاطعمة وتبرد الماء، وتشب النار، وتجفف الاشياء الندية، وبالجملة أنه تحيي كلما في الارض فلولا الريح لذوى النبات ومات الحيوان وحمت الاشياء وفسدت.

Do you not see how the smell comes to you from where the wind blows? Similar to that is the sound, and it is the acceptor of this heat and the cold, those which are alternating upon the world for its interest, and from it is the blowing of the wind. The wind blows away from the objects and evoke the cloud from a place to a place to benefit it, until it condenses and it rains, and it unfolds until it lightens and spreads, and trees fertilise, and the ships sail, and it releases the food, and the waters cool, and the fires are ignited, and the moist things dry up, and in summary, it revives all what is in the earth. Had it not been for the wind, the vegetation would wilt and the animals would die, and the things would decompose and spoil.

فكر يا مفضل فيما خلق الله عزوجل عليه هذه الجواهر الاربعة ليتسع ما يحتاج إليه منها، فمن ذلك سعة هذه الارض وامتدادها فلولا ذلك كيف كانت تتسع لمساكن الناس ومزارعهم ومراعيهم ومنابت أخشابهم وأحطابهم، والعقاقير العظيمة، والمعادن الجسمة غناؤها،

Think, O Mufazzal, regarding what Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic Created these four seasons to expand upon what is needed to from these. From that expansion is this earth and its spread. Had it not been that, how would it be capacious for the dwellings of the people and their farms and their pastures, and the growth of their timber and firewood, and the great real estates, and the mines of their minerals and their gems.

ولعل من ينكر هذه الفلوات الخاوية والقفار الموحشة فيقول: ما المنفعة فيها ؟ فهي مأوى هذه الوحوش ومحالها ومرعاها ثم فيها بعد متنفس ومضطرب للناس إذا احتاجوا إلى الاستبدال بأوطانهم، فكم بيداء وكم فدفد حالت قصورا وجنانا بانتقال الناس إليها وحلولهم فيها، ولولا سعة الارض وفسحتها لكان الناس كمن هو في حصار ضيق لا يجد مندوحة عن وطنه إذا حزبه أمر يضطره إلى الانتقال عنه.

And perhaps one would deny these empty voids and desolate wilderness, and he would be saying, ‘What is the benefit in these? These are a shelter for these wild beasts and their places and their pastures. Then, in these afterwards is an outlet and disturbance for the people when they are needy to change their homeland. So, many deserts, and how many wastelands became castles and gardens by the transfer of the people to it and their arrival in these. And had the earth not been capacious and open spaced, the people would be like one who is in a siege, restricted, not finding an option from his homeland, when a matter of a group makes him desperate to the transfer away from it.

ثم فكر في خلق هذه الارض على ما هي عليه حين خلقت راتبة راكنة فتكون موطنا مستقرا للاشياء فيتمكن الناس من السعي عليها في مأربهم، والجلوس عليها لراحتهم، والنوم لهدئهم، والاتقان لاعمالهم

Then think regarding the creation of this earth upon what it is upon, where it has been Created wet, static, so it would become a stable homeland for the things. The people are enabled from the capaciousness upon it in their purposes, and the sitting upon it for their rest, and the sleep for their calmness, and the workmanship for their works.

فإنها لو كانت رجراجة متكفئة لم يكونوا يستطيعون أن يتقنوا البناء والتجارة والصناعة وما أشبه ذلك، بل كانوا لا يتهنؤون بالعيش والارض ترتج من تحتهم،

So, if it had been shaking, reclining, they would not have been able to master the construction, and the trading, and the manufacturing, and what resembles that. But, they would not be enjoying the life while the ground was shaking beneath them.

واعتبر ذلك بما يصيب الناس حين الزلازل على قلة مكثها حتى يصيروا إلى ترك منازلهم والهرب عنها. فان قال قائل: فلم صارت هذه الارض تزلزل ؟ قيل له: إن الزلزلة وما أشبهها موعظة وترهيب يرهب بها الناس ليرعووا وينزعوا عن المعاصي،

And consider that with what hits the people where there is the earthquake for a little while, until they become leaving their houses and fleeing from these. If a speaker were to say, ‘Why did this earth come to be with the tremors?’ It would be said to him, ‘The earthquake and what resembles it is a preaching and an intimidation, the people being intimidated by it, to warn them and take them away from the acts of disobedience.

وكذلك ما ينزل بهم من البلاء في أبدانهم وأموالهم يجرى في التدبير على ما فيه صلاحهم واستقامتهم، ويدخر لهم إن صلحوا من الثواب والعوض في الآخرة ما لا يعدله شئ من امور الدنيا، وربما عجل ذلك في الدنيا إذا كان ذلك في الدنيا صلاحا للخاصة والعامة.

And like that is what descend with them from the affliction in their bodies and their wealth, flowing in the arrangement upon what therein is their correction and their integrity, and hoarding for them, if they correct themselves, the Rewards and the replacements in the Hereafter what nothing from the affairs of the world can be equated with; and sometimes hasten that in the world, when that was in the world a correction of the special ones and the general ones.

ثم إن الارض في طباعها الذي طبعها الله عليه باردة يابسة وكذلك الحجارة و إنما الفرق بينها وبين الحجارة فضل يبس في الحجارة، أفرأيت لو أن اليبس أفرط على الارض قليلا حتى تكون حجرا صلدا أكانت تنبت هذا النبات الذي به حياة الحيوان ؟ وكان يمكن بها حرث أو بناء ؟ أفلا ترى كيف تنصب من يبس الحجارة وجعلت على ما هي عليه من اللين والرخاوة ولتهيأ للاعتماد ؟.

Then, the earth, in its nature which Allah-azwj Natured it upon, is cold, dry, and like that are the rocks. But rather, the difference between it and the rock is the extra dryness in the rocks. Do you not see, if that dryness is overdone upon the earth a little until the rocks become rock solid, would the vegetation would grow with this growth by which is like of the animals? And would it have enabled a farm or a construction? Do you not see how the dryness is concentrated in the rock, and it has been Made what it is upon from the softness, and the laxity and the preparedness for the deliberation?

ومن تدبير الحكيم جل وعلا في خلقة الارض أن مهب الشمال أرفع من مهب الجنوب فلم جعل الله عزوجل كذلك إلا لينحدر المياه على وجه الارض فتسقيها و ترويها ؟ ثم تفيض آخر ذلك إلى البحر فكأنما يرفع أحد جانبي السطح ويخفض الآخر لينحدر الماء عنه ولا يقوم عليه كذلك جعل مهب الشمال أرفع من مهب الجنوب لهذه العلة بعينها، ولولا ذلك لبقي الماء متحيرا على وجه الارض فكان يمنع الناس من إعمالها ويقطع الطرق والمسالك،

And from the arrangement of the Wise, Majestic and Exalted, in the creation of the earth is that the northern side is higher than the south. Why did Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic Make it like that except for trickling the waters upon the surface of the earth to quench it and irrigate it? Then that overflows into the sea. It is as if one side of the roof is higher and the other is lower to trickle the water away from it and not to stand still upon it. Like that He-azwj Made the northern side to be higher than the southern side for this reason exactly. And had it not been that, the water would have remained confused upon the surface of the earth, and it would have prevented the people from their works, and cut off the roads and the pathways.

ثم الماء لولا كثرته وتدفقه في العيون والاودية و الانهار لضاق عما يحتاج الناس إليه لشربهم وشرب أنعامهم ومواشيهم، وسقي زروعهم وأشجارهم وأصناف غلاتهم، وشرب ما يرده من الوحوش والطير والسباع وتتقلب فيه الحيتان ودواب الماء،

Then, the water, had it not been for its abundance and its being dispelled into the rivers, and the valleys, it would have been constricted upon what the people are needy to, for their drinking, and the drinking of their cattle and their livestock, and quench their plants and their trees and types of their harvests; and the drinking of whatever comes to it from the wild animals, and the birds, and the predators, and the fishes and creatures of the water fluctuate in it.

وفيه منافع آخر أنت بها عارف وعن عظم موقعها غافل فإنه سوى الامر الجليل المعروف من غنائه في إحياء جميع ما على الارض من الحيوان والنبات يمزج بالاشربة فتلين وتطيب لشاربها، وبه تنظف الابدان والامتعة من الدرن الذي يغشاها، وبه يبل التراب فيصلح للاعتمال وبه يكف عادية النار إذا اضطرمت وأشرف الناس على المكروه، وبه يسيغ الغصان ما غص به، وبه يستحم المتعب الكال فيجد الراحة من أوصابه، إلى أشباه هذا من المآرب التي تعرف عظم موقعها في وقت الحاجة إليها.

