Jihad During Occultation of Imam (asws) ajtf)

Summary:

Jihad means to strive and is broadly divided into two types, the major Jihad and the minor Jihad.  The Major Jihad is to suppress the desires of disobedience to Allah-azwj.  Amir-ul-Momineen-asws has defined the following four branches of Jihad: (1) to help others in performing their duties; (2) to stay away from that which is prohibited; (3) to speak the truth whenever needed and (4) to turn away from sins and sinners.

The ‘Minor’ Jihad, the armed struggle, is not permissible without the Guidance of a Just Imam-asws, unless one is compelled to protect himself and his belongings.  For women, there is no Minor Jihad, equivalent to that of a man. A lady’s Jihad is to bear difficulties she faces in pleasing her husband and if she dies any time after conceiving until she stops feeding her baby, she gets the reward of a martyred.

During the time of occultation of Imam-ajfj, the followers of Ahlul Bayt-asws are instructed to observe Taqqiya, remain quiet, without involving in government/political struggles and wait until there is a call from the Skies and the earth shows signs of splitting-up.  An armed struggle in the leadership of a non-masoom leader is disbelief, i.e., consuming dead animals, blood and pork for food.  Infallible Imams-asws after the Martyrdom of Imam Hussain-asws, as per Divine Instructions, did not support any uprising against the unjust rulers of their-asws time, although they-asws were very well aware of cruel and un-Islamic practices of the governors of Bani Ummaid and Bani Abbas dynasties, ruling over the Muslim land.  Instead, they-asws discouraged their-asws followers in taking part in such struggles and instructed them to wait for the coming of the ‘Saviour-ajfj’, who will appear at a specific time in the future.

The followers of Ahlul Bayt-asws are, therefore, commanded to wait until the ‘Zahoor’ of the last ‘Hujjat of Allah-ajfj’, without getting involved in forming governments and/or taking part in uprisings.  They will be protected and given sustenance, as promised by Allah-azwj and their rights will also be safeguarded by Allah-azwj, by making their enemies fighting against each other, without paying any attention to them.  The followers of Ahlul Bayt-asws are asked to live like a ‘al-Muwat’ (motionless)[1]. They are, however advised to prepare themselves for joining in the Rising of ‘al-Qaim-ajfj’ while leading a quiet life and adopting solitude.  And wait until there is a call from the skies and visible cracking of the earth takes place. At that time, the devout followers will need to submit themselves to the ‘Hujjat Allah-ajfj’, even if they have to crawl all the way to Mecca.  However, a large proportion of twelve Imami shias will turn against the Imam-e-Zaman-ajfj and will object to his Divine authority by saying: ‘He-ajfj has brought a New Book and a New Religion.[2]  After successfully eliminating the opponents and establishing the Divine Laws, a subsequent period, called ‘Al-Rajjat’, will start.  During Al-Rajjat both believers as well as non-believers will be resurrected. Amir-ul-Momineen-asws says: “I will come again and again in Al-Rajjat”. For the followers of Ahlul Bayt-asws ‘Momineen’ the time of ‘Al-Rajjat’ will be extremely important, among other blessings, all Momineen will achieve martyrdom; if they have died due to natural causes before Al-Rajjat, they will achieve Martyrdom in ‘al-Al-Rajjat’ but if they were killed in their lives before Al-Rajjat, they will die their natural death during the ‘Al-Rajjat’.

Introduction:

A lot has been written about Jihad, particularly after the recent terrorist attacks in the name of Jihad, which has gravely shamed Muslims living all around the Globe. In this article more emphasis is placed on our conduct directly or indirectly in various forms of Jihad under specific conditions, pertinent to the Grand Occultation of our Divine Imam-ajfj. However, some background information was necessary in reference to those Quranic Verses and historical events, as per quoted in the Ahadith of Masomeen-asws, when ‘Jihad’ in its true ‘holy-war’ sense was legitimately practised.

The word ‘Jihad’ has been mentioned in 164 Verses of Holy Quran, in Arabic language it literally means, ‘to strive, to struggle.  In it’s broad meanings, anything which comes in the way of good and one strives to overcome it will be classified as Jihad.  In several ahadith of Masomeen-asws it is categorised into two major types, the ‘Jihad-e-Akbar’ and Jihad-e-Asghar’ (the greater striving and the minor striving, respectively).

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّوْفَلِيِّ عَنِ السَّكُونِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ ص بَعَثَ بِسَرِيَّةٍ فَلَمَّا رَجَعُوا قَالَ مَرْحَباً بِقَوْمٍ قَضَوُا الْجِهَادَ الْأَصْغَرَ وَ بَقِيَ الْجِهَادُ الْأَكْبَرُ قِيلَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص وَ مَا الْجِهَادُ الْأَكْبَرُ قَالَ جِهَادُ النَّفْسِ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father, who from al-Nawfaliy from al-Sakuniy who has said the following:

‘Abu’ Abd Allah-asws has said that the Messenger of Allah-saww once mobilised a group of people against the enemy. When they returned back he-saww said: ‘I welcome a people who have just come back after completion of the minor Jihad and who yet have to complete the major Jihad.’ Someone then asked, ‘What is the major Jihad, O Messenger of Allah-saww?’ He-saww replied, ‘It is Jihad against the desires of one’s own soul which encourages one to disobey Allah-azwj.[3]

يا عليُّ، أفضل الجهاد من أصبح ولا يهتمّ بظلم أحد.

Hemmad bin Amr and Anas bin Mohammed related from his father, who from Ja’far bin Mohammed from his father from his grandfather from Ali-asws bin Abi Talib-asws:

Prophet-saww said to him: O Ali-asws, I will convey to you a commandment. O Ali-asws, the best of Jihad is to begin your day without intending to oppress anybody.[4]

Jihad has Four Branches and is Part of Eman

عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ يَعْقُوبَ السَّرَّاجِ عَنْ جَابِرٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ سُئِلَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع عَنِ الْإِيمَانِ فَقَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ جَعَلَ الْإِيمَانَ عَلَى أَرْبَعِ دَعَائِمَ عَلَى الصَّبْرِ وَ الْيَقِينِ وَ الْعَدْلِ وَ الْجِهَادِ

الْجِهَادُ عَلَى أَرْبَعِ شُعَبٍ عَلَى الْأَمْرِ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَ النَّهْيِ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَ الصِّدْقِ فِي الْمَوَاطِنِ وَ شَنَآنِ الْفَاسِقِينَ فَمَنْ أَمَرَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ شَدَّ ظَهْرَ الْمُؤْمِنِ وَ مَنْ نَهَى عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ أَرْغَمَ أَنْفَ الْمُنَافِقِ وَ أَمِنَ كَيْدَهُ وَ مَنْ صَدَقَ فِي الْمَوَاطِنِ قَضَى الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ وَ مَنْ شَنِئَ الْفَاسِقِينَ غَضِبَ لِلَّهِ وَ مَنْ غَضِبَ لِلَّهِ غَضِبَ اللَّهُ لَهُ فَذَلِكَ الْإِيمَانُ وَ دَعَائِمُهُ وَ شُعَبُهُ

It is narrated from ibn Mahbub from Yaqub al-Sarraj from Jabir from abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salarn, who has said the following:

“Amir-ul-Momineen-asws was asked about ‘Eman’[5] and he said, ‘Allah-azwj made belief upon four pillars: ‘Al-Sabr’; Al-Yaqeen; Al-Adel and Al-Jihad’ (Patience, Certainty, Justice and Jihad (hard work for the cause of Allah).

‘The Jihad therein, is also of four branches. They consist of helping others to perform their duties and to stay away from that, which is prohibited, to speak the truth whenever needed and to shun sins and sinners. One who helps others to perform their duties has supported the believer. One who helps stop others from sinning has humiliated the hypocrites and has thwarted their wicked plans. One who speaks the truth at the right time, his is on the winning side. One who shuns the sinners has used anger for Allah-azwj. One who becomes angry for Allah-azwj, Allah-azwj becomes angry for him. Such is belief, its foundations and branches.’[6] (Complete Hadith is included in Appendix)

Jihad of Women

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ أَبِي الْجَوْزَاءِ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عُلْوَانَ عَنْ سَعْدِ بْنِ طَرِيفٍ عَنِ الْأَصْبَغِ بْنِ نُبَاتَةَ قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع كَتَبَ اللَّهُ الْجِهَادَ عَلَى الرِّجَالِ وَ النِّسَاءِ فَجِهَادُ الرَّجُلِ بَذْلُ مَالِهِ وَ نَفْسِهِ حَتَّى يُقْتَلَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَ جِهَادُ الْمَرْأَةِ أَنْ تَصْبِرَ عَلَى مَا تَرَى مِنْ أَذَى زَوْجِهَا وَ غَيْرَتِهِ

وَ فِي حَدِيثٍ آخَرَ جِهَادُ الْمَرْأَةِ حُسْنُ التَّبَعُّلِ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father, who from abu al-Jawza’ who from al-Hussain ibn ‘Ulwan, who from Sa’d ibn Tarif, who from al-Asbagh ibn Nubatah who has said the following:

“Amir-ul-Momineen-asws has said, ‘Allah-azwj has Made Jihad obligatory upon men and women. Jihad of a man is making his wealth and soul available until he is killed in the way of Allah-azwj. Jihad of a woman is exercising patience when facing hardships caused by her husband and because of his showing strong’ al-Ghirah’ (protective feelings) for her. In another Hadith, it is said that Jihad of a woman is to maintain good marital relationship.’[7]

وَ رَوَى مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْفُضَيْلِ عَنْ شُرَيْسٍ الْوَابِشِيِّ عَنْ جَابِرٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ كَتَبَ عَلَى الرِّجَالِ الْجِهَادَ وَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ الْجِهَادَ فَجِهَادُ الرَّجُلِ أَنْ يَبْذُلَ مَالَهُ وَ دَمَهُ حَتَّى يُقْتَلَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ جِهَادُ الْمَرْأَةِ أَنْ تَصْبِرَ عَلَى مَا تَرَى مِنْ أَذَى زَوْجِهَا وَ غَيْرَتِهِ

Mohammed ibn Fazil, from Sharais Wabashi, from Jabir, who has narrated the following:

Abi Jafar-asws said: Indeed, Allah-azwj has made Jihad obligatory both for men and women. The Jihad of the man is to contribute through his wealth and offer his life in the way of Allah, until he is martyred.  However, Jihad of a woman is to bear her husband’s bad temper as well as his harsh attitude (which is reflected from his being protective) of his honour.[8]

وَ فِي رِوَايَةِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عُلْوَانَ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ آبَائِهِ ع عَنْ عَلِيٍّ ع قَالَ ذَكَرَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص الْجِهَادَ فَقَالَتِ امْرَأَةٌ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَمَا لِلنِّسَاءِ مِنْ هَذَا شَيْ‏ءٌ فَقَالَ بَلَى لِلْمَرْأَةِ مَا بَيْنَ حَمْلِهَا إِلَى وَضْعِهَا إِلَى فِطَامِهَا مِنَ الْأَجْرِ كَالْمُرَابِطِ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَإِنْ هَلَكَتْ فِيمَا بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ كَانَ لَهَا مِثْلُ مَنْزِلَةِ الشَّهِيدِ

And Hussain ibn Aliwan narrates from ummro ibn Khalid, who from Zaid ibn Ali, who from his ancestors, who have said the following:

Ali-asws has said that once Prophet Mohammed-saww talked about Jihad and a lady asked if there is any role of a woman in Jihad?  Prophet-saww said:  The reward of a lady from the time when she conceives, until the time of her pregnancy, giving birth and until the she stops feeding the baby is similar to the one who has gone out to do Jihad for Allah-azwj.  If she dies during this, she would receive the reward of a martyr.[9]

وَ رُوِيَ عَنْ سُلَيْمِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ الْهِلَالِيِّ قَالَ شَهِدْتُ وَصِيَّةَ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ ع عَلَى ابْنِهِ الْحَسَنِ ع وَ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ فِي الْجِهَادِ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَ أَنْفُسِكُمْ فَإِنَّمَا يُجَاهِدُ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ رَجُلَانِ إِمَامٌ هُدًى وَ مُطِيعٌ لَهُ مُقْتَدٍ بِهُدَاهُ وَ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ فِي ذُرِّيَّةِ نَبِيِّكُمْ فَلَا تُظْلَمُنَّ بَيْنَ أَظْهُرِكُمْ وَ أَنْتُمْ تَقْدِرُونَ عَلَى الدَّفْعِ عَنْهُمْ وَ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ فِي أَصْحَابِ نَبِيِّكُمُ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُحْدِثُوا حَدَثاً وَ لَمْ يُؤْوُوا

Sulaim ibn Qais Hilali says that Amir-ul-Momineen Ali-asws ibn Abi Talib-asws said in his will, among other instructions it was: And do Jihad in the way of Allah-azwj by offering your possessions as well as your lives, but the Jihad in the way of Allah-azwj is of only two; the Imam-asws and the one who follows and obeys an Imam-asws (in Jihad).[10]

Misinterpretation of the Quranic Verses:

In the Holy Quran, there are fourteen variations of the term ‘Jihad’: al-Muahiduna, al-Mujahidina, Tujahiduna, Jahada, Jahidi, Jahadaka, Jahidhum, Jahadu, Jahidu, Jihadin, Jihadan, Jihadihi, Yujahidu, Yujahiduna.  Some sects, among Muslims, take the meanings of the following Verse as a licence to kill non-Muslims, using what-so-ever means they can find, hence extending their efforts to the territories of the terrorism.

فَلَا تُطِعِ الْكَافِرِينَ وَجَاهِدْهُمْ بِهِ جِهَادًا كَبِيرًا (5225:)

So do not follow the unbelievers, and with them, through it (Quran), keep on doing Jihad-e-Akbr (25:52).

However, the above Verse is mostly translated as:

So do not follow the unbelievers, and strie against them a mighty striving with it (25:52)

Ibn Abbas narrates a hadith in ‘Majma-tul-Biyan, that the word بِهِ in the above Verse is referred to ‘Al-Quran’, meaning that Allah has Commanded His Prophet-saww to engage in the Jihad-e-Akbar through Quran, to ward off the vice of the Nafs, as per several traditions which define the ‘Jihad-e-Akbar’ as ‘It is Jihad against the desires of one’s own soul which wants one to disobey Allah-azwj (e.g., ref. 1).[11]

قَاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلَا بِالْيَوْمِ الْآَخِرِ وَلَا يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلَا يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ حَتَّى يُعْطُوا الْجِزْيَةَ عَنْ يَدٍ وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ (299:)

Fight those who do not believe in Allah, nor in the latter day, nor do they prohibit what Allah and His Messenger have prohibited, nor follow the religion of truth, out of those who have been given the Book, until they pay the tax in acknowledgment of superiority and they are in a state of subjection.

In the interpretation of the above Verse Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq-asws says: Those of non-believers who live in Muslim lands must pay taxes, if they agree to do so then it becomes unlawful for Muslims to detain them or touch their properties.[12]

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ جَاهِدِ الْكُفَّارَ وَالْمُنَافِقِينَ وَاغْلُظْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَمَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ (739:)

O Prophet! strive hard against the unbelievers and the hypocrites and be unyielding to them; and their abode is hell, and evil is the destination.

In Tafseer-e-Qummi, it is narrated from Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq-asws that Prophet Mohmmed-saww did not fight against the hypocrites, since they did not disclose their faith but Imam Ali-asws did fight against the hypocrites-la (who then showed their-la disbelief), so the Jihad of Amir-ul-Momineen-asws was, indeed, as per the Jihad of Prophet Mohammed-saww.[13]

In the above Verse Allah-azwj has Addressed His Prophet-saww and Gave specific instructions on Jihad (with sword), as we will see later, only a Divine Authority-asws (Prophet-as or his successor-asws) can declare and lead a Jihad (by sword).

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ جَاهِدِ الْكُفَّارَ وَالْمُنَافِقِينَ وَاغْلُظْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَمَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ (966:)

O Prophet! Strive hard against the unbelievers and the hypocrites, and be hard against them; and their abode is hell; and evil is the resort.

Again the same interpretation applies to this verse, as per hadith quoted in Tafseer-e-Qummi, Prophet Mohammed-saww did not stage Jihad against hypocrites but against disbelievers and his successor (Ali-asws ibn Abi Talib-asws) fought against the hypocrites when they made their animosity, against the religion of Allah-azwj, known.

Those who take interpretation of Quranic Verses in their own hands and initiate an illegitimate uprising/Jihad are at loss, as per the following Hadith:

Ill-Fate of Faithless Jihadis

قال الامام (عليه السلام): أما الزكاة فقد قال رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله): من أدى الزكاة إلى مستحقها، وقضى الصلاة على حدودها، ولم يلحق بهما من الموبقات ما يبطلهما جاء يوم القيامة يغبطه كل من في تلك العرصات حيت يرفعه نسيم الجنة إلى أعلى غرفها وعلاليها  بحضرة من كان يواليه من محمد وآله الطيبين الطاهرين.

ومن بخل بزكاته وأدى صلاته، فصلاته محبوسة دوين السماء إلى أن يجئ ـ حين ـ زكاته، فان أداها جعلت كأحسن الافراس مطية لصلاته، فحملتها إلى ساق العرش فيقول الله عزوجل: سر إلى الجنان، واركض فيها إلى يوم القيامة، فما انتهى إليه ركضك، فهو (كله بسائر ما تمسه لباعثك) فيركض فيها على أن كل ركضة مسيرة سنة في قدر لمحة بصره من يومه إلى يوم القيامة، حتى ينتهي ـ به ـ إلى حيث ما شاء الله تعالى، فيكون ذلك كله له، ومثله عن يمينه وشماله، وأمامه وخلفه، وفوقه وتحته. وإن بخل بزكاته ولم يؤدها، أمر بالصلاة فردت إليه، ولفت كما يلف الثوب الخلق، ثم يضرب بها وجهه، ويقال ـ له ـ: يا عبدالله ما تصنع بهذا دون هذا؟ قال: فقال أصحاب رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله): ما أسوأ حال هذا ـ والله ـ!

قال رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله) أولا أنبئكم بمن هو أسوا حالا من هذا؟ قالوا: بلى يا رسول الله. قال: رجل حضر الجهاد في سبيل الله تعالى، فقتل مقبلا غير مدبر، والحور العين يتطلعن إليه، وخزان الجنان يتطلعون ـ إلى ـ ورود روحه عليهم ـ وأملاك السماء ـ وأملاك الارض يتطلعون ـ إلى ـ نزول حور العين إليه، والملائكة خزان الجنان، فلا يأتونه. فتقول ملائكة الارض حوالي ذلك المقتول: ما بال الحور ـ العين ـ لا ينزلن إليه؟ وما بال خزان الجنان لا يردون عليه؟

فينادون من فوق السماء السابعة: يا أيتها الملائكة، انظروا إلى آفاق السماء ـ و ـ دوينها. فينظرون، فاذا توحيد هذا العبد ـ المقتول ـ وإيمانه برسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله)، وصلاته وزكاته، وصدقته، وأعمال بره كلها محبوسات دوين السماء، وقد طبقت آفاق السماء كلها ـ كالقافلة العظيمة قد ملات ما بين أقصى المشارق والمغارب، ومهاب الشمال والجنوب ـ تنادي أملاك تلك الافعال الحاملون لها، الواردون بها: ما بالنا لا تفتح لنا أبواب السماء لندخل إليها بأعمال هذا الشهيد؟ فيأمر الله عزوجل بفتح أبواب السماء، فتفتح، ثم ينادي هؤلاء الاملاك: ادخلوها إن قدرتم. فلا تقلها أجنحتهم، ولا يقدرون على الارتفاع بتلك الاعمال فيقولون: يا ربنا لانقدر على الارتفاع بهذه الاعمال.

فيناديهم منادي ربنا عزوجل: يا أيتها الملائكة لستم حمالي هذه الاثقال ـ الصاعدين بها ـ إن حملتها الصاعدين بها مطاياها التي ترفعها إلى دوين العرش، ثم تقرها في درجات الجنان. فتقول الملائكة؟ يا ربنا ما مطاياها؟ فيقول الله تعالى: وما الذي حملتم من عنده؟ فيقولون: توحيده لك، وإيمانه بنبيك. فيقول الله تعالى: فمطاياها موالاة علي أخي نبيي، وموالاة الائمة الطاهرين، فان أتيت فهي الحاملة الرافعة الواضعة لها في الجنان. فينظرون فاذا الرجل مع ما له من هذه الاشياء، ليس له موالاة علي بن أبي طالب والطيبين من آله، ومعاداة أعدائهم. فيقول الله تبارك وتعالى للاملاك الذين كانوا حامليها: اعتزلوها ، والحقوا بمراكزكم من ملكوتي ليأتها من هو أحق بحملها، ووضعها في موضع استحقاقها. فتلحق تلك الاملاك بمراكزها المجعولة لها.

ثم ينادى منادي ربنا عزوجل: يا أيتها الزبانية تناوليها، وحطيها إلى سواء الجحيم، لان صاحبها لم يجعل لها مطايا من موالاة علي والطيبين من آله (عليهم السلام). قال رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله) ـ: فتناول تلك الاملاك، ويقلب الله عزوجل تلك الاثقال أوزارا وبلايا على باعثها لما فارقتها مطاياها من موالاة أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام) ونادت تلك الملائكة إلى مخالفته لعلي (عليه السلام)، وموالاته لاعدائه. فيسلطها الله عزوجل وهي في صورة الاسود على تلك الاعمال، وهي كالغربان والقرقس فتخرج من أفواه تلك الاسود نيران تحرقها، ولا يبقى له عمل إلا أحبط ويبقى عليه موالاته لاعداء علي (عليه السلام) وجحده ولايته، فيقره ذلك في سواء الجحيم فاذا هو قد حبطت أعماله، وعظمت أوزاره وأثقاله. فهذا أسوأ حالا من مانع الزكاة الذي يحفظ الصلاة.

The Holy Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws said that with regard to the Zakaat, the Messenger of Allah-saww said: One who pays Zakaat to the deserving ones, and performs Prayers as per its limits, and does not invalidate them with any of his actions, then he will appear on the Day of Judgment in a state which the others will covet, and the breeze of Paradise will escort him to the high places to the presence of the friends of Mohammed-saww and his-saww goodly and purified progeny-asws.’

And the one who is miserly in the payment of Zakaat but Prays regularly, his Prayers remain captive in the sky until such time as he gives Zakaat. As soon as he does that, then the Prayers ascend to the Throne like the riding of a good horse.’ Allah-azwj the Almighty will Say: ‘Go to Paradise and keep running until the Day of Judgment, and whatever distance you cover will all be for you. Then it will keep running in such a way that it will cover the riding distance of a whole year within a moment, and will keep doing so until the Day of Judgment, until such time as Allah-azwj Wishes it to. Then all the space that has been covered, and all that is on its left and right and above it and below it will be allocated to the one who Prayed.  And if he has been miserly in the payment of Zakaat then the Order will be for the Prayer to be returned back to the one who prayed (but did not pay Zakaat), like an old garment thrown at his face. And it will be said to him: ‘O servant of Allah-azwj! What will you do with this without that?’

The companions of the Messenger of Allah-saww said: ‘By Allah-azwj! The condition of this person is very bad.’

The Messenger of Allah-saww said: ‘Shall I inform you of one whose condition will be even worse that this?’  They said: ‘Yes, O Messenger of Allah-saww!’ He-saww said: ‘A man attends the Jihad in the way of Allah-azwj and gets killed, and the virgin ‘Houries’ eagerly wait for him, and the Trustees of Paradise also wait for his soul to come to them, and the Angels of the sky and the Angels of the earth wait for the descent of the ‘Houries’ towards him, but the Trustees of Paradise and the Angels of the sky do not come near him. The Angels of the earth surprisingly ask: ‘How come the virgin ‘Houries’ do not descend towards him? How come the Trustees of Paradise do not come near him?’

There will then come a call from the seven heavens: ‘O Angels! Look towards the lower border of the sky!’ They will look and see that the bearing of the witness of this person of the Unity of Allah-azwj, his martyrdom, his faith in the Messenger of Allah-saww, his Prayers and his Zakaat and charity and other deeds are all captive near the border of the sky, where they are being held from the East to the West and from the North to the South. The Angels bearing the burden of these keep calling: ‘How come the doors of the sky are not opening for us so that we can enter with the deeds of this martyr? Then by the Order of Allah-azwj the door will be opened for them and a caller will cry out to these Angels: ‘Enter according to your abilities.’ They will not be able to do so with these deeds and say: ‘O our Lord! We are not able to with these deeds.’

Then a caller will call out on behalf of Allah-azwj! O you Angels! These burdens are not for you to bear but you will need the help of special rides which will take these to higher levels of the Gardens.’ The Angels will ask: ‘O Lord! What rides?’ Allah-azwj will Say to them: ‘What is it that you are carrying?’ The Angels will say: ‘His accepting Your Unity, and faith in your Prophet-saww.’ Allah-azwj will Say to them: ‘Where is the love for Ali-asws the brother of My Prophet-saww? And the love for the Pure Imams-asws? These are the rides that will lift these deeds of his towards the Gardens.’

The Angels will then look at the deeds of this person and will see that he neither had the love for Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws and his-asws purified Progeny-asws among his deeds, nor had the enmity against his-asws enemies. Allah-azwj will Say to the Angels bearing the deeds: ‘Leave them for the rides, which can lift them, and return to your places. And so these Angels will abandon these deeds and return to their places.’

