‘Fitna’ (Strife) in the Land

Summary:

The political wrangling, persistence of pressure groups and provocation of religious leaders, leads to unrest and demonstrations. Believers are tempted to get involved with the hope that their situation is going to improve, but the results inevitably lead to disappointment.  It is difficult to remain aloof as there are endless local or international disturbances taking place which are further compounded by biased media coverage and ‘fake news’. Hence, Momineen are called to join in debates and processions to register their views, for example, by holding banners and placards or participating in long ‘sit-ins’ outside the premises of an authority. Once involved, emotions take over and we come out in large numbers to such a call. These mostly remain peaceful but may turn ugly, with pushing and shoving, and even resulting in the arrests of out-of-control participants.  The long-term campaigns run underground and persistently incite and brainwash believers, driving them to take-up arms which may ruin their entire lives and to a point of no return.

A Momin has to judge these calls very carefully and save himself/herself from being carried away by the social disturbances which die down after a while, before they regret their involvement.  In Islam, it is termed as ‘Fitna’ and its initiators as ‘people of Fitna’! We have been cautioned to stay away from such involvements – as Ahadith say: during the Grand Occultation[1] ‘all flags raised prior to the reappearance of the 12th Imam-ajfj will be that of Tyrants.

عَنْهُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ الْمُخْتَارِ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ: كُلُّ رَايَةٍ تُرْفَعُ قَبْلَ قِيَامِ الْقَائِمِ فَصَاحِبُهَا طَاغُوتٌ‏ يُعْبَدُ مِنْ‏ دُونِ‏ اللَّهِ‏ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ.

Muhammad Bin Yaqoub, from Muhammad Bin Yahya, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad, from Al Husayn Bin Saeed, from hamaad Ibn Isa, from Al Husayn Bin Al Mukhtar, from Abu Baseer, from;

Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘Every flag which is raised before the rising of Al-Qaim-ajfj, so its owner is a tyrant who worships besides Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic’.[2]

Also,

الغيبة للنعماني عَبْدُ الْوَاحِدِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ رَبَاحٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْعَبَّاسِ‏ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ مَالِكِ بْنِ أَعْيَنَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع أَنَّهُ قَالَ: كُلُّ رَايَةٍ تُرْفَعُ قَبْلَ رَايَةِ الْقَائِمِ ع صَاحِبُهَا طَاغُوتٌ‏.

(The book) ‘Al Ghayba’ of Al Numani – Abdul Wahid Bin Abdullah, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Rabah, from Muhammad Bin Al Abbas, from Al Hassan Bin Abu Hamza, from his father, from Malik Bin Ayn,

‘From Abu Ja’far-asws having said: ‘Every flag raised before flag of Al-Qaimasws, its owner is a tyrant’’.[3]

Are there any signs for the coming out of the flags of guidance which we are commanded to follow? Yes, we have been foretold in several Ahadith, see Appendix I.

We come to our topic ‘Fitna’. A person during a sermon, interrupted Amir ul-Momineen-asws and asked, how to recognise Fitna?

قَالَ إِنَّ الْفِتْنَةَ إِذَا أَقْبَلَتْ شَبَّهَتْ وَ إِذَا أَدْبَرَتِ اسْتَقَرَّتْ يُشْبِهْنَ مُقْبِلَاتٍ وَ يُعْرَفْنَ مُدْبِرَاتٍ إِنَّ الْفِتَنَ تَحُومُ كَالرِّيَاحِ يُصِبْنَ بَلَداً وَ يُخْطِئْنَ أُخْرَى أَلَا إِنَّ أَخْوَفَ الْفِتَنِ عِنْدِي عَلَيْكُمْ فِتْنَةُ بَنِي أُمَيَّةَ إِنَّهَا فِتْنَةٌ عَمْيَاءُ مُظْلِمَةٌ مُطَيَّنَةٌ عَمَّتْ فِتْنَتُهَا وَ خَصَّتْ بَلِيَّتُهَا وَ أَصَابَ الْبَلَاءُ مَنْ أَبْصَرَ فِيهَا وَ أَخْطَأَ الْبَلَاءُ مَنْ عَمِيَ عَنْهَا

Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws said: ‘The Fitna, when it comes, it’s suspicious (confuses one), and when it turns around (retreats), it settle-downs the suspicious being faced (by the people and doubts are removed), and it’s turning around is recognised (its affliction becomes clearly visible). The Fitna hovers like the winds hitting a city but missing another (town – as it affects certain areas more than the others). [4]

When Fitna mongers are told not to stir up the Fitna! In response, they say but we are only correcting and improving the matters, as Allah-azwj Points out to their mischief in the Holy Quran:

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لَا تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُصْلِحُونَ {11} أَلَا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْمُفْسِدُونَ وَلَٰكِنْ لَا يَشْعُرُونَ {12}

And when it is said to them, Do not make mischief (Fitna) in the land, they say: But rather, we are the reconcilers (rather making peace) [2:11] Indeed! They themselves are the mischief makers, but they are not recognising (it – the Fitna they are creating) [2:12]

. عن أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام قال: إنّ الله تبارك وتعالى يُعذّب ستّةً بستّةٍ: العرب بالعصبيّة، والدهاقنة بالكِبْر، والأُمراء بالجور، والفقهاء بالحسد، والتُجّار بالخيانة، وأهل الرستاق بالجهل.

Ameer-ul-Momineen-asws said: “Allah-azwj the Almighty will Punish six groups of people: 1- Arabs for racism, 2- The headmen, or chiefs of a village or town for haughtiness, 3- Rulers for oppression, 4- Jurisprudents for jealousy, 5- Businessmen for cheating, 6- Villagers for ignorance.”[5]

Amir ul-Momineen Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws foretells the severity of the Fitna hitting the Muslims due to them being far away from the true teaching of Islam:

وَ قَالَ ع‏ يَأْتِي عَلَى النَّاسِ زَمَانٌ لَا يَبْقَى فِيهِمْ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ إِلَّا رَسْمُهُ وَ مِنَ الْإِسْلَامِ إِلَّا اسْمُهُ وَ مَسَاجِدُهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَامِرَةٌ مِنَ الْبِنَاءِ خَرَابٌ مِنَ الْهُدَى سُكَّانُهَا وَ عُمَّارُهَا شَرُّ أَهْلِ الْأَرْضِ مِنْهُمْ تَخْرُجُ الْفِتْنَةُ وَ إِلَيْهِمْ تَأْوِي الْخَطِيئَةُ

And he-asws said: ‘There shall come a time upon the people, there will not remain among them, from the Quran except its ritual, and from Al-Islam except its name. Their Masjids in those days would be built up of the construction, in ruins of the guidance, and its dwellers and its religious ones would be the evilest of the people of the earth. The Fitna would come out from them and to them will the sins shelter.

يَرُدُّونَ مَنْ شَذَّ عَنْهَا فِيهَا وَ يَسُوقُونَ مَنْ تَأَخَّرَ عَنْهَا إِلَيْهَا يَقُولُ اللَّهُ سُبْحَانَهُ فَبِي حَلَفْتُ لَأَبْعَثَنَّ عَلَى أُولَئِكَ فِتْنَةً [أَتْرُكُ‏] تَتْرُكُ الْحَلِيمَ فِيهَا حَيْرَانَ وَ قَدْ فَعَلَ وَ نَحْنُ نَسْتَقِيلُ اللَّهَ عَثْرَةَ الْغَفْلَةِ

They will return the one who turns away from it, to it, and they would usher the one staying back from it, to it. Allah-azwj the Glorious Says: “I-azwj Swear by Myself-azwj! I-saww shall Send such Fitna upon them, it will leave the wise ones to be confused during it!” And He-azwj will Do so, and we seek Pardon of Allah-azwj for the stumbles of neglect’’[6]

قَالَ ع‏ كُنْ فِي الْفِتْنَةِ كَابْنِ اللَّبُونِ‏ لَا ظَهْرٌ فَيُرْكَبَ وَ لَا ضَرْعٌ فَيُحْلَبَ‏

‘He-asws (Amir ul Momineen-asws) said: ‘During the Fitna (discord) be like the young camel, neither a back for the riding nor an udder to be milked’’. [7]

Finally, it’s impossible to avert being engulfed in one or another form of Fitna, as Amir ul-Momineen-asws says:

وَ قَالَ ع‏ لَا يَقُولَنَّ أَحَدُكُمْ اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْفِتْنَةِ لِأَنَّهُ لَيْسَ أَحَدٌ إِلَّا وَ هُوَ مُشْتَمِلٌ عَلَى فِتْنَةٍ وَ لَكِنْ مَنِ‏ اسْتَعَاذَ فَلْيَسْتَعِذْ مِنْ مُضِلَّاتِ الْفِتَنِ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ سُبْحَانَهُ يَقُولُ- وَ اعْلَمُوا أَنَّما أَمْوالُكُمْ وَ أَوْلادُكُمْ فِتْنَةٌ

And he-asws said: ‘Not one of you should say, ‘O Allah-azwj! I seek Refuge with You-azwj from the Fitna’, because there isn’t anyone except and he is included in the Fitna, but one who (wants to) seek Refuge, let him seek Refuge from the dilemmas (problems) of the Fitna, for Allah-azwj the Glorious Says: And know that rather your wealth and your children are a Fitna (strife), and that Allah, with Him is a Mighty Recompense [8:28].

وَ مَعْنَى ذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ [سُبْحَانَهُ يَخْتَبِرُ عِبَادَهُ‏] يَخْتَبِرُهُمْ بِالْأَمْوَالِ وَ الْأَوْلَادِ لِيَتَبَيَّنَ السَّاخِطَ لِرِزْقِهِ وَ الرَّاضِيَ بِقِسْمِهِ وَ إِنْ كَانَ سُبْحَانَهُ أَعْلَمَ بِهِمْ مِنْ أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَ لَكِنْ لِتَظْهَرَ الْأَفْعَالُ الَّتِي بِهَا يُسْتَحَقُّ الثَّوَابُ وَ الْعِقَابُ لِأَنَّ بَعْضَهُمْ يُحِبُّ الذُّكُورَ وَ يَكْرَهُ الْإِنَاثَ وَ بَعْضَهُمْ يُحِبُّ تَثْمِيرَ الْمَالِ‏ * وَ يَكْرَهُ انْثِلَامَ الْحَالِ‏

‘And the meaning of that is that He-azwj Tests His-azwj servants with the wealth and the children in order to clarify the one who is dissatisfied with His-azwj sustenance and the one satisfied with His‑azwj Apportionment, and even though He-azwj the Glorious is more Knowing with them than they are themselves, but to Reveal the deeds by which the Rewards and the Punishments are deserved, because some of them love the male (children) and dislike the females, and some of them love amassing the wealth and dislike the state of (financial) adversity’’.[8]

Introduction:

Allah-azwj does not Like Fitna (strife) and has Commanded to stay away from Fitna and its people, e.g., in the Holy Quran.

وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ كُلُّهُ لِلَّهِ ۚ فَإِنِ انْتَهَوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ {398:}

And fight them until Fitna (strife) does not happen and the Religion, all of it happens to be for Allah. So, if they desist, then Allah Sees what they are doing [8:39]

وَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَوْلَاكُمْ ۚ نِعْمَ الْمَوْلَىٰ وَنِعْمَ النَّصِيرُ {408:}

And if they turn back, then know that Allah is your Guardian; the most excellent is the Guardian and is the most excellent the Helper [8:40]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أُذَيْنَةَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عليه السلام) قَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ قاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّى لا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَ يَكُونَ الدِّينُ كُلُّهُ لِلَّهِ

Ali Bin Ibrahim, from his father, from Ibn Abu Uneyr Bin Azina, from Muhammad Bin Muslim who said:

I said to Abu Ja’far-asws, ‘The Words of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic: And fight them until Fitna (strife) does not happen and the Religion, all of it happens to be for Allah [8:39]’.

فَقَالَ لَمْ يَجِئْ تَأْوِيلُ هَذِهِ الْآيَةِ بَعْدُ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ (صلى الله عليه وآله) رَخَّصَ لَهُمْ لِحَاجَتِهِ وَ حَاجَةِ أَصْحَابِهِ فَلَوْ قَدْ جَاءَ تَأْوِيلُهَا لَمْ يَقْبَلْ مِنْهُمْ لَكِنَّهُمْ يُقْتَلُونَ حَتَّى يُوَحَّدَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ حَتَّى لَا يَكُونَ شِرْكٌ.