And in it is another benefit. You know it, and about the greatness of its occurrence, you are heedless, for it is the same majestic matter, the well know from its abundance in reviving the entirety of what is upon the earth, from the animals and the vegetation mingling with the drinking, so it softens and becomes good for it to be drunk; and by it the bodies are cleaned, and the dead from the dust which engulfs it, and by it the soil humidifies and is correct for the utilisation, and by it the fire is doused (soaked) when it inflames and the people face upon its abhorrence, and by it the dyer dyes what he dyes with it, and by it the tired calf is bathed and finds the rest from its injuries, to the likes of this from the purposes which you recognised the greatness of its occurrence in the time of need to it.

فإن شككت في منفعة هذا الماء الكثير المتراكم في البحار وقلت: ما الارب فيه ؟ فاعلم أنه مكتنف ومضطرب ما لا يحصى: من أصناف السمك ودواب البحر، ومعدن اللؤلؤ والياقوت والعنبر، وأصناف شتى تستخرج من البحر، وفي سواحله منابت العود واليلنجوج، وضروب من الطيب والعقاقير،

So, if you were to doubt in the benefits of this abundant water accumulating in the ocean, and you say, ‘What is the purpose in it?’, then know that it is encompassed and turbulent with what cannot be counted, from the types of fish and creatures of the sea, and a mine of pearls and the sapphire and amber, and various types being extracted from the sea; and in its coasts grows the Oud and the driftwood, and a variety of the perfumes and the medicines.

ثم هو بعد مركب الناس ومحمل لهذه التجارات التي تجلب من البلدان البعيدة كمثل ما يجلب من الصين إلى العراق، ومن العراق إلى الصين فإن هذه التجارات لو لم يكن لها محمل إلا على الظهر لبارت وبقيت في بلدانها وأيدي أهلها لان أجر حملها كان يجاوز أثمانها فلا يتعرض أحد لحملها، وكان يجتمع في ذلك أمران: أحدهما فقد أشياء كثيرة تعظم الحاجة إليها، والآخر انقطاع معاش من يحملها ويتعيش بفضلها،

Then, after its composition by the people, and carried to these trades which are brought from distant cities, like what is brought from China to Iraq, and from Iraq to China, for these trades, if there had not been a carrier for it except upon the back, would have broken and remained in its city and in the hands of its people, because the wages of carrying it would have exceeded its cost, therefore no one would be exposed (agree) to carrying it. And two matters would have gathered in that – one of that is the loss of a lot of things maximising the need to it, and the other, cutting off the livelihood of the one carrying it and living by the grace of it.

وهكذا الهواء لولا كثرته وسعته لاختنق هذا الانام من الدخان والبخار التي يتحير فيه، ويعجز عما يحول إلى السحاب والضباب أولا اولا وقد تقدم من صفته ما فيه كفاية.

And similar to that is the air, if it had not been abundant, capacious, it would have choked the cattle from the smoke and the vapour which they would be hesitating in, and frustrated from what is turned into the cloud and the fog first of all, and there has preceded from its description what therein is sufficiency.

والنار أيضا كذلك فإنها لو كانت مبثوثة كالنسيم والماء كانت تحرق العالم وما فيه، ولم يكن بد من ظهورها في الاحايين لغنائها في كثير من المصالح فجعلت كالمخزونة في الاخشاب، تلتمس عند الحاجة إليها، وتمسك بالمادة والحطب ما احتيج إلى بقائها لئلا تخبو،

And the fire as well is like that, if it had been transmitted like the gentle breeze and the water, it would incinerate the world and whatever is in it, and it would not have been a must that it should appear in the two states of its abundance in many of the interests, so it was Made to be like the treasure inside the timber, sought during the need to it, and withheld with the essence and the firewood what is needed to is survival lest it freezes.

فلا هي تمسك بالمادة والحطب فتعظم المؤونة في ذلك، ولا هي تظهر مبثوثة فتحرق كل ما هي فيه بل هي على تهيئة وتقدير اجتمع فيها الاستمتاع بمنافعها والسلامة من ضررها.

Therefore, it is withheld with the essence and the firewood to magnify the assistance in that, and it is not transmitted so it would incinerate all what it is in, but it is upon a preparation and a measurement gathered in it the enjoyment of its benefits and the safety from its harm.

ثم فيه خلة اخرى وهي أنها مما خص به الانسان دون جميع الحيوان لما له فيها من المصلحة فإنه لو فقد النار لعظم ما يدخل عليه من الضرر في معاشه فأما البهائم فلا تستعمل النار ولا تستمتع بها، ولما قدر الله عزوجل أن يكون هذا هكذا خلق للانسان كفا وأصابع مهيأة لقدح النار واستعمالها، ولم يعط البهائم مثل ذلك لكنها اعينت بالصبر على الجفاء والخلل في المعاش لكيلا ينالها في فقد النار ما ينال الانسان.

Then, in it is another manner, and it is that it is from what the human being has been particularised with besides the entirety of the animals to what there is for him an interest in it, for if he loses the fire, it would be grievous what would enter upon him from the harm in his life. As for the animals, they do not utilise the fire not do they enjoy with it, and for what Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic had Determined that this happens like that. He-azwj Created for the human being, a palm and fingers prepared to ignite the fire and utilise it, and did not Give the animals the like of that, but these are assisted with the sight upon the staleness and the disturbance in the life, lest it comes upon them regarding the loss of the fire what would come upon the human being.

وانبئك من منافع النار على خلقة صغيرة عظيم موقعها، وهي هذا المصباح الذي يتخذه الناس فيقضون به حوائجهم ما شاؤوا من ليلهم، ولولا هذه الخلة لكان الناس تصرف أعمارهم بمنزلة من في القبور، فمن كان يستطيع أن يكتب أو يحفظ أو ينسج في ظلمة الليل ؟ وكيف كانت حال من عرض له وجع في وقت من أوقات الليل فاحتاج أن يعالج ضمادا، أو سفوفا أو شيئا يستشفي به ؟

And I-asws shall inform you of the benefits of the fire upon the small creation in a great place, and it is this lamp which the people take to and they are fulfilling their needs with it, whatever they so desire from their nights. And had it not been these characteristics, the people would have utilised their building at the status of the ones in the graves. So, who could have been able to write, or preserve, or weave in the darkness of the night? And how would have been the state of one exposed to a pain during a time from the times of the night, and is needy for the treatment of dressing, or (medicinal) powder, or something to be healed with?

فأما منافعها في نضج الاطعمة ودفاء الابدان وتجفيف أشياء وتحليل أشياء وأشباه ذلك فأكثر من أن تحصى وأظهر من أن تخفى.

So, as for its benefits in cooking the meals, and defending the bodies, and drying the things, and analysing the things, and the likes of that are more than can be counted, and (more) apparent that are hidden.

فكر يا مفضل في الصحو والمطر كيف يعتقبان على هذا العالم لما فيه صلاحه، ولودام واحد منهما عليه كان في ذلك فساده ألا ترى أن الامطار إذا توالت عفنت البقول والخضر، واسترخت أبدان الحيوان، وخصر الهواء فأحدث ضروبا من الامراض، وفسدت الطرق والمسالك،

Think, O Mufazzal, regarding the clear sky and the rain, how they follow each other upon this world to what therein is its interest, and if one of them lasted upon it, in that would have been its spoiling. Do you not see that the rains, when they are prolonged, the vegetables and the greenery rots away, and the bodies of the animals relax, and the air chills? New varieties of diseases occur, and the roads and the pathways are spoilt.

وأن الصحو إذا دام جفت الارض، واحترق النبات، وغيض ماء العيون والاودية فأضر ذلك بالناس، وغلب اليبس على الهواء فأحدث ضروبا اخرى من الامراض فإذا تعاقبا على العالم هذا التعاقب اعتدل الهواء ودفع كل واحد منهما عادية الآخر فصلحت الاشياء واستقامت.

And that the clear sky, if it was perpetual, the earth would dry up, and the water of the rivers and valleys would deplete, and that would be harmful with the people, and the dryness would overcome upon the air, and another variety of the disease would be created. So, when there is a follow upon the world of this follow up, the air would be moderate, and each one of the two would moderate the other, and the things would be correct and straightened.

فإن قال قائل: ولم لا يكون في شئ من ذلك مضرة ألبتة ؟ قيل له: ليمض ذلك الانسان ويولمه بعض الالم فيرعوي عن المعاصي، فكما أن الانسان إذا سقم بدنه احتاج إلى الادوية المرة البشعة ليقوم طباعه ويصلح ما فسد منه كذلك إذا طعى وأشر احتاج إلى ما يعضه ويولمه ليرعوي ويقصر عن مساويه ويثبته على ما فيه حظه ورشده،

If a speaker was to say, ‘And why does there no happen to be any harm in that anyhow?’ It would be said to him: ‘To run that human being and pain him with some of the pains, so he would be cautious of the acts of disobedience, just as the human being, when his body is sick, he is needy to the horrible bitter medicines so establish his health and correct whatever had spoilt from him, similar to that, when he is obedient and cheerful, he is need to what bites him and pains him to him to be cautious and fall short from his evil deeds and affirm him upon what therein is his share and his rightful guidance.