Then the caller of our Lord the Almighty will call out: ‘O Angels of punishment, give these to the flames of Hell for he has not brought with him the love of Ali-asws and the best from his-asws progeny-asws.’ The Messenger of Allah-saww said: ‘The Angels of punishment will devour these deeds and Allah-azwj will Convert these deeds into burdens and afflictions because they were not borne by the love of the Commander of the Faithful-asws. These Angels will call out to the deeds (enmity to Ali-asws and friendship with his-asws enemies) and Allah the Almighty will convert these into the shape of black snakes and crows with fire coming out of their mouths which will destroy all his deeds and nothing will be left except for their friendship to the enemies of Ali-asws and his fighting against his-asws friends which will both take him to Hell and this is how his deeds will all be lost and his burdens and difficulties will be increased (even if he had sacrificed his life in Jihad). This is a worse condition than that of the one who does not give Zakaat put keeps the Prayer.’[14]

‘Tafseer-bil-Raay’ of Jihad Verses by the Majority of Shias

Most of the twelve Imami Shias (i.e., followers of Ijtihad and Ittihad bayn-ul-Muslameen) have also liberally interpreted the Verses of Holy Quran in the interest of their political and personal gains; one such example, recently, is the preaching of Jihad by Murtiza Motahiri.[15] The book is based on several lectures where without any reference to Ahadith, Holy Verses of Quran are analysed based on logic, showing an intellectual approach, thereby completely ignoring the teachings of Masomeen-asws.  To write a critique on those lectures is outside the scope of this short article, but briefly, in his lectures, the abrogation of the Verses are denied, in conformity to the Wahabism.  The abrogation of the Verses is a well-established fact as reiterated in several traditions of Masomeen-asws.

In addition, a role for ‘creating mischief’ has also been carved by suggesting that one has to, under all circumstances, oppose the oppressor even if he has not oppressed you directly but to someone else, thereby leaving a door open for an active political interference and intrusion into the affairs of other communities.  On the contrary, several traditions of Ahlul Bayt-asws instruct us, as we will quote later on, to stay away from such activities and wait for the ‘Zahoor’ of the Saviour-ajfj, only he-ajfj will be able to extinguish the fire of injustice and any attempt before that will be to exemplify a premature flight of a baby-bird who falls down on the ground and is victimised by the predators.  Since he placed more emphasis on the logical interpretation of holy Verses, we first present four Ahadith of Masomeen-asws where we are informed that any one who interprets holy Verses has error and leads others to destructions and who have the right to interpret the holy Quran; followed by a hadith of Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws where the esoteric (Batin) meanings of the Verses related to Jihad are explained:

It is important that all Verses of holy Quran need to be interpreted in the light of the traditions of the Prophet Mohammed-saww and his infallible progeny-asws, otherwise wrong conclusions could be devastating:

عَنْ عَمَّارِ بْنِ مُوسَى عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ سَأَلْتُ عَنِ الْحُكُومَةِ قَالَ مَنْ حَكَمَ بِرَأْيِهِ بَيْنَ اثْنَيْنِ فَقَدْ كَفَرَ وَ مَنْ فَسَّرَ آيَةً مِنْ كِتَابِ اللَّهِ فَقَدْ كَفَرَ

It has been narrated from Ammar Bin Musa who asked Abu Abdullah-asws about the ordinances. He-asws said: ‘Whoever gives a ruling between the two has disbelieved. Whoever interprets a Verse from the Book of Allah-azwj has disbelieved.[16]

عَنِ النَّبِيِّ ص قَالَ مَنْ قَالَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ فَلْيَتَبَوَّأْ مَقْعَدَهُ مِنَ النَّارِ وَ قَالَ ص مَنْ تَكَلَّمَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ بِرَأْيِهِ فَأَصَابَ فَقَدْ أَخْطَأَ

The Holy Prophet-saww said; ‘Whoever speaks from the Quran without knowledge let him take his place in the fire.’ And he-saww said: ‘Whoever speaks from the Quran by his opinion has erred.’[17]

و عنه: عن محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن ابن فضال، عن ثعلبة بن ميمون، عمن حدثه، عن المعلى بن خنيس، قال، قال: أبو عبدالله (عليه السلام): «ما من أمر يختلف فيه اثنان إلا و له أصل في كتاب الله عز و جل، و لكن لا تبلغه عقول الرجال».

And from Muhammad Bin Yahya, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad, from Ibn Fazal, from Tha’albat Bin Maymoun, from Ma’ali Bin Khanays who said that Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘There is no affair about which two people have differed but its origin is in the Book of Allah Mighty and Majestic, but the intellect of the man cannot reach it‘.[18]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ سُوَيْدٍ عَنْ أَيُّوبَ بْنِ الْحُرِّ وَ عِمْرَانَ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ نَحْنُ الرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ وَ نَحْنُ نَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmed ibn Mohammed, who from al-Hussain ibn Saeed, who from al-Nadr ibn Suwayd, from Ayyub ibn Hurr and Imran ibn Ali, who from abu Bashir:

Imam Abu Abd Allah-asws said: ‘We-asws are the ones-asws who are well established in knowledge and we-asws are the ones-asws who know how to interpret it (Its Verses).[19]

عن الفضيل بن يسار قال سألت أبا جعفر ع عن هذه الرواية «ما في القرآن آية إلا و لها ظهر و بطن، و ما فيه حرف إلا و له حد و لكل حد مطلع» ما يعني بقوله لها ظهر و بطن قال ظهره و بطنه تأويله، منه ما مضى و منه ما لم يكن بعد، يجري كما يجري الشمس و القمر، كلما جاء منه شي‏ء وقع قال الله تعالى «وَ ما يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَ الرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ» [نحن نعلمه‏[

Al-Fazeel ibn Yasar narrates from Imam Aba Jafar-asws the following:

Imam Abu Abd Allah-asws responded, upon being asked about the Hadith: ‘Every single Verse of Holy Quran has its ‘Zahir’ (exoteric) as well as its ‘Batin’ (esoteric) meanings and every single word has its limits and every limit has been defined) what are the meanings of the words ‘لها ظهر و بطن’?  Imam-asws replied:  ‘ظهر’ means the ‘Tanzeel’ (Revelation of Quran), whereas ‘بطن’ means its interpretation, some of the events have passed whereas some have not occurred and those Verses are still alive similar to the movement of the Sun and the Moon, as some of it will come and will be implemented, as Allah-azwj Says: But none knows its interpretation except Allah, and those who are firmly rooted in knowledge (3:7). And we are the ones who know.[20]

Imam-asws Explains the Verses of Quran on Jihad

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ بَكْرِ بْنِ صَالِحٍ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ بُرَيْدٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَمْرٍو الزُّبَيْرِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ أَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الدُّعَاءِ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَ الْجِهَادِ فِي سَبِيلِهِ أَ هُوَ لِقَوْمٍ لَا يَحِلُّ إِلَّا لَهُمْ وَ لَا يَقُومُ بِهِ إِلَّا مَنْ كَانَ مِنْهُمْ أَمْ هُوَ مُبَاحٌ لِكُلِّ مَنْ وَحَّدَ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ آمَنَ بِرَسُولِهِ ص وَ مَنْ كَانَ كَذَا فَلَهُ أَنْ يَدْعُوَ إِلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ إِلَى طَاعَتِهِ وَ أَنْ يُجَاهِدَ فِي سَبِيلِهِ فَقَالَ ذَلِكَ لِقَوْمٍ لَا يَحِلُّ إِلَّا لَهُمْ وَ لَا يَقُومُ بِذَلِكَ إِلَّا مَنْ كَانَ مِنْهُمْ قُلْتُ مَنْ أُولَئِكَ قَالَ مَنْ قَامَ بِشَرَائِطِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فِي الْقِتَالِ وَ الْجِهَادِ عَلَى الْمُجَاهِدِينَ فَهُوَ الْمَأْذُونُ لَهُ فِي الدُّعَاءِ إِلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ مَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ قَائِماً بِشَرَائِطِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فِي الْجِهَادِ عَلَى الْمُجَاهِدِينَ فَلَيْسَ بِمَأْذُونٍ لَهُ فِي الْجِهَادِ وَ لَا الدُّعَاءِ إِلَى اللَّهِ حَتَّى يَحْكُمَ فِي نَفْسِهِ مَا أَخَذَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ شَرَائِطَ الْجِهَادِ قُلْتُ فَبَيِّنْ لِي يَرْحَمُكَ اللَّهُ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى أَخْبَرَ [نَبِيَّهُ‏] فِي كِتَابِهِ الدُّعَاءَ إِلَيْهِ وَ وَصَفَ الدُّعَاةَ إِلَيْهِ فَجَعَلَ ذَلِكَ لَهُمْ دَرَجَاتٍ يُعَرِّفُ بَعْضُهَا بَعْضاً وَ يُسْتَدَلُّ بِبَعْضِهَا عَلَى بَعْضٍ فَأَخْبَرَ أَنَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى أَوَّلُ مَنْ دَعَا إِلَى نَفْسِهِ وَ دَعَا إِلَى طَاعَتِهِ وَ اتِّبَاعِ أَمْرِهِ فَبَدَأَ بِنَفْسِهِ فَقَالَ وَ اللَّهُ يَدْعُوا إِلى‏ دارِ السَّلامِ وَ يَهْدِي مَنْ يَشاءُ إِلى‏ صِراطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ ثُمَّ ثَنَّى بِرَسُولِهِ فَقَالَ ادْعُ إِلى‏ سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَ الْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ وَ جادِلْهُمْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ يَعْنِي بِالْقُرْآنِ وَ لَمْ يَكُنْ دَاعِياً إِلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ مَنْ خَالَفَ أَمْرَ اللَّهِ وَ يَدْعُو إِلَيْهِ بِغَيْرِ مَا أُمِرَ [بِهِ‏] فِي كِتَابِهِ وَ الَّذِي أَمَرَ أَنْ لَا يُدْعَى إِلَّا بِهِ وَ قَالَ فِي نَبِيِّهِ ص وَ إِنَّكَ لَتَهْدِي إِلى‏ صِراطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ يَقُولُ تَدْعُو ثُمَّ ثَلَّثَ بِالدُّعَاءِ إِلَيْهِ بِكِتَابِهِ أَيْضاً فَقَالَ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى إِنَّ هذَا الْقُرْآنَ يَهْدِي لِلَّتِي هِيَ أَقْوَمُ أَيْ يَدْعُو وَ يُبَشِّرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ثُمَّ ذَكَرَ مَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ فِي الدُّعَاءِ

إِلَيْهِ بَعْدَهُ وَ بَعْدَ رَسُولِهِ فِي كِتَابِهِ فَقَالَ وَ لْتَكُنْ مِنْكُمْ أُمَّةٌ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى الْخَيْرِ وَ يَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَ يَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَ أُولئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ ثُمَّ أَخْبَرَ عَنْ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ وَ مِمَّنْ هِيَ وَ أَنَّهَا مِنْ ذُرِّيَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَ مِنْ ذُرِّيَّةِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ مِنْ سُكَّانِ الْحَرَمِ مِمَّنْ لَمْ يَعْبُدُوا غَيْرَ اللَّهِ قَطُّ الَّذِينَ وَجَبَتْ لَهُمُ الدَّعْوَةُ دَعْوَةُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَ إِسْمَاعِيلَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَسْجِدِ الَّذِينَ أَخْبَرَ عَنْهُمْ فِي كِتَابِهِ أَنَّهُ أَذْهَبَ عَنْهُمُ الرِّجْسَ وَ طَهَّرَهُمْ تَطْهِيراً الَّذِينَ وَصَفْنَاهُمْ قَبْلَ هَذَا فِي صِفَةِ أُمَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ع الَّذِينَ عَنَاهُمُ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى فِي قَوْلِهِ أَدْعُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ عَلى‏ بَصِيرَةٍ أَنَا وَ مَنِ اتَّبَعَنِي يَعْنِي أَوَّلَ مَنِ اتَّبَعَهُ عَلَى الْإِيمَانِ بِهِ وَ التَّصْدِيقِ لَهُ بِمَا جَاءَ بِهِ مِنْ عِنْدِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ مِنَ الْأُمَّةِ الَّتِي بُعِثَ فِيهَا وَ مِنْهَا وَ إِلَيْهَا قَبْلَ الْخَلْقِ مِمَّنْ لَمْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ قَطُّ وَ لَمْ يَلْبِسْ إِيمَانَهُ بِظُلْمٍ وَ هُوَ الشِّرْكُ ثُمَّ ذَكَرَ أَتْبَاعَ نَبِيِّهِ ص وَ أَتْبَاعَ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ الَّتِي وَصَفَهَا فِي كِتَابِهِ بِالْأَمْرِ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَ النَّهْيِ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَ جَعَلَهَا دَاعِيَةً إِلَيْهِ وَ أَذِنَ لَهَا فِي الدُّعَاءِ إِلَيْهِ فَقَالَ يا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ حَسْبُكَ اللَّهُ وَ مَنِ اتَّبَعَكَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ثُمَّ وَصَفَ أَتْبَاعَ نَبِيِّهِ ص مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَقَالَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَ الَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَماءُ بَيْنَهُمْ تَراهُمْ رُكَّعاً سُجَّداً يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِنَ اللَّهِ وَ رِضْواناً سِيماهُمْ فِي وُجُوهِهِمْ مِنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ ذلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْراةِ وَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنْجِيلِ وَ قَالَ يَوْمَ لا يُخْزِي اللَّهُ النَّبِيَّ وَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَهُ نُورُهُمْ يَسْعى‏ بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَ بِأَيْمانِهِمْ يَعْنِي أُولَئِكَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ قَالَ قَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ ثُمَّ حَلَّاهُمْ وَ وَصَفَهُمْ كَيْ لَا يَطْمَعَ فِي اللِّحَاقِ بِهِمْ إِلَّا مَنْ كَانَ مِنْهُمْ فَقَالَ فِيمَا حَلَّاهُمْ بِهِ وَ وَصَفَهُمْ الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي صَلاتِهِمْ خاشِعُونَ وَ الَّذِينَ هُمْ عَنِ اللَّغْوِ مُعْرِضُونَ إِلَى قَوْلِهِ أُولئِكَ هُمُ الْوارِثُونَ الَّذِينَ يَرِثُونَ الْفِرْدَوْسَ هُمْ فِيها خالِدُونَ وَ قَالَ فِي

صِفَتِهِمْ وَ حِلْيَتِهِمْ أَيْضاً الَّذِينَ لا يَدْعُونَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلهاً آخَرَ وَ لا يَقْتُلُونَ النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَ لا يَزْنُونَ وَ مَنْ يَفْعَلْ ذلِكَ يَلْقَ أَثاماً يُضاعَفْ لَهُ الْعَذابُ يَوْمَ الْقِيامَةِ وَ يَخْلُدْ فِيهِ مُهاناً ثُمَّ أَخْبَرَ أَنَّهُ اشْتَرَى مِنْ هَؤُلَاءِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ مَنْ كَانَ عَلَى مِثْلِ صِفَتِهِمْ أَنْفُسَهُمْ وَ أَمْوالَهُمْ بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ يُقاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَ يُقْتَلُونَ وَعْداً عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْراةِ وَ الْإِنْجِيلِ وَ الْقُرْآنِ ثُمَّ ذَكَرَ وَفَاءَهُمْ لَهُ بِعَهْدِهِ وَ مُبَايَعَتِهِ فَقَالَ وَ مَنْ أَوْفى‏ بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللَّهِ فَاسْتَبْشِرُوا بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِي بايَعْتُمْ بِهِ وَ ذلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ فَلَمَّا نَزَلَتْ هَذِهِ الْآيَةُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرى‏ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ وَ أَمْوالَهُمْ بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ قَامَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ ص فَقَالَ يَا نَبِيَّ اللَّهِ أَ رَأَيْتَكَ الرَّجُلُ يَأْخُذُ سَيْفَهُ فَيُقَاتِلُ حَتَّى يُقْتَلَ إِلَّا أَنَّهُ يَقْتَرِفُ مِنْ هَذِهِ الْمَحَارِمِ أَ شَهِيدٌ هُوَ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ التَّائِبُونَ الْعابِدُونَ الْحامِدُونَ السَّائِحُونَ الرَّاكِعُونَ السَّاجِدُونَ الْآمِرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَ النَّاهُونَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَ الْحافِظُونَ لِحُدُودِ اللَّهِ وَ بَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَفَسَّرَ النَّبِيُّ ص الْمُجَاهِدِينَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الَّذِينَ هَذِهِ صِفَتُهُمْ وَ حِلْيَتُهُمْ بِالشَّهَادَةِ وَ الْجَنَّةِ وَ قَالَ التَّائِبُونَ مِنَ الذُّنُوبِ الْعَابِدُونَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْبُدُونَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَ لَا يُشْرِكُونَ بِهِ شَيْئاً الْحَامِدُونَ الَّذِينَ يَحْمَدُونَ اللَّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ فِي الشِّدَّةِ وَ الرَّخَاءِ السَّائِحُونَ وَ هُمُ الصَّائِمُونَ الرَّاكِعُونَ السَّاجِدُونَ الَّذِينَ يُوَاظِبُونَ عَلَى الصَّلَوَاتِ الْخَمْسِ وَ الْحَافِظُونَ لَهَا وَ الْمُحَافِظُونَ عَلَيْهَا بِرُكُوعِهَا وَ سُجُودِهَا وَ فِي الْخُشُوعِ فِيهَا وَ فِي أَوْقَاتِهَا الْآمِرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ وَ الْعَامِلُونَ بِهِ وَ النَّاهُونَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَ الْمُنْتَهُونَ عَنْهُ قَالَ فَبَشِّرْ مَنْ قُتِلَ وَ هُوَ قَائِمٌ بِهَذِهِ الشُّرُوطِ بِالشَّهَادَةِ وَ الْجَنَّةِ ثُمَّ أَخْبَرَ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى أَنَّهُ لَمْ يَأْمُرْ بِالْقِتَالِ إِلَّا أَصْحَابَ هَذِهِ الشُّرُوطِ فَقَالَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ أُذِنَ لِلَّذِينَ يُقاتَلُونَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ظُلِمُوا وَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلى‏ نَصْرِهِمْ لَقَدِيرٌ الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُوا مِنْ دِيارِهِمْ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ إِلَّا أَنْ يَقُولُوا رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ‏

وَ ذَلِكَ أَنَّ جَمِيعَ مَا بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَ الْأَرْضِ لِلَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ لِرَسُولِهِ وَ لِأَتْبَاعِهِمَا مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَهْلِ هَذِهِ الصِّفَةِ فَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا فِي أَيْدِي الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَ الْكُفَّارِ وَ الظَّلَمَةِ وَ الْفُجَّارِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْخِلَافِ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص وَ الْمُوَلِّي عَنْ طَاعَتِهِمَا مِمَّا كَانَ فِي أَيْدِيهِمْ ظَلَمُوا فِيهِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَهْلِ هَذِهِ الصِّفَاتِ وَ غَلَبُوهُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِمَّا أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ فَهُوَ حَقُّهُمْ أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ رَدَّهُ إِلَيْهِمْ وَ إِنَّمَا مَعْنَى الْفَيْ‏ءِ كُلُّ مَا صَارَ إِلَى الْمُشْرِكِينَ ثُمَّ رَجَعَ مِمَّا كَانَ قَدْ غُلِبَ عَلَيْهِ أَوْ فِيهِ فَمَا رَجَعَ إِلَى مَكَانِهِ مِنْ قَوْلٍ أَوْ فِعْلٍ فَقَدْ فَاءَ مِثْلُ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لِلَّذِينَ يُؤْلُونَ مِنْ نِسائِهِمْ تَرَبُّصُ أَرْبَعَةِ أَشْهُرٍ فَإِنْ فاؤُ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ أَيْ رَجَعُوا ثُمَّ قَالَ وَ إِنْ عَزَمُوا الطَّلاقَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ وَ قَالَ وَ إِنْ طائِفَتانِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ اقْتَتَلُوا فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُما فَإِنْ بَغَتْ إِحْداهُما عَلَى الْأُخْرى‏ فَقاتِلُوا الَّتِي تَبْغِي حَتَّى تَفِي‏ءَ إِلى‏ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ أَيْ تَرْجِعَ فَإِنْ فاءَتْ أَيْ رَجَعَتْ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُما بِالْعَدْلِ وَ أَقْسِطُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ يَعْنِي بِقَوْلِهِ تَفِي‏ءَ تَرْجِعَ فَذَلِكَ الدَّلِيلُ عَلَى أَنَّ الْفَيْ‏ءَ كُلُّ رَاجِعٍ إِلَى مَكَانٍ قَدْ كَانَ عَلَيْهِ أَوْ فِيهِ وَ يُقَالُ لِلشَّمْسِ إِذَا زَالَتْ قَدْ فَاءَتِ الشَّمْسُ حِينَ يَفِي‏ءُ الْفَيْ‏ءُ عِنْدَ رُجُوعِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَى زَوَالِهَا وَ كَذَلِكَ مَا أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنَ الْكُفَّارِ فَإِنَّمَا هِيَ حُقُوقُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَجَعَتْ إِلَيْهِمْ بَعْدَ ظُلْمِ الْكُفَّارِ إِيَّاهُمْ فَذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ أُذِنَ لِلَّذِينَ يُقاتَلُونَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ظُلِمُوا مَا كَانَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ أَحَقَّ بِهِ مِنْهُمْ وَ إِنَّمَا أُذِنَ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ الَّذِينَ قَامُوا بِشَرَائِطِ الْإِيمَانِ الَّتِي وَصَفْنَاهَا وَ ذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ لَا يَكُونُ مَأْذُوناً لَهُ فِي الْقِتَالِ حَتَّى يَكُونَ مَظْلُوماً وَ لَا يَكُونُ مَظْلُوماً حَتَّى يَكُونَ مُؤْمِناً وَ لَا يَكُونُ

مُؤْمِناً حَتَّى يَكُونَ قَائِماً بِشَرَائِطِ الْإِيمَانِ الَّتِي اشْتَرَطَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ فَإِذَا تَكَامَلَتْ فِيهِ شَرَائِطُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ كَانَ مُؤْمِناً وَ إِذَا كَانَ مُؤْمِناً كَانَ مَظْلُوماً وَ إِذَا كَانَ مَظْلُوماً كَانَ مَأْذُوناً لَهُ فِي الْجِهَادِ لِقَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ أُذِنَ لِلَّذِينَ يُقاتَلُونَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ظُلِمُوا وَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلى‏ نَصْرِهِمْ لَقَدِيرٌ وَ إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ مُسْتَكْمِلًا لِشَرَائِطِ الْإِيمَانِ فَهُوَ ظَالِمٌ مِمَّنْ يَبْغِي وَ يَجِبُ جِهَادُهُ حَتَّى يَتُوبَ وَ لَيْسَ مِثْلُهُ مَأْذُوناً لَهُ فِي الْجِهَادِ وَ الدُّعَاءِ إِلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لِأَنَّهُ لَيْسَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الْمَظْلُومِينَ الَّذِينَ أُذِنَ لَهُمْ فِي الْقُرْآنِ فِي الْقِتَالِ فَلَمَّا نَزَلَتْ هَذِهِ الْآيَةُ أُذِنَ لِلَّذِينَ يُقاتَلُونَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ظُلِمُوا فِي الْمُهَاجِرِينَ الَّذِينَ أَخْرَجَهُمْ أَهْلُ مَكَّةَ مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ وَ أَمْوَالِهِمْ أُحِلَّ لَهُمْ جِهَادُهُمْ بِظُلْمِهِمْ إِيَّاهُمْ وَ أُذِنَ لَهُمْ فِي الْقِتَالِ فَقُلْتُ فَهَذِهِ نَزَلَتْ فِي الْمُهَاجِرِينَ بِظُلْمِ مُشْرِكِي أَهْلِ مَكَّةَ لَهُمْ فَمَا بَالُهُمْ فِي قِتَالِهِمْ كِسْرَى وَ قَيْصَرَ وَ مَنْ دُونَهُمْ مِنْ مُشْرِكِي قَبَائِلِ الْعَرَبِ فَقَالَ لَوْ كَانَ إِنَّمَا أُذِنَ لَهُمْ فِي قِتَالِ مَنْ ظَلَمَهُمْ مِنْ أَهْلِ مَكَّةَ فَقَطْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُمْ إِلَى قِتَالِ جُمُوعِ كِسْرَى وَ قَيْصَرَ وَ غَيْرِ أَهْلِ مَكَّةَ مِنْ قَبَائِلِ الْعَرَبِ سَبِيلٌ لِأَنَّ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوهُمْ غَيْرُهُمْ وَ إِنَّمَا أُذِنَ لَهُمْ فِي قِتَالِ مَنْ ظَلَمَهُمْ مِنْ أَهْلِ مَكَّةَ لِإِخْرَاجِهِمْ إِيَّاهُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ وَ أَمْوَالِهِمْ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ وَ لَوْ كَانَتِ الْآيَةُ إِنَّمَا عَنَتِ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمَهُمْ أَهْلُ مَكَّةَ كَانَتِ الْآيَةُ مُرْتَفِعَةَ الْفَرْضِ عَمَّنْ بَعْدَهُمْ إِذَا لَمْ يَبْقَ مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ وَ الْمَظْلُومِينَ أَحَدٌ وَ كَانَ فَرْضُهَا مَرْفُوعاً عَنِ النَّاسِ بَعْدَهُمْ [إِذَا لَمْ يَبْقَ مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ وَ الْمَظْلُومِينَ أَحَدٌ] وَ لَيْسَ كَمَا ظَنَنْتَ وَ لَا كَمَا ذَكَرْتَ وَ لَكِنَّ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ ظُلِمُوا مِنْ جِهَتَيْنِ ظَلَمَهُمْ أَهْلُ مَكَّةَ بِإِخْرَاجِهِمْ مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ وَ أَمْوَالِهِمْ فَقَاتَلُوهُمْ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ لَهُمْ فِي ذَلِكَ وَ ظَلَمَهُمْ كِسْرَى وَ قَيْصَرُ وَ مَنْ كَانَ دُونَهُمْ مِنْ قَبَائِلِ الْعَرَبِ وَ الْعَجَمِ بِمَا كَانَ فِي أَيْدِيهِمْ مِمَّا كَانَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ أَحَقَّ بِهِ مِنْهُمْ فَقَدْ قَاتَلُوهُمْ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لَهُمْ فِي ذَلِكَ وَ بِحُجَّةِ هَذِهِ الْآيَةِ يُقَاتِلُ مُؤْمِنُو كُلِّ زَمَانٍ وَ إِنَّمَا أَذِنَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ الَّذِينَ قَامُوا بِمَا وَصَفَهَا اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ مِنَ الشَّرَائِطِ الَّتِي شَرَطَهَا اللَّهُ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فِي الْإِيمَانِ وَ الْجِهَادِ وَ مَنْ كَانَ قَائِماً بِتِلْكَ الشَّرَائِطِ فَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ وَ هُوَ مَظْلُومٌ وَ مَأْذُونٌ لَهُ فِي الْجِهَادِ بِذَلِكَ الْمَعْنَى وَ مَنْ كَانَ عَلَى خِلَافِ ذَلِكَ فَهُوَ ظَالِمٌ وَ لَيْسَ مِنَ‏