So, he-asws said: ‘The explanation of this Verse has not come yet. Rasool Allah-saww allowed them (the non-Muslims) for his-saww need and the needs of his-saww companions. So, if its explanation had already come, he-saww would not have accepted (Jaziya) from them[9], but they would have been fought until they had professed the Tawheed of Allah-azwj mighty and Majestic, and until association (Shirk) would not have existed’.[10]

How Fitna (Strife) begins

عنه، عن الحسن بن علي بن فضال، عن عاصم بن حميد، عن محمد بن مسلم، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام، قال: خطب أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام الناس فقال: أيها الناس إنما بدء وقوع الفتن أهواء تتبع، وأحكام تبتدع، يخالف فيها كلام الله، يقلد فيها رجال رجالا، ولو أن الباطل خلص لم يخف على ذي حجى، ولو أن الحق خلص لم يكن اختلاف، ولكن يؤخذ من هذا ضغث ومن هذا ضغث فيمزجان فيجيئان معا، فهنالك استحوذ الشيطان على أوليائه، ونجا الذين سبقت لهم من الله الحسنى

From him, from Al Hassan Bin Ali Bin Fazaal, from Aasim Bin Hameed, from Muhammad Bin Muslim, from;

Abu Ja’far-asws narrates that ‘Amir-Al-Momineen-asws addressed the people: ‘O you people! But rather, the beginning of the occurrence of the Fitna (Strife) is from the following of the desires, and rulings which have been innovated (heretic), in which the Speech of Allah-azwj is opposed, in which a man emulates (does Taqleed)[11] of a man. And if the falsehood was pure, the one with arguments would not fear it; and if the Truth was pure, there would be no differing. But, they take a handful of this, and a handful of that, so they mix up the two and come with these two. So it is over that, the Satan-la enchains his-la friends, those for whom the goodness has preceded from Allah-azwj attain salvation (21:101)’.[12]

People get confused during Fitna:

كِتَابُ الْغَارَاتِ، لِإِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الثَّقَفِيِّ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ أَبَانٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْغَفَّارِ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ عَنِ الْمَنْصُورِ بْنِ عُمَرَ عَنْ زِرِّ بْنِ حُبَيْشٍ‏ وَ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ عِمْرَانَ بْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى عَنِ الْمِنْهَالِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو عَنْ زِرِّ بْنِ حُبَيْشٍ قَالَ: خَطَبَ عَلِيٌّ ع بِالنَّهْرَوَانِ فَحَمِدَ اللَّهَ وَ أَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ أَمَّا بَعْدُ أَنَا فَقَأْتُ عَيْنَ الْفِتْنَةِ لَمْ يَكُنْ أَحَدٌ لِيَجْتَرِئَ عَلَيْهَا غَيْرِيs

Kitab Al Gharaat of Ibrahim Bin Muhammad Al Saqafy, from Ismail Bin Aban, from Abdul Gaffar Bin al Qasim, from Al Mansour Bin Umar, from Zirr Bin Hubeysh, and from Ahmad Bin Imran Bin Abu Layli, from his father, from Ibn Abu layli, from Al Minhal Bin Amro, from Zirr Bin Hubeysh who said,

‘Ali-asws addressed at Al-Nahrawan. He-asws praised Allah-azwj and extolled upon Him-azwj, then said: ‘O you people! As for after, I-asws have blinded an eye of the Fitna. There does not happen to be anyone courageous upon it apart from me-asws!’

فَقَامَ إِلَيْهِ رَجُلٌ آخَرُ فَقَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ حَدِّثْنَا عَنِ الْفِتَنِ

Another man stood up to him, he said, ‘O Amir Al-Momineen-asws! Narrate to us about the Fitna’.

قَالَ إِنَّ الْفِتْنَةَ إِذَا أَقْبَلَتْ شَبَّهَتْ وَ إِذَا أَدْبَرَتِ اسْتَقَرَّتْ يُشْبِهْنَ مُقْبِلَاتٍ وَ يُعْرَفْنَ مُدْبِرَاتٍ إِنَّ الْفِتَنَ تَحُومُ كَالرِّيَاحِ يُصِبْنَ بَلَداً وَ يُخْطِئْنَ أُخْرَى أَلَا إِنَّ أَخْوَفَ الْفِتَنِ عِنْدِي عَلَيْكُمْ فِتْنَةُ بَنِي أُمَيَّةَ إِنَّهَا فِتْنَةٌ عَمْيَاءُ مُظْلِمَةٌ مُطَيَّنَةٌ عَمَّتْ فِتْنَتُهَا وَ خَصَّتْ بَلِيَّتُهَا وَ أَصَابَ الْبَلَاءُ مَنْ أَبْصَرَ فِيهَا وَ أَخْطَأَ الْبَلَاءُ مَنْ عَمِيَ عَنْهَا

He-asws said: ‘The Fitna, when it comes, it’s suspicious (confuses one), and when it turns around, it settles the suspicious being faced (so doubt is removed), and it’s turning around is recognised (its affliction becomes clearly visible). The Fitna hovers like the winds hitting a city but missing another (town).

Indeed! The scariest of the Fitna upon you in my-asws presence is the Fitna of the clan of Umayya. It is a blinding Fitna of widespread darkness. Its Fitna is general and its affliction is particular, and the affliction will hit the one who (remains) insightful during it, and the affliction would miss the one who is blind (shields) from it.

يَظْهَرُ أَهْلُ بَاطِلِهَا عَلَى أَهْلِ حَقِّهَا حَتَّى تُمْلَأَ الْأَرْضُ عُدْوَاناً وَ ظُلْماً وَ بِدَعاً أَلَا وَ إِنَّ أَوَّلَ مَنْ يَضَعُ جَبَرُوتَهَا وَ يَكْسِرُ عَمَدَهَا وَ يَنْزِعُ أَوْتَادَهَا اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ

The people of its falsehood would prevail over the people of its right until the earth is filled with our-asws enemies, and injustice, and innovations. Indeed! The first one to place down its might, and break its pillars, and remove its pegs would be Allah-azwj, Lord-azwj of the worlds.

فَقَامَ رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مَا نَصْنَعُ فِي ذَلِكَ الزَّمَانِ

A man stood up and said, ‘O Amir Al-Momineen-asws! What should we do during that time?’

قَالَ انْظُرُوا أَهْلَ بَيْتِ نَبِيِّكُمْ فَإِنْ لَبَدُوا فَالْبُدُوا وَ إِنِ اسْتَصْرَخُوكُمْ فَانْصُرُوهُمْ تُؤْجَرُوا وَ لَا تَسْبِقُوهُمْ فَتَصْرَعَكُمُ الْبَلِيَّةُ

He-asws said: ‘Look at the People-asws of the Household of your Prophet-saww. If they-asws sit back, then sit back, and if they cry out to you (for help), then help them-asws, you will be recompensed, and do not precede them-asws, the afflictions would quicken to you’ (an extract).[13]

Imam-asws’s Forbids a campaign against the tyrant ruler:

عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى الْعَلَوِيِّ عَنْ حَيْدَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ السَّمَرْقَنْدِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَمْرٍو الْكَشِّيِّ عَنْ حَمْدَوَيْهِ بْنِ بِشْرٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا ع إِنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ بُكَيْرٍ يَرْوِي حَدِيثاً وَ يَتَأَوَّلُهُ وَ أَنَا أُحِبُّ أَنْ أَعْرِضَهُ عَلَيْكَ فَقَالَ مَا ذَاكَ الْحَدِيثُ قُلْتُ قَالَ ابْنُ بُكَيْرٍ حَدَّثَنِي عُبَيْدُ بْنُ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ كُنْتُ عِنْدَ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع أَيَّامَ خَرَجَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ‏ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ إِذْ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا فَقَالَ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِنَّ مُحَمَّدَ بْنَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ قَدْ خَرَجَ وَ أَجَابَهُ النَّاسُ فَمَا تَقُولُ فِي الْخُرُوجِ مَعَهُ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع اسْكُنْ مَا سَكَنَتِ السَّمَاءُ وَ الْأَرْضُ فَقَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ بُكَيْرٍ فَإِذَا كَانَ الْأَمْرُ هَكَذَا فَلَمْ يَكُنْ خُرُوجٌ مَا سَكَنَتِ السَّمَاءُ وَ الْأَرْضُ فَمَا مِنْ قَائِمٍ وَ مَا مِنْ خُرُوجٍ فَقَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ صَدَقَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع وَ لَيْسَ الْأَمْرُ عَلَى مَا تَأَوَّلَهُ ابْنُ بُكَيْرٍ إِنَّمَا قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع اسْكُنْ مَا سَكَنَتِ السَّمَاءُ مِنَ النِّدَاءِ وَ الْأَرْضُ مِنَ الْخَسْفِ بِالْجَيْشِ

Ahmed ibn Mohammed ibn Isa Alavi, who Haider ibn Mohammed Samar Qandi, who from abu Ummero Al-Ladshi, who from Hamidia ibn Bashir, who from Mohammed ibn Isa, who from Al-Hussain ibn Khalid who has narrated the following:

I once asked from Abu Al-Hassan Al-Reza-asws that I have heard a hadith from Abdullah ibn Bakir and he gave an interpretation for it but I would like to hear from yourself-asws.  The Imam-asws said: Narrate it to me.  I (the narrator) said: Ibn Kaseer says that I have heard it from Aubaad ibn Zaara that once I was in the service of Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq-asws at the time when Mohammed ibn Abdullah ibn Hassan[14] had initiated a revolt against the government.  At that time, a person from our companions came and asked from the Imam-asws:  ‘May I be sacrificed for your cause. Mohammed ibn Hassan has risen up against the ruler and people have started supporting him.  What do you say about our involvement?  Shall we support him in his uprising?  Imam-asws replied:  You should remain inactive until the skies and the earth are silent.

Abdullah ibn Bakir says about this (Hadith) that since the instructions have been issued to keep silent until the earth and the skies are quiet and stationary so there will neither be any establishment of a leader nor there will be a rising (against unjust government).  Abu Al-Hassan Al-Reza-asws replied:  Abu Al-Hassan (Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq-asws) said the truth but interpretation of ibn Bakir is wrong.  Abu Al-Hassan-asws has said: Remain inactive until the skies and the earth are silent.  It means until there is no ‘Call’ from the skies and until the cracks opens up the earth.[15]

Affairs of Shias During the Occultation:

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْعَطَّارِ عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مَنْصُورٍ عَمَّنْ ذَكَرَهُ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قُلْتُ إِذَا أَصْبَحْتُ وَ أَمْسَيْتُ لَا أَرَى إِمَاماً أَئْتَمُّ بِهِ مَا أَصْنَعُ قَالَ فَأَحِبَّ مَنْ كُنْتَ تُحِبُّ وَ أَبْغِضْ مَنْ كُنْتَ تُبْغِضُ حَتَّى يُظْهِرَهُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Faddal from Al-Hassan ibn Ali Al-’Attar from Ja’far ibn Muhammad from Mansur from the person he mentioned who has said:

‘Once I asked Abu Abd Allah-asws, ‘If I pass the day and night and do not find an Imam-asws to follow then what should I do?’

‘The Imam-asws said, ‘Love those whom you love (because of us-asws) and hate those whom you hate (due to us-asws) until Allah-azwj will Grant him-ajfj permission to reappear.’[16]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ هَمَّامٍ عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ عَنِ ابْنِ أَسْبَاطٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع أَنَّهُ قَالَ كُفُّوا أَلْسِنَتَكُمْ وَ الْزَمُوا بُيُوتَكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ لَا يُصِيبُكُمْ أَمْرٌ تَخُصُّونَ بِهِ أَبَداً وَ لَا يُصِيبُ الْعَامَّةَ وَ لَا تَزَالُ الزَّيْدِيَّةُ وِقَاءً لَكُمْ أَبَداً

Mohammed ibn Hammam, who from Jafar ibn Mohammed ibn Malaik, who from Mohammed ibn Ahmed ibn Isbaat, who from some of their companions have narrated the following:

Abu Abdullah-asws said (during the uprising – Fitna): ‘You should keep your mouths closed and stay in your homes, since from this (uprising) neither you are going to be affected forever nor general public, nor Zaidia would continue to become your shield (by uprising against the governments).[17]

The knowledge and the Guidance will never cease to exist:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ أَبِي أُسَامَةَ عَنْ هِشَامٍ وَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي الثِّقَةُ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع أَنَّهُمْ سَمِعُوا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع يَقُولُ فِي خُطْبَةٍ لَهُ اللَّهُمَّ وَ إِنِّي لَأَعْلَمُ أَنَّ الْعِلْمَ لَا يَأْرِزُ كُلُّهُ وَ لَا يَنْقَطِعُ مَوَادُّهُ وَ أَنَّكَ لَا تُخْلِي أَرْضَكَ مِنْ حُجَّةٍ لَكَ عَلَى خَلْقِكَ ظَاهِرٍ لَيْسَ بِالْمُطَاعِ أَوْ خَائِفٍ مَغْمُورٍ كَيْلَا تَبْطُلَ حُجَجُكَ وَ لَا يَضِلَّ أَوْلِيَاؤُكَ بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَيْتَهُمْ بَلْ أَيْنَ هُمْ وَ كَمْ أُولَئِكَ الْأَقَلُّونَ عَدَداً وَ الْأَعْظَمُونَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ جَلَّ ذِكْرُهُ قَدْراً الْمُتَّبِعُونَ لِقَادَةِ الدِّينِ الْأَئِمَّةِ الْهَادِينَ الَّذِينَ يَتَأَدَّبُونَ بِآدَابِهِمْ وَ يَنْهَجُونَ نَهْجَهُمْ فَعِنْدَ ذَلِكَ يَهْجُمُ بِهِمُ الْعِلْمُ عَلَى حَقِيقَةِ الْإِيمَانِ فَتَسْتَجِيبُ أَرْوَاحُهُمْ لِقَادَةِ الْعِلْمِ وَ يَسْتَلِينُونَ مِنْ حَدِيثِهِمْ مَا اسْتَوْعَرَ عَلَى غَيْرِهِمْ وَ يَأْنَسُونَ بِمَا اسْتَوْحَشَ مِنْهُ الْمُكَذِّبُونَ وَ أَبَاهُ الْمُسْرِفُونَ أُولَئِكَ أَتْبَاعُ الْعُلَمَاءِ صَحِبُوا أَهْلَ الدُّنْيَا بِطَاعَةِ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى وَ أَوْلِيَائِهِ وَ دَانُوا بِالتَّقِيَّةِ عَنْ دِينِهِمْ وَ الْخَوْفِ مِنْ عَدُوِّهِمْ فَأَرْوَاحُهُمْ مُعَلَّقَةٌ بِالْمَحَلِّ الْأَعْلَى فَعُلَمَاؤُهُمْ وَ أَتْبَاعُهُمْ خُرْسٌ صُمْتٌ فِي دَوْلَةِ الْبَاطِلِ مُنْتَظِرُونَ لِدَوْلَةِ الْحَقِّ وَ سَيُحِقُّ اللَّهُ الْحَقَّ بِكَلِمَاتِهِ وَ يَمْحَقُ الْبَاطِلَ هَا هَا طُوبَى لَهُمْ عَلَى صَبْرِهِمْ عَلَى دِينِهِمْ فِي حَالِ هُدْنَتِهِمْ وَ يَا شَوْقَاهْ إِلَى رُؤْيَتِهِمْ فِي حَالِ ظُهُورِ دَوْلَتِهِمْ وَ سَيَجْمَعُنَا اللَّهُ وَ إِيَّاهُمْ فِي جَنَّاتِ عَدْنٍ وَ مَنْ صَلَحَ مِنْ آبَائِهِمْ وَ أَزْوَاجِهِمْ وَ ذُرِّيَّاتِهِمْ

Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from ibn Mahbub from abu ‘Usamah from Hisham and Muhammad ibn Yahya from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Mahbub from Hisham ibn Salim from Abu Hamza from Abu lshaq who has said the following:

‘Reliable men of the companions of Amir-ul-Momineen-asws have said that they heard Amir-ul-Momineen-asws say in one of his-asws sermons:

‘Our Allah-azwj, I-asws know that knowledge will not be erased and its sources will not discontinue altogether and You-azwj will not leave Your-azwj Earth without a leader with Your-azwj Authority over Your-azwj creatures. The one-asws who lives among the people well-known (to them) but is (mostly) disobeyed or is suppressed and lives in solitude so that proofs of Your-azwj Authority are not invalidated and Your-azwj friends are not misled after You-azwj have Granted them the guidance.