ولو أن ملكا من الملوك قسم في أهل مملكته قناطير من ذهب وفضة ألم يكن سيعظم عندهم ويذهب له به الصوت ؟ فأين هذا من مطرة رواء ؟ إذ يعمر به البلاد ويزيد في الغلات أكثر من قناطير الذهب والفضة في أقاليم الارض كلها.

And if a king from the kings was to distribute among the people of his kingdom containers of gold and silver, would he not be magnified in their presence and the voice would go for him due to it? So, where is this from abundant rains, when the cities are built and there is an increase in the yields, more than would be from container of the gold and the silver in all the regions of the earth?

أفلا ترى المطرة الواحدة ما أكبر قدرها وأعظم النعمة على الناس فيها وهم عنها ساهون ! وربما عاقت عن أحدهم حاجة لا قدر لها فيذمر ويسخط إيثارا للخسيس قدره على العظيم نفعه جهلا بمحمود العاقبة وقلة معرفة لعظيم الغناء والمنفعة فيها.

Do you not see the single rainfall, how great its measurement is and the great bounty upon the people in it, and they are heedless from it! And sometimes, one of them is in need, and there is no Ordainment for it, so he murmurs and is angered at the effects of the despicability of his Ordainment upon the great benefits of it he is ignorant of the consequences of Praised One-azwj, and scarcity of his understanding of the great yields and the benefits therein.

تأمل نزوله على الارض والتدبير في ذلك، فإنه جعل ينحدر عليها من علو ليتفشي ما غلظ وارتفع منها فيرويه، ولو كان إنما يأتيها من بعض نواحيها لما علا على المواضع المشرفة منها و يقل ما يزرع في الارض.

Contemplate its descent upon the earth and the arrangement in that, for He-azwj Made the descent upon it from the high parts to spread out whatever has thickened and raise from it so it would be irrigated. And if it had rather come to it from some of its sides, it would not have risen upon the places higher than it, and the cultivation would have been little in the earth.

ألا ترى أن الذي يزرع سيحا أقل من ذلك فالامطار هي التي تطبق الارض، وربما تزرع هذه البراري الواسعة وسفوح الجبال وذراها فتغل الغلة الكثيرة، وبها يسقط عن الناس في كثير من البلدان مؤونة سياق الماء من موضع إلى موضع، وما يجري في ذلك بينهم من التشاجر والتظالم حتى يستأثر بالماء ذووا العزة والقوة ويحرمه الضعفاء.

Do you not see that which is cultivated by the flow of water is less than that, for the rains, these are which stratify the ground, and sometimes these vast prairies are cultivated, and the mountains and its soils, so it produces a lot of yield, and by it hoard falls from the people in most of the cities by the quenching of the water from place to place; and whatever flows in that between them from the quarrels and grievances until they seize the water to be with the honour and the strength, and deprive the weak ones.

ثم إنه حين قدر أن ينحدر على الارض انحدارا جعل ذلك قطرا شبيها بالرش ليغور في قطر الارض فيرويها، ولو كان يسكبه انسكابا كان ينزل على وجه الارض فلا يغور فيها ثم كان يحطم الزرع القائمة إذا اندفق عليها فصار ينزل نزولا رقيقا فينبت الحب المزروع، ويحيي الارض والزرع القائم،

Then, when it was Ordained that it descend upon the earth with a descending, that drop was Made to resemble with a sprinkle in order to sing the drop in the earth and irrigate it. And if it had pouring with a pouring, it would have descended upon the surface of the earth, and would not have sunk in it, then it would have destroyed the existing plants when it had surged towards it. Thus, the descent became a thin descent so the sowed seeds would grow, and the ground would be revived and the plantations would stand.

وفي نزوله أيضا مصالح اخرى فإنه يلين الابدان، ويجلو كدر الهواء فيرتفع الوباء الحادث من ذلك، ويغسل ما يسقط على الشجر والزرع من الداء المسمى باليرقان، إلى اشباه هذا من المنافع.

And it its descent as well, there are other interest, for it softens the cities, and freshen and chill the air, and lifts the plague to occur from that, and washed whatever drops off from the tree and the plants, from the illnesses named as jaundice, to the likes of this from the benefits.

فإن قال قائل: أو ليس قد يكون منه في بعض السنين الضرر العظيم الكثير لشدة ما يقع منه أو برد يكون فيه تحطم الغلات وبخورة يحدثها في الهواء فيولد كثيرا من الامراض في الابدان والآفات في الغلات ؟ قيل: بلى قد يكون ذلك الفرط لما فيه من صلاح الانسان وكفه عن ركوب المعاصي والتمادي فيها فيكون المنفعة فيما يصلح له من دينه أرجح مما عسى أن يرزأ في ماله.

If a speaker says, ‘Or hasn’t it happened from it in some of the years, a lot of great harm due to the intensity of what occurs from it, or a cold in which the yields happen to be destroyed, or a vapour occurring in the air giving birth to a lot of diseases in the bodies and the affliction in the fields?’ it would be said: ‘Yes, that excess has happened to what is therein from the interest of the human beings, and restrain him from indulging in the acts of disobedience and the persisting in these. Therefore, the benefits happen to be in what is correct for him from his Religion, possibly from the difficulties in his wealth.

انظر يا مفضل إلى هذه الجبال المركومة من الطين والحجارة التي يحسبها الغافلون فضلا لا حاجة إليها، والمنافع فيها كثيرة: فمن ذلك أن يسقط عليها الثلوج فيبقى في قلالها لمن يحتاج إليه، ويذوب ما ذاب منه فتجري منه العيون الغزيرة التي تجتمع منها الانهار العظام، وينبت فيها ضروب من النبات والعقاقير التي لا ينبت مثلها في السهل،

Look, O Mufazzal, at these mountains, the collection of mud and rocks which the heedless ones reckon it has been an extra, there being no need to it, and the benefits in these are a lot. From that Is that the snow would fall upon it and would remain in its peaks for one who is needy to it, and would melt whatever melts from it, and the strong springs flow from it, and the great rivers are gathered from it, and a variety of the vegetation grows in it, and the medicine the likes of which does not grow in the coast.

ويكون فيها كهوف ومقايل للوحوش من السباع العادية ويتخذ منها الحصون والقلاع المنيعة للتحرز من الاعداء، وينحت منها الحجارة للبناء والارحاء، ويوجد فيها معادن لضروب من الجواهر، وفيها خلال اخرى لا يعرفها إلا المقدر في سابق علمه.

And there happen in these like dugouts and caves for the wild animals from the normal predators, and fortresses and forts are taken from these as a defence from the enemies, and carvings are taken from the rocks for the construction and the grinding mills, and it these are found to be mines of a variety of the gems, and therein are other uses which none understand except the Ordainer in the precedence of His-azwj Knowledge.

فكر يا مفضل في هذه المعادن وما يخرج منها من الجواهر المختلفة مثل الجص و الكلس والجبس والزرانيخ، والمرتك، والقونيا والزيبق، والنحاس، والرصاص، والفضة، والذهب، والزبرجد، والياقوت، والزمرد، وضروب الحجارة، وكذلك ما يخرج منها من القار، والموميا، والكبريت، والنفط، وغير ذلك مما يستعمله الناس في مأربهم،

Think, O Mufazzal, regarding these mines and what comes out from these from the difference gems, like the plaster, the lime, and the gypsum, and the arsenic, and the lead monoxide, and the zinc, and the mercury, and the copper, and the lead, and the silver, and the gold, and the rubies, and the sapphire, and the emeralds and a variety of the stones. And, similar to that is what comes out from these, from the asphalt, and the bitumen, and the sulphur, and the oil, and other than that from what the people utilise in their purposes.

فهل يخفى على ذي عقل بأن هذه كلها ذخائر ذخرت للانسان في هذه الارض ليستخرجها فيستعملها عند الحاجة إليها ؟

So, is it hidden upon the one with intellect that all these is a treasure hoarded for the human being in this earth for him to extract these and utilise during the need to it?

ثم قصرت حيلة الناس عما حاولو من صنعتها على حرصهم واجتهادهم في ذلك فإنهم لو ظفروا بما حاولوا من هذا العلم كان لا محالة سيظهر ويستفيض في العالم حتى تكثر الذهب والفضة ويسقطا عند الناس فلا يكون لهما قيمة ويبطل الانتفاع بهما في الشرى والبيع والمعاملات، ولا كان يجيئ السلطان الاموال، ولا يدخرهما أحد للاعقاب،

Then the stunts of the people from what they are deploying from its making, upon their greed and their struggle in that, for they, if they were to be victorious with what they are deploying from this world, it would be inevitable that they be victorious and succeed in the world until the gold and the silver is abundant and fall in the presence of the people. Then there would not be any valued to these two and it would invalidate the benefits with these in buying and selling and the dealings, nor would the ruling authority come with the wealth, nor would anyone hoard these for the posterity.