الْمَظْلُومِينَ وَ لَيْسَ بِمَأْذُونٍ لَهُ فِي الْقِتَالِ وَ لَا بِالنَّهْيِ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَ الْأَمْرِ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ لِأَنَّهُ لَيْسَ مِنْ أَهْلِ ذَلِكَ وَ لَا مَأْذُونٍ لَهُ فِي الدُّعَاءِ إِلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لِأَنَّهُ لَيْسَ يُجَاهِدُ مِثْلُهُ وَ أُمِرَ بِدُعَائِهِ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَ لَا يَكُونُ مُجَاهِداً مَنْ قَدْ أُمِرَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ بِجِهَادِهِ وَ حَظَرَ الْجِهَادَ عَلَيْهِ وَ مَنَعَهُ مِنْهُ وَ لَا يَكُونُ دَاعِياً إِلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ مَنْ أُمِرَ بِدُعَاءِ مِثْلِهِ إِلَى التَّوْبَةِ وَ الْحَقِّ وَ الْأَمْرِ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَ النَّهْيِ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَ لَا يَأْمُرُ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ مَنْ قَدْ أُمِرَ أَنْ يُؤْمَرَ بِهِ وَ لَا يَنْهَى عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ مَنْ قَدْ أُمِرَ أَنْ يُنْهَى عَنْهُ فَمَنْ كَانَتْ قَدْ تَمَّتْ فِيهِ شَرَائِطُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ الَّتِي وُصِفَ بِهَا أَهْلُهَا مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ ص وَ هُوَ مَظْلُومٌ فَهُوَ مَأْذُونٌ لَهُ فِي الْجِهَادِ كَمَا أُذِنَ لَهُمْ فِي الْجِهَادِ لِأَنَّ حُكْمَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فِي الْأَوَّلِينَ وَ الْآخِرِينَ وَ فَرَائِضَهُ عَلَيْهِمْ سَوَاءٌ إِلَّا مِنْ عِلَّةٍ أَوْ حَادِثٍ يَكُونُ وَ الْأَوَّلُونَ وَ الْآخِرُونَ أَيْضاً فِي مَنْعِ الْحَوَادِثِ شُرَكَاءُ وَ الْفَرَائِضُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَاحِدَةٌ يُسْأَلُ الْآخِرُونَ عَنْ أَدَاءِ الْفَرَائِضِ عَمَّا يُسْأَلُ عَنْهُ الْأَوَّلُونَ وَ يُحَاسَبُونَ عَمَّا بِهِ يُحَاسَبُونَ وَ مَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ عَلَى صِفَةِ مَنْ أَذِنَ اللَّهُ لَهُ فِي الْجِهَادِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَلَيْسَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْجِهَادِ وَ لَيْسَ بِمَأْذُونٍ لَهُ فِيهِ حَتَّى يَفِي‏ءَ بِمَا شَرَطَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ عَلَيْهِ فَإِذَا تَكَامَلَتْ فِيهِ شَرَائِطُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ فَهُوَ مِنَ الْمَأْذُونِينَ لَهُمْ فِي الْجِهَادِ فَلْيَتَّقِ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ عَبْدٌ وَ لَا يَغْتَرَّ بِالْأَمَانِيِّ الَّتِي نَهَى اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ عَنْهَا مِنْ هَذِهِ الْأَحَادِيثِ الْكَاذِبَةِ عَلَى اللَّهِ الَّتِي يُكَذِّبُهَا الْقُرْآنُ وَ يَتَبَرَّأُ مِنْهَا وَ مِنْ حَمَلَتِهَا وَ رُوَاتِهَا وَ لَا يَقْدَمُ عَلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ بِشُبْهَةٍ لَا يُعْذَرُ بِهَا فَإِنَّهُ لَيْسَ وَرَاءَ الْمُتَعَرِّضِ لِلْقَتْلِ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ مَنْزِلَةٌ يُؤْتَى اللَّهُ مِنْ قِبَلِهَا وَ هِيَ غَايَةُ الْأَعْمَالِ فِي عِظَمِ قَدْرِهَا فَلْيَحْكُمِ امْرُؤٌ

لِنَفْسِهِ وَ لْيُرِهَا كِتَابَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ يَعْرِضُهَا عَلَيْهِ فَإِنَّهُ لَا أَحَدَ أَعْرَفُ بِالْمَرْءِ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ فَإِنْ وَجَدَهَا قَائِمَةً بِمَا شَرَطَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْجِهَادِ فَلْيُقْدِمْ عَلَى الْجِهَادِ وَ إِنْ عَلِمَ تَقْصِيراً فَلْيُصْلِحْهَا وَ لْيُقِمْهَا عَلَى مَا فَرَضَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهَا مِنَ الْجِهَادِ ثُمَّ لْيُقْدِمْ بِهَا وَ هِيَ طَاهِرَةٌ مُطَهَّرَةٌ مِنْ كُلِّ دَنَسٍ يَحُولُ بَيْنَهَا وَ بَيْنَ جِهَادِهَا وَ لَسْنَا نَقُولُ لِمَنْ أَرَادَ الْجِهَادَ وَ هُوَ عَلَى خِلَافِ مَا وَصَفْنَا مِنْ شَرَائِطِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ لَا تُجَاهِدُوا وَ لَكِنْ نَقُولُ قَدْ عَلَّمْنَاكُمْ مَا شَرَطَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ عَلَى أَهْلِ الْجِهَادِ الَّذِينَ بَايَعَهُمْ وَ اشْتَرَى مِنْهُمْ أَنْفُسَهُمْ وَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ بِالْجِنَانِ فَلْيُصْلِحِ امْرُؤٌ مَا عَلِمَ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ مِنْ تَقْصِيرٍ عَنْ ذَلِكَ وَ لْيَعْرِضْهَا عَلَى شَرَائِطِ اللَّهِ فَإِنْ رَأَى أَنَّهُ قَدْ وَفَى بِهَا وَ تَكَامَلَتْ فِيهِ فَإِنَّهُ مِمَّنْ أَذِنَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لَهُ فِي الْجِهَادِ فَإِنْ أَبَى أَنْ لَا يَكُونَ مُجَاهِداً عَلَى مَا فِيهِ مِنَ الْإِصْرَارِ عَلَى الْمَعَاصِي وَ الْمَحَارِمِ وَ الْإِقْدَامِ عَلَى الْجِهَادِ بِالتَّخْبِيطِ وَ الْعَمَى وَ الْقُدُومِ عَلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ بِالْجَهْلِ وَ الرِّوَايَاتِ الْكَاذِبَةِ فَلَقَدْ لَعَمْرِي جَاءَ الْأَثَرُ فِيمَنْ فَعَلَ هَذَا الْفِعْلَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ يَنْصُرُ هَذَا الدِّينَ بِأَقْوَامٍ لَا خَلَاقَ لَهُمْ فَلْيَتَّقِ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ امْرُؤٌ وَ لْيَحْذَرْ أَنْ يَكُونَ مِنْهُمْ فَقَدْ بَيَّنَ لَكُمْ وَ لَا عُذْرَ لَكُمْ بَعْدَ الْبَيَانِ فِي الْجَهْلِ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ وَ حَسْبُنَا اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْنَا وَ إِلَيْهِ الْمَصِيرُ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father, who from Bakr ibn Salih, who from al-Qasim ibn Burayd, who from abu’ Amr al-Zubayriy, who has said the following:

‘This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah-asws: ‘Instruct me about calling to Allah-azwj and Jihad for His-azwj Cause. Is it only for a certain group exclusively whereas others are excluded from this (obligation) or it is permissible for all who believe in Allah-azwj and in the Messenger of Allah-saww.  Whoever (justifies these obligations) as such has the permission to call to Allah-azwj to His-azwj obedience and do Jihad for His-azwj cause.’

The Imam-asws replied: ‘It is for a certain people only. It is not lawful for others beside them. No one other than the one who is of this certain people has the right to do Jihad.’

Those-asws who Completely fulfil Allah-azwj’ s ‘Sharat’ Stipulations:

I then asked, ‘Who are these people?’

The Imam-asws replied: ‘They are those who stand by the ‘Sharat’ stipulations of Allah-azwj, during the war and Jihad is done by the army. Such people have permission to call to Allah-azwj. Those who do not stand up to the stipulations of Allah in war about the soldiers, do not have the permission for Jihad and calling to Allah-azwj until they make Allah-azwj‘s stipulations about Jihad rule and govern them.’

I then said, ‘Explain to me. I pray to Allah-azwj to grant you favours.’

The Imam-asws said, ‘Allah-azwj Informed His Prophet-saww in His book how to call people to Him-azwj and has described it therein. He has made Jihad of degrees, which can be understood by means of one another and one leads to the other. He-azwj has informed that He-azwj Himself calls to His own-self and to His obedience and to following His commands. He-azwj has begun with Himself-azwj saying, “Allah calls to the house of peace and guides whomever He wants to the right path.” (l0:25) He-azwj then has enjoined upon His Messenger-saww and has said, “O Muhammad, call to the path of your Lord with wisdom, good advice and reason with them with that which is good.” (16:125). It means that he should reason with them by means of the Holy Quran. One who opposes the Commands of Allah-azwj is not calling to Allah-azwj. He only calls to Allah-azwj by that which is other than with which He-azwj has commanded in His-azwj book to call thereby and it is that in which He has commanded not to call by any means other than this (Book). About His Holy Prophet-saww, He-azwj has said, ‘You certainly guide to the right path.’ (42:52). It ‘guide’ means that you-asws call to the right path.

He-azwj has Joined a third party for this task, which is, His-azwj saying in the book, ‘This Quran guides (calls) to that which is upright and gives glad news to the believers.’ (17:9).

Only a Masoom-asws Can Call People to Jihad:

Allah-azwj then has mentioned those who after His-azwj own self, His Prophet-saww and His-azwj book have permission to call to Him-azwj saying, ‘Among you there must exist people who call to goodness, Command (people) to do what is good and prohibit (people) from committing evil deeds; such are the successful ones.’ (3:104). He-azwj has given more information about who this ‘Ummah (nation) is that it is of the offspring of Ibrahim-as and Isma’il-as, of the residents of the sacred land, of the ones who never worshipped anyone besides Allah-azwj. They are those on whom it is obligatory to call. It is the call of Ibrahim-as and Ismail-as to the people of al-Masjid about whom Allah-azwj has spoken in His-azwj book that He-azwj has removed from them all ‘Rijs’ and has cleansed them thoroughly. They are those whom we have mentioned when speaking of the followers of Ibrahim-as who are meant to be the ones about whom Allah-azwj speaks in the following verse, ‘I call to Allah with awareness on my part as well as those who follow me.’ (12:108) It is a reference to those who followed him-asws in belief in Him-azwj and affirmation of his-saww truth-fullness about whatever he-saww had brought from Allah-azwj.

They are of the ‘Urmmah in whom he-saww was sent and to whom he-saww belonged and to whom he-saww was sent before the creation of those who never considered anyone as partner of Allah-azwj and who never mixed their belief with injustice which is paganism. He-azwj then has mentioned the followers of His Prophet-saww and the followers of this ‘Ummah’ which He-azwj has Described in His-azwj book as the ones who Command people to do good and prohibit them from committing evil and has considered them as the callers to Him-azwj and has given them permission to call to Him-azwj saying: ‘O Prophet, Allah is sufficient (support for you) and those who follow you of the believers.’ (8:64).  He-azwj then has described the followers of His Prophet-saww of the believers and He-azwj has said. ‘Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and those who are with him are stern against the unbelievers. They are compassionate to each other. You can see them performing Ruku ‘s and Sajdah, to seek extra favours from Allah, and pleasure. Their marks are found on their faces because of frequent Sajdah. This is how they are described in the Torah and their description in the Bible is …. ‘ (48:29)

“He-azwj has also said, ‘On the day when Allah will not fail the prophet and the believers. They will have their light run in front of them and on their right sides.’ (66:8) It is a reference to the believers. Allah-azwj has Said: ‘Believers are indeed successful.’ (23:2) He-azwj then has Praised and Described them in a very special way so that no one other than those who are like them can consider themselves as one of them. In their praise and in their description, He-azwj has said: ‘They are those who are ‘khashi’ (very humble) in their Salat (prayer), those who stay away from useless matters …. they are the ones who inherit, those who inherit paradise wherein they live forever.’ (23:3-11).  He-azwj has also Said in their praise and in their description: ‘They are those who do not pray to anyone besides Allah as the Lord and who do not destroy any soul that Allah has prohibited to destroy except for a truthful purpose, who do not commit fornication and those who do so have committed a sin. His punishment, on the Day of Judgment, will double and they live therein forever in humiliation (24:68-69).

He-azwj then has said that He-azwj has purchased from these believers their souls and those who possess the same qualities, ‘their souls and properties in exchange for paradise. They fight for the cause of Allah-azwj so they destroy the enemy and themselves become martyrs. It is a promise to them in all truth in the Torah, the Bible and al-Quran.’ He-azwj then has mentioned their standing by their promise and covenant and their pledging allegiance saying, ‘Who is more firm in his promise than Allah? Your deal of selling (your souls) is glad news for you and this is the great success.’ (9: 111) ‘When this verse (9: 111) was revealed a man stood up before the Holy Prophet and said, ‘O Holy Prophet of Allah-saww, do you think, a man who takes up his sword and fights until he is killed, is considered a martyr?’ Allah-azwj then revealed the following verse to His Prophet-saww, ‘The repenting, those who praise (Allah) who fast, perform Ruku’ and Sajdah, who command people to do good and prohibit them from committing evil, who protect the laws of Allah, (you can) give glad news to the believing people.’ (9: 112)

The Holy Prophet-saww then interpreted it as a reference to those of the believers who possess such qualities and praise as martyrs deserving paradise. He-saww said that it means repenting from sins, the worshippers who worship only Allah-azwj without considering anything as His-azwj partner. Praising (Allah) are those who praise Allah-azwj in all conditions; in hardships and in ease.  ‘Sa’ihun’ are those who fast. Performing ruku ‘ and ‘Sajdah’ are those who regularly perform their five times’ daily Salat, who protect them and safeguard ‘ruku’, ‘Sajdah’ in proper humbleness in their proper times. They, thereafter, command people to do good and prohibit from committing evil and themselves stay away from it. He-azwj said: ‘Give glad news of paradise and martyrdom to those who are killed while they stand by these conditions. He-azwj then has Informed that He-azwj has not Commanded anyone who does not possess these qualities to do Jihad.  He-azwj said, ‘Those who are subjected to injustice are given permission to fight and Allah has the power to help them, those who are expelled from their towns without any good reason, except their saying that Allah is our Lord.’ (22:39-40) “This is because everything between the earth and the sky belongs to Allah-azwj His Messenger-saww and their believing followers who have these qualities.

Whatever of the worldly things exist in the hands of the pagans, unbelievers, unjust people and sinful people of those opposing the Messenger of Allah-saww and who turn to disobey them, whatever is found in their hands is because of their doing injustice to the believers who possess those qualities. They have suppressed them (the believers) in matters of what Allah-azwj has returned (granted) to His Messenger. Thus, it is of their (believers’) rights that Allah-azwj has returned to them as ‘Fay’.

The meaning of ‘al-Fay’ is whatever goes in the hands of the pagans and then returns whatever, through their suppression of others, they had taken. So whatever of words or deeds returns back to its place is in the condition of ‘al-Fay’ as it is mentioned in the words of Allah-azwj: “Those who swear to stay away from their women must wait for four months but if they go back Allah is forgiving and merciful.” (2:226). The word ‘fa’u’ signifies ‘to return’. He-azwj then has said: ‘If they decide to divorce, Allah is hearing and knowledgeable.” (2:227) He has also said, “If two groups of believing people fight each other you must arrange reconciliation between them. If one group rebels against the other you must fight the rebellious ones until they ‘tafi’u’ (go back) to submit themselves to the command of Allah-azwj. If they submitted (returned) then arrange reconciliation between them with justice; Allah loves those who practice justice.” (49: 10) He-azwj by his word ‘tafi’u’ has meant ‘return’. This is proof that ‘al-Fay’ is whatever returns to the place where it was or it belonged.

It then is said about the Sun when it declines toward the West, ‘fa’at al-Shams’, It is said so when the shadow of an object goes back to increase after decreasing. So also is what returns to the believing people from the unbelievers. It is so because of the rights of the believing people, which is returned to them after injustice was done to them by the unbelievers. Of such issues are His-azwj words, “Permission is granted to the fighters because of injustice done to them.” Believers, in general, do not qualify for such permission. Such permission is given to those believers who stand by the conditions of their faith and belief, which we already have described. This is because a believer does not have such permission unless injustice is done to him and he cannot be an oppressed-one. He cannot be a believer unless he stands by the stipulations of his belief and faith, which Allah-azwj has set upon the believers and those who do Jihad.

When he accomplishes the stipulations of Allah-azwj, he becomes a believer. Upon being considered as believers, permission was given to them (immigrants) to do Jihad because of the words of Allah-azwjPermission to fight is given to them because of injustice done to them and Allah-azwj has the power to help them (22:39).’ When this verse, “permission to fight … ” was revealed about Muhajirin (immigrants) who were expelled from Makkah, their homeland and their properties, it became lawful. He-azwj made it lawful for them to fight.

I (the narrator) then asked: ‘This was revealed about Muhajirin because of the injustice of the pagans of Makkah. On what basis did they fight Kisra’ and Qaysar (Persians and Romans) and others such as pagan Arab tribes?”

The Imam-asws replied: ‘If permission to fight was given only because of the injustice done to them by the pagans of Makkah, they then had no reason to fight such multitudes like Kisra ‘, Qaysar and people other than the people of Makkah of the Arab tribes. This is because those who did injustice to them (al-Muhajirun) were not these people. Instead, they were the people of Makkah who had expelled them (al-Muhajirun) from their homeland and had dispossessed them of their properties without good reason.

If the verse applied only to al-Muhajirun, who were oppressed by the people of Makkah, this verse would remain without any applicable effect to others thereafter al-together; no one of the oppressors and the oppressed would have existed anymore. The obligation mentioned in it would have been lifted entirely after those people; the oppressed and the oppressors would have ceased to exist. In fact, it is not the way you thought it was, as I mentioned earlier. However, al-Muhajirun were oppressed in two ways. People of Makkah oppressed them by expelling them from their homeland and dispossessed them of their properties. Thus, they fought them by the permission of Allah-azwj.

Kisra’ and Qaysar and others besides such people as the Arab and non-Arab tribes who oppressed them by keeping what rightfully belonged to the believing people. They fought them by the permission of Allah-azwj in this matter. Based on the authority of this verse ‘Those who are subjected to injustice are given permission to fight and Allah has the power to help them ‘(22:39). The believing people of all times have the permission to fight. Allah-azwj, however, has given permission to the believing people who stand up to the stipulations which Allah-azwj has described and fulfil the requirements they need to have in belief and Jihad (the permission of an Infallible Imam-asws).

Whoever then stands up to such stipulations is a believer, an oppressed and has permission to do Jihad in the sense mentioned. Those, otherwise, are oppressors and are not oppressed-ones. They, therefore, do not have the permission to fight, to prohibit from committing evil or command people to do good. It is because they are not qualified for such tasks and do not have the permission to call to Allah-azwj.

Those ones cannot do Jihad against people similar to themselves or call to Allah-azwj. The one against whom believing people are commanded to do Jihad cannot be equivalent to the one who does Jihad: he is prohibited to do Jihad due to lack of qualification. People of such (qualifications) are commanded to repent, cannot call to Allah-azwj call to the truth, command others to do good or prohibit others from committing evil. One about whom a command applies to command others to do good or a command applies prohibiting him from committing evil cannot prohibit others against evil.

‘Only those in whom the stipulations of Allah-azwj which He-azwj has Described as the qualified ones-asws among the close ones to the Holy Prophet, have the permission in complete form and are of the oppressed ones-asws. They-asws have the permission to do Jihad just as they (al-Muhajirun) were given permission for Jihad (at a specific time).

This is because the commands of Allah-azwj are the same for the earlier and later generations, unless there is good reason or cause. People of the past generation or those of the coming generations are the same in matters of prohibitions and limitations also. People of the earlier generation, were held responsible for a duty and so also is true of the people of the later generations, who will be held accountable like those before them. One who does not have the qualification of those believing people to whom Allah-azwj has Given permission to do Jihad is not qualified to do Jihad and does not have permission to do so until his return to the stipulation of Allah-azwj upon him. When the stipulations of Allah-azwj upon believing people and those who can do Jihad are found in him in the complete form, only then he is one of those permitted to do Jihad.

A servant (of Allah-azwj) must maintain piety before Allah-azwj and must not allow to be deceived by temptations, which Allah-azwj has prohibited to cherish in the form of the false Ahadith against Allah-azwj. It is the kind of interpretation, which is falsified by the Holy Quran. It denounces them and the carriers of such interpretations as well as the narrators. (A servant of Allah-azwj) must not act before Allah-azwj upon a doubtful matter in which he is not excused. In matters of lives involved for the cause of Allah-azwj, there is no position that can come in the presence of Allah-azwj before such matter. It is the ultimate act in greatness of value. One must have control over one’s own self. One must show to oneself the Book of Allah-azwj and examine it by means of the book of Allah-azwj; no one knows better about a person than his own self. If he finds it up to the stipulations of Allah-azwj in matters of Jihad, he then should proceed for Jihad. If he finds shortcomings he must reform them and make himself to stand up to what Allah-azwj has made obligatory upon him in the form of Jihad.

Thereafter, he must take steps for Jihad with a soul clean and cleansed of all filthy matters that come between him and his Jihad. We do not say to those who intend to do Jihad and that one is not up to what we described of the stipulations of Allah-azwj upon the believing people and those who do Jihad, we do not say to them, ‘You must not do Jihad.” However, we do say to them that we have taught you the stipulations that Allah-azwj has Set upon the people of Jihad with whom He-azwj has Made a deal and a contract of purchasing their souls (Infallible Imams-asws) and properties in exchange for paradise.

Therefore, one must reform the shortcomings that he finds in his self in matters of Allah-azwj‘s stipulation. He must examine his soul in matters of the stipulations of Allah-azwj. If he finds that he is true to the stipulations and has completed them in himself, then he is of those whom Allah-azwj has given permission to do Jihad. I swear by my life that there is Hadith about one who does not find his soul up to the stipulations of Allah-azwj. There is a Hadith about the one who instead finds his soul persisting in disobedience of Allah-azwj and in committing unlawful acts and in involvement in Jihad with confusion and ignorance and in acting against Allah-azwj ignorantly and on the basis of false Ahadith.

Allah-azwj Gives victory to this religion, through such people who has no share or interest in it (overstepping Allah-azwj’s Limits). One must maintain piety before Allah-azwj and be cautious about becoming as one of them.  It is explained to you and now you have no excuse for ignorance after explanation.  There is no power without Allah-azwj, Allah-azwj is Sufficient for us, With Him-azwj we place our trust and to Him-azwj is the destination.[21]

What is Jihad Fe Sabeel Allah-azwj?