Where, in fact, are they (friends of Allah-azwj) and how many are they? They are very few, but are of great respect before Allah-azwj. They follow the Imam-asws (leader) of religion. (They follow) the guiding Imam-asws (leader), establish in themselves the recognition of A’immah‑asws[18] and emulate their-asws way of life. In such conditions knowledge will lead them to the true belief and their souls then accept the call of the leaders of the knowledge. Those statements of the Imam-asws that are difficult to understand for others are soft and easy for them to understand. They feel comfortable with what is frightening to those who reject (the Just) and the transgressors who have disregarded them.

They are the followers of the Scholars-asws. They only accompany the worldly people in obedience to Allah-azwj and His-azwj friends. They maintain privacy to be part of their religion out of fear from their enemies. Thus, their souls cling to the high position (of the realm of existence). Their knowledgeable ones and followers (of Imams-asws) live quietly and silently, under the rule of the government of falsehood, waiting for the government of the Just. Allah-azwj will soon Establish Just with His-azwj Words and Abolish the falsehood. Our Allah-azwj! how fortunate it is for them due to their patience in the matters of their religion in their peacetime! How strong is the desire to see them in the time of the dominance of their government!

Allah-azwj will soon Bring us together with them in the Gardens of Eden along with those of their parents, children and spouse who had been performing good deeds.[19]

How to cope the stress of tyrant rulers

يَا سُفْيَانُ إِذَا حَزَنَكَ أَمْرٌ مِنْ سُلْطَانٍ أَوْ غَيْرِهِ فَأَكْثِرْ مِنْ قَوْلِ لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ فَإِنَّهَا مِفْتَاحُ الْفَرَجِ وَ كَنْزٌ مِنْ كُنُوزِ الْجَنَّةِ.

(Imam Ja’far-asws said): O Sufyan! When a matter from the ruler or someone else grieves you, be frequent from the words: ‘.لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ’ ‘There is neither might nor strength except with Allah-azwj’, for it is a key of happiness, and a treasure from the treasures of Paradise’’ (an extract).[20]
Also,

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص‏ أَلَا لَا تَشْغَلُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ بِسَبِّ الْمُلُوكِ وَ تُوبُوا إِلَى‏ اللَّهِ‏ أَعْطِفْ‏ بِقُلُوبِهِمْ‏ عَلَيْكُمْ‏.

Rasool Allah-saww said: Beware and do not waste your time swearing at the rulers. Return to Allah-azwj in Repentance so that Allah-azwj Changes the state of the rulers’ hearts and makes them be kind to you (an extract).”[21]

In a Hadith-e-Qudsi, Allah-azwj

. من كتاب روضة الواعظين : قال : قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص‏ قَالَ اللَّهُ جَلَّ جَلَالُهُ‏ أَنَا اللَّهُ‏ لا إِلهَ‏ إِلَّا أَنَا خَلَقْتُ‏ الْمُلُوكَ‏ وَ قُلُوبُهُمْ‏ بِيَدِي‏ فَأَيُّمَا قَوْمٍ‏ أَطَاعُونِي‏ جَعَلْتُ‏ قُلُوبَ‏ الْمُلُوكِ عَلَيْهِمْ رَحْمَةً وَ أَيُّمَا قَوْمٍ عَصَوْنِي جَعَلْتُ‏ قُلُوبَ الْمُلُوكِ عَلَيْهِمْ سَخْطَةً أَلَا لَا تَشْغَلُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ بِسَبِّ الْمُلُوكِ تُوبُوا إِلَيَّ أَعْطِفْ قُلُوبَهُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ

In Rauzat al-Vaezeen, it is quoted that Rasool Allah-saww narrated that Allah-azwj said: “I am Allah-azwj and there is no one else but Me-azwj to worship. I-azwj have Created the rulers and have full control over their hearts. I-azwj shall Make them merciful with whoever obeys Me-azwj, and Make them angry at whoever disobeys Me-azwj. Beware not to waste your time swearing at the rulers. Turn to Me-azwj in repentance so I-azwj may Make their hearts kind toward you.”[22]

Don’t be a spectator when you cannot assist your brethren:

وَ بِهَذَا الْإِسْنَادِ، عَنْ جَعْفَرٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ::«لَا يَحْضُرَنَ‏ أَحَدُكُمْ‏ رَجُلًا يَضْرِبُهُ سُلْطَانٌ جَائِرٌ ظُلْماً وَ عُدْوَاناً، وَ لَا مَقْتُولًا وَ لَا مَظْلُوماً إِذَا لَمْ يَنْصُرْهُ، لِأَنَّ نُصْرَةَ الْمُؤْمِنِ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِ فَرِيضَةٌ وَاجِبَةٌ إِذَا هُوَحَضَرَهُ، وَ الْعَافِيَةُ أَوْسَعُ مَا لَمْ تُلْزِمْكَ الْحُجَّةُ الظَّاهِرَةُ»

And by this chain, from Ja’far-asws, from his-asws father-asws having said: ‘Not one of you should be present with a man whom the tyrannous ruler strikes him by injustice and aggression, either he is killed or oppressed, when he (you) does not help him, because help of the Momin upon the Momin is a necessity, an Obligation when he is present, and the well-being is more extensive for as long as the apparent argument[23] is not necessitated (upon) you’.[24]

How to Avoid Fitna:

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَسْبَاطٍ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا ( عليه السلام ) أَنَّ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ( صلوات الله عليه )  كَانَ يَقُولُ طُوبَى لِمَنْ أَخْلَصَ لِلَّهِ الْعِبَادَةَ وَ الدُّعَاءَ وَ لَمْ يَشْغَلْ قَلْبَهُ بِمَا تَرَى عَيْنَاهُ وَ لَمْ يَنْسَ ذِكْرَ اللَّهِ بِمَا تَسْمَعُ أُذُنَاهُ وَ لَمْ يَحْزُنْ صَدْرَهُ بِمَا أُعْطِيَ غَيْرُهُ .

A number of our companions, from Sahl Bin Ziyad, from Ali Bin Asbaat,

Abu Al-Hassan Al-Reza-asws has reported that Amir Al-Momineen-asws was saying: ‘Blessed is he who is sincere to Allah-azwj in the worship and the supplication, and does not distract his heart with what his eyes see, and the does not forget the Remembrance of Allah-azwj with what his ears hear, and whose chest does not grieve for what is Granted to others’.[25]

In another Hadith;

وقال أيضا في حديث أبي أيوب الانصاري: إن النبي صلى الله عليه وآله قال لعمار: إِنَّهُ سَيَكُونُ بَعْدِي هَنَاتٌ حَتَّى‏ يَخْتَلِفَ‏ السَّيْفَ‏ فِيمَا بَيْنَهُمْ‏ وَ حَتَّى يَقْتُلَ بَعْضُهُمْ بَعْضاً وَ حَتَّى يَتَبَرَّأَ بَعْضُهُمْ مِنْ بَعْضٍ فَإِذَا رَأَيْتَ ذَلِكَ فَعَلَيْكَ بِهَذَا الْأَصْلَعِ عَنْ يَمِينِي عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ ع

And he said as well in a Hadeeth of Abu Ayoub Al Ansary –

‘The Prophet-saww said to Amaar (on how to avoid being engulfed into Fitna): ‘It will be so that there would happen to be flaws (break-ups) from after me-saww, to the extent that the swords would differ regarding what is between them, and to the extent some of them kill the others, and to the extent some of them would disavow from the others. So when you see that, then upon you is to be with this short-haired one on my-saww right, Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws.

فَإِنْ سَلَكَ النَّاسُ كُلُّهُمْ وَادِياً وَ سَلَكَ عَلِيٌّ وَادِياً فَاسْلُكْ وَادِيَ عَلِيٍّ وَ خَلِّ عَنِ النَّاسِ يَا عَمَّارُ إِنَّ عَلِيّاً لَا يَرُدُّكَ عَنْ هُدًى وَ لَا يَرُدُّكَ إِلَى رَدًى يَا عَمَّارُ طَاعَةُ عَلِيٍّ طَاعَتِي وَ طَاعَتِي طَاعَةُ اللَّهِ.

So even if the people, all of them were to travel in a valet, and Ali-asws travels (a different) valley, travel the valley of Ali-asws and stay away from the people. O Amaar! Ali-azwj would return you to Guidance and will not point you upon annihilation. O Amaar! Obedience to Ali-asws is obedience to me-saww, and obedience to me-saww is being obedient to Allah-azwj’’.[26]

Advice on Averting the Fitna

أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ شُقُّوا أَمْوَاجَ الْفِتَنِ بِسُفُنِ النَّجَاةِ وَ عَرِّجُوا عَنْ طَرِيقِ الْمُنَافَرَةِ وَ ضَعُوا تِيجَانَ الْمُفَاخَرَةِ أَفْلَحَ مَنْ نَهَضَ بِجَنَاحٍ أَوِ اسْتَسْلَمَ فَأَرَاحَ هَذَا مَاءٌ آجِنٌ‏ وَ لُقْمَةٌ يَغَصُّ بِهَا آكِلُهَا وَ مُجْتَنِي الثَّمَرَةِ لِغَيْرِ وَقْتِ إِينَاعِهَا كَالزَّارِعِ بِغَيْرِ أَرْضِهِ.

Amir ul-Momineen Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws said ‘O you people! Split the waves of Fitna with the ships of salvation, and turn away from the paths of dissension, and put down the crowns of glory! He has succeeded, the one who gets up with wings, or he submits, so he rests. This water (of the caliphate) is turbid, and it’s morsel chokes the one who eats it, and the one who plucks the tree at other than the time of its maturity is like the farmer at somebody else’s land.[27]

Fitna propellers among people:

From a speech of his-asws (Amir ul-Momineen Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws) said in describing the one who sits for the judging between the community, and he isn’t rightful with it, and in it, the most hateful to Allah-azwj are two types (of people)

The first type

إنَّ أَبْغَضَ الْخَلَائِقِ إِلَى اللَّهِ [تَعَالَى‏] رَجُلَانِ رَجُلٌ وَكَلَهُ اللَّهُ إِلَى نَفْسِهِ‏ فَهُوَ جَائِرٌ عَنْ قَصْدِ السَّبِيلِ‏ مَشْغُوفٌ‏ بِكَلَامِ بِدْعَةٍ وَ دُعَاءِ ضَلَالَةٍ فَهُوَ فِتْنَةٌ لِمَنِ افْتَتَنَ بِهِ ضَالٌّ عَنْ هَدْيِ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَهُ مُضِلٌّ لِمَنِ اقْتَدَى بِهِ فِي حَيَاتِهِ وَ بَعْدَ وَفَاتِهِ حَمَّالٌ خَطَايَا غَيْرِهِ رَهْنٌ بِخَطِيئَتِهِ‏

‘Surely the most hateful of the people to Allah-azwj the Exalted are two (types of) men – a man whom Allah-azwj Allocates him to himself. He deviates from the purpose of the way. He loves to speak innovations and call to the straying. Thus, he is a Fitna for the one who is tempted by him. He strays away from the guidance by the ones who were before him, straying the one who take his lead during his lifetime and after his death. He is a carrier of sins of others, pledged with his own sins.

The second type

وَ رَجُلٌ قَمَشَ جَهْلًا مُوضِعٌ فِي جُهَّالِ الْأُمَّةِ عَادٍ فِي أَغْبَاشِ‏ الْفِتْنَةِ عَمٍ‏ بِمَا فِي عَقْدِ الْهُدْنَةِ قَدْ سَمَّاهُ أَشْبَاهُ النَّاسِ عَالِماً وَ لَيْسَ بِهِ

And a man who has collected ignorance. He is quick among the ignoramuses of the community, turning in the darkness of the Fitna, blind to the advantages of peace and reconciliation. Those resembling the people have named him as a scholar, and he isn’t it.