وقد اعطي الناس مع هذا صنعة الشبه من النحاس والزجاج من الرمل، والفضة من الرصاص، والذهب من الفضة، وأشباه ذلك مما لا مضرة فيه. فانظر كيف اعطوا إرادتهم فيما لا ضرر فيه، ومنعوا ذلك فيما كان ضارا لهم لو نالوه، ومن أوغل في المعادن انتهى إلى واد عظيم يجري منصلتا بماء غزير، لا يدرك غوره ولا حيلة في عبوره ومن ورائه أمثال الجبال من الفضة.

And the people have been Given along with this, a resemblance of the copper and the glass from the sand, and the silver from the lead, and the gold from the silver, and like that from what there is no harm in it. Therefore, look at how they have been Given their wants in what there is no harm, and Prevented that in what there would have been harm for them it they had been Given it, and from the yields in the mines ending up to a great valley flowing incessantly with abundant water, and he does not realise any way or trick in crossing it, and from behind it are the likes of the mountains of silver.

تفكر الآن في هذا من تدبير الخالق الحكيم فإنه أراد جل ثناؤه أن يرى العباد قدرته وسعة خزائنه، ليعلموا أنه لو شاء أن يمنحهم كالجبال من الفضة لفعل، لكن لا صلاح لهم في ذلك، لانه لو كان فيكون فيها كما ذكرنا سقوط هذا الجوهر عند الناس وقلة انتفاعهم به،

Think now, regarding this from the arrangement of the Wise Creator, for He-azwj, Majestic is His-azwj Praise Intended to Show the servants His-azwj Power and the vastness of His-azwj treasures, for them to know that He-azwj, if He-azwj so Desires to Award them with the likes of mountains of silver, He-azwj can do so, but that would not be an any interest for them in that, because if it was to happen regarding these just as we-asws mentioned, this substance would fall in the presence of the people and there would be little of their benefits with it.

واعتبر ذلك بأنه قد يظهر الشئ الطريف مما يحدثه الناس من الاواني و الامتعة فما دام عزيزا قليلا فهو نفيس جليل آخذ الثمن فإذا فشا وكثر في أيدي الناس سقط عندهم وخست قيمته، ونفاسة الاشياء من عزتها.

And consider that, the things which appear as odd, from what the people innovate from the pots and the luggage, so as long as it is scarce, it would be precious, great in taking the price. But, when it is widespread and abundant in the hands of the people, its price drops in their presence and declines, and the preciousness of the things is from their esteem.

فكر يا مفضل: في هذا النبات وما فيه من ضروب المآرب، فالثمار للغذاء، و الاتبان للعلف، والحطب للوقود، والخشب لكل شئ من أنواع النجارة وغيرها، و اللحاء والورق والاصول والعروق والصموغ لضروب من المنافع.

Think, O Mufazzal, regarding this vegetation and what is therein from the variety of the purposes. The fruits are for the provision, and the fodder is for the feeds (of animals), and the firewood is for the igniting, and the timber is for everything from the types of carpentry etc. and the bark and the leaves and the roots and the gums are for a variety of benefits.

أرأيت لو كنا نجد الثمار التي نغتذي بها مجموعة على وجه الارض ولم تكن تنبت على هذه الاغصان الحاملة لها كم كان يدخل علينا من الخلل في معاشنا وإن كان الغذاء موجودا فإن المنافع بالخشب والحطب والاتبان وسائر ما عددناه كثيرة، عظيم قدرها، جليل موقعها، هذا مع ما في النبات من التلذذ بحسن منظره ونضارته التي لا يعد لها شئ من مناظر العالم وملاهيه.

What is your view, if we were to find the fruits which we feed with collected upon the surface of the earth, and did not happen to grow upon these branches laden with it, how much disturbance would have entered upon us in our lives, and even though the provision was existing, for the benefits of the timber and the firewood and the gums, and the rest of what is with us, is a lot, great is its worth, and abundant is its occurrence. This is with what is in the vegetation from the pleasure with the beauty of its looks and scenery which nothing can be enumerated to it from the scenes of the world and its entertainment.

فكر يا مفضل: في هذا الريع الذي جعل في الزرع فصارت الحبة الواحدة تخلف مائة حبة وأكثر وأقل، وكان يجوز أن يكون الحبة تأتي بمثلها فلم صارت تريع هذا الريع إلا ليكون في الغلة متسع لما يرد في الارض من البذر، وما يتقوت الزراع إلى إدراك زرعها المستقبل ؟.

Think, O Mufazzal, regarding this crop which is made to be in the farm, so the one seed becomes leaving behind one hundred seeds, and more, and less. And would it be allowed that the seed should happen to come with the like of it? So, why did a yield of this crop come to be except for it to happen in abundance for what is wanted in the land from the sowing, and what would the farmers be growing to realise their crops for the next (harvest)?

ألا ترى أن الملك لو أراد عمارة بلد من البلدان كان السبيل في ذلك أن يعطي أهله ما يبذرونه في أرضهم، وما يقوتهم إلى إدراك زرعهم فانظر كيف تجد هذا المثال قد تقدم في تدبير الحكيم فصار الزرع يريع هذا الريع ليفي بما يحتاج إليه للقوت والزراعة،

Do you not see that the king, if he wanted to build a city from the cities, the way is that would be that he gives its people what they would be sowing in their lands, and what they would be planting to realise their harvests? Therefore, look at how you find this example which has preceded regarding the arrangement of the Wise One-azwj. The plantation yields this crop to fulfil what is needed to it for the sowing and the cultivation.

و كذلك الشجر والنبت والنخل يريع الريع الكثير فإنك ترى الاصل الواحد حوله من فراخه أمرا عظيما، فلم كان كذلك إلا ليكون فيه ما يقطعه الناس ويستعملونه في مأربهم وما يرد فيغرس في الارض ؟ ولو كان الاصل منه يبقى منفردا لا يفرخ ولا يريع لما أمكن أن يقطع منه شئ لعمل ولا لغرس، ثم كان إن أصابته آفة انقطع أصله فلم يكن منه خلف.

And similar to that is the tree, and the sprout, and the palm tree yielding a lot of crop, and you will see the one source around it from its siblings, a great matter. Why was it like that except for it to happen in it what the people would cut it out and use it in their purposes and whatever is wanted, so it would be grown in the land? If the root from it had remain individually, not sprouting nor growing, it would be enabled at something be cut out from it for a work, nor for planting, then it would be so that if an affliction would hit him, he would cut out its root, but there would be no replacement of it.

تأمل نبات هذه الحبوب من العدس والماش والباقلا وما أشبه ذلك فإنها تخرج في أوعية مثل الخرائط لتصونها وتحجبها من الآفات إلى أن تشد وتستحكم كما قد تكون المشيمة على الجنين لهذا المعنى بعينه،

Contemplate on the growth of these grains, from the lentils, and the green beans, and the broad beans and what resembles that, for these come out in a container like the leaves in order to fortify these and veil these from the afflictions, until it is stronger and upright just as what is happening in the life of the foetus, for this meaning exactly.

فأما البر وما أشبهه فإنه يخرج مدرجا في قشور صلاب على رؤوسها مثال الاسنة من السنبل ليمنع الطير منه ليتوفر على الزراع.

As for the land and what resembles it, it comes out layered in a solid crust upon their head like the teeth, from the ear (of corn), to prevent the bird from it, to be devoted upon the cultivation.

فإن قال قائل: أو ليس قد ينال الطير من البر والحبوب ؟ قيل له: بلى على هذا قدر الامر فيها لان الطير خلق من خلق الله وقد جعل الله تبارك وتعالى له فيما تخرج الارض حظا، ولكن حضنت الحبوب بهذه الحجب لئلا يتمكن الطير منها كل التمكن فيعبث فيها ويفسد الفساد الفاحش فإن الطير لو صادف الحب بارزا ليس عليه شئ يحول دونه لاكب عليه حتى ينسفه أصلا

If a speaker was to say, ‘Or hasn’t the bird attained from the land and the grains?’ It would be said to him: ‘Yes, upon this Ordainment there is the Command in it, because the bird is a creature from the creatures of Allah-azwj, and Allah-azwj Blessed and Exalted has Made a share to be for it in what the earth brings forth, but the grains have been incubated with these veils lest the bird is enabled from it with all ability, so it play in it and spoil the spoiling of the immoral ones, for if the bird were to come to the grain which was prominent, there being nothing upon it or around it to prevent it, it would leap upon it until it breaks its twig.