ْ أَ فَتَدْرُونَ الِاسْتِكْبَارَ مَا هُوَ هُوَ تَرْكُ الطَّاعَةِ لِمَنْ أُمِرُوا بِطَاعَتِهِ وَ التَّرَفُّعُ عَلَى مَنْ نُدِبُوا إِلَى مُتَابَعَتِهِ وَ الْقُرْآنُ يَنْطِقُ مِنْ هَذَا عَنْ كَثِيرٍ إِنْ تَدَبَّرَهُ مُتَدَبِّرٌ زَجَرَهُ وَ وَعَظَه ُ‏وَ اعْلَمُوا أَيُّهَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الَّذِينَ يُقاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِهِ صَفًّا كَأَنَّهُمْ بُنْيانٌ مَرْصُوصٌ أَ تَدْرُونَ مَا سَبِيلُ اللَّهِ وَ مَنْ سَبِيلُهُ وَ مَنْ صِرَاطُ اللَّهِ وَ مَنْ طَرِيقُهُ أَنَا صِرَاطُ اللَّهِ الَّذِي مَنْ لَمْ يَسْلُكْهُ بِطَاعَةِ اللَّهِ فِيهِ هُوِيَ بِهِ إِلَى النَّارِ وَ أَنَا سَبِيلُهُ الَّذِي نَصَبَنِي لِلِاتِّبَاعِ بَعْدَ نَبِيِّهِ ص أَنَا قَسِيمُ النَّارِ

(Amir-ul-Momineen said) O people of faith, Allah-azwj Says: Surely Allah loves those who fight in His way in ranks as if they were a firm and compact wall (61:4).

Do you know, who is the ‘Sabeel Allah-azwj’ and who are the people-asws of His-azwj Sabeel?  What is the ‘Sirat’ and what is its ‘Tariqat’?  I-asws am that ‘Sirat Allah-azwj’ which if not followed by a believer of Allah-azwj, he will end-up in the hell-fire. I-asws am that ‘Sabeel Allah-azwj’ which Allah-azwj had Established, after His Prophet-saww’ to be followed.  I-asws am the distributor of the Paradise and the Hell.[22]

The Love and Sympathy for Ahlul Bayt-asws:

قَالَ أبَو عَبدِ اللهِ (عليه السلام): نَفَسُ المَهمُومِ لِظُلمِنَا تَسبِيحٌ وَ هَمُّهُ لأمرِنَا عِبَادَةٌ وَ كتمَانُهُ لِسِرِّنَا جِهَادٌ فِي سَبِيلِ الله ثُمَّ قَالَ أبوُ عَبدِ اللهِ (عليه السلام) يجِبُ أن يكتَبَ هَذاَ الحَدِيثُ الذَّهَبِ.

Imam Sadiq-asws said: The breath of one who is aggrieved upon the injustice and oppression subjected to us, is ‘Tasbeeh’ (glorification of Allah-azwj), and his grief for us-asws, is ‘I’baadat’ (worship of Allah-azwj) and his concealing our secrets, is Jihad in the path of Allah-azwj.

The Imam-asws then added: This tradition ought to be written in gold.[23]

عن بشير قال: قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام سمعتُ أبي يقول: لا والله؛ ما علىَ الأرض شيٌء أحبّ إليَّ من التقيّة، يا حبيب، إنّه من كانت له تّقيّةٌ رفعه الله، يا حبيب، مَن لم يكن له تقيّةٌ وضعه الله. يا حبيب، إنّ الناس إنّما هم في هدنةٍ فلو قد كان ذلك كان هذا.

Bashir narrated that Imam Sadiq-asws reported on the authority of his-asws father-asws: “I swear by Allah that there is nothing on the Earth dearer to me than observing Taqqiya[24]. O dear one-asws! Allah-azwj will raise the status of whoever practices Taqqiya, and Allah-azwj will humiliate whoever violates it. O’ my dear son-asws! The people are in peace. If the decree to the holy Jihad is issued by the Imam-asws, then the followers do not have to conceal their faith anymore.’[25]

قال مسعدة: وسمعت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام يقول: وسئل عن الحديث الّذي جاء عن النبيّ صلي الله عليه و اله و سلم إنّ أفضل الجهاد كلمة عدلٍ عند إمامٍ جائر” ما معناه؟ قال: هذا أنْ يأمره بعد معرفته، وهو مع ذلك يقبل منه وإلاّ فلا.

Masaedat ibn Sadaqih said that Imam Sadiq-asws was questioned about the Prophet-saww‘s statement: “The best form of Jihad is expressing the ‘truth’ in the presence of an oppressive ruler.’ Imam Sadiq-asws said: ‘This act will only be accepted of him if his enjoining the right is based on the knowledge, otherwise it is not accepted.’[26]

Most of Twelve Immami Shias Misinterpret Ahadith:

The fever of Jihad, these days has also touched upon the followers of the twelve Imami Shais, mostly the followers of Mujtahids (belonging to Usooli school of thought), who are moved by the recent revolution of Iran, some political achievements in Lebanon, and one could hear them chanting (slogans like) in favour of Bahrain: ‘Oppose the oppressor and support the oppressed (a statement from Amir-ul-Momineen-asws‘s last will.  A just statement of a Divine Imam-asws carved into a political slogan.

Similar other statements of Imam Ali-asws and Imam Hussain-asws are frequently taken out of context and used for political purposes, in the name of Jihad but in fact to take a share in the glory and government.  We will not go any further into such motives and how these statements of Masomeen-asws have taken out of context.  Without any doubt, these ‘Statements’ are just and true words of Divine Imam-asws, issued to call people to Jihad, as per their-asws responsibilities at that specific time and situation.  We, however, will confine the scope of the article to those conditions, which are relevant to our time – the time of Grand Occultation.  It is important to note that all Masomeen-asws, including Imam Ali-asws and Imam Hussain-asws, in favour of ‘Taqqeya’ avoided confrontation under certain unfavourable conditions but on other occasion, they-asws called for the Jihad.  After the Shahadat of Imam Hussain-asws, as per Divine instructions, any armed struggle was deferred until the time of the appearance of the last ‘Hujjat Allah-ajfj’.

For example, Imam Hassan-asws replied, on various occasions when asked about the reasons in agreeing to the truce offered by Mua’wiyyah-la even though having complete knowledge and undeniable proofs of his corruption and treachery. We will only present two extracts from Imam Hassan-asws‘s replies: (1) ‘The doctrine behind my truce is the same as Prophet Mohammed-saww had adopted when signing the treaty of ‘Hudebia’ with Bani Zammer and Bani Ashajja and people of Mecca, when they offered their conditions of peace. Although, those people were deniers of the ‘Wahi’ (Inspiration) as well as the Book, however, Mua’wiyyah-la and his associates are only deniers of its (Book) interpretation’. (2) ‘By Allah-azwj, I had opted for a truce with Mua’wiyyah-la, on the conditions that he would not spill our blood, give immunity to our relatives and associates, it is certainly better than him assassinating us and completely destroying our-asws lineage and listen, it turned out to be in our favour that I did not respond to his antagonising assaults and a series of aggressive measures, otherwise my-asws own people (who were bribed by him) would have grabbed me from my-asws neck and handed me-asws over to Mua’wiyyah-la. By Allah-azwj, it is far better for me to secure a truce with him (on my-asws dictated conditions) than being presented to him as a prisoner of war, then he may have either killed me-asws or alternatively, spared my life as a favour, hence Bani Hashim would have been eternally buried under his goodwill and his decedents would have kept on teasing us-asws by mentioning his favours to our present and past generations.

Shortly afterwards, Imam Hassan-asws, left for Medina and resided there, facing and enduring Bani Ummaiyad-la’s antagonising propaganda and fabricated lies against Ahul Bayt-asws in order to cause damage to their-asws Divinely Higher status. Imam Hassan-asws mostly stayed at home and submitted to the Will of Lord-azwj, until Mua’wiyyah-la had completed the ten years of his tyrannical rule.[27]

Why Did Masomeen-asws Fight against Yazeed and Muawiyyah?

Let us consider a frequently asked question: Why did Imam Hussain-asws rise against Yazeed-la ibn Muawiyyah-la? Or Why did Amir-ul-Momineen-asws fight against Muawiyyah-la but not against Abu Bakr-la and Ummer-la? We present three ahadith below:

Hadith 1

روي أن أمير المؤمنين ع كان جالسا في بعض مجالسه بعد رجوعه من نهروان فجرى الكلام حتى قيل له لم لا حاربت أبا بكر و عمر كما حاربت طلحة و الزبير و معاوية فقال علي ع إني كنت لم أزل مظلوما مستأثرا على حقي فقام إليه الأشعث بن قيس فقال يا أمير المؤمنين لم لم تضرب بسيفك و لم تطلب بحقك فقال يا أشعث قد قلت قولا فاسمع الجواب و عه و استشعر الحجة إن لي أسوة بستة من الأنبياء ص أولهم نوح حيث قال رب أَنِّي مَغْلُوبٌ فَانْتَصِرْ فإن قال قائل إنه قال هذا لغير خوف فقد كفر و إلا فالوصي أعذر و ثانيهم لوط حيث قال لَوْ أَنَّ لِي بِكُمْ قُوَّةً أَوْ آوِي إِلى‏ رُكْنٍ شَدِيدٍ فإن قال قائل إنه قال هذا لغير خوف فقد كفر و إلا فالوصي أعذر و ثالثهم إبراهيم خليل الله حيث قال وَ أَعْتَزِلُكُمْ وَ ما تَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ فإن قال قائل إنه قال هذا لغير خوف فقد كفر و إلا فالوصي أعذر و رابعهم موسى ع حيث قال فَفَرَرْتُ مِنْكُمْ لَمَّا خِفْتُكُمْ فإن قال قائل إنه قال هذا لغير خوف فقد كفر و إلا فالوصي أعذر

و خامسهم أخوه هارون حيث قال يا ابْنَ أُمَّ إِنَّ الْقَوْمَ اسْتَضْعَفُونِي وَ كادُوا يَقْتُلُونَنِي فإن قال قائل إنه قال هذا لغير خوف فقد كفر و إلا فالوصي أعذر و سادسهم أخي محمد خير البشر ص حيث ذهب إلى الغار و نومني على فراشه فإن قال قائل إنه ذهب إلى الغار لغير خوف فقد كفر و إلا فالوصي أعذر فقام إليه الناس بأجمعهم فقالوا يا أمير المؤمنين قد علمنا أن القول لك و نحن المذنبون التائبون و قد عذرك الله

After the war of Nahriwan, Amir-ul-Momineen-asws was speaking with a small group of people when a person asked: Why did you not fight against Abu Bakr-la and Ummer-la, the way you fought against Muawiay-la?

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws replied: I always have been oppressed, as they preferred themselves to my rights.

Ashash: O Amir-ul-Momineen-asws ! Why did you not strike them with sword in order to take back your rights?

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws replied: O Ashash! You had said what you had in your mind, now listen to me, remember it, you better stick with the Just and realise my government is like that of elevated Prophets of Allah-as.  The first one among them is the Nuh, who said: Therefore he called upon his Lord: I am overcome, come Thou then to help (54:10).  Thus, one would say that he said this without Taqqiya but his nation denied him; therefore his successor is not to be blamed (the rejection of the nation).

The second one was Prophet Lut-as, who said: He said: Ah! that I had power to suppress you, rather I shall have recourse to a strong support (11:80).

Thus, one would say that he said this without Taqqiya but his nation denied him, therefore his successor was not in a position to revert it.

The third one was Prophet Ibrahim-as, the friend of Allah-azwj, who said: And I will withdraw from you and what you call on besides Allah, …. (19:48). Thus, one would say that he said this without Taqqiya but his nation denied him, therefore his successor was not in a position to revert it.

The fourth one, among them, was Prophet Musa-as, who had said: So I fled from you when I feared you, then my Lord granted me wisdom and made me of the messengers (26:21). Thus, one would say that he said this without Taqqiya but his nation committed Kufr, therefore his successor was not in a position to revert it.

The fifth one, among them, whose’ brother Haron-as (Aaron) said: He-as said: Son of my mother! surely the people reckoned me weak and had well-nigh slain me (7:150). Thus, one would say that he said this without Taqqiya but his nation denied him, therefore his successor was not in a position to revert it.

The sixth one, among them, is my-asws brother-saww and the most gracious of the peoplesaw, who when went inside the cave while making me sleep on his bed, Thus, one would say that he went inside cave without Taqqiya but his nation denied him, therefore his successor is not to be blamed for it.

After listening to his words, all of them stood up and said: O Amir-ul-Momineen-asws! We have understood you comprehensively, we admit our sins and repent! May Allah-azwj Give you-asws success.[28]

Hadith 2

حدثنا محمد بن الحسن رضي الله عنه قال حدثنا محمد بن الحسن الصفار و سعد بن عبد الله و عبد الله بن جعفر الحميري جميعا قالوا حدثنا محمد بن عيسى بن عبيد قال حدثنا أبو القاسم الهاشمي قال حدثني عبيد بن نفيس الأنصاري قال أخبرنا الحسن بن سماعة عن جعفر بن سماعة عن أبي عبد الله ع قال نزل جبرئيل ع على النبي ص بصحيفة من السماء لم ينزل الله تبارك و تعالى من السماء كتابا مثلها قط قبلها و لا بعدها مختوما فيه خواتيم من ذهب فقال له يا محمد هذه وصيتك إلى النجيب من أهلك قال يا جبرئيل و من النجيب من أهلي قال علي بن أبي طالب مره إذا توفيت أن يفك خاتما منها و يعمل بما فيه فلما قبض رسول الله ص فك علي ع خاتما ثم عمل بما فيه ما تعداه ثم دفع الصحيفة إلى الحسن بن علي ع ففك خاتما و عمل بما فيه ما تعداه ثم دفعها إلى الحسين بن علي ع ففك خاتما فوجد فيه أن اخرج بقوم إلى الشهادة لا شهادة لهم إلا معك و اشر نفسك لله عز و جل فعمل بما فيه ما تعداه ثم دفعها إلى رجل بعده ففك خاتما فوجد فيه أطرق و اصمت و الزم منزلك و اعبد ربك حتى يأتيك اليقين ثم دفعها إلى رجل بعده ففك خاتما فوجد فيه أن حدث الناس و أفتهم و انشر علم آبائك و لا تخافن أحدا إلا الله فإنك في حرز الله و ضمانه و أمر بدفعها فدفعها إلى من بعده و يدفعها من بعده إلى من بعده إلى يوم القيامة

It was narrated to me by Mohammed ibn Hassan, who from Mohammed ibn Hassan al-Safar, Saeed ibn Abdullah and Abdullah ibn Jafar Hammari, who from Mohammed ibn Isa ibn Youbad, who from Abu al-Qasim Hashimi, who from Youbad ibn Nafees Ansari, who from Hassan ibn Sama, who from Jafar bin Sama who said the following:

Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq-asws said:  Angel Jibrael-as descended from the Heavens with a ‘Tablet’ and gave it to Prophet-saww.  The Divine Tablet was unique in that, that a similar one was neither revealed before nor it was sent down afterwards.  The ‘Tablet’ was secured by several gold seals, hence Gabriel-as informed Prophet-saww that it is your ‘Will’ for those-asws who have an elevated status among your-saww descendents.  Prophet Mohammed-saww asked:  O Gabriel-as!  Tell me-saww who have the elevated status among my-saww descendents?  Gabriel-as said: ‘The first one is Ali ibn Abi Talib-asws, who will, after your departure from this world, break one of its seals (marked for him) and act upon the instructions accordingly.  Thus, after the Shahadat of Prophet-saww, Imam Ali-asws broke one seal and acted upon the instructions, which were laid out in the Divine Tablet.  The Tablet then inherited by Imam Hassan-asws, Imam Hassan broke its second seal and acted upon what was inscribed for him.  The Tablet was handed over to Imam Hussain-asws who broke its seal related to him-asws and opened the Tablet, it was written that he-asws should rise up in order to be martyred and only those will meet martyrdom who will fight in his-asws support.  Thus Imam-asws acted upon these (Divine) Instructions.

Subsequently, this Tablet was transferred to the One (Imam Zain-ul-Abadeen-asws) who broke his part of the seal and it was written for him to keep silent and prefer solitude and concentration on worship for the attainment of ‘Yaqeen’ (proximity to Allah-azwj).  Afterward the Tablet was forwarded to the One (Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws), who found out after breaking his part of the seal that convey to people the Ahadith of your forefathers and the knowledge of your ancestor without any fear, as Allah-azwj is your Guardian.  And with the Command to pass the Tablet to the Imam-asws after you-asws.  That’s how this Tablet was transferred from one Imam-asws to another and will continue until the Doom’s Day.[29]

Hadith 3

مزاولة قلع الجبال أيسر من مزاولة ملك مؤجل

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws says: To move a mountain from its place is easier than trying to oust someone from power in other than its prescribed time of fall.[30]

The Purpose of a Divine Prophet-asws or an Imam-asws:

جابر عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: قلت: لاي شئ يحتاج إلى النبي والامام ؟ فقال: لبقاء العالم على صلاحه،

It is quoted, through a chain of narrators, that Jabir bin Abd Allah Ansari asked from Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws: O Son of Rasool Allahsaw! What is the purpose served by a Prophet-as or an Imam-asws?  Imam-asws replied, to stabilise the universe and to mange and organise its operations.[31]

In our time, the Sun, Moon, stars, galaxies along with all entities within the Divine Universe, are performing their duties under the instructions and predefined rules by the 12th grandson of Prophet Imam Al-Asr-ajfj, although He-ajfj cannot be seen by human eyes but encompass the whole universe and control its affairs, as we say in the Ziarat: “Assalam Allaikum on that who is persist, who is invisible, who witness, who is beyond our comprehension.

Shias of today are the Orphans of Ahlul Bait-asws:

عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله أنه قال: أشد من يتم اليتيم الذي انقطع عن أبيه يتم يتيم انقطع عن إمامه ولا يقدر على الوصول إليه، ولا يدري كيف حكمه فيما يبتلي به من شرائع دينه، ألا فمن كان من شيعتنا عالما بعلومنا وهذا الجاهل بشريعتنا المنقطع عن مشاهدتنا يتيم في حجره ألا فمن هداه وأرشده وعلمه شريعتنا كان معنا في الرفيق الأعلى. بيان: قال الجزري: في حديث الدعاء: ألحقني بالرفيق الأعلى

Prophet of Allah-saww said: He is an orphan who is unable to receive his parents’ care and is therefore not brought up by them.  However, he is not that miserable as compared with the one who is unable to reach Imam-asws of his time and is unable to receive and comprehend his Imam-asws’s blessings and guidance.  He, who does not know his Imam-asws’s verdicts on those religious affairs faced by him (day to day).  He is the Orphan of Alay-Mohammed-asws.  Be aware! He should be looked after by those who have knowledge about our-asws traditions.  Whoever would teach him our attributes, our Marifat (recognition) and our traditions will be with us in the hereafter.[32]

قال موسى بن جعفر عليهما السلام: ففيه واحد ينقذ يتيما من أيتامنا المنقطعين عنا وعن مشاهدتنا بتعليم ما هو محتاج إليه أشد على إبليس من ألف عابد لأن العابد همه ذات نفسه فقط، وهذا همه مع ذات نفسه ذات عباد الله وإمائه لينقذهم من يد إبليس ومردته، فذلك هو أفضل عند الله من ألف ألف عابد، وألف ألف عابدة.

It is narrated from Imam Musa-e-Kazim-asws that the one who knows our teachings and would guide and teach even one of our orphans, who are unable to reach us-asws, would irritate/subdue Iblis-la more than that achieved by one thousand devout worshipers.  The devout worshiper would only have the intention to enrich his spiritual level but the one who teaches our traditions would not only gain spiritual benefits but also provide guidance to Allah-azwj’s servants and maids.  He would free these men and women from Iblis’s web.  That’s why he is given preference by Allah-azwj over one thousand men and one thousand women worshipers.[33]

La Ikra Fee Deen[34]:

الحسين بن علي، عن أبيه علي بن أبي طالب عليهم السلام أن المسلمين قالوا لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: لو أكرهت يارسول الله من قدرت عليه من الناس على الاسلام لكثر عددنا وقوينا على عدونا ; فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: ما كنت لالقى الله عزوجل ببدعة لم يحدث إلي فيها شيئا وما أنا من المتكلفين. فأنزل الله تبارك وتعالى: يا محمد ” ولو شاء ربك لآمن من في الارض كلهم جميعا ” على سبيل الالجاء والاضطرار في الدنيا، كما يومنون عند المعاينة ورؤية البأس في الآخرة، ولو فعلت ذلك بهم لم يستحقوا مني ثوابا ولا مدحا لكني أريد منهم أن يؤمنوا مختارين غير مضطرين، ليستحقوا مني الزلفى والكرامة ودوام الخلود في جنة الخلد، ” أفأنت تكره الناس حتى يكونوا مؤمنين

Imam Hussain-asws said that Muslims came and requested my grandfather, Prophet Mohammed-saww to force everyone to embrace Islam, so that Muslims form the majority, this would increase their strength against their enemies.  Rasool Allah-saww replied, No, I would certainly not do that as I do not want to introduce innovation in the Allah-azwj’s Deen and would not appear in front of Him-azwj with what He-azwj has forbidden.  I am not among those who force others against their wills.

Thus, at this point, Allah-azwj sent down the following Divine message: Ya Mohammed-saww!  If Your Lord-azwj wanted, indeed, all inhabitants of the earth would embrace Eman[35].  It was very easy for Me-azwj to punish and compel them and they would submit to Me-azwj as they will submit to Eman in the hereafter after observing no way out from their Lord’s wrath and submit to Me-azwj in desperation.

If I were to do so in this world then there will be no eligible criteria for reward or punishment and that’s why I decided to let them act on their free-will so they either choose Eman or disobey My-azwj Command by not submitting to Eman.  They will stay in the Paradise forever by selecting the former option or face punishment in the hell-fire by becoming disbelievers.  Ya Rasool-saww, surely, you would not like to compel them to embrace Eman?[36]

Jihad in the Ziarat of Amir-ul-Momineen-asws

تَقُولُ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَلِيَّ اللَّهِ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا حُجَّةَ اللَّهِ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا خَلِيفَةَ اللَّهِ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا عَمُودَ الدِّينِ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ النَّبِيِّينَ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا قَسِيمَ الْجَنَّةِ وَ النَّارِ وَ صَاحِبَ الْعَصَا وَ الْمِيسَمِ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّكَ كَلِمَةُ التَّقْوَى وَ بَابُ الْهُدَى وَ الْعُرْوَةُ الْوُثْقَى وَ الْحَبْلُ الْمَتِينُ وَ الصِّرَاطُ الْمُسْتَقِيمُ وَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّكَ حُجَّةُ اللَّهِ عَلَى خَلْقِهِ وَ شَاهِدُهُ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ وَ أَمِينُهُ عَلَى عِلْمِهِ وَ خَازِنُ سِرِّهِ وَ مَوْضِعُ حِكْمَتِهِ وَ أَخُو رَسُولِهِ ع وَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ دَعْوَتَكَ حَقٌّ وَ كُلَّ دَاعٍ مَنْصُوبٍ دُونَكَ بَاطِلٌ مَدْحُوضٌ أَنْتَ أَوَّلُ مَظْلُومٍ وَ أَوَّلُ مَغْصُوبٍ حَقُّهُ فَصَبَرْتَ وَ احْتَسَبْتَ لَعَنَ اللَّهُ مَنْ ظَلَمَكَ وَ اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكَ وَ صَدَّ عَنْكَ لَعْناً كَثِيراً ِ

أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ الْجِهَادَ مَعَكَ جِهَادٌ وَ أَنَّ الْحَقَّ مَعَكَ وَ إِلَيْكَ وَ أَنْتَ أَهْلُهُ وَ مَعْدِنُهُ وَ مِيرَاثَ النُّبُوَّةِ عِنْدَكَ فَصَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ وَ سَلَّمَ تَسْلِيماً وَ عَذَّبَ اللَّهُ قَاتِلَكَ بِأَنْوَاعِ الْعَذَابِ أَتَيْتُكَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَارِفاً بِحَقِّكَ مُسْتَبْصِراً بِشَأْنِكَ مُعَادِياً لِأَعْدَائِكَ مُوَالِياً لِأَوْلِيَائِكَ بِأَبِي أَنْتَ وَ أُمِّي أَتَيْتُكَ عَائِذاً بِكَ مِنْ نَارٍ اسْتَحَقَّهَا مِثْلِي بِمَا جَنَيْتُ عَلَى نَفْسِي أَتَيْتُكَ زَائِراً أَبْتَغِي بِزِيَارَتِكَ فَكَاكَ رَقَبَتِي مِنَ النَّارِ أَتَيْتُكَ هَارِباً مِنْ ذُنُوبِيَ الَّتِي احْتَطَبْتُهَا عَلَى ظَهْرِي أَتَيْتُكَ وَافِداً لِعَظِيمِ حَالِكَ وَ مَنْزِلَتِكَ عِنْدَ رَبِّي فَاشْفَعْ لِي عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ فَإِنَّ لِي ذُنُوباً كَثِيرَةً

A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Muhammad ibn ‘Uramah from those who have said the following:

‘Al-Sadiq abu al-Hassan-asws the 3rd has said that one should say this near the gravesite of ‘Amir-ul-Momineen-asws. ‘(I hereby declare, affirm and acknowledge that you are a ‘Alayhi al-Salarn and my) submission to (your commandments) O the one-asws who possesses Authority from Allah-azwj. You are the first oppressed and the first one whose rights were usurped. You exercised patience nobly until the time of your departure. I testify that you went before Allah-azwj as a martyr. May Allah-azwj punish your assassin by all kinds of punishments and renew his punishments. I, with understanding of your rights and position, have come to visit you-asws. I am aware of your-asws prominent status and I am an enemy of your-asws enemies and those who did injustice to you-asws. I will go before my Lord-azwj with this belief, if Allah-azwj so wills.