بَكَّرَ فَاسْتَكْثَرَ مِنْ جَمْعٍ مَا قَلَّ مِنْهُ خَيْرٌ مِمَّا كَثُرَ حَتَّى إِذَا ارْتَوَى مِنْ مَاءٍ آجِنٍ‏ وَ [اكْتَنَزَ] اكْتَثَرَ مِنْ غَيْرِ طَائِلٍ‏ جَلَسَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ قَاضِياً ضَامِناً لِتَخْلِيصِ‏ مَا الْتَبَسَ عَلَى غَيْرِهِ‏

He goes out early morning amassing a lot, the little from it would have been better than what is more, until when has saturated from the polluted waters and acquired meaningless things, he sits between the people as a judge responsible for solving what is confusing upon others.

فَإِنْ نَزَلَتْ بِهِ إِحْدَى الْمُبْهَمَاتِ هَيَّأَ لَهَا حَشْواً رَثًّا مِنْ رَأْيِهِ ثُمَّ قَطَعَ بِهِ فَهُوَ مِنْ لَبْسِ الشُّبُهَاتِ فِي مِثْلِ نَسْجِ الْعَنْكَبُوتِ لَا يَدْرِي أَصَابَ أَمْ أَخْطَأَ فَإِنْ أَصَابَ خَافَ أَنْ يَكُونَ قَدْ أَخْطَأَ وَ إِنْ أَخْطَأَ رَجَا أَنْ يَكُونَ قَدْ أَصَابَ

If one of the ambiguous problems befall with him, he prepares for it an additional useless argument from his opinion, then he cuts (judges) by it. Thus, he gets entangled in the confusing doubts in an example of the spider’s web. He does not know whether he is correct or has erred. If he is correct, he fears that he might has erred, and if he has erred, he hopes that he would be correct.

جَاهِلٌ خَبَّاطُ جَهَالاتٍ عَاشٍ‏ رَكَّابُ عَشَوَاتٍ‏ لَمْ يَعَضَّ عَلَى الْعِلْمِ‏ بِضِرْسٍ قَاطِعٍ- [يُذْرِي‏] يَذْرُو الرِّوَايَاتِ [إِذْرَاءَ] ذَرْوَ الرِّيحِ الْهَشِيمَ‏

He is an ignoramus wandering in the in the ignorance’s of life riding without guidance. He does not bite upon the knowledge with cutting incisors. He scatters the reports the (like) the winds scattering leaves.

لَا مَلِيٌ‏ وَ اللَّهِ إِصْدَارِ مَا وَرَدَ عَلَيْهِ وَ لَا [هُوَ] أَهْلٌ لِمَا [فُوِّضَ‏] قُرِّظَ بِهِ [إِلَيْهِ‏] لَا يَحْسَبُ الْعِلْمَ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ مِمَّا أَنْكَرَهُ وَ لَا يَرَى أَنَّ مِنْ وَرَاءِ مَا بَلَغَ مَذْهَباً لِغَيْرِهِ

By Allah-azwj! He is neither capable of resolving what is referred to him, nor is he rightful of what position has been assigned to him, nor does he recking the knowledge regarding anything from what he has denied, nor does he view that there beyond his reach there is a doctrine reached by others.

وَ إِنْ أَظْلَمَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْرٌ اكْتَتَمَ بِهِ‏ لِمَا يَعْلَمُ مِنْ جَهْلِ نَفْسِهِ تَصْرُخُ مِنْ جَوْرِ قَضَائِهِ الدِّمَاءُ وَ تَعَجُّ مِنْهُ الْمَوَارِيثُ

And if a matter is obscure to him, he conceals it due to what he knows of his own ignorance. The bloods (lost lives) are crying out due to the tyranny of his judgments, and the inheritances (misappropriated) are grumbling from him.

إِلَى اللَّهِ أَشْكُو مِنْ مَعْشَرٍ يَعِيشُونَ جُهَّالًا وَ يَمُوتُونَ ضُلَّالًا لَيْسَ فِيهِمْ سِلْعَةٌ أَبْوَرُ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ إِذَا تُلِيَ حَقَّ تِلَاوَتِهِ وَ لَا سِلْعَةٌ أَنْفَقُ‏ بَيْعاً وَ لَا أَغْلَى ثَمَناً مِنَ الْكِتَابِ إِذَا حُرِّفَ عَنْ مَوَاضِعِهِ وَ لَا عِنْدَهُمْ أَنْكَرُ مِنَ الْمَعْرُوفِ وَ لَا أَعْرَفُ مِنَ الْمُنْكَرِ

I-asws complain to Allah-azwj of the people living in ignorance and a dying in straying. There is no commodity more ruinous among them than the Book when it is recited as it is right of reciting it, and there is no commodity more expensive to sell nor of a higher price than the Book when (it’s Verses) are altered from its place, nor is there anything eviler than the act of kindness, nor anything more recognised than the evil’.[28]

Disciplining the poor

أَمَّا بَعْدُ فَإِنَّ الْأَمْرَ يَنْزِلُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ- [كَقَطْرِ] كَقَطَرَاتِ الْمَطَرِ إِلَى كُلِّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا قُسِمَ لَهَا مِنْ زِيَادَةٍ أَوْ نُقْصَانٍ فَإِنْ رَأَى أَحَدُكُمْ لِأَخِيهِ غَفِيرَةً فِي أَهْلٍ أَوْ مَالٍ أَوْ نَفْسٍ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ لَهُ فِتْنَةً فَإِنَّ الْمَرْءَ الْمُسْلِمَ مَا لَمْ يَغْشَ دَنَاءَةً تَظْهَرُ- فَيَخْشَعُ لَهَا إِذَا ذُكِرَتْ وَ يُغْرَى بِهَا لِئَامُ النَّاسِ كَانَ كَالْفَالِجِ‏ الْيَاسِرِ الَّذِي يَنْتَظِرُ أَوَّلَ فَوْزَةٍ مِنْ قِدَاحِهِ تُوجِبُ لَهُ الْمَغْنَمَ وَ يُرْفَعُ بِهَا عَنْهُ [بِهَا] الْمَغْرَمُ

(Amir ul-Momineen Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws said) As for after, the Command descends from the sky to the earth like the drops of rain, to every person with what has been Apportioned for it or reduction. If one of you were to see his brother having abundance regarding the family, or wealth, or persons, it should not be a Fitna for him, for the Muslim person, for as long as the lowliness does not overwhelm him apparently, he should be humble to it when reminded, the lowly people would be emboldened by it, would be like that affluent gambler who awaits the first success from his cup (roll of dice) to pull the riches to him and the creditors would be raised away from him.

وَ كَذَلِكَ الْمَرْءُ الْمُسْلِمُ الْبَرِي‏ءُ مِنَ الْخِيَانَةِ يَنْتَظِرُ مِنَ اللَّهِ‏ إِحْدَى الْحُسْنَيَيْنِ‏ إِمَّا دَاعِيَ اللَّهِ فَمَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ لَهُ وَ إِمَّا رِزْقَ اللَّهِ

And like that is the Muslim person, the one disavowed from the betrayal, he awaits from Allah‑azwj one of the two good things – either the caller of Allah-azwj, so whatever is with Allah‑azwj is better for him, or sustenance of Allah-azwj (in this world).

فَإِذَا هُوَ ذُو أَهْلٍ وَ مَالٍ وَ مَعَهُ دِينُهُ وَ حَسَبُهُ وَ إِنَّ الْمَالَ وَ الْبَنِينَ حَرْثُ الدُّنْيَا وَ الْعَمَلَ الصَّالِحَ حَرْثُ الْآخِرَةِ وَ قَدْ يَجْمَعُهُمَا اللَّهُ تَعَالَى لِأَقْوَامٍ

So, when is with family and wealth, and with him is his religion and his respect, and surely the wealth and the sons are a cultivation of the world, while the righteous deeds are a cultivation of the Hereafter, and Allah-azwj the Exalted has Gathered both for a people.

فَاحْذَرُوا مِنَ اللَّهِ مَا حَذَّرَكُمْ‏ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ وَ اخْشَوْهُ خَشْيَةً لَيْسَتْ بِتَعْذِيرٍ وَ اعْمَلُوا فِي غَيْرِ رِيَاءٍ وَ لَا سُمْعَةٍ فَإِنَّهُ مَنْ يَعْمَلْ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ يَكِلْهُ اللَّهُ [إِلَى مَنْ‏] لِمَنْ عَمِلَ لَهُ

Therefore, be caution from Allah-azwj of what He-azwj has Cautioned you all from Himself-azwj and fear Him-azwj with a fear which isn’t with an excuse, and work without showing off and not to be heard (reputation), for the one who works for other than Allah-azwj, Allah-azwj will Allocate him to the one he had worked for.

نَسْأَلُ اللَّهَ مَنَازِلَ الشُّهَدَاءِ وَ مُعَايَشَةَ السُّعَدَاءِ وَ مُرَافَقَةَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ

We ask Allah-azwj for the status of the martyrs, and living of the fortunate ones, and friendship of the Prophets-as (An extract).[29]

Additional sayings of Amir ul-Momineen-asws on the topic of Fitna are included in the Appendix III.

Appendix I: Signs for the coming out of the flags of guidance

السَّادِسُ وَ الْعِشْرُونَ فِي مَجِيئِهِ وَ رَايَاتِهِ وَ بِإِسْنَادِهِ عَنْ ثَوْبَانَ أَنَّهُ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص‏ إِذَا رَأَيْتُمُ الرَّايَاتِ السُّودَ قَدْ أَقْبَلَتْ مِنْ خُرَاسَانَ فَائْتُوهَا وَ لَوْ حَبْواً عَلَى الثَّلْجِ فَإِنَّ فِيهَا خَلِيفَةَ اللَّهِ الْمَهْدِيَّ.

The twenty-sixth is regarding his-ajfj coming and his-ajfj flags – and by his chain from Sowban having said, ‘Rasool-Allah-saww said: ‘When you see the black flags to be coming from Khurasan, then go to these, and even if (you have to) crawl upon the snow, for among these is the caliph of Allah-azwj, Al-Mahdi-ajfj’’.[30]

السَّابِعُ وَ الْعِشْرُونَ فِي مَجِيئِهِ مِنْ قِبَلِ الْمَشْرِقِ وَ بِإِسْنَادِهِ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ قَالَ‏ بَيْنَا نَحْنُ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص إِذْ أَقْبَلَتْ فِتْيَةٌ مِنْ بَنِي هَاشِمٍ فَلَمَّا رَآهُمُ النَّبِيُّ ص اغْرَوْرَقَتْ عَيْنَاهُ وَ تَغَيَّرَ لَوْنُهُ فَقَالُوا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ مَا نَزَالُ نَرَى فِي وَجْهِكَ شَيْئاً نَكْرَهُهُ

The twenty-ninth is regarding his-ajfj coming from the easterly direction – and by his chain from Abdullah who said, ‘While we were in the presence of Rasool-Allah-saww when youths from the clan of Hashim-as came. When the Prophet-saww saw them, his-saww eyes filled up and his-saww complexion changed. They said, ‘O Rasool-Allah-saww! We are not seeing in your-saww eyes something we dislike!’

فَقَالَ إِنَّا أَهْلُ بَيْتٍ اخْتَارَ اللَّهُ لَنَا الْآخِرَةَ عَلَى الدُّنْيَا وَ إِنَّ أَهْلَ بَيْتِي سَيَلْقَوْنَ بَعْدِي بَلَاءً وَ تَشْرِيداً وَ تَطْرِيداً حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ قَوْمٌ مِنْ قِبَلِ الْمَشْرِقِ وَ مَعَهُمْ رَايَاتٌ سُودٌ

He-saww said: ‘We-asws, People-asws of the Household, Allah-azwj has Chosen the Hereafter to be for us-asws over the world, and that People-asws of my-saww Household will be facing afflictions after me-saww, and displacements and expulsions until a people come from the easterly direction and with them would be black flags.

فَيَسْأَلُونَ الْحَقَّ فَلَا يُعْطَوْنَهُ فَيُقَاتِلُونَ وَ يُنْصَرُونَ فَيُعْطَوْنَ مَا سَأَلُوا فَلَا يَقْبَلُونَ حَتَّى يَدْفَعُوهُ إِلَى رَجُلٍ مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِي فَيَمْلَؤُهَا قِسْطاً كَمَا مَلَئُوهَا جَوْراً فَمَنْ أَدْرَكَ ذَلِكَ مِنْكُمْ فَلْيَأْتِهِمْ وَ لَوْ حَبْواً عَلَى الثَّلْجِ.

They will ask for the right but will not be given it, so they would fight and be victorious, and they would be given what ask for. But they will not accept until they hand it to a man from the People-asws of my-saww Household. He-ajfj shall fill it (earth) with fairness just as it would have been filled with tyranny. The one from you who comes across that, let him go to them, and even if he has to crawl upon the snow’’.[31]

الثَّانِي وَ الثَّلَاثُونَ فِي خِلَافَتِهِ وَ بِإِسْنَادِهِ عَنْ ثَوْبَانَ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص‏ يُقْتَلُ عِنْدَ كَنْزِكُمْ ثَلَاثَةٌ كُلُّهُمُ ابْنُ خَلِيفَةٍ ثُمَّ لَا يَصِيرُ إِلَى وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمْ ثُمَّ تَجِي‏ءُ الرَّايَاتُ السُّودُ فَيَقْتُلُونَهُمْ قَتْلًا لَمْ يُقْتَلْهُ قَوْمٌ ثُمَّ يَجِي‏ءُ خَلِيفَةُ اللَّهِ الْمَهْدِيُّ فَإِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ بِهِ فَأْتُوهُ فَبَايِعُوهُ فَإِنَّهُ خَلِيفَةُ اللَّهِ الْمَهْدِيُّ.