فكان يعرض من ذلك أن يبشم الطير فيموت، ويخرج الزراع من زرعه صفرا فجعلت عليه هذه الوقايات لتصونه فينال الطائر منه شيئا يسيرا يتقوت به، ويبقى أكثره للانسان فإنه أولى به إذ كان هو الذي كدح فيه وشقي به، وكان الذي يحتاج إليه أكثر مما يحتاج إليه الطير.

The exposure from that is that the bird would fall silent and it would die, and the farmers would come out from their plantation with zero. Thus, these coasters had been Made to be upon it to fortify it, so the bird would only attain something small from it and live by it, and most of it would remain for the human being, for he is the foremost with it, when he is the one who toiled in it and worked with it, and he would be the one more needy to it that what the bird would be needy to.

تأمل الحكمة في خلق الشجر وأصناف النبات فإنها لما كانت تحتاج إلى الغذاء الدائم كحاجة الحيوان ولم يكن لها أفواه كأفواه الحيوان ولا حركة تنبعث بها لتناول الغذاء جعلت أصولها مركوزة في الارض لتنزع منها الغذاء فتؤديه إلى الاغصان وما عليها من الورق والثمر

Contemplate on the wisdom in the creation of the tree and the types of growth, for these, when they are need to the perpetual provision, like the need of the animal, and there does not happen to be a mouth for it like the mouths of the animals, nor any movement to take with it to attain the provision, its roots have been Made to be affirmed in the ground to snatch the provision from it, and deliver it to the branches, and whatever is upon it from the leaves and the fruits.

فصارت الارض كالام المربية لها، وصارت اصولها التي هي كالافواه ملتقمة للارض لتنزع منها الغذاء كما يرضع أصناف الحيوان امهاتها.

Thus, the ground became like a mother nourishing it, and its roots became like its mouths squeezing the ground to snatch the provision from it, just as various animals breastfeed from their mothers.

ألا ترى إلى عمد الفساطيط والخيم كيف تمد بالاطناب من كل جانب لتثبت منتصبة فلا تسقط ولا تميل فهكذا تجد النبات كله له عروق منتشرة في الارض ممتدة إلى كل جانب لتمسكه وتقيمه، ولولا ذلك كيف كان يثبت هذا النخل الطوال والدوح العظام في الريح العاصف،

Do you not look at the pillars of the pavilions and the tents how it is extended with the ropes from every side to affirm its standing, and it neither falls down nor does it lean? And this is how you find the growth, all of it having scattered veins (roots) in the ground extending to every side to hold it and stand it upright. And had it not been that, how would that this tall palm tree and the great trunk, been stabilised in the stormy wind?

فانظر إلى حكمة الخلقة كيف سبقت حكمة الصناعة فصارت الحيلة التي تستعملها الصناع في ثبات الفساطيط والخيم متقدمة في خلق الشجر لان خلق الشجر قبل صنعة الفساطيط والخيم ألا ترى عمدها وعيدانها من الشجر ؟ فالصناعة مأخوذة من الخلقة.

Look at the Wisdom of the creation, how it precedes the wisdom of the making, so the means which are utilised in the making in affirmed the pavilions and the tents, have been preceded in the creation of the tree, because the creation of the tree is before the making of the pavilions and the tents. Do you not see its pillar and its rods from the tree? The making is taken from the creation.

تأمل يا مفضل خلق الورق فإنك ترى في الورقة شبه العروق مبثوثة فيها أجمع فمنها غلاظ ممتدة في طولها وعرضها، ومنها دقاق تتخلل الغلاظ منسوجة نسجا دقيقا معجما لو كان مما يصنع بالايدي كصنعة البشر لما فرغ من ورق شجرة واحدة في عام كامل، ولاحتيج إلى آلات وحركة وعلاج وكلام

Contemplate, O Mufazzal, on the creation of the leaves, and you will see in the leaf resembling the veins transmitted in it collectively. From these are thick ones extended in its length and width, and from these are thin ones permeating the things ones with a precise weakling collectively. If this had been made with hands like the making of a mortal, he would not have been free from a single leaf of a tree in one complete year, and he would be needy to tools, and movement, and treatment, and speech.

فصار يأتي منه في أيام قلائل من الربيع ما يملا الجبال والسهل وبقاع الارض كلها بلا حركة ولا كلام إلا بالارادة النافذة في كل شئ والامر المطاع.

And it has become coming from Him-azwj, in a few days from the spring what fills the mountains, and the coasts, and spots of the earth, all of them without a movement, nor a speech, except by the Will being implemented in all things and the Command being obeyed.

واعرف مع ذلك العلة في تلك العروق الدقاق فإنها جعلت تتخلل الورقة بأسرها لتسقيها وتوصل الماء إليها بمنزلة العروق المبثوثة في البدن لتوصل الغذاء إلى كل جزء منها

And recognise, along with that, the reason regarding those thin leaves, for these had been Made to be within the leaf being captive by it, in order to quench it and deliver the water to it, being at the status of the veins transmitting in the body to deliver the food to every part of it.

وفي الغلاظ منها معنى آخر فإنها تمسك الورقة بصلابتها ومتانتها لئلا تنهتك وتتمزق فترى الورقة شبيهة بورقة معمولة بالصنعة من خرق قد جعلت فيها عيدان ممدودة في طولها وعرضها لتتماسك فلا تضطرب فالصناعة تحكي الخلقة وإن كانت لا تدركها على الحقيقة.

And in the thick ones from these, there is another meaning, for the leaf is attached with its solidity and its robustness lest it wilts and ruptures. So, you see the leaf resembling a paper made with the making from perforations, and there has been Made in these supporting pillars in its length and its width to adhere, and it does not waver. The making tells of the creation and even if you do not realise it upon the reality.

فكر في هذا العجم والنوى والعلة فيه فإنه جعل في جوف الثمرة ليقوم مقام الغرس إن عاق دون الغرس عائق، كما يحرز الشئ النفيس الذي تعظم الحاجة إليه في مواضع آخر،

Think, O Mufazzal, regarding the seeds and the cores, and the reason in it, for it has been Made to be in the inside of the fruit to be standing in place of the sowing, being a hindrance besides the sowing hindrance, just as one safeguards the valuable thing which is of a greater need to in another place.

فإن حدث على الذي في بعض المواضع منه حادث وجد في موضع آخر، ثم بعد يمسك بصلابته رخاوة الثمار ورقتها، ولولا ذلك لتشدخت وتفسخت وأسرع إليه الفساد، وبعضه يؤكل ويستخرج دهنه فيستعمل منه ضروب من المصالح، وقد تبين لك موضع الارب في العجم والنوى.

So, if there occurs an event in some of the places from it, it would be found in another place, then afterwards, it would adhere with its robustness, the softness of the fruits and their leaves. And, had it not been that, it would have broken and decayed and the spoiling would be quick to it. And some of it is eaten and its oil is extracted and utilised from it in various of the interests. And it has been explained to you the subject of the purposed in the seeds and the cores.

فكر الآن في هذا الذي تجده فوق النواة من الرطبة وفوق العجم من العنبة فما العلة فيه ؟ ولماذا يخرج في هذه الهيئة ؟ وقد كان يمكن أن يكون مكان ذلك ما ليس فيه مأكل كمثل ما يكون في السرو والدلب وما أشبه ذلك، فلم صار يخرج فوقه هذه المطاعم اللذيذة إلا ليستمتع بها الانسان ؟.

Think now, regarding this, which you find to be above the core of the date, and above the seed of the grape, what is the reason in it? And for what has it come out in this shape? And is has happened that it would happen to be in that place where there isn’t any eating, like what happens in the cypress and the sycamore, and what resembles that. Why did it come to be coming out above these tasty foods except for the human being to enjoy with it?

فكر في ضروب من التدبير في الشجر فإنك تراه يموت في كل سنة موتة، فيحتبس الحرارة الغريزية في عوده ويتولد فيه مواد الثمار ثم تحيى وتنتشر فتأتيك بهذه الفواكه نوعا بعد نوع كما تقدم إليك أنواع الاطبخة التي تعالج بالايدي واحدا بعد واحد،

Think regarding a variety of the arrangements in the tree, and you will see it dying a death during every year, and it withholds the precious heat in its wood and the materials of the fruits are born in it, then it revives and scatters and comes to you with these fruits, a type after a type, just as is brought to you types of cuisines which are treated by the hands, one after another.

فترى الاغصان في الشجر تتلقاك ثمارها حتى كأنها تناولكها عن يد، وترى الرياحين تلقاك في أفنانها كأنها تجيئك بأنفسها، فلمن هذا التقدير إلا لمقدر حكيم ؟ وما العلة فيه إلا تفكية الانسان بهذه الثمار والانوار ؟ والعجب من اناس جعلوا مكان الشكر على النعمة جحود المنعم بها !.