I testify that Jihad in your-asws support is the true form of Jihad and that truth is on your side and in your favour. You are the man of Jihad and its source and that the legacy of prophet-hood is with you. May Allah-azwj Grant you-asws salawat (favours and compensation to you ‘Worthy of your services to Allah-azwj‘s cause) and may Allah Grant you-asws safety and blessing. May Allah-azwj Punish your assassin with all kinds of punishment. O Amir-ul-Momineen-asws! I have come with my knowledge of your-asws rights and my awareness about your-asws prominent status. I am an enemy of your enemies and a friend of your friends. I pray to Allah-azwj to keep my soul and the soul of my parents in service for your-asws cause.’[37] (Complete hadith is included in the Appendix)

Jihad in the Will of Amir-ul-Momineen-asws

أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الْأَشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ وَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ قَالَ بَعَثَ إِلَيَّ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ مُوسَى ع بِوَصِيَّةِ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع وَ هِيَ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ هَذَا مَا أَوْصَى بِهِ وَ قَضَى بِهِ فِي مَالِهِ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ عَلِيٌّ ابْتِغَاءَ وَجْهِ اللَّهِ لِيُولِجَنِي بِهِ الْجَنَّةَ وَ يَصْرِفَنِي بِهِ عَنِ النَّارِ وَ يَصْرِفَ النَّارَ عَنِّي يَوْمَ تَبْيَضُّ وُجُوهٌ وَ تَسْوَدُّ وُجُوهٌ أَنَّ مَا كَانَ لِي مِنْ مَالٍ بِيَنْبُعَ يُعْرَفُ لِي فِيهَا وَ مَا حَوْلَهَا صَدَقَةٌ وَ رَقِيقَهَا غَيْرَ أَنَّ رَبَاحاً وَ أَبَا نَيْزَرَ وَ جُبَيْراً عُتَقَاءُ لَيْسَ لِأَحَدٍ عَلَيْهِمْ سَبِيلٌ فَهُمْ مَوَالِيَّ يَعْمَلُونَ                        ِ فَشَارِكُوهُمْ فِي مَعَايِشِكُمْ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ فِي الْجِهَادِ بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَ أَنْفُسِكُمْ وَ أَلْسِنَتِكُمْ فَإِنَّمَا يُجَاهِدُ رَجُلَانِ إِمَامُ هُدًى أَوْ مُطِيعٌ لَهُ مُقْتَدٍ بِهُدَاهُ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ فِي ذُرِّيَّةِ نَبِيِّكُمْ فَلَا يُظْلَمَنَّ بِحَضْرَتِكُمْ وَ بَيْنَ ظَهْرَانَيْكُمْ وَ أَنْتُمْ تَقْدِرُونَ عَلَى الدَّفْعِ عَنْهُمْ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ فِي أَصْحَابِ نَبِيِّكُمُ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُحْدِثُوا حَدَثاً وَ لَمْ يُؤْوُوا مُحْدِثاً فَإِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص أَوْصَى بِهِمْ وَ لَعَنَ الْمُحْدِثَ مِنْهُمْ وَ مِنْ غَيْرِهِمْ وَ الْمُؤْوِيَ لِلْمُحْدِثِ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ

Abu Ali al-Ash ‘ariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar and Muhammad ibn “Isma’il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from Safwan ibn Yahya from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Hajjaj who has narrated the following:

‘Abu al-Hassan-asws sent to me the will of ‘ Amir-ul-Momineen-asws which reads as follows: ‘ In the name of Allah-azwj. “This is the will and decision of the servant of Allah-azwj about his assets seeking thereby the pleasure of Allah-azwj so that He-azwj will admit him-asws in the garden (paradises), keep away from him the fire and keep him away from the fire on the day when certain faces will be white and others will be black. The assets that belong to me in Yanba’ which are known to be my assets with its surrounding are endowed as charities as well as the slaves except Rabah, abu Nayzar and Jubayr who are set free and no one has any authority over them.

(I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, (I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, about Jihad by means of your wealth, your souls and your tongue. Two kinds of men complete the duty of Jihad, the Imam of guidance or one obedient to him who follows his guidance. (I remind you of) Allah, (I remind you of) Allah, about the descendents of your Prophet-saww. You must not allow their being subjected to injustice in your presence and before your eyes when you are able to defend them. (I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, (I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, about the companions of your Prophet-saww, the companions who did not invent heresy or give protection to heretics. The Messenger of Allah-saww has urged to be good to them, has condemned the heretics among them and others who protect heretics.[38] (Complete hadith is included in Appendix).

The Followers of Alhul Bayt-asws During Occultation:

إن أهل زمان غيبته و القائلين بإمامته والمنتظرين لظهوره عليه السلام أفضل من أهل كل زمان، لان الله تعالى ذكره أعطاهم من العقول والافهام والمعرفة ما صارت به الغيبة عنهم بمنزلة المشاهدة، وجعلهم في ذلك الزمان بمنزلة المجاهدين بين يدي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله بالسيف، اولئك المخلصون حقا وشيعتنا صدقا والدعاة إلى دين الله سرا وجهرا،

Imam Zainul-Abideen-asws said:  Among people of that time when our ‘Al-Qaim’-ajfj will be in occultation, there will be some of devout believers who firmly believe in our-asws Imamat and eagerly waiting for Imam-asws’s Zahoor (appearance).  These will be our best followers of all time.  This is due to the fact that Allah-azwj will bless them with such wisdom and Marifat that the state of occultation for them will not be in their way for receiving spiritual guidance.  And Allah-azwj will reward them the status of those warriors who fought in the company of Rasool Allah-saww and became ‘Mujahedeen’.  These are our sincere followers and devout Shias.  And they invite others to Allah-azwj’s religion, using both the explicit and the implicit means (as appropriate).[39]

Legitimacy of Jihad (by sword)

لا يخرج المسلم في الجهاد مع من لا يؤمن على الحكم و لا ينفذ في الفي‏ء أمر الله جل و عز و إن مات في ذلك كان معينا لعدونا في حبس حقنا و الإشاطة بدمائنا و ميتته ميتة جاهلية

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws says: Muslims should not participate in battles under the leadership of the one that does not have full acquaintance of the Islamic laws and does not follow Allah-azwj’s Commandments regarding the spoils of war.  Muslims who are killed in such battles are regarded as supporters of our enemies in the question of refraining from giving us-asws our rights (of leadership) and shedding our blood.  In addition, they will be considered among those who died before Islam.[40]

روى جابر، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام أنه قال: إذا قام قائم آل محمد عليهم السلام ضرب فساطيط لمن يعلم الناس القرآن، على ما أنزل الله جل جلاله، فأصعب ما يكون على من حفظ اليوم لانه يخالف فيه التأليف

It has been narrated by Jabir from Abu Ka’far-asws that: ‘When the ‘Al Qaim-asws‘ of the Household of the Prophet-saww makes a stand he will teach the people the Quran as it was Revealed by Allah-azwj. It will be a problem for those who had memorized it as it is today, for it will a different version.’[41]

Instructions for Shias during Grand Occultation:

ابْنُ عُقْدَةَ عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ زَكَرِيَّا عَنْ يُوسُفَ بْنِ كُلَيْبٍ الْمَسْعُودِيِّ عَنِ الْحَكَمِ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ كَثِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي بَكْرٍ الْحَضْرَمِيِّ قَالَ دَخَلْتُ ‏أَنَا وَ أَبَانٌ عَلَى أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع وَ ذَلِكَ حِينَ ظَهَرَتِ الرَّايَاتُ السُّودُ بِخُرَاسَانَ فَقُلْنَا مَا تَرَى فَقَالَ اجْلِسُوا فِي بُيُوتِكُمْ فَإِذَا رَأَيْتُمُونَا قَدِ اجْتَمَعْنَا عَلَى رَجُلٍ فَانْهَدُوا إِلَيْنَا بِالسِّلَاحِ توضيح قال الجوهري نهد إلى العدو ينهد بالفتح أي نهض

Ibn Yaqida, who from Yahiya ibn Zikarya, who from Yousif ibn Kaleeb Masyoodi, who from Hakim Salaman, who from Mohammed ibn Kaseer, who from Abu Bakr Hazme, who says the following:

Once Abaan and myself were in the service of Abu Abdullah-asws and we were told about the black flag rising in the Khurasan.  We asked from the Imam-asws what is your-asws opinion about the (uprising)?  Imam-asws replied:  You should stay in your homes until you find out that we-asws have agreed to support someone, only then come out to serve us-asws fully prepared and armed.[42]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى وَ أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الْأَشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ جَمِيعاً عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حَدِيدٍ عَنْ جَمِيلِ بْنِ دَرَّاجٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ كَانَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ ع فِي الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ فَذَكَرَ بَنِي أُمَيَّةَ وَ دَوْلَتَهُمْ فَقَالَ لَهُ بَعْضُ أَصْحَابِهِ إِنَّمَا نَرْجُو أَنْ تَكُونَ صَاحِبَهُمْ وَ أَنْ يُظْهِرَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ هَذَا الْأَمْرَ عَلَى يَدَيْكَ فَقَالَ مَا أَنَا بِصَاحِبِهِمْ وَ لَا يَسُرُّنِي أَنْ أَكُونَ صَاحِبَهُمْ إِنَّ أَصْحَابَهُمْ أَوْلَادُ الزِّنَا إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى لَمْ يَخْلُقْ مُنْذُ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَ الْأَرْضَ سِنِينَ وَ لَا أَيَّاماً أَقْصَرَ مِنْ سِنِينِهِمْ وَ أَيَّامِهِمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ يَأْمُرُ الْمَلَكَ الَّذِي فِي يَدِهِ الْفَلَكُ فَيَطْوِيهِ طَيّاً

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa and Abu Ali al-Ash’ariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn Abd al-Habbar all from Ali ibn Hadid from Ismil ibn Darraj from Zurarah who has narrated the following:

“Once abu Ja’far-asws was in Masjid al-Hararn[43] when banu ‘Umayyah and their government was mentioned. Certain ones of his companions said, ‘We hope you will be the one to deal with them and Allah-azwj will make this cause dominant through your hand.’ He-asws said: ‘I am not the one-ajfj to deal with them and He-azwj will not want me-asws to deal with them. The ones who will deal with them (banu ‘Umayyah) are children born out of wedlock. Allah-azwj has not Created any era from the time He-azwj Created the skies and earth, of shorter years or days than their (banu ‘Umayyah’s) years and days. Allah-azwj Commands the angel in whose hand is the group (of planets and stars) to scroll it in a fast scrolling manner.’[44]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ هَمَّامٍ وَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ جَمِيعاً عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جُمْهُورٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ صَالِحِ بْنِ نَبَطٍ وَ بَكْرٍ الْمُثَنَّى جَمِيعاً عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ الْبَاقِرِ ع أَنَّهُ قَالَ هَلَكَ أَصْحَابُ الْمَحَاضِيرِ وَ نَجَا الْمُقَرِّبُونَ وَ ثَبَتَ الْحِصْنُ عَلَى أَوْتَادِهَا إِنَّ بَعْدَ الْغَمِّ فَتْحاً عَجِيباً

Mohammed ibn Hammam and Mohammed ibn Hassan ibn Mohammed and they all from Hassan ibn Mohammed ibn Jamhoria, who from his father, who from Samah, who from Salay ibn Nabbat and Bakr Musnah and they both have narrated:

Abu Abdullah-asws’s father Abu Jafar-asws al-Baqir-asws has said the following: The ones who would strive for earlier establishment of the truth (Just rule) will be killed since the foundations of the forts of unjust (governments) will remain deeply rooted.  Indeed, there will be a grand victory after an extended suppression.[45]

ِ الْزَمُوا الْأَرْضَ وَ اصْبِرُوا عَلَى الْبَلَاءِ وَ لَا تُحَرِّكُوا بِأَيْدِيكُمْ وَ سُيُوفِكُمْ فِي هَوَى أَلْسِنَتِكُمْ وَ لَا تَسْتَعْجِلُوا بِمَا لَمْ يُعَجِّلْهُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مَنْ مَاتَ مِنْكُمْ عَلَى فِرَاشِهِ وَ هُوَ عَلَى مَعْرِفَةِ حَقِّ رَبِّهِ وَ حَقِّ رَسُولِهِ وَ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ مَاتَ شَهِيداً وَ وَقَعَ أَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ وَ اسْتَوْجَبَ ثَوَابَ مَا نَوَى مِنْ صَالِحِ عَمَلِهِ وَ قَامَتِ النِّيَّةُ مَقَامَ إِصْلَاتِهِ لِسَيْفِهِ فَإِنَّ لِكُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ مُدَّةً وَ أَجَلًا

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws says, in one of the sermons (189):

Stick to the earth, be patient in trials, do not move your hands and swords after the liking of your tongues, and do not make haste in matters in which Allah-azwj has not asked for haste because any one of you who dies in his bed while he had knowledge of the rights of Allah-azwj and the rights of His Prophet-saww and members-asws of the Prophet-saww‘s house, will die as a martyr. His reward is incumbent on Allah-azwj. He is also eligible to the recompense of what good acts he has intended to do, since his intention takes the place of drawing his sword. Certainly, for every thing there is a (prescribed) time and a limit.[46]

دَعَوَاتُ الرَّاوَنْدِيِّ، قَالَ النَّبِيُّ ص انْتِظَارُ الْفَرَجِ بِالصَّبْرِ عِبَادَةٌ

It is written in ‘Dawaad-e-Radawi’ that Prophet Mohammed-saww said: ‘To wait for the ‘al-Faraj’ (Zahoor-e-Imam-e-Zaman-ajfj) with patience which is the Ibadah (worship).[47]

ابْنُ الْوَلِيدِ عَنِ الصَّفَّارِ عَنِ الْبَرْقِيِّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ عَنِ الْمُفَضَّلِ بْنِ صَالِحٍ عَنْ جَابِرٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع أَنَّهُ قَالَ يَأْتِي عَلَى النَّاسِ زَمَانٌ يَغِيبُ عَنْهُمْ إِمَامُهُمْ فَيَا طُوبَى لِلثَّابِتِينَ عَلَى أَمْرِنَا فِي ذَلِكَ الزَّمَانِ إِنَّ أَدْنَى مَا يَكُونُ لَهُمْ مِنَ الثَّوَابِ أَنْ يُنَادِيَهُمُ الْبَارِئُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ عِبَادِي آمَنْتُمْ بِسِرِّي وَ صَدَّقْتُمْ بِغَيْبِي فَأَبْشِرُوا بِحُسْنِ الثَّوَابِ مِنِّي فَأَنْتُمْ عِبَادِي وَ إِمَائِي حَقّاً مِنْكُمْ أَتَقَبَّلُ وَ عَنْكُمْ أَعْفُو وَ لَكُمْ أَغْفِرُ وَ بِكُمْ أَسْقِي عِبَادِيَ الْغَيْثَ وَ أَدْفَعُ عَنْهُمُ الْبَلَاءَ وَ لَوْلَاكُمْ لَأَنْزَلْتُ عَلَيْهِمْ عَذَابِي قَالَ جَابِرٌ فَقُلْتُ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ فَمَا أَفْضَلُ مَا يَسْتَعْمِلُهُ الْمُؤْمِنُ فِي ذَلِكَ الزَّمَانِ قَالَ حِفْظُ اللِّسَانِ وَ لُزُومُ الْبَيْتِ

Ibn Walid, who from Saffar, who from Baraqi, who from his father, who from Mughara, who from Mufazzal ibn Salay, who from Jabir who has narrated the following:

Abi Abd Allah-asws (Mohammed Baqir-asws) said: ‘ People will face a time when their Imam-asws will be in occultation. Blessed are those who would stay firm on the mastership of the ‘Sahib-e-Amr’ (the Divine Authority-asws) from us-asws.  The minimum reward for them will be that Allah-azwj will Say to them: ‘O My-azwj servants! You have believed in My-azwj secret, you ratified the one-ajfj whom I-azwj have obscured from your eyes; therefore I-azwj give you news of the best rewards.  In fact only you are My-azwj slaves and slave-girls, I-azwj will Approve of only your good deeds and only Forgive your shortcomings. And will disregard your sins in the Hereafter; for your sake I-azwj will send down the rain, withhold disasters; I-azwj would have sent down torment if you were not among others.

Jabir asked: O son of the Prophet-asws! Please inform me what a ‘Momin’ should do during the time of Occulation of Imam-ajfj? Imam-asws replied: To keep quiet and adopt solitude (to remain at home).[48]

عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى الْعَلَوِيِّ عَنْ حَيْدَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ السَّمَرْقَنْدِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَمْرٍو الْكَشِّيِّ عَنْ حَمْدَوَيْهِ بْنِ بِشْرٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا ع إِنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ بُكَيْرٍ يَرْوِي حَدِيثاً وَ يَتَأَوَّلُهُ وَ أَنَا أُحِبُّ أَنْ أَعْرِضَهُ عَلَيْكَ فَقَالَ مَا ذَاكَ الْحَدِيثُ قُلْتُ قَالَ ابْنُ بُكَيْرٍ حَدَّثَنِي عُبَيْدُ بْنُ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ كُنْتُ عِنْدَ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع أَيَّامَ خَرَجَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ‏ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ إِذْ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا فَقَالَ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِنَّ مُحَمَّدَ بْنَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ قَدْ خَرَجَ وَ أَجَابَهُ النَّاسُ فَمَا تَقُولُ فِي الْخُرُوجِ مَعَهُ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع اسْكُنْ مَا سَكَنَتِ السَّمَاءُ وَ الْأَرْضُ فَقَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ بُكَيْرٍ فَإِذَا كَانَ الْأَمْرُ هَكَذَا فَلَمْ يَكُنْ خُرُوجٌ مَا سَكَنَتِ السَّمَاءُ وَ الْأَرْضُ فَمَا مِنْ قَائِمٍ وَ مَا مِنْ خُرُوجٍ فَقَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ صَدَقَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع وَ لَيْسَ الْأَمْرُ عَلَى مَا تَأَوَّلَهُ ابْنُ بُكَيْرٍ إِنَّمَا قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع اسْكُنْ مَا سَكَنَتِ السَّمَاءُ مِنَ النِّدَاءِ وَ الْأَرْضُ مِنَ الْخَسْفِ بِالْجَيْشِ

Ahmed ibn Mohammed ibn Isa Alavi, who Haider ibn Mohammed Samar Qandi, who from abu Ummero al-Ladshi, who from Hamidia ibn Bashir, who from Mohammed ibn Isa, who from al-Hussain ibn Khalid who has narrated the following:

I once asked from Abu al-Hassan al-Reza-asws that I have heard a hadith from Abdullah ibn Bakir and he gave an interpretation for it but I would like to hear from yourself-asws.  The Imam-asws said: Narrate it to me.  I (the narrator) said: Ibn Kaseer says that I have heard it from Aubaad ibn Zaara that once I was in the service of Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq-asws at the time when Mohammed ibn Abdullah ibn Hassan[49] had initiated a revolt against the government.  At that time, a person from our companions came and asked from the Imam-asws:  ‘May I be sacrificed for your cause. Mohammed ibn Hassan has risen up against the ruler and people have started supporting him.  What do you say about our involvement?  Shall we support him in his uprising?  Imam-asws replied:  You should remain inactive until the skies and the earth are silent.

Abdullah ibn Bakir says about this (hadith) that since the instructions have been issued to keep silent until the earth and the skies are quiet and stationary so there will neither be any establishment of a leader nor there will be a rising (against unjust government).  Abu al-Hassan al-Reza-asws replied:  Abu al-Hassan (Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq-asws) said the truth but interpretation of ibn Bakir is wrong.  Abu al Hassan-asws has said: Remain inactive until the skies and the earth are silent.  It means until there is no ‘Call’ from the skies and until the cracks opens up the earth.[50]

Allah-azwj Eliminates Enemies of Ahlul Bayt-asws by their Enemies:

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ هَمَّامٍ عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ عَنِ ابْنِ أَسْبَاطٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع أَنَّهُ قَالَ كُفُّوا أَلْسِنَتَكُمْ وَ الْزَمُوا بُيُوتَكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ لَا يُصِيبُكُمْ أَمْرٌ تَخُصُّونَ بِهِ أَبَداً وَ لَا يُصِيبُ الْعَامَّةَ وَ لَا تَزَالُ الزَّيْدِيَّةُ وِقَاءً لَكُمْ أَبَداً

Mohammed ibn Hammam, who from Jafar ibn Mohammed ibn Malaik, who from Mohammed ibn Ahmed ibn Isbaat, who from some of their companions have narrated the following:

Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘You should keep your mouths closed and stay in your homes, since from this (uprising) neither you are going to be effected forever nor general public, nor Zaidia would continue to become your shield (by uprising against the governments).[51]

During Occultation Shias will be like ‘al-Muwat’ (Motionless):

الْعِدَّةُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نَجْرَانَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي الْجَارُودِ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ لَا تَرَوْنَ الَّذِي تَنْتَظِرُونَ حَتَّى تَكُونُوا كَالْمِعْزَى الْمَوَاتِ الَّتِي لَا يُبَالِي الْخَابِسُ أَيْنَ يَضَعُ يَدَهُ مِنْهَا لَيْسَ لَكُمْ شَرَفٌ تَرْقَوْنَهُ وَ لَا سِنَادٌ تُسْنِدُونَ إِلَيْهِ أَمْرَكُمْ

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn banu Najran Muhammad ibn Sinan from abu al-Jarud who has narrated the following:

‘Abu Ja’far-asws has said: ‘You will not see the one for whom you are waiting, until you become like al-Muwat (motionless) goat who is not a matter of any kind of worry for the lion. The lion can then cut from whichever part of its body it wants; you will not have any high position to rise or supporter to seek support thereby.’