The thirty-second is regarding his-ajfj caliphate – and by his chain from Sowban who said, ‘Rasool-Allah-saww said: ‘Three would be killed with your treasure, each of them being a son of a caliph. Then it will not come to any one of them. Then the black flags would come and kill them with a killing, no people have been killed as such. Then the caliph of Allah-azwj Al-Mahdi-ajfj shall come. When you hear of him-ajfj, then go to him-ajfj and pledge allegiance to him-ajfj, for he-ajfj caliph of Allah-azwj, Al-Mahdi-ajfj’’.[32]

الثَّالِثُ وَ الثَّلَاثُونَ فِي قَوْلِهِ ع إِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ بِالْمَهْدِيِّ فَأْتُوهُ فَبَايِعُوهُ وَ بِإِسْنَادِهِ عَنْ ثَوْبَانَ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص‏ تَجِي‏ءُ الرَّايَاتُ السُّودُ مِنْ قِبَلِ الْمَشْرِقِ كَأَنَّ قُلُوبَهُمْ زُبَرُ الْحَدِيدِ فَمَنْ سَمِعَ بِهِمْ فَلْيَأْتِهِمْ فَبَايَعَهُمْ وَ لَوْ حَبْواً عَلَى الثَّلْجِ.

The thirty-third is regarding his-saww words: ‘When you hear of Al-Mahdi-ajfj, then go to him-ajfj, pledge allegiance to him-ajfj’ – and by his chain from Sowban who said, ‘Rasool-Allah-saww said: ‘The black flags will come from the easterly direction. It is as if their hearts are sheets of iron. Then who hears of them, let him go to them and pledge allegiance to them, and every if they have to crawl upon the snow’’.[33]

Appendix II: Sermon of Amir-ul-Momineen-asws Warning of ‘Fitna

The word ‘Fitna’ is the result of one’s acts upon listening to his ‘Nafs’ which is corrupted by the ‘Waswissa’ of Iblis-la, as explained by Amir-ul-Momineen-asws.

أَبَانٌ عَنْ سُلَيْمِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ قَالَ‏ صَعِدَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع الْمِنْبَرَ فَحَمِدَ اللَّهَ وَ أَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ وَ قَالَ: أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ أَنَا الَّذِي‏ فَقَأْتُ‏ عَيْنَ‏ الْفِتْنَةِ وَ لَمْ‏ يَكُنْ‏ لِيَجْتَرِئَ‏ عَلَيْهَا غَيْرِي‏ وَ ايْمُ اللَّهِ لَوْ لَمْ أَكُنْ فِيكُمْ لَمَا قُوتِلَ أَهْلُ الْجَمَلِ وَ لَا أَهْلُ صِفِّينَ‏ وَ لَا أَهْلُ النَّهْرَوَانِ [وَ ايْمُ اللَّهِ‏] لَوْ لَا أَنْ تَتَكَلَّمُوا وَ تَدَعُوا الْعَمَلَ لَحَدَّثْتُكُمْ بِمَا قَضَى اللَّهُ عَلَى لِسَانِ نَبِيِّهِ ص لِمَنْ قَاتَلَهُمْ مُسْتَبْصِراً فِي ضَلَالَتِهِمْ عَارِفاً بِالْهُدَى الَّذِي نَحْنُ عَلَيْهِ

Aban from Sulaym Bin Qays, who said, ‘Amir-ul-Momineen-asws ascended the pulpit, so he-asws Praised Allah-azwj and Extolled Him-azwj and said: ‘O you people! I-asws am the one who gouged out the eye of the ‘Fitna’ (strife) and it was not for anyone apart from me-asws to be able to do that. And I-asws say by Allah-azwj, had I-asws not been among you all, you would not have fought against the people of the Camel (Al-Jamal), nor the people of Siffeen, nor the people of Al-Nahrwaan. And I-asws say by Allah-azwj, if you had spoken and claimed what Allah-azwj has Decreed upon the tongue of His-azwj Prophet-saww you would have visualised and recognised the error of those that were killed, and the guidance that we are on.

ثُمَّ قَالَ ع سَلُونِي [عَمَّا شِئْتُمْ‏] قَبْلَ أَنْ تَفْقِدُونِي فَوَ اللَّهِ إِنِّي بِطُرُقِ السَّمَاءِ أَعْلَمُ مِنِّي بِطُرُقِ الْأَرْضِ أَنَا يَعْسُوبُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ 164- 1] وَ أَوَّلُ السَّابِقِينَ وَ إِمَامُ الْمُتَّقِينَ وَ خَاتَمُ الْوَصِيِّينَ وَ وَارِثُ النَّبِيِّينَ وَ خَلِيفَةُ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ أَنَا دَيَّانُ النَّاسِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَ قَسِيمُ اللَّهِ بَيْنَ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ وَ النَّارِ وَ أَنَا الصِّدِّيقُ الْأَكْبَرُ وَ الْفَارُوقُ الَّذِي أُفَرِّقُ بَيْن‏ الْحَقِّ وَ الْبَاطِلِ وَ إِنَّ عِنْدِي عِلْمَ الْمَنَايَا وَ الْبَلَايَا وَ فَصْلَ الْخِطَابِ وَ مَا مِنْ آيَةٍ [نَزَلَتْ‏] إِلَّا وَ قَدْ عَلِمْتُ فِيمَا نَزَلَتْ وَ أَيْنَ نَزَلَتْ وَ عَلَى مَنْ نَزَلَتْ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ [إِنَّهُ وَشِيكٌ أَنْ تَفْقِدُونِي‏] إِنِّي مُفَارِقُكُمْ وَ إِنِّي مَيِّتٌ أَوْ مَقْتُولٌ‏ مَا يَنْتَظِرُ أَشْقَاهَا أَنْ يَخْضِبَهَا مِنْ فَوْقِهَا يَعْنِي لِحْيَتَهُ مِنْ دَمِ رَأْسِهِ

Then he-asws said: ‘Ask me whatsoever that you like before you miss me-asws, for by Allah-azwj I-asws am more aware of the pathways of the sky than I-asws am of the roads of the earth. I-asws am the ‘Yasoob’ (King) of the believers, and the first of the preceding ones, and the Imam-asws of the pious, and the seal-(ultimate) of the successors, and the inheritor of the Prophets-as, and the Caliph of the Lord-azwj of the worlds. I-asws am the examiner of the people on the Day of Judgement and Allah-azwj’s (Appointed) Divider of people between the Paradise and the Fire.

And I-asws am the Great Truthful (Al-Siddique Al-Akbar), and the great Differentiator (Al-Farouq) who differentiates between the truth and the falsehood, and with me-asws is the knowledge of the deaths, and the afflictions, and the intricacies of the speech. And there is no Verse which has Descended except that I-asws know with regards to what was Descended, and where it Descended, and about whom it was Descended. O you people! It is imminent that you will miss me-asws. I-asws will separate from you all, and I-asws will soon leave, being assassinated. What is he waiting for (my killer) to dye it (with my blood) from above it (from head)?’ Meaning his-asws beard from the blood of his-asws head.

وَ الَّذِي فَلَقَ الْحَبَّ وَ بَرَأَ النَّسَمَةَ لَا تَسْأَلُونِّي مِنْ فِئَةٍ تَبْلُغُ ثَلَاثَمِائَةٍ فَمَا فَوْقَهَا فِيمَا بَيْنَكُمْ وَ بَيْنَ قِيَامِ السَّاعَةِ إِلَّا أَنْبَأْتُكُمْ بِسَائِقِهَا وَ قَائِدِهَا وَ نَاعِقِهَا وَ بِخَرَابِ الْعَرَصَاتِ مَتَى تَخْرُبُ وَ مَتَى تَعْمُرُ بَعْدَ خَرَابِهَا إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ

‘By the One-azwj Who Split the seed and Formed the person, you will not ask me about a group which has reached three hundred (in number) nor above it between you all (at present) and the Establishment of the Hour, except that I-asws will give you the news of its ushers, and its guides and its callers, and the spoiling of the ground, when it will get spoilt and when it will be revived after it having been taken by force to the Day of Judgement’.

فَقَامَ رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَخْبِرْنَا عَنِ الْبَلَايَا فَقَالَ ع إِذَا سَأَلَ سَائِلٌ فَلْيَعْقِلْ وَ إِذَا سُئِلَ مَسْئُولٌ فَلْيَلْبَثْ‏ إِنَّ مِنْ وَرَائِكُمْ أُمُوراً مُلْتَجَّةً مُجَلْجِلَةً وَ بَلَاءً مُكْلِحاً مُبْلِحاً وَ الَّذِي فَلَقَ الْحَبَّةَ وَ بَرَأَ النَّسَمَةَ لَوْ قَدْ فَقَدْتُمُونِي وَ نَزَلَتْ عَزَائِمُ الْأُمُورِ وَ حَقَائِقُ الْبَلَاءِ لَقَدْ أَطْرَقَ كَثِيرٌ مِنَ السَّائِلِينَ وَ اشْتَغَلَ‏ كَثِيرٌ مِنَ الْمَسْئُولِينَ وَ ذَلِكَ إِذَا ظَهَرَتْ حَرْبُكُمْ وَ نَصَلَتْ عَنْ نَابٍ‏ وَ قَامَتْ عَنْ سَاقٍ وَ صَارَتِ الدُّنْيَا بَلَاءً عَلَيْكُمْ حَتَّى يَفْتَحَ اللَّهُ لِبَقِيَّةِ الْأَبْرَارِ

So a man stood up and said, ‘O Amir-ul-Momineen-asws, inform us about the ‘Fitna’ (afflictions)’. He-asws said: ‘When a questioner asks so he should understand, and when the questioned one is asked, he should reply responsibly. There are matters behind you, which will weaken you and concern you, frightening and difficult afflictions.

By the One-azwj Who Split the seed and Freed the person, if you were to lose me-asws, and the great matters descend upon you and the reality of the afflictions dawn upon you, many of the questioners will get frustrated and many of them will be humiliated by trying to find solutions (to their problems). And that will happen when you will be forced into wars and it will engulf the entire world, and the world will become a scourge for you all until such time when Allah-azwj will Grant a victory through the ‘لبقية الأبرار’ (Imam e Zaman-ajfj).

فَقَامَ رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ حَدِّثْنَا عَنِ الْفِتَنِ فَقَالَ ع إِنَّ الْفِتَنَ إِذَا أَقْبَلَتْ شُبِّهَتْ‏ وَ إِذَا أَدْبَرَتْ أَسْفَرَتْ [وَ إِن‏ الْفِتَنَ‏] لَهَا مَوْجٌ كَمَوْجِ الْبَحْرِ وَ إِعْصَارٌ كَإِعْصَارِ الرِّيحِ تُصِيبُ بَلَداً وَ تُخْطِئُ الْآخَرَ فَانْظُرُوا أَقْوَاماً كَانُوا أَصْحَابَ الرَّايَاتِ يَوْمَ بَدْرٍ فَانْصُرُوهُمْ تُنْصَرُوا وَ تُوجَرُوا وَ تُعْذَرُوا

A man stood up and said, ‘O Amir-ul-Momineen-asws, narrated to us about the ‘Fitna’ (strife). He-asws said: ‘The ‘Fitna’ when it comes, places you in doubt, and when it goes away it becomes obvious (leaves behind its disastrous effects). And the ‘Fitna’ has waves for it like the waves of the sea and gusts like the gusts of the wind (hurricane), affecting one country and leaving another. So look at the people-asws who were the standard bearers on the Day of Badr. Help them-asws and you will be helped and rewarded and be excused.[34]

Appendix III: Additional Ahadith from Nahjul Balagha on Fitna

Some sermons and saying of Amir ul-Momineen-asws on Fitna are presented here

Amir Al-Momineen-asws on Fitna of the clan of Umayya

أَمَّا بَعْدَ حَمْدِ اللَّهِ وَ الثَّنَاءِ عَلَيْهِ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ فَإِنِّي فَقَأْتُ‏ عَيْنَ الْفِتْنَةِ وَ لَمْ يَكُنْ لِيَجْتَرِئَ عَلَيْهَا أَحَدٌ غَيْرِي بَعْدَ أَنْ مَاجَ غَيْهَبُهَا وَ اشْتَدَّ كَلَبُهَا

‘As for after, O you people! I-asws have blinded an eye of the Fitna, and no one could have been so courageous upon it apart from me-asws, after its darkness beating its waves and its madness was intense.

فَاسْأَلُونِي قَبْلَ أَنْ تَفْقِدُونِي فَوَ الَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَا [تَسْأَلُونَنِي‏] تَسْأَلُونِي عَنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فِيمَا بَيْنَكُمْ وَ بَيْنَ السَّاعَةِ وَ لَا عَنْ فِئَةٍ تَهْدِي مِائَةً وَ تُضِلُّ مِائَةً إِلَّا أَنْبَأْتُكُمْ بِنَاعِقِهَا وَ قَائِدِهَا وَ سَائِقِهَا وَ مُنَاخِ‏ رِكَابِهَا وَ مَحَطِّ رِحَالِهَا وَ مَنْ يُقْتَلُ مِنْ أَهْلِهَا قَتْلًا وَ مَنْ يَمُوتُ مِنْهُمْ مَوْتاً

So, ask me-asws before you lose me-asws! By the One-azwj in Whose hand is my-asws soul! You will not ask me-asws about anything in what is between you and establishment of the Hour, nor about any group during a hundred and straying a hundred, except I-asws shall inform you with its caller, and its leader, and its pusher, and the prevailing conditions of its riders, and stations of its travellers, and who from its people would be killed, and who from them would be dying a (natural) death.