And you see the branches in the tree giving you its fruits until as if it is giving to you from a hand. And you see the basil meeting you in its branch as if it is coming to you by itself. From whom is this Determination except the Wise Determinater? And what is the reason in it except the satisfaction of the human being with these fruits and the lights? And the wonder from a people who are making a place of the thanks upon the bounty, regarding the Bestower with it!

اعتبر بخلق الرمانة وما ترى فيها من أثر العمد والتدبير فإنك ترى فيها كأمثال التلال من شحم مركوم في نواحيها، وحبا مرصوفا رصفا كنحو ما ينضد بالايدي وترى الحب مقسوما أقساما، وكل قسم منها ملفوفا بلفائف من حجب منسوجة أعجب النسج وألطفه، وقشره يضم ذلك كله،

Consider the creation of the pomegranate and you see in it from the effects of the deliberation and the arrangement, and you will see in it like the small hills of lubricant heaped up in its areas, and the seed are lined up in shelves like what the hands compose, and you see the seeds distributed in section, and every section from it is enveloped with an enveloping of veils woven with wondrous weaving and subtlety, and its crust conjoins the whole of it.

فمن التدبير في هذه الصنعة أنه لم يكن يجوز أن يكون حشو الرمانة من الحب وحده، وذلك أن الحب لا يمد بعضه بعضا فجعل ذلك الشحم خلال الحب ليمده بالغذاء، ألا ترى أن اصول الحب مركوزة في ذلك الشحم ؟ ثم لف بتلك اللفائف لتضمه وتمسكه فلا يضطرب، وغشي فوق ذلك بالقشرة المستحصفة ليصونه ويحصنه من الآفات،

So, from the arrangement of this making is that it is not allowed to have the pomegranate filled with the seeds alone, and that is because the seed do not extend part of it to a part, so that lining has been Made in the midst of the seeds to extend the nourishment to it. Do you not see that the root of the seed is connected in the lining? Then these are wrapped with that wrapping to embrace it and hold it, so it does get disturbed, and there is a covering above that of the pure crust to fortify it and protect is from the calamities.

فهذا قليل من كثير وهي وصف الرمانة وفيه أكثر من هذا لمن أراد الاطناب والتذرع في الكلام، ولكن فيما ذكرت لك كفاية في الدلالة والاعتبار.

So, this is a little from a lot, and it is a description of the pomegranate, and in it is more than this for one who wants the enlargement and the assertion in the speech, but in what I-asws mentioned to you is sufficient regarding the evidence and the lesson.

فكر يا مفضل في حمل اليقطين الضعيف مثل هذه الثمار الثقيلة من الدباء والقثاء والبطيخ، وما في ذلك من التدبير والحكمة فإنه حين قدر أن يحتمل مثل هذه الثمار جعل نباته منبسطا على الارض، ولو كان ينتصب قائما كما ينتصب الزرع والشجر لما استطاع أن يحمل مثل هذه الثمار الثقيلة، ولينقصف قبل إدراكها وانتهائها إلى غايتها.

Think, O Mufazzal, regarding weak carrying the pumpkin like these heavy fruits, like the gourd, and the cucumbers, and the melons, and what is in that from the arrangement and the wisdom, for when it is Determined that it has to carry the like of these fruits, its growth is Made to be flat upon the ground; and had it been standing upright just as the plants and the trees, it would not have been able to carry the like of these heavy fruits, and would break before it matures and ends up to its peak.

فانظر كيف صار يمتد على وجه الارض ليلقى عليها ثمارها فتحملها عنه فترى الاصل من القرع والبطيخ مفترشا للارض، ثماره مبثوثة عليها وحواليه كأنه هرة ممتدة وقد اكتنفتها أجراؤها لترضع منها.

Look how it came to be extended upon the surface of the earth to cast its fruit upon it and it bears it, and you see the root of the pumpkin and the melon resting on the ground and its fruit lying upon it and around it as if it is a cat stretching out, and its vines are conducted to suckle these.

وانظر كيف صارت الاصناف توافي في الوقت المشاكل لها من حمارة الصيف، ووقدة الحر فتلقاها النفوس بانشراح وتشوق إليها، ولو كانت توافي في الشتاء لوافقت من الناس كراهة لها واقشعرارا منها مع ما يكون فيها من المضرة للابدان.

Look at how the various types are co-incidental regarding the timing of these from the summer heat, and the power of the heat so it meets the souls which long for it. And if it had been co-incidental with the winter, it would have coincided with the abhorrence from the people towards it, and the most precious from it is what would happen during it from the illnesses of the bodies.

ألا ترى أنه ربما أدرك شئ من الخيار في الشتاء فيمتنع الناس من أكله إلا الشره الذي لا يمتنع من أكل ما يضره وليستوخم مغبته.

Do you not see, that sometimes one would come across something from the good in the winter, but the people are prevented from eating it, except for the evil which does not prevent one from eating what harms him, it would be his stupidity.

فكريا مفضل في النخل فإنه لما صار فيه اناث يحتاج إلى التلقيح  جعلت فيه ذكورة للقاح من غير غراس فصار الذكر من النخل بمنزلة الذكر من الحيوان الذي يلقح الاناث لتحمل وهو لا يحمل.

Think, O Mufazzal, regarding the palm tree, for when there comes to be a female in it, would be in need to the pollination, there is made to be a male in it for the pollination from without a plant, and the male of the palm tree came to be at the status of the male from the animals which impregnate the female to become pregnant while he does not become pregnant.

تأمل خلقة الجذع كيف هو فإنك تراه كالمنسوج نسجا من غير خيوط ممدودة كالسدى واخرى معه معترضة كاللحمة كنحو ما ينسج بالايدي، وذلك ليشتد و يصلب ولا ينقصف من حمل القنوان الثقلية، وهز الرياح العواصب إذا صار نخلة، و ليتهيأ للسقوف والجسور وغير ذلك مما يتخذ منه إذا صار جذعا،

Contemplate, O Mufazzal, on the creation of the trunk (of the palm tree), how it is, and you will see it like the woven fabric from without a thread spread out like the cell, and another with it cross-tied like the sideways, approximate to what is woven by the hands, and that is to tighten and solidify, and would not break from carrying the heavy bunch, and being shaken by the stormy wind when it comes to the palm tree, and to prepare it for the roofs and the bridges and other than that from what is taken from it, when it becomes a trunk.

وكذلك ترى الخشب مثل النسج فإنك ترى بعضه مداخلا بعضا طولا وعرضا كتداخل أجزاء اللحم، وفيه مع ذلك متانة ليصلح لما يتخذ منه من الآلات فإنه لو كان مستحصفا كالحجارة لم يمكن أن يستعمل في السقوف وغير ذك مما يستعمل فيه الخشبة كالابواب والاسرة والتوابيت وما أشبه ذلك.

And similar to that you see the timber like the woven, and you will see part of it inside its length and its width like the insertion of a body part of the flesh, and in it, along with that, durability for an interest of what is taken from it from the tools, for if it had been solid like the rocks, it would not have been possible to utilise it in the roofs and other such from what the timber is used it, like the doors, and the house, and the coffins, and what resembles that.

ومن جسيم المصالح في الخشب أنه يطفو على الماء فكل الناس يعرف هذا منه وليس كلهم يعرف جلالة الامر فيه، فلولا هذه الخلة كيف كانت هذه السفن والاظراف تحمل أمثال الجبال من الحمولة، وأنى كان ينال الناس هذا الوفق وخفة المؤونة في حمل التجارات من بلد إلى بلد ؟ وكانت تعظم المؤونة عليهم في حملها حتى يلقى كثير مما يحتاج إليه في بعض البلدان مفقودا أصلا أو عسرا وجوده.

And from great interest in the timber, it floats upon the water, and all the people recognise this from it, and all of them don’t recognise the majesty of the matter in it. If it had not been for this property, how would these ships and the glass carry the likes of the mountain from the loads, and the people could have attained this conformity and lightness, and comfort in carrying the trades from a city to a city? And the greatest assistance upon them is in carrying it until they come across a lot from what is needed to it in one of the cities, where it is already missing or difficult to find.

فكر في هذه العقاقير وما خص بها كل واحد منها من العمل في بعض الادواء فهذا يغور في المفاصل فيستخرج الفضول الغليظة مثل الشيطرج، وهذا ينزف المرة السوداء مثل الافتيمون، وهذا ينفي الرياح مثل السكبينج، وهذا يحلل الاورام وأشباه هذا من أفعالها فمن جعل هذه القوى فيها إلا من خلقها للمنفعة ؟

Think regarding these medicines and what has been specialised with each one of these, from the working is one of the cures. So, this depression in the joints, it takes out the thick waste like the herb ‘Al-Sheytraj’, and this detoxifies the gall bladder like the (herb) ‘Al-Efteymoun’, and this negates the wind like the (herb) ‘Al-Sakbinj’, and this reduce the swelling and the likes of this from its deeds. So, Who Made this strength in these except One-azwj Who Created it for the benefits?