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ مَا أَيْسَرَ مَا رَضِيَ بِهِ النَّاسُ عَنْكُمْ كُفُّوا أَلْسِنَتَكُمْ عَنْهُمْ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘Alayhi al-Salam, who has narrated the following:

‘Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws has said: ‘How easy it is to achieve the pleasure of people! Just hold back your tongue from speaking against them.[52]

The Time of Occultation will be Extremely Difficult:

بِالْإِسْنَادِ الْمُتَقَدِّمِ فِي الْبَابِ الْمَذْكُورِ عَنْ عَلْقَمَةَ بْنِ قَيْسٍ قَالَ خَطَبَنَا أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَى مِنْبَرِ الْكُوفَةِ خُطْبَةَ اللُّؤْلُؤَةِ فَقَالَ فِيمَا قَالَ فِي آخِرِهَا أَلَا وَ إِنِّي ظَاعِنٌ عَنْ قَرِيبٍ وَ مُنْطَلِقٌ إِلَى الْمَغِيبِ فَارْتَقِبُوا الْفِتْنَةَ الْأُمَوِيَّةَ وَ الْمَمْلَكَةَ الْكِسْرَوِيَّةَ وَ إِمَاتَةَ مَا أَحْيَاهُ اللَّهُ وَ إِحْيَاءَ مَا أَمَاتَهُ اللَّهُ وَ اتَّخِذُوا صَوَامِعَكُمْ بُيُوتَكُمْ وَ عَضُّوا عَلَى مِثْلِ جَمْرِ الْغَضَا وَ اذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَثِيراً فَذِكْرُهُ أَكْبَرُ لَوْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ ‏

Alqamah ibn Qais says that once Amir-ul-Momineen-asws delivered a sermon from the pulpit of al-Kufa Masjid, which is famous by the name of ‘Lou Lou’, among many other issues of wisdom;

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws said: ‘Be aware, I will leave you shortly and go behind a ‘Curtain’.  You should expect now the anarchy of Banu Ummaid, the kingdoms’ of ‘al-Kasira’ will be built, in which what Allah-azwj Wants to be alive, will be made dead and what Allah-azwj Wants to be demolished will be established.  From now onwards, make your homes a place of worship and remain patient like eating cinders and keep on remembering Allah-azwj as the remembrance of Allah-azwj is of significant benefit, if you have the knowledge.[53]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ رِبْعِيٍّ رَفَعَهُ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ ع قَالَ وَ اللَّهِ لَا يَخْرُجُ وَاحِدٌ مِنَّا قَبْلَ خُرُوجِ الْقَائِمِ ع إِلَّا كَانَ مَثَلُهُ مَثَلَ فَرْخٍ طَارَ مِنْ وَكْرِهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَسْتَويَ جَنَاحَاهُ فَأَخَذَهُ الصِّبْيَانُ فَعَبِثُوا بِهِ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father, who from Hammad ibn Isa, who from Ribiy in a marfu manner who has narrated the following:

Ali ibn Hussain-asws said:  By Allah-azwj, no one from us-asws will rise before al-Qaim-ajfj will reappear with Divine Authority and Power, if one does then his condition will be like that of a bird flying from the nest before its wings are able to lift it in the air.  Subsequently, children pick it up and play with it.[54]

الْعِدَّةُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ بَكْرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ سَدِيرٍ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ يَا سَدِيرُ الْزَمْ بَيْتَكَ وَ كُنْ حِلْساً مِنْ أَحْلَاسِهِ وَ اسْكُنْ مَا سَكَنَ اللَّيْلُ وَ النَّهَارُ فَإِذَا بَلَغَكَ أَنَّ السُّفْيَانِيَّ قَدْ خَرَجَ فَارْحَلْ إِلَيْنَا وَ لَوْ عَلَى رِجْلِكَ

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Mohammed, from Utahman ibn Isa, from Bakr ibn Mohammed, from Sadir who has narrated the following:

Abu Jafar-asws once said: ‘O Sadir, stay in your home and remain there, keep calm until the night makes it calm.  Until you learn that al-Sufyani has moved then travel to us-asws even if you have to walk on foot’.[55]

Imam-asws Consoles his Oppressed Shias:

عَبْدُ الْوَاحِدِ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ هَوْذَةَ عَنِ النَّهَاوَنْدِيِّ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْمُفَضَّلِ قَالَ كُنْتُ عِنْدَ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع بِالطَّوَافِ فَنَظَرَ إِلَيَّ وَ قَالَ لِي يَا مُفَضَّلُ مَا لِي أَرَاكَ مَهْمُوماً مُتَغَيِّرَ اللَّوْنِ قَالَ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ نَظَرِي إِلَى بَنِي الْعَبَّاسِ وَ مَا فِي أَيْدِيهِمْ مِنْ هَذَا الْمُلْكِ وَ السُّلْطَانِ وَ الْجَبَرُوتِ فَلَوْ كَانَ ذَلِكَ لَكُمْ لَكُنَّا فِيهِ مَعَكُمْ فَقَالَ يَا مُفَضَّلُ أَمَا لَوْ كَانَ ذَلِكَ لَمْ يَكُنْ إِلَّا سِيَاسَةُ اللَّيْلِ وَ سِيَاحَةُ النَّهَارِ وَ أَكْلُ الْجَشِبِ وَ لُبْسُ الْخَشِنِ شِبْهَ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ إِلَّا فَالنَّارُ فَزُوِيَ ذَلِكَ عَنَّا فَصِرْنَا نَأْكُلُ وَ نَشْرَبُ وَ هَلْ رَأَيْتَ ظُلَامَةً جَعَلَهَا اللَّهُ نِعْمَةً مِثْلَ هَذَا  بيان إلا سياسة الليل أي سياسة الناس و حراستهم عن الشر بالليل و رياضة النفس فيها بالاهتمام لأمور الناس و تدبير معاشهم و معادهم مضافا إلى العبادات البدنية و في النهاية السياسة القيام على الشي‏ء بما يصلحه و سياحة النهار بالدعوة إلى الحق و الجهاد و السعي في حوائج المؤمن و السير في الأرض لجميع ذلك و السياسة بمعنى الصوم كما قيل غير مناسب هنا. فزوي أي صرف و أبعد فهل رأيت تعجب منه ع في صيرورة الظلم عليهم نعمة لهم و كأن المراد بالظلامة هنا الظلم و في القاموس المظلمة بكسر اللام و كثمامة ما تظلمه الرجل

Abdul Wahid, who from Ahmed ibn Hozarah, who from Nihawandi, who from Abd Allah ibn Hammad, who from Mofazzil, who has narrated the following:

I was once close to Imam abu Abd Allah-asws during the circumambulation of Kabah, Imam-asws looked at me and asked from me: ‘O Mufazzal! What is the matter, I find you sad and your face has turned pale?  I replied:  When I see banu Abbas in power, enjoying all the facilities and authorities. I wish these were in your hand so that people like me could have been part of these (the glory).

Imam-asws replied: O Mufazzal!  If this were true then you people had to work extremely hard, guarding people in the night and during the day marching along (on other duties), eating tasteless food and wearing heavy clothes.  As it has been the case during the rule of Amir-ul-Momineen-asws.  If you would not have accepted it then your were destined to hellfire.  These responsibilities have been waived-off from our necks; this is why we eat normal food.  Have you seen cruelty becoming a blessing for someone, as it is now (for you).[56]

Our Preparation for the Zahoor of Imam-ajfj:

ابْنُ عُقْدَةَ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ يُوسُفَ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ عَنِ ابْنِ الْبَطَائِنِيِّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَ وُهَيْبٍ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع لِيُعِدَّنَّ أَحَدُكُمْ لِخُرُوجِ الْقَائِمِ وَ لَوْ سَهْماً فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ إِذَا عَلِمَ ذَلِكَ مِنْ نِيَّتِهِ رَجَوْتُ لِأَنْ يُنْسِئَ فِي عُمُرِهِ حَتَّى يُدْرِكَهُ وَ يَكُونَ مِنْ أَعْوَانِهِ وَ أَنْصَارِهِ

Ibn Aqadah, who from Ahmed ibn Yousif, who from Ismail ibn Mehran, who from ibn Bataini, who from his father and Wahab, both of them from abu Basir, who has narrated the following:

Abu Abd Allah-asws said: ‘Every one of you, should collect arms and get ready for the rising of ‘al-Qaim-ajfj’, even if it’s just an arrow. Upon knowing your intention, Allah-azwj may increase your age, as much as you live until the time of ‘al-Qaim-ajfj’ and you could be included in his-ajfj aides and supporters.[57]

Imam-asws Rejects Participation in Jihad by Sword:

وَ بِإِسْنَادِهِ عَنْ رِبْعِيٍّ عَنْ بُرَيْدٍ الْعِجْلِيِّ قَالَ قِيلَ لِأَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع إِنَّ أَصْحَابَنَا بِالْكُوفَةِ جَمَاعَةٌ كَثِيرَةٌ فَلَوْ أَمَرْتَهُمْ لَأَطَاعُوكَ وَ اتَّبَعُوكَ فَقَالَ يَجِي‏ءُ أَحَدُهُمْ إِلَى كِيسِ أَخِيهِ فَيَأْخُذُ مِنْهُ حَاجَتَهُ فَقَالَ لَا قَالَ فَهُمْ بِدِمَائِهِمْ أَبْخَلُ ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنَّ النَّاسَ فِي هُدْنَةٍ نُنَاكِحُهُمْ وَ نُوَارِثُهُمْ وَ نُقِيمُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْحُدُودَ وَ نُؤَدِّي أَمَانَاتِهِمْ حَتَّى إِذْ قَامَ الْقَائِمُ جَاءَتِ الْمُزَامَلَةُ وَ يَأْتِي الرَّجُلُ إِلَى كِيسِ أَخِيهِ فَيَأْخُذُ حَاجَتَهُ لَا يَمْنَعُهُ

Through a chain of narrators, Rabbi, who from Buraad al-Jalli, has narrated the following:

Abu Abd Allah-asws was told that a large number of his-asws shias were residing in al-Kufa. If you-asws call upon them, they will submit to your-asws commands and to your rule.  Imam-asws replied: ‘Tell me-asws, if it is possible that a monin takes some money out of the wallet of a fellow monin, as per his needs, and the former monin does not object (to him taking his money)?

He (the narrator replied): ‘No, (this cannot happen these days).

Imam-asws said: Surely, they will be meaner in offering their blood (lives) on behalf of someone else!  And added: ‘Listen!  This is the time of truce and remaining inactive, during this time we will marry them, inherit each other and go along on the established limits but in the time of ‘Al-Qaim-ajfj’, sincere brotherhood and trustworthiness will be established to the extend that when a monin takes money out of the money-bag of a fellow monin, he will not mind.’[58]

Our Responsibilities during the Ghaibah

قَالَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ عَاصِمٍ فَأَهْوَيْتُ عَلَى الْأَقْدَامِ كُلِّهَا فَقَبَّلْتُهَا وَ قَبَّلْتُ يَدَ الْإِمَامِ ع وَ قُلْتُ لَهُ إِنِّي عَاجِزٌ عَنْ نُصْرَتِكُمْ بِيَدِي وَ لَيْسَ أَمْلِكُ غَيْرَ مُوَالَاتِكُمْ وَ الْبَرَاءَةِ مِنْ أَعْدَائِكُمْ وَ اللَّعْنِ لَهُمْ فِي خَلَوَاتِي فَكَيْفَ حَالِي يَا سَيِّدِي فَقَالَ ع حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي عَنْ جَدِّي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص قَالَ مَنْ ضَعُفَ عَلَى نُصْرَتِنَا أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَ لَعَنَ فِي خَلَوَاتِهِ أَعْدَاءَنَا بَلَّغَ اللَّهُ صَوْتَهُ إِلَى جَمِيعِ الْمَلَائِكَةِ فَكُلَّمَا لَعَنَ أَحَدُكُمْ أَعْدَاءَنَا صَاعَدَتْهُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَ لَعَنُوا مَنْ لَا يَلْعَنُهُمْ فَإِذَا بَلَغَ صَوْتُهُ إِلَى الْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْتَغْفَرُوا لَهُ وَ أَثْنَوْا عَلَيْهِ وَ قَالُوا اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى رُوحِ عَبْدِكَ هَذَا الَّذِي بَذَلَ فِي نُصْرَةِ أَوْلِيَائِهِ جُهْدَهُ وَ لَوْ قَدَرَ عَلَى أَكْثَرَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ لَفَعَلَ فَإِذَا النِّدَاءُ مِنْ قِبَلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى يَقُولُ يَا مَلَائِكَتِي إِنِّي قَدْ أحببت [أَجَبْتُ‏] دُعَاءَكُمْ فِي عَبْدِي هَذَا وَ سَمِعْتُ نِدَاءَكُمْ وَ صَلَّيْتُ عَلَى رُوحِهِ مَعَ أَرْوَاحِ الْأَبْرَارِ وَ جَعَلْتُهُ مِنَ الْمُصْطَفَيْنَ الْأَخْيارِ

Ali ibn Asim has said, as part of a longer tradition, I fell down on each of ‘Holy Images’, the footprints of Masomeen-asws and kissed them, I then kissed the hands of the Imam (Hassan al-Askari-asws) and said: Mola-asws! I am not in a position to physically support your-asws cause but I, in my solitude, praise you-asws and curse your enemies-la.  Please inform me about my reckoning (in the Hereafter)?

Imam-asws replied: ‘I narrate to you a hadith of our grandfather, Prophet of Allah-saww who said: ‘The one who cannot extend support to Ahlul Bait-asws but instead denounces their-asws enemies in his solitude, Allah-azwj Transmits his supplications to all His-azwj angels-as.  They-as also join him in sending ‘Laan’ on the enemies (of Ahlul Bayt-asws) and they curse those who refrain from sending ‘Laan’ on the enemies-la of Ahlul Bayt-asws.

When his voice reaches the angels, they-as ask forgiveness for him and praise him and plead to Allah-azwj to bless the spirit of his -azwj servant, who has made an effort in support of Your-azwj allies-asws, if he were capable of doing more, he surely would have supported them-asws more strenuously.

Then a ‘Call’ comes from Allah-azwj: O My Angels! I-azwj have Answered your prayers in favour of My slave.  I-azwj have Sent blessing to his soul along with the spirits of the righteous ones.  I-azwj have also included him in the company of My-azwj righteous ones.’[59]

رُوِيَ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ رَاشِدٍ قَالَ ذَكَرْتُ زَيْدَ بْنَ عَلِيٍّ فَتَنَقَّصْتُهُ عِنْدَ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ فَقَالَ لَا تَفْعَلْ رَحِمَ اللَّهُ عَمِّي أَتَى أَبِي فَقَالَ إِنِّي أُرِيدُ الْخُرُوجَ عَلَى هَذَا الطَّاغِيَةِ فَقَالَ لَا تَفْعَلْ فَإِنِّي أَخَافُ أَنْ تَكُونَ الْمَقْتُولَ الْمَصْلُوبَ عَلَى ظَهْرِ الْكُوفَةِ أَ مَا عَلِمْتَ يَا زَيْدُ أَنَّهُ لَا يَخْرُجُ أَحَدٌ مِنْ وُلْدِ فَاطِمَةَ عَلَى أَحَدٍ مِنَ السَّلَاطِينِ قَبْلَ خُرُوجِ السُّفْيَانِيِّ إِلَّا قُتِلَ

Al-Hassan ibn Rashid narrates the following:

Zaid bin Ali says that he told by Abu Abdullah-asws: Do not go for it (up rising).  (Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq-asws says) May Allah-azwj bless my uncle who came to my father-asws and said: “I want to get rid of this tyrant.  He-asws (my father) said: I-asws do fear for you to be slained and crucified on the gate of Kufa. As I have learned (from my ancestors-asws) O Zaid! Whoever comes out of the sons of Fatima-asws against the sultans, before the coming out, of Sufyani, will be killed.[60]

Only a Masoom-asws Can Form A Just Government:

عن عبد الكريم بن عتبة الهاشمي كنت عند أبي عبد الله ع بمكة إذ دخل عليه أناس من المعتزلة فيهم عمرو بن عبيد و واصل بن عطاء و حفص بن سالم و أناس من رؤسائهم و ذلك أنه حين قتل الوليد و اختلف أهل الشام بينهم فتكلموا فأكثروا و خطبوا فأطالوا فقال لهم أبو عبد الله جعفر بن محمد ع إنكم قد أكثرتم علي فأطلتم فأسندوا أمركم إلى رجل منكم فليتكلم بحجتكم و ليوجز فأسندوا أمرهم إلى عمرو بن عبيد فأبلغ و أطال فكان فيما قال أن قال‏ قتل أهل الشام خليفتهم و ضرب الله بعضهم ببعض و تشتت أمرهم فنظرنا فوجدنا رجلا له دين و عقل و مروة و معدن للخلافة و هو محمد بن عبد الله بن الحسن فأردنا أن نجتمع معه فنبايعه ثم نظهر أمرنا معه و ندعو الناس إليه فمن بايعه كنا معه و كان منا و من اعتزلنا كففنا عنه و من نصب لنا جاهدناه و نصبنا له على بغيه و نرده إلى الحق و أهله و قد أحببنا أن نعرض ذلك عليك فإنه لا غنى بنا عن مثلك لفضلك و لكثرة شيعتك فلما فرغ قال أبو عبد الله ع أ كلكم على مثل ما قال عمرو قالوا نعم فحمد الله و أثنى عليه و صلى على النبي ثم قال إنما نسخط إذا عصي الله فإذا أطيع الله رضينا أخبرني يا عمرو لو أن الأمة قلدتك أمرها فملكته بغير قتال و لا مئونة فقيل لك ولها من شئت من كنت تولي قال كنت أجعلها شورى بين المسلمين قال بين كلهم قال نعم فقال بين فقهائهم و خيارهم قال نعم قال قريش و غيرهم قال العرب و العجم قال فأخبرني يا عمرو أ تتولى أبا بكر و عمر أو تتبرأ منهما قال أتولاهما قال يا عمرو إن كنت رجلا تتبرأ منهما فإنه يجوز لك الخلاف عليهما و إن كنت تتولاهما فقد خالفتهما قد عهد عمر إلى أبي بكر فبايعه و لم يشاور أحدا ثم ردها أبو بكر عليه و لم يشاور أحدا ثم جعلها عمر شورى بين ستة فخرج منها الأنصار غير أولئك الستة من قريش ثم أوصى الناس فيهم بشي‏ء ما أراك ترضى أنت و لا أصحابك قال و ما صنع قال أمر صهيبا أن يصلي بالناس ثلاثة أيام و أن يتشاور أولئك الستة ليس فيهم أحد سواهم إلا ابن عمر و يشاورونه و ليس له من الأمر شي‏ء و أوصى من كان بحضرته من المهاجرين و الأنصار إن مضت ثلاثة أيام و لم يفرغوا و يبايعوا أن يضرب أعناق الستة جميعا و إن اجتمع أربعة قبل أن يمضي ثلاثة أيام و خالف اثنان أن يضرب أعناق الاثنين أ فترضون بهذا فيما تجعلون من الشورى في المسلمين قالوا لا قال يا عمرو دع ذا أ رأيت لو بايعت صاحبك هذا الذي تدعو إليه ثم اجتمعت لكم الأمة و لم يختلف عليكم منها رجلان فأفضيتم إلى المشركين الذين لم يسلموا و لم يؤدوا الجزية كان عندكم و عند صاحبكم من العلم ما تسيرون فيهم بسيرة رسول الله ص في المشركين في الجزية قالوا نعم قال فتصنعون ما ذا قالوا ندعوهم إلى الإسلام فإن أبوا دعوناهم إلى الجزية قال فإن كانوا مجوسا و أهل كتاب و عبدة النيران و البهائم و ليسوا بأهل كتاب قالوا سواء قال فأخبرني عن القرآن أ تقرءونه قال نعم

قال اقرأ قاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ لا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَ لا بِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَ لا يُحَرِّمُونَ ما حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ لا يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتابَ حَتَّى يُعْطُوا الْجِزْيَةَ عَنْ يَدٍ وَ هُمْ صاغِرُونَ قال فاستثنى الله عز و جل و اشترط من الذين أوتوا الكتاب فهم و الذين لم يؤتوا الكتاب سواء قال نعم قال ع عمن أخذت هذا قال سمعت الناس يقولونه قال فدع ذا فإنهم إن أبوا الجزية فقاتلتهم فظهرت كيف تصنع بالغنيمة قال أخرج الخمس و أقسم أربعة أخماس بين من قاتل عليها قال تقسمه بين جميع من قاتل عليها قال نعم قال فقد خالفت رسول الله في فعله و في سيرته و بيني و بينك فقهاء أهل المدينة و مشيختهم فسلهم فإنهم لا يختلفون و لا يتنازعون في أن رسول الله إنما صالح الأعراب على أن يدعهم في ديارهم و أن لا يهاجروا على أنه إن دهمه من عدوه دهم فيستفزهم فيقاتل بهم و ليس لهم من الغنيمة نصيب و أنت تقول بين جميعهم فقد خالفت رسول الله ص في سيرته في المشركين دع ذا ما تقول في الصدقة قال فقرأ عليه هذه الآية إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقاتُ لِلْفُقَراءِ وَ الْمَساكِينِ وَ الْعامِلِينَ عَلَيْها إلى آخرها قال نعم فكيف تقسم بينهم قال أقسمها على ثمانية أجزاء فأعطي كل جزء من الثمانية جزءا فقال ع إن كان صنف منهم عشرة آلاف و صنف رجلا واحدا أو رجلين أو ثلاثة جعلت لهذا الواحد مثل ما جعلت للعشرة آلاف قال نعم قال و ما تصنع بين صدقات أهل الحضر و أهل البوادي فتجعلهم فيها سواء قال نعم قال فخالفت رسول الله في كل ما أتى به كان رسول الله يقسم صدقة البوادي في أهل البوادي و صدقة الحضر في أهل الحضر و لا يقسم بينهم بالسوية إنما يقسمه قدر ما يحضره منهم و على قدر ما يحضره فإن كان في نفسك شي‏ء مما قلت لك فإن فقهاء أهل المدينة و مشيختهم كلهم لا يختلفون في أن رسول الله كذا كان يصنع ثم أقبل على عمرو و قال اتق الله يا عمرو و أنتم أيضا الرهط فاتقوا الله فإن أبي حدثني و كان خير أهل الأرض و أعلمهم بكتاب الله و سنة رسوله أن رسول الله ص قال من ضرب الناس بسيفه و دعاهم إلى نفسه و في المسلمين من هو أعلم منه فهو ضال متكلف

Abd-ul-Karim bin Yatbah al-Hashami says that I was in the service of Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq-asws in Mecca when a group of al-Mutaziliy[61] came, among them was Ummro bin Yubaid and Wasil bin Atta and Haffaz bin Salim along with some others consisting of general public and some notables.  It was the time when Walid had been assassinated and people of Sham had disagreement on the selection of his successor. They kept on discussing this issue for a very long time.

Imam-asws said to them:  You people have spoken a lot in front to me-asws; why don’t you appoint one person among you who can convey your opinion to me so that we cut the lengthy discussion short.  They selected Ummro ibn Youbad, who talked for a very long time but basically said:  The people of Sham have killed their ruler and some of them have overcome the others and are in serious disagreement regarding the appointment of a leader.  Under these circumstances, we have selected a ‘Leader’ who has good understanding of the religion, is a very wise person and is the most suitable one to be ‘Caliph’, he is Mohammed bin Abd Allah bin Al-Hassan.  We all intend to pledge our support to him, and invite others toward him so that they also take an oath of allegiance.  Whoever is in agreement with us we will be friendly with him but whoever is against us we will oppose him, whoever will fight with us we will wage a war against him and will have enmity against him for his opposition to the just, until and unless we return the right to its inheritor (the caliph).

We have come to you-asws, since we are highly dependent on you-asws, due to your-asws elevated status and your-asws large number of supporters.  When he finished his speech, Imam Jafar-asws addressed (all of them):

Do you all agree with what Ummro ibn Youbad has said?  They all replied: Yes, we do.

Imam-asws, then praised Allah-azwj and after reciting ‘Salawat’ on Mohammed-saww and Alay Mohammed-asws, said: Disobedience to Allah-azwj makes us-asws sad and obedience to Him-azwj pleases us-asws.

Imam-asws said: O Ummro! Tell me, if all people would agree on you as an arbitrator without having to go through an anarchy and killing people.  And if you were asked to select a ruler. How would you select a ‘Wali’[62] or Ruler?

Ummro: I will form a ‘Shura’ (a consulting body) from Muslims.

Imam-asws: From all Muslims?

Ummro: Yes.

Imam-asws: Shura will consist of the notables and ‘Fuqqah’ from Muslim?

Ummro: Yes.

Imam-asws: Quraish and non-Quraish, including Arabs and non-Arabs?

Ummro: Yes.

Imam-asws: O Ummro! Do you like or dislike Abu Bakr and Umar?

Ummro: I adore them.

Imam-asws: O Ummro! If you were to dislike them then it would be possible for you to go against their traditions.  Instead, you like them but still go against them!  Since Umar, without any consultation, nominated Abu Bakr and then took oath of allegiance.  Later on, Abu Bakr, without any consultation, handed over the reigns of Caliphate to Umar.

However, (for third caliph) Umar formed a ‘Shura’ of six people, in which he did not include anyone from the ‘Ansars’[63] but only selected six people from the tribe of Quraish and excluded all others. He (Umar) drafted a will about them (six people) which neither you nor your accomplice will approve.

Ummro:  What did Umar do?

Imam-asws: Suhaab was asked to lead people in Salat for three days in a row.  All of them (Muslims) should gather and offer Salat (behind him), excluding these six people along with a seventh-one, the son of Umar.  There should not be anyone with them and the seventh-one should stay (in their company) but without giving any advice or involving in consultation.  Umar then told all those present among the Immigrants and Ansars, if they (six of them) are unable to reach a consensus after three days, you should kill all six of them. If after three days, four of them are in agreement but two of them are not then remove the heads of those two.

Imam-asws: O Ummro! Would you and your companions agree to form a Shura, the way Umar formed to select a Ruler for Muslims?

They all replied: No we are not in favour (of Shura)!

Imam-asws: O Ummro, lets leave it (you will not form Shura as per your earlier intentions).  Now, let us suppose, you succeeded in selecting a ruler for Muslims and everyone agreed on this selection, not even two people disagreed among the whole Muslim nation.  You went to non-believers, who neither accepted Islam nor agreed to offer ‘Jazia’[64].  In this case, do you or your selected ruler and Amir has the knowledge how Prophet Mohammed-saww implemented ‘Jazia’ on the non-believers so that your actions are in accordance with the traditions of the Prophet-saww?

Ummro and others:  Yes, we do.

Imam-asws: How would you do decide?

Ummro and others:  We will first invite them to Islam but if they reject our invitation, we will force them to pay ‘Jazia’

Imam-asws: What if they were people of the Book or are from fire worshipers?

Ummro: Yes, regardless if they were the people of Book or the fire worshipers.

Imam-asws:  What will you tell them if they were from those who worship fire and animals (Majusi)?

Ummro!  They are all equal.

Imam-asws: Have you read sometime about them in the Holy Book?

O Ummro: Yes, I have.

Imam-asws: Then recited:

قَاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلَا بِالْيَوْمِ الْآَخِرِ وَلَا يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلَا يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ حَتَّى يُعْطُوا الْجِزْيَةَ عَنْ يَدٍ وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ (299:)

Fight those who do not believe in Allah, nor in the latter day, nor do they prohibit what Allah and His Messenger have prohibited, nor follow the religion of truth, out of those who have been given the Book, until they pay the tax in acknowledgment of superiority and they are in a state of subjection.

Imam-asws: Since Allah-azwj has separated the people of the Book from others; even then you will treat them equally?

Ummro: Yes.

Imam-asws: From where did you get this?

Ummro: I have heard people say that.

Imam-asws:  Let’s leave this (as he had no answer), suppose those people deny giving you ‘Jazia’ and you overcome them after killing some of them.  How would you distribute the war booty?

Ummro: After separating the ‘Khums’ (one fifth), the rest four shares will be divided into the fighters.