وَ لَوْ قَدْ فَقَدْتُمُونِي وَ نَزَلَتْ بِكُمْ كَرَائِهُ‏ الْأُمُورِ وَ حَوَازِبُ‏ الْخُطُوبِ لَأَطْرَقَ كَثِيرٌ مِنَ السَّائِلِينَ وَ فَشِلَ كَثِيرٌ مِنَ الْمَسْئُولِينَ وَ ذَلِكَ إِذَا قَلَّصَتْ حَرْبُكُمْ‏ وَ شَمَّرَتْ عَنْ سَاقٍ وَ [كَانَتِ‏] ضَاقَتِ الدُّنْيَا عَلَيْكُمْ ضِيقاً تَسْتَطِيلُونَ مَعَهُ أَيَّامَ الْبَلَاءِ عَلَيْكُمْ حَتَّى يَفْتَحَ اللَّهُ لِبَقِيَّةِ الْأَبْرَارِ مِنْكُمْ

And if you were to lose me-asws and abhorrent matters and distressing events befall with you, most of the questioners would lower their heads and most of the ones questioned would fail, and that is when your wars would diminish you, and clothes would be rolled up from a leg (ready for battle), and the world would be straitened upon you, and along with it the days of the afflictions would be prolonged upon you until Allah-azwj Grants victory to the remainder of the righteous ones from you.

إِنَّ الْفِتَنَ إِذَا أَقْبَلَتْ شَبَّهَتْ‏ وَ إِذَا أَدْبَرَتْ نَبَّهَتْ يُنْكَرْنَ مُقْبِلَاتٍ وَ يُعْرَفْنَ مُدْبِرَاتٍ يَحُمْنَ حَوْمَ الرِّيَاحِ يُصِبْنَ بَلَداً وَ يُخْطِئْنَ بَلَداً

Indeed! When the Fitna comes, it is confusing, and when it turns around, it awakens (the people). The perpetrators are deniers during its coming and are recognised when its turns around. They blow around like blowing of the winds, hitting a city, and missing a (another) city.

أَلَا وَ إِنَّ أَخْوَفَ الْفِتَنِ عِنْدِي عَلَيْكُمْ فِتْنَةُ بَنِي أُمَيَّةَ فَإِنَّهَا فِتْنَةٌ عَمْيَاءُ مُظْلِمَةٌ عَمَّتْ خُطَّتُهَا وَ خَصَّتْ بَلِيَّتُهَا- وَ أَصَابَ الْبَلَاءُ مَنْ أَبْصَرَ فِيهَا وَ أَخْطَأَ الْبَلَاءُ مَنْ عَمِيَ عَنْهَا

Indeed! The scariest of Fitna upon you in my-asws view is Fitna of the clan of Umayya, for it is a dark blindness, its outline is general, and its ill-effects are particular, and the affliction will hit the one who is insightful in it, and the affliction would miss the one who is blind from it.

وَ ايْمُ اللَّهِ لَتَجِدُنَّ بَنِي أُمَيَّةَ لَكُمْ أَرْبَابَ سُوءٍ بَعْدِي كَالنَّابِ الضَّرُوسِ‏ تَعْذِمُ بِفِيهَا وَ تَخْبِطُ بِيَدِهَا وَ تَزْبِنُ‏ بِرِجْلِهَا وَ تَمْنَعُ دَرَّهَا لَا يَزَالُونَ بِكُمْ حَتَّى لَا يَتْرُكُوا مِنْكُمْ إِلَّا نَافِعاً لَهُمْ أَوْ غَيْرَ ضَائِرٍ بِهِمْ

And I-asws swear by Allah-azwj! After me-asws, you will be finding the clan of Umayya as evil being evil lords, like old unruly camel biting its mouth, and dragging with its forelegs, and kicking with its hind legs, and refusing its milking. They will not cease to be with you until they do not leave from it except one beneficial to them, or one unharmful to them.

وَ لَا يَزَالُ بَلَاؤُهُمْ عَنْكُمْ حَتَّى لَا يَكُونَ انْتِصَارُ أَحَدِكُمْ مِنْهُمْ إِلَّا [مِثْلَ انْتِصَارِ] كَانْتِصَارِ الْعَبْدِ مِنْ رَبِّهِ وَ الصَّاحِبِ مِنْ مُسْتَصْحِبِهِ تَرِدُ عَلَيْكُمْ فِتْنَتُهُمْ [شَوْهاً] شَوْهَاءَ مَخْشِيَّةً وَ قِطَعاً جَاهِلِيَّةً لَيْسَ فِيهَا مَنَارُ هُدًى وَ لَا عَلَمٌ يُرَى‏ نَحْنُ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ مِنْهَا [بِنَجَاةٍ] بِمَنْجَاةٍ وَ لَسْنَا فِيهَا بِدُعَاةٍ

And their affliction will not cease until a victory from them for one of you does not become except like the victory of the slave from is master, and the owner from his owned. Their Fitna would pass fearful rays upon you and banditry of the pre-Islamic period, neither would there be any minaret of guidance during it nor any flag to be seen. We-asws, People-asws of the Household would be saved from it, and we-asws wouldn’t be with any calling during it.

ثُمَّ يُفَرِّجُهَا اللَّهُ عَنْكُمْ كَتَفْرِيجِ الْأَدِيمِ‏ بِمَنْ يَسُومُهُمْ خَسْفاً وَ يَسُوقُهُمْ عُنْفاً وَ يَسْقِيهِمْ بِكَأْسٍ مُصَبَّرَةٍ لَا يُعْطِيهِمْ إِلَّا السَّيْفَ وَ لَا يُحْلِسُهُمْ‏ إِلَّا الْخَوْفَ

Then Allah-azwj would Relieve it from you like the removal of the leather skin, by the one-asws brand them with abjection, and drag them by their noses, and make them drink the cup of combat. He-asws will not give them except the sword, nor will clothe them except with the fear.

فَعِنْدَ ذَلِكَ تَوَدُّ قُرَيْشٌ بِالدُّنْيَا وَ مَا فِيهَا لَوْ يَرَوْنَنِي مَقَاماً وَاحِداً وَ لَوْ قَدْرَ جَزْرِ جَزُورٍ لِأَقْبَلَ مِنْهُمْ مَا أَطْلُبُ الْيَوْمَ بَعْضَهُ فَلَا [يُعْطُونَنِيهِ‏] يُعْطُونِيهِ‏

During that, Quraysh would love, in exchange for the (whole) world and whatever is in it, if they could only see me-asws in one place, and even if it was the measurement of sacrificing an animal, to accept from them everything, what I-asws am seeking of only part of it today and they are not giving me-asws’.[35]

The future state of the people

و منها فِتَنٌ كَقِطَعِ اللَّيْلِ الْمُظْلِمِ‏ لَا تَقُومُ لَهَا قَائِمَةٌ وَ لَا تُرَدُّ لَهَا رَايَةٌ تَأْتِيكُمْ مَزْمُومَةً مَرْحُولَةً يَحْفِزُهَا قَائِدُهَا وَ يَجْهَدُهَا رَاكِبُهَا أَهْلُهَا قَوْمٌ شَدِيدٌ كَلَبُهُمْ‏ قَلِيلٌ سَلَبُهُمْ‏

And from it – ‘Fitna like a piece of the dark night. Neither will a standing one stand up to it nor will any flag return it. It would come to you reined, saddled. Its guides would be stirring these and its riders exerting them. Its people would be of hard hearts, little of pity.

يُجَاهِدُهُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ قَوْمٌ أَذِلَّةٌ عِنْدَ الْمُتَكَبِّرِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ مَجْهُولُونَ وَ فِي السَّمَاءِ مَعْرُوفُونَ فَوَيْلٌ لَكِ يَا بَصْرَةُ عِنْدَ ذَلِكِ مِنْ جَيْشٍ مِنْ نِقَمِ اللَّهِ لَا رَهَجَ‏ لَهُ وَ لَا حَسَ‏ وَ سَيُبْتَلَى أَهْلُكِ بِالْمَوْتِ الْأَحْمَرِ وَ الْجُوعِ الْأَغْبَرِ

They would be fighting against by a people considered humble in the presence of the arrogant. They would be unknown in the earth and well known in the sky. Woe be unto you, O Basra, during that from an army being a Revenge of Allah-azwj. Neither will there be any dust for it nor sound, and your inhabitants would be afflicted with the red death and the severe hunger’.[36]

إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ يُسَنِّي لَكُمْ طُرُقَهُ‏ وَ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَحُلَّ دِينَكُمْ عُقْدَةً عُقْدَةً وَ يُعْطِيَكُمْ بِالْجَمَاعَةِ الْفُرْقَةَ وَ بِالْفُرْقَةِ الْفِتْنَةَ فَاصْدِفُوا عَنْ نَزَغَاتِهِ‏ وَ نَفَثَاتِهِ وَ اقْبَلُوا النَّصِيحَةَ مِمَّنْ أَهْدَاهَا إِلَيْكُمْ وَ اعْقِلُوهَا عَلَى أَنْفُسِكُمْ‏

(Amir ul Momineen-asws said) Surely the Satan-la has enacted his-la paths to you and he-la wants to loosen your religion, knot by knot, and give you the sects instead of the community, and the Fitna with the sects. So, stay away from his-la snatching and his-asws whisperings, and accept the advice from the one who gifts it to you, and understand it upon yourselves’ (An extract).[37]

The cautioning from the Fitna

ثُمَّ إِنَّكُمْ مَعْشَرَ الْعَرَبِ أَغْرَاضُ بَلَايَا قَدِ اقْتَرَبَتْ فَاتَّقُوا سَكَرَاتِ النِّعْمَةِ وَ احْذَرُوا بَوَائِقَ‏ النِّقْمَةِ وَ تَثَبَّتُوا فِي قَتَامِ الْعِشْوَةِ وَ اعْوِجَاجِ الْفِتْنَةِ عِنْدَ طُلُوعِ جَنِينِهَا وَ ظُهُورِ كَمِينِهَا وَ انْتِصَابِ قُطْبِهَا وَ مَدَارِ رَحَاهَا

‘Then you, community of Arabs, are the aim of calamities which have drawn near, therefore fear the intoxication of the bounties (wealth), and be cautioned with the punishment to befall, and be steadfast during the darkness of austerity, and crookedness of the Fitna during the emergence of its foetus (birth), and appearance of its snares, and its axis is installed, and its mills (begin to) rotate.

تَبْدَأُ فِي مَدَارِجَ خَفِيَّةٍ وَ تَئُولُ إِلَى فَظَاعَةٍ جَلِيَّةٍ شِبَابُهَا كَشِبَابِ الْغُلَامِ وَ آثَارُهَا كَآثَارِ السِّلَامِ‏ يَتَوَارَثُهَا الظَّلَمَةُ بِالْعُهُودِ أَوَّلُهُمْ قَائِدٌ لِآخِرِهِمْ وَ آخِرُهُمْ مُقْتَدٍ بِأَوَّلِهِمْ

It begins in hidden steps and develops into a manifest atrocity. Its youthfulness is like the youthfulness of the adolescent boy and its impacts are like the impacts of peace (and harmony). The oppressors inherit it by the agreements, their first one being a guide to their last one, and their last one being led by their first one.

يَتَنَافَسُونَ فِي دُنْيَا دَنِيَّةٍ وَ يَتَكَالَبُونَ عَلَى جِيفَةٍ مُرِيحَةٍ وَ عَنْ قَلِيلٍ يَتَبَرَّأُ التَّابِعُ مِنَ الْمَتْبُوعِ وَ الْقَائِدُ مِنَ الْمَقُودِ فَيَتَزَايَلُونَ‏ بِالْبَغْضَاءِ وَ يَتَلَاعَنُونَ عِنْدَ اللِّقَاءِ

They are competing regarding a lowly world and are leaping upon a stinking carcass, and after a little while the follower will disavow from the followed, and the leader from the led. They will separate with the hatred (for each other) and will be curing during the meeting.

ثُمَّ يَأْتِي بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ طَالِعُ الْفِتْنَةِ الرَّجُوفِ‏ وَ الْقَاصِمَةِ الزَّحُوفِ فَتَزِيغُ قُلُوبٌ بَعْدَ اسْتِقَامَةٍ وَ تَضِلُّ رِجَالٌ بَعْدَ سَلَامَةٍ وَ تَخْتَلِفُ الْأَهْوَاءُ عِنْدَ هُجُومِهَا وَ تَلْتَبِسُ الْآرَاءُ عِنْدَ نُجُومِهَا-

Then, after that will arrive the rising Fitna, the shockwave, and the crushing ruination. The hearts will deviate after having been straight and men will stray after safety, and the personal desires will differ at its gathering, and the opinions will be confused at its peak.

مَنْ أَشْرَفَ لَهَا قَصَمَتْهُ وَ مَنْ سَعَى فِيهَا حَطَمَتْهُ يَتَكَادَمُونَ‏ فِيهَا تَكَادُمَ الْحُمُرِ فِي الْعَانَةِ قَدِ اضْطَرَبَ مَعْقُودُ الْحَبْلِ وَ عَمِيَ وَجْهُ الْأَمْرِ تَغِيضُ‏ فِيهَا الْحِكْمَةُ وَ تَنْطِقُ فِيهَا الظَّلَمَةُ

One who approaches towards it, it would shatter him, and one who strives in it, and it would crush him. They will bruise each other during it like the bruising by the donkeys in the herd enclosure. The twists of the rope would be restless, and the faces of the affairs would be blinded. The wise ones would diminish during it and the oppressors would be speaking during it.