ومن فطن الناس بها إلا من جعل هذا فيها ؟ ومتى كان يوقف على هذا منها بالعرض والاتفاق كما قال قائلون ؟ وهب الانسان فطن لهذه الاشياء بذهنه ولطيف رويته وتجاربه فالبهائم كيف فطنت لها ؟ حتى صار بعض السباع يتداوى من جراحه إن أصابته ببعض العقاقير فيبرأ، وبعض الطير يحتقن من الحصر يصيبه بماء البحر فيسلم، وأشباه هذا كثير.

And Who is conscious of the people with it, except One-azwj Who Made this to be in it? And when would one pause upon this from it with the objection, and (claim) the perfection as the speakers are saying? The human being has been Gifted the cleverness for these things with his mind, and the subtleness of his seeing, and experimentation, but how is the discernment of the animals to it until one of the lions would treat itself from its injuries if being hit, with some of the medicines, and it is cured? And some of the bird is saved from the injury by pouring with the water of the sea, so it is safe? And the likes of this are many.

ولعلك تشكك في هذا النبات النابت في الصحاري والبراري حيث لا انس ولا أنيس فتظن أنه فضل لا حاجة إليه وليس كذلك بل هو طعم لهذه الوحوش، وحبه علف للطير، وعوده و أفنانه حطب فيستعمله الناس، وفيه بعد أشياء تعالج به الابدان، واخرى تدبغ به الجلود واخرى تصبغ به الامتعة، وأشباه هذا من المصالح.

And perhaps you doubt in these plants growing in the deserts and the prairies, where there is neither any people nor any companions, so you think that it is a waste, there being no need to it. And it isn’t like that, but it is a food for these wild animals, and its seeds are a feed for the birds, and its stalks and its branches are firewood, and the people utilise these. And in it, afterwards, are things to heal the bodies with, and another to tan the skins with, and another to dye the luggage with, and the likes of this from the interests.

ألست تعلم أن أخس النبات وأحقره هذا البردي وما أشبهها، ففيها مع هذا من ضروب المنافع فقد يتخذ من البردي القراطيس التي يحتاج إليها الملوك والسوقة، والحصر التي يستعملها كل صنف من الناس، وليعمل منه الغلف التي يوقى بها الاواني، ويجعل حشوا بين الظروف في الاسفاط لكيلا تعيب وتنكسر، وأشباه هذا من المنافع

Don’t you know that the worst plant and its most despicable is this papyrus and what resembles it, and in these, along with this are a variety of benefits. The paper is taken from the papyrus which the kings and the ordinary people are needy to, and the mat which every type of the people utilises, and the glazing is made from this, which seals the pottery; and the filling is made to be between the gaps in the bowls lest they crack or break, and the likes of this from the benefits.

فاعتبر بما ترى من ضروب المآرب في صغير الخلق وكبيره وبماله قيمة ومالا قيمة له، وأخس من هذا وأحقره الزبل والعذرة التي اجتمعت فيها الخساسة والنجاسة معا، وموقعها من الزروع والبقول والخضر أجمع الموقع الذي لا يعد له شئ حتى أن كل شئ من الخضر لا يصلح ولا يزكو إلا بالزبل والسماد الذي يستقذره الناس و يكرهون الدنو منه،

Therefore, take a lesson with what you see from a variety of the purposes in small creatures and its big ones, and with what there is a value for it and what has no value to it, and the worst from this and its most despicable is the droop and the excreta in which are gathered the nastiness and the filthiness both together, and its place from the cultivation and the legumes and the greenery (as fertiliser), and the gathering place to which nothing would return to it, to the extent that all things from the crops would not be healthy nor pure except by the waste and the fertiliser which the people find revolting and are abhorring to go near it.

واعلم أنه ليس منزلة الشئ على حسب قيمته، بل هما قيمتان مختلفتان بسوقين، وربما كان الخسيس في سوق المكتسب نفيسا في سوق العلم فلا تستصغر العبرة في الشئ لصغر قيمته، فلو فطنوا طالبوا الكيميا لما في العذرة لاشتروها بأنفس الاثمان وغالوا بها.

And know that the status of the thins isn’t upon its price, but these are two different prices in two markets, and sometimes the rubbish in a market for earning would be invaluable in a market of knowledge, therefore do not belittle the lesson in anything due to the smallness of its price, for it they are clever, they would seek the chemicals what is in the excreta and buy it with a high price and make it even more expensive.

قال المفضل: وحان وقت الزوال فقام مولاي إلى الصلاة وقال: بكر إلي غدا إن شاء الله، فانصرفت وقد تضاعف سروري بما عرفنيه مبتهجا بما آتانيه، حامدا لله على ما منحنيه فبت ليلتي مسرورا.

Al-Mufazzal said, ‘And the time of midday arrived, so my Master-asws arose to (perform) the Salat and said: ‘Come early tomorrow, if Allah-azwj so Desires’. So, I left and my joy had multiplied with what he-asws had made me understand, glad with what I had been given, praising to Allah-azwj upon what I been inclined to’.

المجلس الرابع: قال المفضل: فلما كان اليوم الرابع بكرت إلى مولاى فاستوذن لي فأمرني بالجلوس فجلست،

The fourth gathering – Al-Mufazzal said, ‘So, when it was the fourth day, I went early to my Master-asws, and he-asws permitted for me and instructed me with the sitting, so I sat down.

فقال عليه السلام: منا التحميد والتسبيح والتعظيم والتقديس للاسم الاقدم، والنور الاعظم العلي العلام، ذي الجلال والاكرام، ومنشئ الانام، ومفتي العوالم والدهور، وصاحب السر المستور والغيب المحظور، والاسم المخزون والعلم المكنون،

He-asws said: ‘From us-asws is the Praise, and the Glorification, and the Magnification, and the Extolling Holiness for the most ancient Name, and the Magnificent Light, the Exalted, the Lofty, with the Majesty and the Honour, and Creator of the people, and Mufti (Fatwa issuer) of the world and the eras, and Master of the hidden secrets and the forbidden hidden matters, and the Treasured Name and the hidden Knowledge.

وصلواته وبركاته على مبلغ وحيه، ومؤدي رسالته، الذي ابتعثه بشيرا ونذيرا، وداعيا إلى الله بإذنه وسراجا منيرا ليهلك من هلك عن بينة ويحيى من حي عن بينة،

And His-azwj Salawaat and His-azwj Blessings be upon the deliverer of His-azwj Revelation, and the conductor of His-azwj Message, Sent as a giver of glad tidings and as a warner, and a caller to Allah-azwj by His-azwj Permission, and a radiant light to destroy the one destroyed from a proof, and revive the one who lives from a proof.

فعليه وعلى آله من بارئه الصلوات الطيبات والتحيات الزاكيات الناميات، وعليه وعليهم السلام والرحمة والبركات في الماضين والغابرين أبد الآبدين ودهر الداهرين وهم أهله ومستحقه.

So, upon him-saww and upon his-saww Progeny-asws, from his-saww Creator be the goodly Salawaat, the compliments, the Purified caretakers, and upon him-saww and upon them-asws be the greetings, and the Mercy, and the Blessings, among the past ones, and the ancient ones, for ever and ever, and ages and ages, and they-asws are his-saww rightful family-asws.

قد شرحت لك يا مفضل من الادلة على الخلق والشواهد على صواب التدبير والعمد في الانسان والحيوان والنبات والشجر وغير ذلك ما فيه عبرة لمن اعتبر، وأنا أشرح لك الآن الآفات الحادثة في بعض الازمان التي اتخذها اناس من الجهال ذريعة إلى جحود الخالق والخلق والعمد والتدبير،

I-asws have expounded (illustrated) for you, O Mufazzal, from the evidence upon the creation and the testimonies upon the correctness of the arrangements, and the deliberation in the human being, and the animal, and the vegetation, and the tree and other than that, what is there in a lesson for one who considers, and now I-asws shall expound for you the calamities occurring in some of the eras which the people have taken it, out of ignorance, an excuse to reject the Creator, and the creation, and the deliberation, and the arrangement.

وما أنكرت المعطلة والمنانية من المكاره والمصائب وما أنكروه من الموت والفناء، وما قاله أصحاب الطبائع، ومن زعم أن كون الاشياء بالعرض والاتفاق ليتسع ذلك القول في الرد عليهم، قاتلهم الله أنى يؤفكون ؟.