Imam-asws:   Will you divide it equally into all war participants?

Ummro:  Yes.

Imam-asws:  In this case you have acted against the conduct of Prophet-saww and his-saww traditions.  We have, between you and me-asws, some ‘Fuqha’[65] and knowledgeable people, from people of Madina, if you ask them they will not disagree on it and confirm that Prophet-saww had truce with Arabs living in desert on the conditions that they could stay in their land without having to migrate. If enemies of Prophet-saww attack, they would join Prophet-saww’s forces but they will not have any share in the war booty.  However, you say that you will equally divide the war booty and regarding the treatment of non-believers you have decided to go against the tradition of Prophet-saww. Let us leave it too but tell me what you say about the Zakat.

Ummro:  Recited the Verse of Holy Quran:

إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَاِبْنِ السَّبِيلِ فَرِيضَةً مِنَ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ (609:)

Alms are only for the poor and the needy, and the officials (appointed) over them, and those whose hearts are made to incline (to truth) and the (ransoming of) captives and those in debts and in the way of Allah and the wayfarer; an ordinance from Allah; and Allah is knowing, Wise.

Imam-asws:  yes, but tell me how are you going to distribute it?

Ummro:  Zakat will be divided into eight portions and eight deserving persons will take one portion each.

Imam-asws:  How about if one group consists of ten thousand people and one group will comprise of one or two or three people.  Do you mean to give one portion to one person and divide one portion among ten thousands?

Ummro:  Yes.

Imam-asws:  Will you divide equally between the city and village people?

Ummro:  Yes.

Imam-asws:  You have gone against all traditions of Prophet-saww.  Prophet-saww of Islam used to distribute the Zakat/Elms of people of desert among deserving ones from desert and distribute Zakat of city people among the poor from cities.  However, Prophet-saww did not, distribute (Zakat/Elms) equally but as per the number of deserving ones and also considering their requirements.

If you are not fully convinced, what I have told to you, you can verify from the scholars of Medina, who will never disagree with what I have had told you.  Indeed, this is how Prophet Mohammed-saww used to distribute (Zakat).

Imam-asws then went closer to Ummro and said:  O Ummero Fear Allah-azwj! And O people, you too Fear Allah-azwj!  Indeed, my father-asws had narrated to me-asws, no doubt my father-asws was the most knowledgeable person of Holy Quran and Ahadith, among all the inhabitant of the Earth, after Prophet-saww, a hadith of Prophet: Whoever invites public toward him, by shear force of sword (revolt against government), whereas an even more learned person exists among Muslims, he is the worst one in deriving people toward disbelief.[66]

Imam-asws Instructs His Disciples to Adopt Solitude:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنِ الْحَكَمِ بْنِ مِسْكِينٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو قَالَ قَالَ لِي أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع يَا عَبْدَ الْمَلِكِ مَا لِي لَا أَرَاكَ تَخْرُجُ إِلَى هَذِهِ الْمَوَاضِعِ الَّتِي يَخْرُجُ إِلَيْهَا أَهْلُ بِلَادِكَ قَالَ قُلْتُ وَ أَيْنَ فَقَالَ جُدَّةُ وَ عَبَّادَانُ وَ الْمَصِّيصَةُ وَ قَزْوِينُ فَقُلْتُ انْتِظَاراً لِأَمْرِكُمْ وَ الِاقْتِدَاءِ بِكُمْ فَقَالَ إِي وَ اللَّهِ لَوْ كَانَ خَيْراً مَا سَبَقُونَا إِلَيْهِ قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ فَإِنَّ الزَّيْدِيَّةَ يَقُولُونَ لَيْسَ بَيْنَنَا وَ بَيْنَ جَعْفَرٍ خِلَافٌ إِلَّا أَنَّهُ لَا يَرَى الْجِهَادَ فَقَالَ أَنَا لَا أَرَاهُ بَلَى وَ اللَّهِ إِنِّي لَأَرَاهُ وَ لَكِنْ أَكْرَهُ أَنْ أَدَعَ عِلْمِي إِلَى جَهْلِهِمْ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father, who from ibn abu ‘Urnayr from al-Hakam ibn Miskin from’ Abd al-Malik ibn ‘Amr who has said the following:

Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws said to me, ‘O ‘Abd al- Malik, how is it that I do not see you go to these places where the people of your town go?’ I then asked, ‘Which places do you mean?’ The Imam-asws said, ‘To Juddah, ‘Abadan, al-Massisah and Qazwin.’ I then said, ‘I wait for your-asws cause to materialise and follow you-asws.’ He-asws (the Imam) said, ‘That by Allah-azwj is true. If there was anything good in it they could not arrive there before us-asws.’ He (the narrator) says: I then said to him-asws, ‘Al-Zaydiyah’[67] group says: ‘There is no difference between us and Ja’far-asws, except that he-asws does not think Jihad is necessary.’ The Imam-asws said: ‘Do I not consider it necessary? By Allah-asws, I do consider it necessary but I dislike leaving my knowledge in their ignorance.’[68]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبِي عَمْرَةَ السُّلَمِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ سَأَلَهُ رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ إِنِّي كُنْتُ أُكْثِرُ الْغَزْوَ وَ أَبْعُدُ فِي طَلَبِ الْأَجْرِ وَ أُطِيلُ الْغَيْبَةَ فَحُجِرَ ذَلِكَ عَلَيَّ فَقَالُوا لَا غَزْوَ إِلَّا مَعَ إِمَامٍ عَادِلٍ فَمَا تَرَى أَصْلَحَكَ اللَّهُ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع إِنْ شِئْتَ أَنْ أُجْمِلَ لَكَ أَجْمَلْتُ وَ إِنْ شِئْتَ أَنْ أُلَخِّصَ لَكَ لَخَّصْتُ فَقَالَ بَلْ أَجْمِلْ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ يَحْشُرُ النَّاسَ عَلَى نِيَّاتِهِمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ قَالَ فَكَأَنَّهُ اشْتَهَى أَنْ يُلَخِّصَ لَهُ قَالَ فَلَخِّصْ لِي أَصْلَحَكَ اللَّهُ فَقَالَ هَاتِ فَقَالَ الرَّجُلُ غَزَوْتُ فَوَاقَعْتُ الْمُشْرِكِينَ فَيَنْبَغِي قِتَالُهُمْ قَبْلَ أَنْ أَدْعُوَهُمْ فَقَالَ إِنْ كَانُوا غَزَوْا وَ قُوتِلُوا وَ قَاتَلُوا فَإِنَّكَ تَجْتَرِئُ بِذَلِكَ وَ إِنْ كَانُوا قَوْماً لَمْ يَغْزُوا وَ لَمْ يُقَاتِلُوا فَلَا يَسَعُكَ قِتَالُهُمْ حَتَّى تَدْعُوَهُمْ‏ قَالَ الرَّجُلُ فَدَعَوْتُهُمْ فَأَجَابَنِي مُجِيبٌ وَ أَقَرَّ بِالْإِسْلَامِ فِي قَلْبِهِ وَ كَانَ فِي الْإِسْلَامِ فَجِيرَ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْحُكْمِ وَ انْتُهِكَتْ حُرْمَتُهُ وَ أُخِذَ مَالُهُ وَ اعْتُدِيَ عَلَيْهِ فَكَيْفَ بِالْمَخْرَجِ وَ أَنَا دَعَوْتُهُ فَقَالَ إِنَّكُمَا مَأْجُورَانِ عَلَى مَا كَانَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَ هُوَ مَعَكَ يَحُوطُكَ مِنْ وَرَاءِ حُرْمَتِكَ وَ يَمْنَعُ قِبْلَتَكَ وَ يَدْفَعُ عَنْ كِتَابِكَ وَ يَحْقُنُ دَمَكَ خَيْرٌ مِنْ أَنْ يَكُونَ عَلَيْكَ يَهْدِمُ قِبْلَتَكَ وَ يَنْتَهِكُ حُرْمَتَكَ وَ يَسْفِكُ دَمَكَ وَ يُحْرِقُ كِتَابَكَ

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Ali ibn al-Hakarn from abu ‘Amrah al-Sullamiy who has said the following:

Once, a man asked abu ‘Abd Allah-asws saying: ‘I would mobilise (against the enemy) very often, stay away from asking for compensation and remain absent for a long time. This was called impermissible for me and they said: ‘There is no mobilisation (against the enemy) without the Imam-asws of justice.’ May Allah keep you well, what do you say about it?’

Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws said: ‘I can say it for you in general terms and if you want I can say it to you in clear terms. ‘The man said, ‘Say it in general terms.’ The Imam-asws said: ‘Allah-azwj will resurrect people on the Day of Judgment according to their intentions.’ The narrator has said that it seemed as if he wanted the Imam-asws to say it in clear terms. He said: ‘Make it for me in clear terms, may Allah keep you well.’

The Imam-asws asked, ‘Explain it.’ The man said, ‘I mobilised and faced the pagans, Should I fight them before calling them to Allah-azwj?’ The Imam-asws said: ‘If they mobilise and fight, you are drawn in it. If they are a people who have not mobilised and had not fought, you can do nothing but to call them to Allah-azwj.’ The man said, ‘I called them to Allah-azwj. One of them accepted the call, affirmed al-Islam in his heart and lived as a Muslim but injustice was done to him in judgment, his honour was violated, his property taken and he was subjected to transgression. What is the solution when I was the one to call him to Allah?’ The Imam-asws said: ‘Both of you deserve rewards in the matter. He is with you to shield your honour, protect your Qiblah, to defend your book and save your life. This is better for you than his being against you, destroy your Qiblah, violate your honour, shed your blood and burn your Book.[69]

يا كميل لا غزو إلا مع إمام عادل و لا نفل إلا من إمام فاضل ‏

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws in a long sermon told Kumal: O Kumayl! Jihad should be only under the leadership of the Just Imam-asws and spoils are legal only if a virtuous Imam-asws gives.[70]

Conditions where Masomeen-asws preferred not to do Jihad

َ أَمَا وَ اللَّهِ لَوْ كَانَ لِي عِدَّةُ أَصْحَابِ طَالُوتَ أَوْ عِدَّةُ أَهْلِ بَدْرٍ وَ هُمْ أَعْدَاؤُكُمْ لَضَرَبْتُكُمْ بِالسَّيْفِ حَتَّى تَئُولُوا إِلَى الْحَق‏

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws said, in Sermon of Talutiya: By Allah-azwj, if I-asws had as many people as there were in the Battle of Badr or companion of the Talut, then I-asws would have strike you with my sword so that it would bring you back toward ‘Haq’ and guide you toward the Just.[71]

Imam-asws Criticised for not Taking Part in Jihad:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ لَقِيَ عَبَّادٌ الْبَصْرِيُّ عَلِيَّ بْنَ الْحُسَيْنِ ص فِي طَرِيقِ مَكَّةَ فَقَالَ لَهُ يَا عَلِيَّ بْنَ الْحُسَيْنِ تَرَكْتَ الْجِهَادَ وَ صُعُوبَتَهُ وَ أَقْبَلْتَ عَلَى الْحَجِّ وَ لِينَتِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ يَقُولُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرى‏ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ وَ أَمْوالَهُمْ بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ يُقاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَ يُقْتَلُونَ وَعْداً عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْراةِ وَ الْإِنْجِيلِ وَ الْقُرْآنِ وَ مَنْ أَوْفى‏ بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللَّهِ فَاسْتَبْشِرُوا بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِي بايَعْتُمْ بِهِ وَ ذلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ فَقَالَ لَهُ عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ ع أَتِمَّ الْآيَةَ فَقَالَ التَّائِبُونَ الْعابِدُونَ الْحامِدُونَ السَّائِحُونَ الرَّاكِعُونَ السَّاجِدُونَ الْآمِرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَ النَّاهُونَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَ الْحافِظُونَ لِحُدُودِ اللَّهِ وَ بَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَقَالَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ ع إِذَا رَأَيْنَا هَؤُلَاءِ الَّذِينَ هَذِهِ صِفَتُهُمْ فَالْجِهَادُ مَعَهُمْ أَفْضَلُ مِنَ الْحَجِّ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father, who from ‘Uthman, who from ibn ‘Isa, who from Samaah who has said the following:

‘Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws has said that ‘Abbad al- Basriy met Ali ibn al-Hussain-asws on the way to Makkah and said, ‘O Ali ibn al-Hussain, you have disregarded Jihad because it is difficult however you have inclined toward al-Hajj because of the ease in it.  Allah-azwj Says, “Allah has purchased the souls and property of the believers in exchange for Paradise, They fight for the cause of Allah to destroy His enemies and to sacrifice themselves. This is a true promise, which He has revealed in the Torah, the Gospel, and the al-Quran. No one is more true to His promise than Allah. Allow this bargain to be glad news for them. This is indeed the supreme triumph.” (9:111).  Ali ibn al-Hussain-asws said, ‘Complete the verse,’ He then recited: ‘(The believers) who repent for their sins, worship Allah, praise Him, travel through the land (for pious purposes), kneel down and prostrate themselves in obedience to Allah, make others do good and prevent them from sins and abide by the laws of Allah, will receive a great reward. Allow this to be glad news for the believer.’ (9:112) Ali ibn al-Hussain-asws said, ‘If we see these kinds of people with these qualities then Jihad along side with them is more virtuous than al-Hajj.[72]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ وَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ مَعْرُوفٍ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ قَالَ قَالَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ لِلرِّضَا ص وَ أَنَا أَسْمَعُ حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي عَنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ عَنْ آبَائِهِ ع أَنَّهُ قَالَ لِبَعْضِهِمْ إِنَّ فِي بِلَادِنَا مَوْضِعَ رِبَاطٍ يُقَالُ لَهُ قَزْوِينُ وَ عَدُوّاً يُقَالُ لَهُ الدَّيْلَمُ فَهَلْ مِنْ جِهَادٍ أَوْ هَلْ مِنْ رِبَاطٍ فَقَالَ عَلَيْكُمْ بِهَذَا الْبَيْتِ فَحُجُّوهُ فَأَعَادَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَدِيثَ فَقَالَ عَلَيْكُمْ بِهَذَا الْبَيْتِ فَحُجُّوهُ أَ مَا يَرْضَى أَحَدُكُمْ أَنْ يَكُونَ فِي بَيْتِهِ يُنْفِقُ عَلَى عِيَالِهِ مِنْ طَوْلِهِ يَنْتَظِرُ أَمْرَنَا فَإِنْ أَدْرَكَهُ كَانَ كَمَنْ شَهِدَ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص بَدْراً وَ إِنْ مَاتَ مُنْتَظِراً لِأَمْرِنَا كَانَ كَمَنْ كَانَ مَعَ قَائِمِنَا ع هَكَذَا فِي فُسْطَاطِهِ وَ جَمَعَ‏ بَيْنَ السَّبَّابَتَيْنِ وَ لَا أَقُولُ هَكَذَا وَ جَمَعَ بَيْنَ السَّبَّابَةِ وَ الْوُسْطَى فَإِنَّ هَذِهِ أَطْوَلُ مِنْ هَذِهِ فَقَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ ع صَدَقَ

A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad, who from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn abu Nasr from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah and Muhammad ibn Yahya from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Abbas ibn Ma’ruf from Safwan ibn Yahya from Abd Allah ibn al-Mughirah who has said the following:

‘Once Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah said to al-Reza-asws when I was listening: ‘My father has narrated from the people of his family from their ancestors that he said to a certain one of them (ancestors), ‘In our location there is a place called Qazwin for keeping guard against the enemy called al-Daylam. Is Jihad or Ribat (guarding) obligatory? He (the person of our ancestors) said, ‘You must not miss performing al-Hajj around the House,’ He repeated a Hadith, he had just said and the answer was again: ‘You must pay attention to this House to perform al-Hajj around it. Do you not agree that one of you stays home to spend on his family of his gains and wait for our cause to materialise? If he finds himself in such a day he is considered like those who were present with the Prophet-saww on the day of Badr. If he dies, while waiting for our cause to materialise, he is considered like one standing with the one from us-asws, who will rise with Divine authority, in his tent like this – ‘holding this two index fingers together- saying, ‘I do not say like this’-holding his index and middle fingers together – ‘because this one is taller than this.’ Abu al-Hassan al-Reza-asws then said, ‘He had spoken the truth.[73]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ الطَّاطَرِيُّ عَمَّنْ ذَكَرَهُ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ النُّعْمَانِ عَنْ سُوَيْدٍ الْقَلَانِسِيِّ عَنْ بَشِيرٍ الدَّهَّانِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ إِنِّي رَأَيْتُ فِي الْمَنَامِ أَنِّي قُلْتُ لَكَ إِنَّ الْقِتَالَ مَعَ غَيْرِ الْإِمَامِ الْمَفْرُوضِ طَاعَتُهُ حَرَامٌ مِثْلَ الْمَيْتَةِ وَ الدَّمِ وَ لَحْمِ الْخِنْزِيرِ فَقُلْتَ لِي هُوَ كَذَلِكَ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع هُوَ كَذَلِكَ هُوَ كَذَلِكَ

Muhammad ibn al-Hassan al-Tatriy has narrated from those who he has mentioned in his book – from Ali ibn al-Nu’rnan from Suwayd al-Qalanisiy from Bashir al-Dahhan who has said the following:

‘I once said to abu ‘Abd Allah-asws ‘I saw a dream in which I said to you, “Fighting alongside one who is not an Imam, obedience to whom is obligatory, is unlawful just like consuming dead animals, blood and pork for food. You said to me (in my dream), ‘That is how it is! Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws then said, ‘That is how it is! That is how it is![74]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ النُّعْمَانِ عَنْ سُوَيْدٍ الْقَلَانِسِيِّ عَنْ بَشِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ إِنِّي رَأَيْتُ فِي الْمَنَامِ أَنِّي قُلْتُ لَكَ إِنَّ الْقِتَالَ مَعَ غَيْرِ الْإِمَامِ الْمُفْتَرَضِ طَاعَتُهُ حَرَامٌ مِثْلُ الْمَيْتَةِ وَ الدَّمِ وَ لَحْمِ الْخِنْزِيرِ فَقُلْتَ لِي نَعَمْ هُوَ كَذَلِكَ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع هُوَ كَذَلِكَ هُوَ كَذَلِكَ

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Hussain, from Ali ibn al-Nu’rnan from Suwayd al-Qalanisiy from Bashir who has said the following:

‘I once said to abu ‘Abd Allah-asws: ‘I saw a dream in which I said to you, “Fighting alongside an Imam to whom obedience is not obligatory is unlawful like consuming dead animals, blood and pork for food, and you said to me, ‘Yes, that is how it is.’  Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws then said, ‘That is how it is! That is how it is![75]

Narraa in Jihads

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ شِعَارُنَا يَا مُحَمَّدُ يَا مُحَمَّدُ وَ شِعَارُنَا يَوْمَ بَدْرٍ يَا نَصْرَ اللَّهِ اقْتَرِبْ اقْتَرِبْ وَ شِعَارُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ يَوْمَ أُحُدٍ يَا نَصْرَ اللَّهِ اقْتَرِبْ وَ يَوْمَ بَنِي النَّضِيرِ يَا رُوحَ الْقُدُسِ أَرِحْ وَ يَوْمَ بَنِي قَيْنُقَاعَ يَا رَبَّنَا لَا يَغْلِبَنَّكَ وَ يَوْمَ الطَّائِفِ يَا رِضْوَانُ وَ شِعَارُ يَوْمِ حُنَيْنٍ يَا بَنِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ [يَا بَنِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ‏] وَ يَوْمِ الْأَحْزَابِ حم لَا يُبْصِرُونَ وَ يَوْمِ بَنِي قُرَيْظَةَ يَا سَلَامُ أَسْلِمْهُمْ وَ يَوْمِ الْمُرَيْسِيعِ وَ هُوَ يَوْمُ بَنِي الْمُصْطَلِقِ أَلَا إِلَى اللَّهِ الْأَمْرُ وَ يَوْمِ الْحُدَيْبِيَةِ أَلَا لَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَى الظَّالِمِينَ وَ يَوْمِ خَيْبَرَ يَوْمِ الْقَمُوصِ يَا عَلِيُّ آتِهِمْ مِنْ عَلُ وَ يَوْمِ الْفَتْحِ نَحْنُ عِبَادُ اللَّهِ حَقّاً حَقّاً وَ يَوْمِ تَبُوكَ يَا أَحَدُ يَا صَمَدُ وَ يَوْمِ بَنِي الْمَلُوحِ أَمِتْ أَمِتْ وَ يَوْمِ صِفِّينَ يَا نَصْرَ اللَّهِ وَ شِعَارُ الْحُسَيْنِ ع يَا مُحَمَّدُ وَ شِعَارُنَا يَا مُحَمَّدُ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father, who from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn a bu Nasr, who from Muawiayah ibn Ammar who has said the following:

Abu Abd Allah-asws has said that our slogan is ‘مُحَمَّدُ يَا مُحَمَّدُ  يَا ‘Ya Muhammad Ya Muhammad!

On the day of Badr it was ‘يَا نَصْرَ اللَّهِ اقْتَرِبْ اقْتَرِبْ ‘‘O victory of Allah-azwj, Come close! Come close!

The slogan of Muslims on the day of ‘Uhud’ was ‘يَا نَصْرَ اللَّهِ اقْتَرِبْ’ ‘O Victory of Allah, Come close!’

On the day of bani al-Nadir it was, ‘يَا رُوحَ الْقُدُسِ أَرِحْ’ ‘O Holy spirit bring comfort’.

On the day of banu Qaynaqa it was, ‘يَا رَبَّنَا لَا يَغْلِبَنَّكَ’ ‘O our Lord, no one is able to defeat You!

On the day of Taef it was, ‘يَا رِضْوَانُ’ ‘O Rizwan! ’

On the day of Hunayn our slogan was, ‘يَا بَنِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ [يَا بَنِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ‏]’ ‘O bani ‘Abd Allah! O bani ‘Abd Allah!’

On the day of al-Ahzab it was, ‘حم لَا يُبْصِرُونَ’ ‘Ha Mim, they cannot see!’

On the day of bani Qurayadah it was, ‘يَا سَلَامُ أَسْلِمْهُمْ’ ‘O Peace Giver, Make them surrender!’

On the day of al-Muraysi’ which is also called the day of banu al-Mustliq it was

‘أَلَا إِلَى اللَّهِ الْأَمْرُ’ ‘Is the matter not in the hands of Allah!’

On the day of al-hudaybiyah it was, ‘أَلَا لَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَى الظَّالِمِينَ’ ’May Allah condemn the unjust!’

On the day of al-Khayber, also called the day of al-Qamus it was, ‘يَا عَلِيُّ آتِهِمْ مِنْ عَلُ’ ‘Ya Ali-asws, come upon them from high!

On the day of victory it was, ‘نَحْنُ عِبَادُ اللَّهِ حَقّاً حَقّاً’ ‘We are the servants of Allah, indeed, indeed!’

On the day of Tabuk it was, ‘يَا أَحَدُ يَا صَمَدُ’ ’O the one! O the Self-Sufficient’’

On the day of banu al Maluh it was, ‘أَمِتْ أَمِتْ’ ‘The Higher! The Higher!’

On the day of Siffin it was, ’ يَا نَصْرَ اللَّهِ’ ‘O Assistance of Allah!’

The slogan of al-Hussain-asws was, ‘يَا مُحَمَّدُ’ ‘O Muhammad-saww!

’Our slogan is, ‘يَا مُحَمَّدُ’ ‘Ya Muhammed-saww!’[76]

عَلِيٌّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنِ السَّكُونِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَدِمَ أُنَاسٌ مِنْ مُزَيْنَةَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ ص فَقَالَ مَا شِعَارُكُمْ قَالُوا حَرَامٌ قَالَ بَلْ شِعَارُكُمْ حَلَالٌ وَ رُوِيَ أَيْضاً أَنَّ شِعَارَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ يَوْمَ بَدْرٍ يَا مَنْصُورُ أَمِتْ وَ شِعَارَ يَوْمِ أُحُدٍ لِلْمُهَاجِرِينَ يَا بَنِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ يَا بَنِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ وَ لِلْأَوْسِ يَا بَنِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from certain persons of his people from al Sukuniy who has said the following:

‘Abu Abd Allah-asws has said that certain people from Muzaynah came to the Holy Prophet-saww.  He-saww asked:  What is your Slogan?  They replied it is ‘unlawful’. Prophet-saww said: ‘No, it is ‘lawful’.