وَ تَدُقُ‏ أَهْلَ الْبَدْوِ بِمِسْحَلِهَا وَ تَرُضُّهُمْ‏ بِكَلْكَلِهَا يَضِيعُ فِي غُبَارِهَا الْوُحْدَانُ‏ وَ يَهْلِكُ فِي طَرِيقِهَا الرُّكْبَانُ تَرِدُ بِمُرِّ الْقَضَاءِ وَ تَحْلُبُ عَبِيطَ الدِّمَاءِ وَ تَثْلِمُ مَنَارَ الدِّينِ‏ وَ تَنْقُضُ عَقْدَ الْيَقِينِ

The Bedouins will be pounded by its hammers and crushed by all of it. The lone marchers will be wasted in its dust and the riders would be destroyed in its path. It will arrive with bitterness of the Decree and exude blood (instead of) milk, and the minarets of religion would be dented, and the ties of certainty will be broken.

يَهْرُبُ مِنْهَا الْأَكْيَاسُ‏ وَ يُدَبِّرُهَا الْأَرْجَاسُ‏ مِرْعَادٌ مِبْرَاقٌ كَاشِفَةٌ عَنْ سَاقٍ تُقْطَعُ فِيهَا الْأَرْحَامُ وَ يُفَارَقُ عَلَيْهَا الْإِسْلَامُ بَرِيئُهَا سَقِيمٌ وَ ظَاعِنُهَا مُقِيمٌ‏

The clever will flee from it and the evil ones will manage it, thundering, flashing (like lightning), uncovering from a leg. The kinship would be terminated during it and Al-Islam would be separated upon it. Its healthy one would be sick (affected) and its thoughtful one would stay’.

منها- بَيْنَ قَتِيلٍ مَطْلُولٍ‏  وَ خَائِفٍ مُسْتَجِيرٍ يَخْتِلُونَ‏ بِعَقْدِ الْأَيْمَانِ وَ بِغُرُورِ الْإِيمَانِ فَلَا تَكُونُوا أَنْصَابَ‏ الْفِتَنِ وَ أَعْلَامَ الْبِدَعِ- وَ الْزَمُوا مَا عُقِدَ عَلَيْهِ حَبْلُ الْجَمَاعَةِ وَ بُنِيَتْ عَلَيْهِ أَرْكَانُ الطَّاعَةِ وَ اقْدَمُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ مَظْلُومِينَ وَ لَا تَقْدَمُوا عَلَيْهِ ظَالِمِينَ

And from it: ‘Between the un-avenged slain ones and the sheltered fearful ones, they will be confused by the ties of oaths, and deceptive beliefs. So, do not become monuments of Fitna and flags of innovations, and stick to what the rope of unity is tied upon, and elements of obedience are built upon, and proceed to Allah-azwj as oppressed, and do not proceed to Him-asws as oppressors.

وَ اتَّقُوا مَدَارِجَ الشَّيْطَانِ وَ مَهَابِطَ الْعُدْوَانِ وَ لَا تُدْخِلُوا بُطُونَكُمْ لُعَقَ‏ الْحَرَامِ فَإِنَّكُمْ بِعَيْنِ‏ مَنْ حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَعْصِيَةَ وَ سَهَّلَ لَكُمْ سُبُلَ الطَّاعَةِ

And fear the encroachments of Satan-la and places of aggression, and do not insert into your bellies Prohibited morsels for you are in the Eye (surveillance) of the One-azwj who has Prohibited the acts of disobedience upon you and has Eased for you the ways of obedience’.[38]

People‑asws of the Household and the way of the people of Fitna

وَ نَاظِرُ قَلْبِ‏ اللَّبِيبِ بِهِ يُبْصِرُ أَمَدَهُ وَ يَعْرِفُ غَوْرَهُ‏ وَ نَجْدَهُ‏

‘A consideration of a heart of the understanding one, he would be insightful by it of his purpose, and he would recognise his low point and his high point.

دَاعٍ دَعَا وَ رَاعٍ رَعَى فَاسْتَجِيبُوا لِلدَّاعِي وَ اتَّبِعُوا الرَّاعِيَ

The caller has called, and the shepherd is pasturing, so answer to the caller, and follow the shepherd.

قَدْ خَاضُوا بِحَارَ الْفِتَنِ وَ أَخَذُوا بِالْبِدَعِ دُونَ السُّنَنِ وَ أَرَزَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَ نَطَقَ الضَّالُّونَ الْمُكَذِّبُونَ

They have splashed into the oceans of Fitna (strife), and they have taken with the innovations besides the Sunnah, and the Momineen are silent, and the straying ones, the liars are talking.

نَحْنُ الشِّعَارُ وَ الْأَصْحَابُ وَ الْخَزَنَةُ وَ الْأَبْوَابُ وَ لَا تُؤْتَى الْبُيُوتُ إِلَّا مِنْ أَبْوَابِهَا فَمَنْ أَتَاهَا مِنْ غَيْرِ أَبْوَابِهَا سُمِّيَ سَارِقاً

We-asws are the near of kin and the companions (of Rasool-Allah-saww), and treasurers of the doors (of knowledge), and the houses cannot be accessed except from their doors. So, the one comes to them from other than their doors, he is named as a thief’.

منها- فِيهِمْ كَرَائِمُ‏ الْقُرْآنِ وَ هُمْ كُنُوزُ الرَّحْمَنِ إِنْ نَطَقُوا صَدَقُوا وَ إِنْ صَمَتُوا لَمْ يُسْبَقُوا

From it – ‘Regarding them-asws are the honours of the Quran, and they-asws are the treasures of the Beneficent. If they-asws speak, they are truthful, and if they-asws are silent, they would not be preceded (in speaking).

فَلْيَصْدُقْ رَائِدٌ أَهْلَهُ وَ لْيُحْضِرْ عَقْلَهُ وَ لْيَكُنْ مِنْ أَبْنَاءِ الْآخِرَةِ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهَا قَدِمَ وَ إِلَيْهَا يَنْقَلِبُ‏

Let him be truthful of the view of his people, and let him caution his intellect, and let him become from the sons of the Hereafter for he has arrived from it and will be returning to it.

فَالنَّاظِرُ بِالْقَلْبِ الْعَامِلُ بِالْبَصَرِ يَكُونُ مُبْتَدَأُ عَمَلِهِ أَنْ يَعْلَمَ أَ عَمَلُهُ عَلَيْهِ أَمْ لَهُ فَإِنْ كَانَ لَهُ مَضَى فِيهِ وَ إِنْ كَانَ عَلَيْهِ وَقَفَ عَنْهُ فَإِنَّ الْعَامِلَ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ كَالسَّائِرِ عَلَى غَيْرِ طَرِيقٍ فَلَا يَزِيدُهُ بُعْدُهُ عَنِ الطَّرِيقِ الْوَاضِحِ إِلَّا بُعْداً مِنْ حَاجَتِهِ وَ الْعَامِلُ بِالْعِلْمِ كَالسَّائِرِ عَلَى الطَّرِيقِ الْوَاضِحِ فَلْيَنْظُرْ نَاظِرٌ أَ سَائِرٌ هُوَ أَمْ رَاجِعٌ

The onlooker is with insight with the heart of the worker. He will begin his work if he knows whether his work is against him or for it? So, if it was for him, he would continue in it, and if it was against him, he would pause from it. The worker without knowledge is like the traveller upon another (wrong) road, so his remoteness from the road will not increase him except in remoteness, while the worker with knowledge is like a traveller upon the clear path. So, let the onlooker see, should he travel, or should he return?

وَ اعْلَمْ أَنَّ لِكُلِّ ظَاهِرٍ بَاطِناً عَلَى مِثَالِهِ فَمَا طَابَ ظَاهِرُهُ طَابَ بَاطِنُهُ وَ مَا خَبُثَ ظَاهِرُهُ خَبُثَ بَاطِنُهُ وَ قَدْ قَالَ الرَّسُولُ الصَّادِقُ ص إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْعَبْدَ وَ يُبْغِضُ عَمَلَهُ وَ يُحِبُّ الْعَمَلَ وَ يُبْغِضُ بَدَنَهُ

And know, that forever apparent, there is an esoteric upon the like of it. So, whatever, its apparent is good, its esoteric is good, and whatever, its apparent is wicked, its esoteric is wicked, and the truthful Rasool-saww has said: ‘Allah-azwj Loves the servant and Hates his deed, and He-azwj Loves the deed and Hates his body’.

وَ اعْلَمْ أَنَّ لِكُلِّ عَمَلٍ نَبَاتاً وَ كُلُّ نَبَاتٍ لَا غِنَى بِهِ عَنِ الْمَاءِ وَ الْمِيَاهُ مُخْتَلِفَةٌ فَمَا طَابَ سَقْيُهُ طَابَ غَرْسُهُ وَ حَلَتْ ثَمَرَتُهُ وَ مَا خَبُثَ سَقْيُهُ خَبُثَ غَرْسُهُ وَ أَمَرَّتْ ثَمَرَتُهُ‏

And know that for every deed there is a plant, and each plant cannot be needless from the water, and the waters are various. So, whatever its quenching is good, plant it, and sweet would be its fruit, and whatever its quenching is bad, bad would be its planting, and bitter would be its fruits’.[39]

A Questioner asked about Fitna:

و قام إليه رجل فقال: يا أمير المؤمنين، أخبرنا عن الفتنة، و هل سألت رسول اللّه- صلى اللّه عليه و آله عنها

‘A man stood up. He said, ‘O Amir Al-Momineen-asws. He said, ‘Inform us about the Fitna, and had Rasool-Allah-saww, may the Salawaat of Allah-azwj be upon him-asws and his-saww Progeny-asws, been asked about it?’

فقال عليه السلام: إِنَّهُ لَمَّا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ سُبْحَانَهُ قَوْلَهُ- الم أَ حَسِبَ النَّاسُ أَنْ يُتْرَكُوا أَنْ يَقُولُوا آمَنَّا وَ هُمْ لا يُفْتَنُونَ‏ عَلِمْتُ أَنَّ الْفِتْنَةَ لَا تَنْزِلُ بِنَا وَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص بَيْنَ أَظْهُرِنَا

‘He-asws said: ‘When Allah-azwj the Glorious Revealed His-azwj Words: Do the people reckon that they will be left alone on saying, ‘We believe’, and they will not be Tried? [29:2], I-asws knew that the Fitna will not be declining from us, while Rasool-Allah-saww was between our midst.

فَقُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ مَا هَذِهِ الْفِتْنَةُ الَّتِي أَخْبَرَكَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى بِهَا

I-asws said: ‘O Rasool-Allah-saww! What is this Fitna which Allah-azwj has Informed with?’

فَقَالَ يَا عَلِيُّ إِنَّ أُمَّتِي سَيُفْتَنُونَ بَعْدِي

He-saww said: ‘O Ali-asws! My-saww community will be creating Fitna after me-saww’.

فَقُلْتُ يَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ أَ وَ لَيْسَ قَدْ قُلْتَ لِي يَوْمَ أُحُدٍ حَيْثُ اسْتُشْهِدَ مَنِ اسْتُشْهِدَ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَ حِيزَتْ‏ عَنِّي الشَّهَادَةُ فَشَقَّ ذَلِكَ عَلَيَّ فَقُلْتَ لِي أَبْشِرْ فَإِنَّ الشَّهَادَةَ مِنْ وَرَائِكَ

I-asws said: ‘O Rasool-Allah-saww or hadn’t you-saww said to me-asws on the day of Ohad when they were martyred, the ones who had been martyred from the Muslims, and the martyrdom was kept away from me-asws, so that was grievous upon me-asws. So you-saww had said: ‘Receive glad tidings, for the martyrdom is right behind you’.

فَقَالَ لِي إِنَّ ذَلِكَ لَكَذَلِكَ فَكَيْفَ صَبْرُكَ إِذاً فَقُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ لَيْسَ هَذَا مِنْ مَوَاطِنِ الصَّبْرِ وَ لَكِنْ مِنْ مَوَاطِنِ الْبُشْرَى وَ الشُّكْرِ

He-saww said to me-asws: ‘That is like that, so how will your-asws patience be then?’ I-asws said: ‘O Rasool-Allah-saww! This isn’t from the places of patience, but from the places of glad tidings and gratefulness’.

وَ قَالَ يَا عَلِيُّ إِنَّ الْقَوْمَ سَيُفْتَنُونَ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَ يَمُنُّونَ بِدِينِهِمْ عَلَى رَبِّهِمْ وَ يَتَمَنَّوْنَ رَحْمَتَهُ وَ يَأْمَنُونَ سَطْوَتَهُ وَ يَسْتَحِلُّونَ حَرَامَهُ بِالشُّبُهَاتِ الْكَاذِبَةِ وَ الْأَهْوَاءِ السَّاهِيَةِ فَيَسْتَحِلُّونَ الْخَمْرَ بِالنَّبِيذِ وَ السُّحْتَ بِالْهَدِيَّةِ وَ الرِّبَا بِالْبَيْعِ

And he-saww said: ‘O Ali-asws! The people will be tempted with the wealth, and they will (think) they are conferring a favour with their religion upon their Lord-azwj, and they are wishing for His-azwj Mercy, and are feeling safe from His-azwj Punishment, and they are permitting His-azwj Prohibition with the false suspicions and deceptive whims. So they permitted the wine through Al-Nabeez, and the ill-gotten gains as the gifts, and the interest as the selling (money)’.

قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَبِأَيِّ الْمَنَازِلِ أُنْزِلُهُمْ عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ أَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ رِدَّةٍ أَمْ بِمَنْزِلَةِ فِتْنَةٍ

I-asws said: ‘O Rasool-Allah-saww! So, at which status should I-asws status them during that, is it as the status of apostasy or the status of Fitna?’

فَقَالَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ فِتْنَةٍ

He-saww said: ‘At the status of Fitna’.[40]

Cautioning people from Fitna:

أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ أَلْقُوا هَذِهِ الْأَزِمَّةَ الَّتِي تَحْمِلُ ظُهُورُهَا الْأَثْقَالَ مِنْ أَيْدِيكُمْ وَ لَا تَصَدَّعُوا عَلَى سُلْطَانِكُمْ فَتَذُمُّوا غِبَّ فِعَالِكُمْ وَ لَا تَقْتَحِمُوا مَا اسْتَقْبَلْتُمْ مِنْ فَوْرِ نَارِ الْفِتْنَةِ وَ أَمِيطُوا عَنْ سَنَنِهَا وَ خَلُّوا قَصْدَ السَّبِيلِ‏ لَهَا فَقَدْ لَعَمْرِي يَهْلِكُ فِي لَهَبِهَا الْمُؤْمِنُ وَ يَسْلَمُ فِيهَا غَيْرُ الْمُسْلِمِ

O you people! Cast off these reins which are carrying on its back the load from your hands (sins). Do not split away from your ruling authority for you will condemn the stupidity of your own deeds, not storm into what is facing you from the bursting flames of Fitna and take yourself away from its teeth and vacate the way for it, so by my-asws life! The Momin would be destroyed in its flames and other Muslims would be safe in it.

‏ إِنَّمَا مَثَلِي بَيْنَكُمْ كَمَثَلِ السِّرَاجِ فِي الظُّلْمَةِ يَسْتَضِي‏ءُ بِهِ مَنْ وَلَجَهَا فَاسْمَعُوا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ وَ عُوا وَ أَحْضِرُوا آذَانَ قُلُوبِكُمْ تَفْهَمُوا

But rather, my-asws example among you is an example of the lamp in the darkness. One who enters it would be illuminated by it, therefore listen, O you people, and retain, and present the ears of your hearts, you will understand!’[41]

وَ قَالَ ع‏ مَا كُلُّ مَفْتُونٍ يُعَاتَبُ‏

And heasws said: ‘Not everyone captivated (by the Fitna) can be faulted’’.[42]

Also, in another sermon Amir ul-Momineen-asws said:

أَلَا إِنَّ الدُّنْيَا دَارٌ لَا يُسْلَمُ مِنْهَا إِلَّا فِيهَا وَ لَا يُنْجَى بِشَيْ‏ءٍ كَانَ لَهَا ابْتُلِيَ النَّاسُ بِهَا فِتْنَةً فَمَا أَخَذُوهُ مِنْهَا لَهَا أُخْرِجُوا مِنْهُ وَ حُوسِبُوا عَلَيْهِ وَ مَا أَخَذُوهُ مِنْهَا لِغَيْرِهَا قَدِمُوا عَلَيْهِ وَ أَقَامُوا فِيهِ

‘Indeed, and the world is a house no one is safe from it except in it, nor can he be rescued by anything which was (done) for it. The people are Tried in it with Fitna, so whatever they are taking from it, there is an extraction for it from him, and he will be Reckoning upon it, and whatever they take from it for other, they will go ahead upon it and will be staying in it.

فَإِنَّهَا عِنْدَ ذَوِي الْعُقُولِ كَفَيْ‏ءِ الظِّلِّ بَيْنَا تَرَاهُ سَابِغاً حَتَّى قَلَصَ وَ زَائِداً حَتَّى نَقَصَ‏.

In the view of the ones with intellect, the shade suffices as an explanation. You see it spreading until it diminishes and increases until it reduces’.[43]

Scholars are at the risk of being ruined from the Fitna

إِنَّمَا بَدْءُ وُقُوعِ الْفِتَنِ أَهْوَاءٌ تُتَّبَعُ وَ أَحْكَامٌ تُبْتَدَعُ يُخَالَفُ فِيهَا كِتَابُ اللَّهِ وَ يَتَوَلَّى عَلَيْهَا رِجَالٌ رِجَالًا عَلَى غَيْرِ دِينِ اللَّهِ

‘But rather the Fitna (strife) begins when the desires are followed, and the Ordinances are innovated, wherein the Book of Allah-azwj is opposed, and the men govern the men over it upon changing the Religion of Allah-azwj.

فَلَوْ أَنَّ الْبَاطِلَ خَلَصَ مِنْ مِزَاجِ الْحَقِّ لَمْ يَخْفَ عَلَى الْمُرْتَادِينَ‏ وَ لَوْ أَنَّ الْحَقَّ خَلَصَ مِنْ لَبْسِ الْبَاطِلِ انْقَطَعَتْ عَنْهُ أَلْسُنُ الْمُعَانِدِينَ وَ لَكِنْ يُؤْخَذُ مِنْ هَذَا ضِغْثٌ‏ وَ مِنْ هَذَا ضِغْثٌ فَيُمْزَجَانِ فَهُنَالِكَ يَسْتَوْلِي الشَّيْطَانُ عَلَى أَوْلِيَائِهِ وَ يَنْجُو الَّذِينَ سَبَقَتْ لَهُمْ‏ مِنَ اللَّهِ‏ الْحُسْنى‏

If the falsehood was pure from being mixed with the Truth, there would have been no fear upon the seekers of the realities; and if the Truth had been pure from being clad in the falsehood, the tongues of the obstinate ones would have been cut off from it. But a handful is grabbed from this, and a handful from this, and these are mixed up. Thus, over here, the Satan-la overcomes upon his-la friends, and (only) those get saved, for whom the goodly end has preceded from Allah-azwj’.[44]

An additional Hadith is quoted below in Appendix IV which covers that situation when one has to defend himself, his family and belongings.

Appendix IV: Only Resistance for self-defence is allowed in our time

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِنَّ رَجُلًا مِنْ مَوَالِيكَ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ رَجُلًا يُعْطِي السَّيْفَ وَ الْفَرَسَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَأَتَاهُ فَأَخَذَهُمَا مِنْهُ وَ هُوَ جَاهِلٌ بِوَجْهِ السَّبِيلِ ثُمَّ لَقِيَهُ أَصْحَابُهُ فَأَخْبَرُوهُ أَنَّ السَّبِيلَ مَعَ هَؤُلَاءِ لَا يَجُوزُ وَ أَمَرُوهُ بِرَدِّهِمَا فَقَالَ فَلْيَفْعَلْ

Ali Bin Ibrahim, from Muhammad Bin Isa, from Yunus, from;

Abu Al-Hassan Al-Reza-asws, said, ‘I said to him-asws, ‘May I be sacrificed for you-asws! A man from the ones in your-asws Wilayah, news reached him that a man is giving away the sword and the horse in the Way of Allah-azwj. So he went over to him and took these two from him, and he was ignorant of the aspects of the Way (Jihad). Then he met his companion who informed him that the Way (Jihad) with them is not allowed, and instructed him with returning these two’. So he-asws said: ‘So let him do it’.

قَالَ قَدْ طَلَبَ الرَّجُلَ فَلَمْ يَجِدْهُ وَ قِيلَ لَهُ قَدْ شَخَصَ الرَّجُلُ قَالَ فَلْيُرَابِطْ وَ لَا يُقَاتِلْ قَالَ فَفِي مِثْلِ قَزْوِينَ وَ الدَّيْلَمِ وَ عَسْقَلَانَ وَ مَا أَشْبَهَ هَذِهِ الثُّغُورَ فَقَالَ نَعَمْ فَقَالَ لَهُ يُجَاهِدُ قَالَ لَا إِلَّا أَنْ يَخَافَ عَلَى ذَرَارِيِّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ [فَقَالَ] أَ رَأَيْتَكَ لَوْ أَنَّ الرُّومَ دَخَلُوا عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِينَ لَمْ يَنْبَغِ لَهُمْ أَنْ يَمْنَعُوهُمْ قَالَ يُرَابِطُ وَ لَا يُقَاتِلُ وَ إِنْ خَافَ عَلَى بَيْضَةِ الْإِسْلَامِ وَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ قَاتَلَ فَيَكُونُ قِتَالُهُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَ لَيْسَ لِلسُّلْطَانِ

He said, ‘He sought the man, but did not find him, and it was said to him, ‘The man has left’. He-asws said: ‘So let him be stationed (somewhere) and he should not fight’. He said, ‘So in (places) similar to Qazween, and Al-Daylam, and Asqalaan, and what resembles these border areas’. So he-asws said: ‘Yes’. So he said to him-asws, ‘Can he fight?’ He-asws said: ‘No, except if there is a fear upon the Muslim offsprings’. So he said, ‘What is your-asws view, if the Romans were to enter upon (attack) the Muslims, would it not be befitting for him to prevent them?’ He-asws said: ‘He should be stationed there and he should not fight. And if he were to fear upon the assets of Al-Islam and the Muslims, he can fight, so his fighting would happen to be for himself, and it would not be for the ruling authorities (i.e., a king or a caliph)’.

قَالَ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ جَاءَ الْعَدُوُّ إِلَى الْمَوْضِعِ الَّذِي هُوَ فِيهِ مُرَابِطٌ كَيْفَ يَصْنَعُ قَالَ يُقَاتِلُ عَنْ بَيْضَةِ الْإِسْلَامِ لَا عَنْ هَؤُلَاءِ لِأَنَّ فِي دُرُوسِ الْإِسْلَامِ دُرُوسَ دِينِ مُحَمَّدٍ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) .

He (the narrator) said, ‘I said, ‘Supposing if the enemies were to come over to the place in which he was stationed, how should he react?’ He-asws said: ‘He should fight about the eggs (assets) of Al-Islam, not about them, because in the extinction of Al-Islam is the extinction of the Religion of Muhammad-saww’.[45]

[1] of Imam-e-Zamana-ajfj

[2] الكافي 8: 295/ 452.

[3] Bihar Al Anwaar – V 23, The book of Imamate, P 3 Ch 3 H 15

[4] [4] Bihar Al Anwaar – V 33, The book of Fitna (Strife) And Ordeals, Ch 23 H 599

[5] Mishkat ul-Anwar fi Ghurar al-Akhbar, H. 782.

[6] Nahj Al Balagah – Saying 369

[7] Nahj Al Balagah – Saying 1

[8] Nahj Al Balagah – Saying 93

[9] As Rasool Allah-saww reconciled and signed treaties with non-believers and agreed on Jaziya (tax)

[10] Al Kafi – H 14691

[11] Blind following

[12] Al Mahaasin – V 1 Bk 5 H 74

[13] Bihar Al Anwaar – V 33, The book of Fitna (Strife) And Ordeals, Ch 23 H 599

[14] Mohammed ibn Abdullah Mohsin ibn Hassan Mussanna ibn al-Hassanasws ibn Aliasws ibn Abi Talibasws.

[15] Bihar-ul-Anwar, vol. 52, pg. 189                            بحارالأنوار ج : 52 ص : 189

[16] الكافي ج : 1 ص : 343, H. 28

[17]                         بحار الأنوار (ط – بيروت)، ج‏52، ص: 139, h, 45

[18] The 12 Infallible Imams-asws

[19] الكافي ج : 1 ص : 336, H. 3

[20] Bihar Al-Anwaar, vol. 75

[21] Mishkat ul-Anwar fi Ghurar al-Akhbar, H. 402.

[22] Mishkat ul-Anwar fi Ghurar al-Akhbar, H. 538.

 

[23] He is either wrong or not deserving of your support

[24] قرب الإسناد (ط – الحديثة) ؛ النص ؛ ص55

[25] Al Kafi V 2 – The Book Of Belief and Disbelief CH 11 H 3

[26] Taweel Al Ayaat Al Zaahira – P 192 H 4

[27] Nahj Al Balagah – Sermon No. 5

[28] Nahj Al Balagah – Sermon No. 17

[29] Nahj Al Balagah – Sermon No. 23

[30] Bihar Al Anwaar – V 51 The book of History – Imam Al Mahdiajtf, Ch 6 H 37 / 26

[31] Bihar Al Anwaar – V 51 The book of History – Imam Al Mahdiajtf, Ch 6 H 37 / 27

[32] Bihar Al Anwaar – V 51 The book of History – Imam Al Mahdi-ajfj, Ch 6 H 37 / 32

[33] Bihar Al Anwaar – V 51 The book of History – Imam Al Mahdi-ajfj, Ch 6 H 37 / 33

[34] The Book of Sulaym Bin Qays Al-Hilali, Hadith 17

[35] Nahj Al Balagah – Sermon No. 93

[36] Nahj Al Balagah – Sermon No. 102

[37] Nahj Al Balagah – Sermon No. 121

[38] Nahj Al Balagah – Sermon No. 151

[39] Nahj Al Balagah – Sermon No. 154

[40] Nahj Al Balagah – Sermon No. 156

[41] Nahj Al Balagah – Sermon No. 187

[42] Nahj Al Balagah – Saying 15

[43] Nahj Al Balagah – Sermon No. 63

[44] Nahj Al Balagah – Sermon No. 50

[45] Al Kafi – V 5 – The Book of Jihaad Ch 5 H 2