And what can the suspended old religious philosophers deny from the abhorrences, and the calamities, and what can they deny from the death, and the perishing, and what the companions (claiming) nature are saying, and ones who claim that the existence of the things being with the display, and the perfection, to widen that word in the rebuttal upon them May Allah Fight them! How deluded they are [9:30].

اتخذ اناس من الجهال هذه الآفات الحادثة في بعض الازمان كمثل الوباء و اليرقان والبرد والجراد ذريعة إلى جحود الخلق والتدبير والخالق، فيقال في جواب ذلك: إنه إن لم يكن خالق ومدبر فلم لا يكون ما هو أكثر من هذا وأفظع ؟ فمن ذلك أن يسقط السماء على الارض، وتهوي الارض فتذهب سفلا، وتتخلف الشمس عن الطلوع أصلا، وتجف الانهار والعيون حتى لا يوجد ماء للشفة، وتركد الريح حتى تحم الاشياء وتفسد، ويفيض ماء البحر على الارض فيغرقها.

The people, out of ignorance, took these calamities occurring in some of the eras like the plague, and the jaundice, and the cold, and the locusts, as an excuse to rejecting the creation, and the arrangement, and the Creator. It would be said in answer to that: ‘If there does not happen to be a Creator, then why these do not happen more frequently than this and more terrible?’ From that is the falling of the sky upon the earth, and the perishing of the earth and going lower, and the delaying of the emergence of the sun from emerging originally, and drying up of the rivers and the springs until water cannot be found for the lips, and stalling of the winds until the things stagnate and spoil, and the overflowing of the water of the seas upon the ground, and drowning it.

ثم هذه الآفات التي ذكرناها من الوباء والجراد وما أشبه ذلك ما بالها لا تدوم وتمتد حتى تجتاح كل ما في العالم ؟ بل تحدث في الاحايين، ثم لا تلبث أن ترفع ؟

Then, these calamities, which we-asws mentioned, from the plagues, and the locusts and what resembles that, what is the matter they don’t last and extend until they sweep across all what is in the world? But, these occur among the living beings, then they do not remain, and arise?

أفلا ترى أن العالم يصان ويحفظ من تلك الاحداث الجليلة التي لو حدث عليه شئ منها كان فيه بواره، ويلذع أحيانا بهذه الآفات اليسيرة لتأديب الناس وتقويمهم، ثم لا تدوم هذه الآفات بل تكشف عنهم عند القنوط منهم فتكون وقوعها بهم موعظة وكشفها عنهم رحمة.

Do you not see that the world is maintained and protected from these abundant occurrences which if it were to occur upon a thing from these, there would be there in its ruination, and our lives are stung with these calamities by only a little, (this is in order) to discipline the people, and their correction? Then, these calamities do not last, but these are removed from them during the despair from them, for their occurrence with them to become a preaching, and their removal from them, a Mercy.

وقد أنكرت المعطلة ما أنكرت المنانية من المكاره والمصائب التي تصيب الناس، فكلاهما يقول: إن كان للعالم خالق رؤوف رحيم فلم يحدث فيه هذه الامور المكروهة ؟ والقائل بهذا القول يذهب به إلى أنه ينبغي أن يكون عيش الانسان في هذه الدنيا صافيا من كل كدر،

The stubborn old religious philosophers denied what they denied of the abhorrence’s and the calamities which hit the people, and all of them are saying, ‘If there is a Creator for the world, Kind, Merciful, then whey does He-azwj Occur in it these abhorrent matters?’ And the speaker with this word is going with it to that it is befitting that there happens to be life of the human being in this world clear from every distress.

ولو كان هكذا كان الانسان سيخرج من الاشر والعتو إلى ما لا يصلح في دين ودنيا كالذي ترى كثيرا من المترفين ومن نشأ في الجدة والامن يخرجون إليه حتى أن أحدهم ينسى أنه بشر أو أنه مربوب أو أن ضررا يمسه، أو أن مكروها ينزل به، أو أنه يجب عليه أن يرحم ضعيفا أو يواسي فقيرا. أو يرثي لمبتلى أو يتحنن على ضعيف، أو يتعطف على مكروب،

And had it been like that, the human being would have come out from being care-free and arrogance to what is not correct in Religion and world like the one you see many of the rich ones grown up in luxury and the security coming out to, until one of them forgets that he is a mortal, or he is a servant (nor a Lord), or if a harm may touch him, or an abhorrence might descend with him, or it is Obligatory upon him that he mercies a weak one, or consoles a poor one, or laments to an afflicted one, or show affection to a weak one, or be helpful to a distressed one.

فإذا عضته المكاره ووجد مضضها اتعظ وأبصر كثيرا مما كان جهله وغفل عنه، ورجع إلى كثير مما كان يجب عليه، و المنكرون لهذه الامور الموذية بمنزلة الصبيان الذين يذمون الادوية المرة البشعة، ويتسخطون من المنع من الاطعمة الضارة، ويتكرهون الادب والعمل، ويحبون أن يتفرغوا للهو والبطالة،

So, when the abhorrence bites him, and he feels its bite, he takes a preaching and sees a lot of what he had been ignorance of and heedless from, and returns to a lot of what had been Obligated upon him. And the deniers of these matters are at the status of the children who destroy the bitter, horrible medication, and get angry at being prevented from harmful foods, and they are abhorring the discipline and the work, and they are loving it if they could be freed for the playing and the idleness.

وينالوا كل مطعم ومشرب، ولا يعرفون ما تؤديهم إليه البطالة من سوء النشوء والعادة وما تعقبهم الاطعمة اللذيذه الضارة من الادواء والاسقام، وما لهم في الادب من الصلاح، وفي الادوية من المنفعة وإن شاب ذلك بعض الكراهة.

And, they are taking every food and drink, and they are not understanding what the idleness is leading them towards, from the evil growth and habits, and what are the consequence of the tasty (but) harmful foods, from the diseases and the illnesses, and for is for them in the discipline from the correction, and in the medication from the benefits, even if some of that is mixed with the abhorrence.

فإن قالوا: ولم لم يكن الانسان معصوما من المساوي حتى لا يحتاج إلى أن يلذعه بهذه المكاره ؟ قيل: إذا كان يكون غير محمود على حسنة يأتيها ولا مستحق للثواب عليها.

If they say, ‘And why did the human being not be infallible from the evil until he would not be needy to be stung by these abhorrence’s?’ It would be said: ‘When it was so, he would not happen to be praiseworthy upon a good deed he does, nor deserving of the Rewards upon these’.

فإن قالوا: وما كان يضره أن لا يكون محمودا على الحسنات مستحقا للثواب بعد أن يصير إلى غاية النعيم واللذة ؟ قيل لهم: اعرضوا على امرء صحيح الجسم والعقل أن يجلس منعما ويكفى كل ما يحتاج إليه بلا سعي ولا استحقاق، فانظر هل تقبل نفسه ذلك ؟

If they say, ‘And what was the harm if he did not happen to be praiseworthy upon the good deeds, deserving of the Rewards, after he had come to be upon a peak of the bliss and the pleasures?’

It would be said to them, ‘You are objecting upon a person of healthy body and it tells that he sits favoured and sufficed with all what he is needy to without any striving nor being deserving, then look, is that accepted to his self?

بل ستجدونه بالقليل مما يناله بالسعي والحركة أشد اغتباطا وسرورا منه بالكثير مما يناله بغير الاستحقاق، وكذلك نعيم الآخرة أيضا يكمل لاهله بأن ينالوه بالسعي فيه والاستحقاق له

But, you will be finding him with a little from what he attains with the striving and the movement, of intense worth and joy from him, from what he attains without being deserving. And, similar to that are the Bounties of the Hereafter as well, being perfect for its rightful ones if they attain it with the striving with regards to it, and being deserving of it.

فالنعمة على الانسان في هذا الباب مضاعفة، بأن اعد له الثواب الجزيل على سعيه في هذه الدنيا، وجعل له السبيل إلى أن ينال بسعي واستحقاق فيكمل له السرور والاغتباط بما يناله منه.

The Bounty upon the human being in this matter is a multiple, if the plentiful Rewards are counted for him upon his striving in this world, and there has been Made the way for him to attain with striving and being deserved, so that the joy and the worth would be perfect for him with what he would attain from it.

فإن قالوا: أو ليس قد يكون من الناس من يركن إلى ما نال من خير وإن كان لا يستحقه: فما الحجة في منع من رضي أن ينال نعيم الآخرة على هذه الجملة ؟

If they say, ‘Or isn’t it so that there has happened to be from the people, one who inclines to what he attains from the good, and even if he was not deserving of it? So, what is the argument in preventing one who is pleased to attain the Bounties of the Hereafter in this manner?’

قيل لهم: إن هذا باب لو صح للناس لخرجوا إلى غاية الكلب والضرا