And it is also narrated that the slogan of the Muslims on the day of Badr was: O Victorious, Higher!’  The slogan of al-Muhajirun on the day of ‘Uhud’ was ‘O bani Abd Allah, O bani ‘Abd ar-Rahman!’  The slogan of al-Aws was ‘O bani Abd Allah!’[77]

Keeping a Horse

عَنْهُ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ جَدِّهِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ رَاشِدٍ عَنْ يَعْقُوبَ بْنِ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْجَعْفَرِيِّ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ ع يَقُولُ مَنْ رَبَطَ فَرَساً عَتِيقاً مُحِيَتْ عَنْهُ ثَلَاثُ سَيِّئَاتٍ فِي كُلِّ يَوْمٍ وَ كُتِبَ لَهُ إِحْدَى عَشْرَةَ حَسَنَةً وَ مَنِ ارْتَبَطَ هَجِيناً مُحِيَتْ عَنْهُ فِي كُلِّ يَوْمٍ سَيِّئَتَانِ وَ كُتِبَ لَهُ سَبْعُ حَسَنَاتٍ وَ مَنِ ارْتَبَطَ بِرْذَوْناً يُرِيدُ بِهِ جَمَالًا أَوْ قَضَاءَ حَوَائِجَ أَوْ دَفْعَ عَدُوٍّ عَنْهُ مُحِيَتْ عَنْهُ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ سَيِّئَةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ وَ كُتِبَ لَهُ سِتُّ حَسَنَاتٍ

It is narrated from the narrator of the previous Hadith from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad from his grandfather. al-Hassan ibn Rashid from Ya’qub ibn Ja’far ibn Ibrahim al-Ja’fariy who has said the following:

‘I heard abu al-Hassan-asws saying, ‘If one maintains a horse of pure breed, three of his sins will be deleted every day and ten good deeds will be written in his favour. If one maintains a horse of mixed breed, two of his bad deeds will be deleted every day and seven good deeds will be written in his favour. If one maintains a mule as a pet or for his needs or use in his defence against the enemy, one of his sins will be deleted every day and six good deeds will be written in his favour.’[78]

Protection of One’s Belongings is One’s Jihad

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّوْفَلِيِّ عَنِ السَّكُونِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ص إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لَيَمْقُتُ الرَّجُلَ يَدْخُلُ عَلَيْهِ اللِّصُّ فِي بَيْتِهِ فَلَا يُحَارِبُ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-awfaliy from al-akuniy who has said the following:

‘Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws has said that Amir-ul-Momineen-asws has said, ‘Allah-azwj Hates a man who does not fight back the thief who has entered his house.’[79]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ رَجُلٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع إِذَا دَخَلَ عَلَيْكَ اللِّصُّ الْمُحَارِبُ فَاقْتُلْهُ فَمَا أَصَابَكَ فَدَمُهُ فِي عُنُقِي

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Aban ibn ‘Uthaman from a man formal-Halabiy who has said the following:

‘Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws has said that Amir-ul-Momineen-asws, has said, ‘If a fighting thief enters your house, eliminate him. Whatever responsibility his blood (life) may bring is on my neck (my responsibility)?[80]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي نَجْرَانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص مَنْ قُتِلَ دُونَ مَظْلِمَتِهِ فَهُوَ شَهِيدٌ

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from ‘Abd al-Rahrnan ibn abu Najran from ‘Abd Allah ibn Sinan who has said the following:

‘Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws narrated that the Messenger of Allah-saww had said: ‘If one is murdered over his stolen property he is a martyr.’[81]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَمَّنْ ذَكَرَهُ عَنِ الرِّضَا ع عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَكُونُ فِي السَّفَرِ وَ مَعَهُ جَارِيَةٌ لَهُ فَيَجِي‏ءُ قَوْمٌ يُرِيدُونَ أَخْذَ جَارِيَتِهِ أَ يَمْنَعُ جَارِيَتَهُ مِنْ أَنْ تُؤْخَذَ وَ إِنْ خَافَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ الْقَتْلَ قَالَ نَعَمْ قُلْتُ وَ كَذَلِكَ إِنْ كَانَتْ‏ مَعَهُ امْرَأَةٌ قَالَ نَعَمْ قُلْتُ وَ كَذَلِكَ الْأُمُّ وَ الْبِنْتُ وَ ابْنَةُ الْعَمِّ وَ الْقَرَابَةُ يَمْنَعُهُنَّ وَ إِنْ خَافَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ الْقَتْلَ قَالَ نَعَمْ [قُلْتُ‏] وَ كَذَلِكَ الْمَالُ يُرِيدُونَ أَخْذَهُ فِي سَفَرٍ فَيَمْنَعُهُ وَ إِنْ خَافَ الْقَتْلَ قَالَ نَعَم

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Khalid from his father from those whom he has mentioned (in his book);

From al-Reza-asws that: “If a man is on a journey and with him is his slave-girl. Certain people come and want to take his slave-girl from him, Should he try to stop them even if he fears for losing his life?’ He-asws replied: ‘Yes, he should try.’ I then asked, ‘Is it so also if a woman is with him?’ He-asws (the Imam) replies, ‘Yes, it is.’ I then asked: Does it also apply if it is his mother, daughter of uncle and relatives. Should he stop such people even if he is afraid of losing his life?’ He-asws (the Imam) replied, ‘Yes, it is so also.’ I then asked, ‘Does the same condition applies if it is property which they want to take during one’s journey and must stop them even if he anticipates death?’ He-asws (the Imam) replied, ‘Yes, so also it is.’[82]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ عَنْبَسَةَ عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ ع يَقُولُ إِنَّ عَلِيَّ بْنَ الْحُسَيْنِ ع كَانَ يَقُولُ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص مَا مِنْ قَطْرَةٍ أَحَبَّ إِلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ مِنْ قَطْرَةِ دَمٍ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Khalid from ‘Uthaman ibn ‘Isa from ‘Anbasah from abu Hamzah who has said the following:

‘I heard abu Ja’far-asws saying, ‘Ali ibn al- Hussain-asws would say: ‘The Messenger of Allah-saww has said: ‘No drop is more beloved to Allah-azwj than the drop of blood spilled in the way of Allah-azwj.[83]

Sermon of Amir-ul-Momineen on the Day of Battle of Jamal

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ رَفَعَهُ أَنَّ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع خَطَبَ يَوْمَ الْجَمَلِ فَحَمِدَ اللَّهَ وَ أَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي أَتَيْتُ هَؤُلَاءِ الْقَوْمَ وَ دَعَوْتُهُمْ وَ احْتَجَجْتُ عَلَيْهِمْ فَدَعَوْنِي إِلَى أَنْ أَصْبِرَ لِلْجِلَادِ وَ أَبْرُزَ لِلطِّعَانِ فَلِأُمِّهِمُ الْهَبَلُ وَ قَدْ كُنْتُ وَ مَا أُهَدَّدُ بِالْحَرْبِ وَ لَا أُرْهَبُ بِالضَّرْبِ أَنْصَفَ الْقَارَةَ مَنْ رَامَاهَا فَلِغَيْرِي فَلْيُبْرِقُوا وَ لْيُرْعِدُوا فَأَنَا أَبُو الْحَسَنِ الَّذِي فَلَلْتُ حَدَّهُمْ وَ فَرَّقْتُ جَمَاعَتَهُمْ وَ بِذَلِكَ الْقَلْبِ أَلْقَى عَدُوِّي وَ أَنَا عَلَى مَا وَعَدَنِي رَبِّي مِنَ النَّصْرِ وَ التَّأْيِيدِ وَ الظَّفَرِ وَ إِنِّي لَعَلَى يَقِينٍ مِنْ رَبِّي وَ غَيْرِ شُبْهَةٍ مِنْ أَمْرِي أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّ الْمَوْتَ لَا يَفُوتُهُ الْمُقِيمُ وَ لَا يُعْجِزُهُ الْهَارِبُ لَيْسَ عَنِ الْمَوْتِ مَحِيصٌ وَ مَنْ لَمْ يَمُتْ يُقْتَلْ وَ إِنَّ أَفْضَلَ الْمَوْتِ الْقَتْلُ وَ الَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَأَلْفُ ضَرْبَةٍ بِالسَّيْفِ أَهْوَنُ عَلَيَّ مِنْ مِيتَةٍ عَلَى فِرَاشٍ وَا عَجَبَا لِطَلْحَةَ أَلَّبَ النَّاسَ عَلَى ابْنِ عَفَّانَ حَتَّى إِذَا قُتِلَ أَعْطَانِي صَفْقَتَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ طَائِعاً ثُمَّ نَكَثَ بَيْعَتِي اللَّهُمَّ خُذْهُ وَ لَا تُمْهِلْهُ وَ إِنَّ الزُّبَيْرَ نَكَثَ بَيْعَتِي وَ قَطَعَ رَحِمِي وَ ظَاهَرَ عَلَيَّ عَدُوِّي فَاكْفِنِيهِ الْيَوْمَ بِمَا شِئْتَ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn Mabbub who in a marfu’ has said the following:

‘On the day of (battle of) Jamal Amir-ul-Momineen-asws delivered a speech, after praising and glorifying Allah-azwj, Amir-ul-Momineen-asws said: ‘O people, I came to these people, called them and presented proof in support of my truthfulness, They then called me-asws for a contest. Their mothers will certainly weep for them; I-asws never was and will not feel threatened by war or intimidated by the pounding of swords. No one is able to defeat experience; they should act thunderously with lightning to frighten people other than me. I am abu al-Hassan-asws. I-asws am the one who turned their sharp edge very blunt and dispersed their large united group. With this kind of heart I-asws am ready to face my enemy. I-asws have firm belief in the promise of my Lord-azwj of victory, His-azwj support and triumph. I-asws have firm belief in my Lord-azwj. I-asws have not even a shred of doubt about the truthfulness of my cause.  O people, death does not miss people living at home and those who run away cannot defeat it (death). There is no escape from death. If one does not die he is killed and the best death is being killed (martyred). I-asws swear by the One in whose hand is my soul, enduring a thousand pounding of sword is easier for me-asws than dying in bed. It is very strange of Talhah-la who was very close to the son of ‘Affan (Usman-la), until the time he was killed soon thereafter he extended his right hand to me to pledge allegiance voluntarily; then he-la disregarded his pledging allegiance with me-asws. O Allah-azwj, clinch him without respite. Zubayr-la also disregarded his pledge of allegiance with me-asws as well as the good relationship that was his obligation to maintain with me as a relative. He-la supported my-asws enemies, therefore, O Lord-azwj, suffice me-asws against him-la as You-azwj deem proper.[84]

Jihad is only under the Infallible Imam-asws

إِنَّ الْإِمَامَةَ خِلَافَةُ اللَّهِ وَ خِلَافَةُ الرَّسُولِ ص وَ مَقَامُ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع وَ مِيرَاثُ الْحَسَنِ وَ الْحُسَيْنِ ع إِنَّ الْإِمَامَةَ زِمَامُ الدِّينِ وَ نِظَامُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَ صَلَاحُ الدُّنْيَا وَ عِزُّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِنَّ الْإِمَامَةَ أُسُّ الْإِسْلَامِ النَّامِي وَ فَرْعُهُ السَّامِي بِالْإِمَامِ تَمَامُ الصَّلَاةِ وَ الزَّكَاةِ وَ الصِّيَامِ وَ الْحَجِّ وَ الْجِهَادِ وَ تَوْفِيرُ الْفَيْ‏ءِ وَ الصَّدَقَاتِ وَ إِمْضَاءُ الْحُدُودِ وَ الْأَحْكَامِ وَ مَنْعُ الثُّغُورِ وَ الْأَطْرَافِ

In a long hadith, Imam Reza-asws says, as part of explaining the virtues of a Divine Imam-asws: Imamat (Leadership with Divine Authority) is, certainly, the position of the Prophets-as, and the inheritance of the successors. Imamat indeed, is the representation (khilafa) of Allah-azwj, the deputyship of the Messenger-saww of Allah-azwj, the office of Amir-ul-Momineen Ali-asws and the inheritance of Imam al-Hassan-asws and al-Hussain-asws. ‘Imamat is, in fact, the reins of religion. It is the social system of the Muslims. It is best for the world, and honour for the believers. Imamat is Islam’s growing root, and its towering branch. Through the Imam-asws prayers are complete, Zakat is paid, fasting is maintained, Hajj is performed and Jihad is exercised, the wealth of the nation (fay’) and charity (sadaqat) are increased, the laws are enforced and the frontiers are protected and defended.[85]

Masoom-asws Stops his-asws brother from Up-Rising

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ الْجَارُودِ عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ بَكْرِ بْنِ دَابٍ عَمَّنْ حَدَّثَهُ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع أَنَّ زَيْدَ بْنَ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ ع دَخَلَ عَلَى أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ وَ مَعَهُ كُتُبٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكُوفَةِ يَدْعُونَهُ فِيهَا إِلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَ يُخْبِرُونَهُ بِاجْتِمَاعِهِمْ وَ يَأْمُرُونَهُ بِالْخُرُوجِ فَقَالَ لَهُ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ ع هَذِهِ الْكُتُبُ ابْتِدَاءٌ مِنْهُمْ أَوْ جَوَابُ مَا كَتَبْتَ بِهِ إِلَيْهِمْ وَ دَعَوْتَهُمْ إِلَيْهِ فَقَالَ بَلِ ابْتِدَاءٌ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ لِمَعْرِفَتِهِمْ بِحَقِّنَا وَ بِقَرَابَتِنَا مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص وَ لِمَا يَجِدُونَ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ مِنْ وُجُوبِ مَوَدَّتِنَا وَ فَرْضِ طَاعَتِنَا وَ لِمَا نَحْنُ فِيهِ مِنَ الضِّيقِ وَ الضَّنْكِ وَ الْبَلَاءِ فَقَالَ لَهُ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ ع إِنَّ الطَّاعَةَ مَفْرُوضَةٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ سُنَّةٌ أَمْضَاهَا فِي الْأَوَّلِينَ وَ كَذَلِكَ يُجْرِيهَا فِي الْآخِرِينَ وَ الطَّاعَةُ لِوَاحِدٍ مِنَّا وَ الْمَوَدَّةُ لِلْجَمِيعِ وَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ يَجْرِي لِأَوْلِيَائِهِ بِحُكْمٍ مَوْصُولٍ وَ قَضَاءٍ مَفْصُولٍ وَ حَتْمٍ مَقْضِيٍّ وَ قَدَرٍ مَقْدُورٍ

وَ أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى لِوَقْتٍ مَعْلُومٍ فَلَا يَسْتَخِفَّنَّكَ الَّذِينَ لَا يُوقِنُونَ إِنَّهُمْ لَنْ يُغْنُوا عَنْكَ مِنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئاً فَلَا تَعْجَلْ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَعْجَلُ لِعَجَلَةِ الْعِبَادِ وَ لَا تَسْبِقَنَّ اللَّهَ فَتُعْجِزَكَ الْبَلِيَّةُ فَتَصْرَعَكَ قَالَ فَغَضِبَ زَيْدٌ عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَيْسَ الْإِمَامُ مِنَّا مَنْ جَلَسَ فِي بَيْتِهِ وَ أَرْخَى سِتْرَهُ وَ ثَبَّطَ عَنِ الْجِهَادِ وَ لَكِنَّ الْإِمَامَ مِنَّا مَنْ مَنَعَ حَوْزَتَهُ وَ جَاهَدَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ حَقَّ جِهَادِهِ وَ دَفَعَ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ وَ ذَبَّ عَنْ حَرِيمِهِ قَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ ع هَلْ تَعْرِفُ يَا أَخِي مِنْ نَفْسِكَ شَيْئاً مِمَّا نَسَبْتَهَا إِلَيْهِ فَتَجِي‏ءَ عَلَيْهِ بِشَاهِدٍ مِنْ كِتَابِ اللَّهِ أَوْ حُجَّةٍ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص أَوْ تَضْرِبَ بِهِ مَثَلًا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ أَحَلَّ حَلَالًا وَ حَرَّمَ حَرَاماً وَ فَرَضَ فَرَائِضَ وَ ضَرَبَ أَمْثَالًا وَ سَنَّ سُنَناً وَ لَمْ يَجْعَلِ الْإِمَامَ الْقَائِمَ بِأَمْرِهِ شُبْهَةً فِيمَا فَرَضَ لَهُ مِنَ الطَّاعَةِ أَنْ يَسْبِقَهُ بِأَمْرٍ قَبْلَ مَحَلِّهِ أَوْ يُجَاهِدَ فِيهِ قَبْلَ حُلُولِهِ وَ قَدْ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فِي الصَّيْدِ لا تَقْتُلُوا الصَّيْدَ وَ أَنْتُمْ حُرُمٌ أَ فَقَتْلُ الصَّيْدِ أَعْظَمُ أَمْ قَتْلُ النَّفْسِ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ وَ جَعَلَ لِكُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ مَحَلًّا وَ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ إِذا حَلَلْتُمْ فَاصْطادُوا وَ قَالَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لا تُحِلُّوا شَعائِرَ اللَّهِ وَ لَا الشَّهْرَ الْحَرامَ فَجَعَلَ الشُّهُورَ عِدَّةً مَعْلُومَةً فَجَعَلَ مِنْهَا أَرْبَعَةً حُرُماً وَ قَالَ فَسِيحُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَ اعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ غَيْرُ مُعْجِزِي اللَّهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى فَإِذَا انْسَلَخَ الْأَشْهُرُ الْحُرُمُ فَاقْتُلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدْتُمُوهُمْ فَجَعَلَ لِذَلِكَ مَحَلًّا وَ قَالَ وَ لا تَعْزِمُوا عُقْدَةَ النِّكاحِ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ الْكِتابُ أَجَلَهُ فَجَعَلَ لِكُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ أَجَلًا وَ لِكُلِّ أَجَلٍ كِتَاباً فَإِنْ كُنْتَ عَلَى بَيِّنَةٍ مِنْ رَبِّكَ وَ يَقِينٍ مِنْ أَمْرِكَ وَ تِبْيَانٍ مِنْ شَأْنِكَ فَشَأْنَكَ وَ إِلَّا فَلَا تَرُومَنَّ أَمْراً أَنْتَ مِنْهُ فِي شَكٍّ وَ شُبْهَةٍ وَ لَا تَتَعَاطَ زَوَالَ مُلْكٍ لَمْ تَنْقَضِ أُكُلُهُ وَ لَمْ يَنْقَطِعْ مَدَاهُ وَ لَمْ يَبْلُغِ الْكِتَابُ أَجَلَهُ فَلَوْ قَدْ بَلَغَ مَدَاهُ وَ انْقَطَعَ أُكُلُهُ وَ بَلَغَ الْكِتَابُ أَجَلَهُ لَانْقَطَعَ الْفَصْلُ وَ تَتَابَعَ النِّظَامُ وَ لَأَعْقَبَ اللَّهُ فِي التَّابِعِ وَ الْمَتْبُوعِ الذُّلَّ وَ الصَّغَارَ أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنْ إِمَامٍ ضَلَّ عَنْ وَقْتِهِ فَكَانَ التَّابِعُ فِيهِ أَعْلَمَ مِنَ الْمَتْبُوعِ أَ تُرِيدُ يَا أَخِي أَنْ تُحْيِيَ مِلَّةَ قَوْمٍ قَدْ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَ عَصَوْا رَسُولَهُ وَ اتَّبَعُوا أَهْوَاءَهُمْ بِغَيْرِ هُدًى مِنَ اللَّهِ وَ ادَّعَوُا الْخِلَافَةَ بِلَا بُرْهَانٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَ لَا عَهْدٍ مِنْ رَسُولِهِ أُعِيذُكَ بِاللَّهِ يَا أَخِي أَنْ تَكُونَ غَداً الْمَصْلُوبَ بِالْكُنَاسَةِ ثُمَّ ارْفَضَّتْ عَيْنَاهُ وَ سَالَتْ دُمُوعُهُ ثُمَّ قَالَ اللَّهُ بَيْنَنَا وَ بَيْنَ مَنْ هَتَكَ سِتْرَنَا وَ جَحَدَنَا حَقَّنَا وَ أَفْشَى سِرَّنَا وَ نَسَبَنَا إِلَى غَيْرِ جَدِّنَا وَ قَالَ فِينَا مَا لَمْ نَقُلْهُ فِي أَنْفُسِنَا

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Hussain ibn Sa’id from al-Hussain ibn al-Jarud from Musa ibn Baler ibn Dab from the one who narrated to him from abu Ja’far, ‘Alavhi al-Salam. who has said the following:

‘Zayd, ibn Ali-asws ibn al-Hussain-asws, once went to see abu Ja’far-asws, Muhammad-asws ibn AIi-asws. He carried with him letters from the people of Kufa who invited him to their (city) and informed him of their unity and collective decision to ask him to rise. Abu Ja’far-asws then asked him, ‘Are these letters their initiative or a response to what you had written to them and asked them to do?’

He said, ‘It is their initiative; they acknowledge our rights and because of our being from the family of the Messenger of Allah-saww. It is also because of what they read in the book of Allah-azwj about the obligation to love and obey us. Also, it is because of the suffering impediments and afflictions that we had been through. “Abu Ja’far-asws said to him, ‘Obedience is an obligation from Allah-azwj. It is a tradition, Sunnah, that He-azwj had established in the people of the past and in the same way it will continue in the later generations of the people. Obedience is (obligatory) only for one of us-asws (the Hujjat of the time) and to love is for all of us-asws. The command of Allah-azwj applies to His friends because of the rules already made available and because of the decision already made distinct, because of the finalised decision and of the measurement that has already taken place and because of the appointed time on a certain date. Do not be hasty; Allah-azwj does not become hasty due to hastiness in the people. Do not try to surpass Allah-azwj; in your doing so, misfortune will defeat and destroy you.’

The narrator has said that Zayd became angry and said, ‘The Imam-asws from us is not the one who sits in his home; draw the curtain around him and hold back from struggle (jihad). The Imam from us is the one who safeguards his dominion, fights for the cause of Allah-azwj a real fight, defends those who hold high regard for him and his rights.’

“Abu Ja’far-asws then said: ‘O brother, do you really find any of the things that you mentioned about yourself? If so, then can you show supporting proof from the book of Allah-azwj or evidence from the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah-saww or give a similar example? Allah-azwj Made things lawful and unlawful. He-azwj has Sanctioned the obligations, provided examples and set up traditions – the Sunnah. He-azwj has not made an Imam-asws, who rises with Divine Authority on His-azwj Command, but engulfed in doubts in the matters of the obligation of obedience to him. He-azwj has not made him as such that he would act upon an issue before its proper place and struggle for something before it is there yet.

Allah-azwj, has said, ‘Believers, do not hunt when you are in the Holy precinct. … ‘ (5:95). Is hunting an animal that has been made prohibited during Hajj more serious or the killing of a person that Allah-azwj has prohibited? Allah-azwj, has assigned a place for everything. ‘Once the restrictions of Hajj are over, you may hunt. .. .’ (5:2) Allah-azwj, has said, ‘Believers, do not disrespect the reminders of Allah, the sacred months, .. .’ (5:2).

He-azwj has made the number of months well known of which four are sacred ones. He-azwj has Said: ‘  During the four sacred months, they (pagans) may travel peacefully through the land. You (pagans) must know that you cannot make Allah helpless …’ (9:2) Then Allah-azwj has Said: ‘When the sacred months are over, slay the pagans wherever you find them …. ‘ (9:5) He-azwj has assigned a place for it. He-azwj has also Said: ‘Do not decide for a marriage before the appointed time is over. … ‘ (2:235).

Allah-azwj has Assigned a time for everything and for every period of time there is Kitab (a Rule). If you may have the necessary evidence from your Lord-azwj, certainty from yourself in your affairs and you know well about it then you may act accordingly. Otherwise, do not aim at an issue in which you have doubt and uncertainty. Do not endeavour to end a kingdom the sustenance of which is not yet exhausted; it’s time has not ended and it’s Kitab (rule) has not reached its time. When its time comes, its sustenance diminishes and its rule reaches its time, the gap will be removed and the system will follow and Allah-azwj will Make the followers (of falsehood) and those followed to suffer humiliation.

‘O brother! Do you want to revive the ways of a people who have rejected the signs of Allah-azwj, disobeyed His Messengersaw, followed their desires, without guidance from Allah-azwj, claim the Khilafa (Leadership with Divine Authority) without (having legitimate) authority and evidence from Allah-azwj, or a covenant from the Messenger of Allah-saww? I pray to Allah-azwj to grant you, O brother, refuge from being crucified tomorrow in al-Kunasa.’ Then his eyes became flooded with tears that flowed down and then he said, ‘Allah-azwj is between us and the people who disregarded our-asws honour, ignored our-asws rights, made our-asws secrets public and have ascribed us-asws to someone other than our grandfather. They have said about us-asws what we-asws ourselves do not say.’[86]

Teaching and Learning Knowledge is Better than Jihad:

طَلَبُ العِلْمِ أفْضَلُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ مِنَ الصَّلاةِ وَالصِّيَامِ وَالحَجِّ وَالجِهَادِ في سَبِيْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ.

In the sight of Allah-azwj, seeking knowledge is superior to prayer, fasting, Hajj, and Jihad.[87]

الغُدُوُّ وَالرَّوَاحُ في تَعْليمِ العِلْمِ أفْضَلُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ مِنَ الجِهَادِ.

Teaching your knowledge (of Ahadith) is better in the sight of Allah-azwj than the Jihad during the day.[88]

Fulfilling Family Needs are Preferred than Jihad (by sword)

أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الْأَشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ النَّضْرِ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شِمْرٍ عَنْ جَابِرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ أَتَى رَجُلٌ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنِّي رَاغِبٌ فِي الْجِهَادِ نَشِيطٌ قَالَ فَقَالَ لَهُ النَّبِيُّ ص فَجَاهِدْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَإِنَّكَ إِنْ تُقْتَلْ تَكُنْ حَيّاً عِنْدَ اللَّهِ تُرْزَقْ وَ إِنْ تَمُتْ فَقَدْ وَقَعَ أَجْرُكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ وَ إِنْ رَجَعْتَ رَجَعْتَ مِنَ الذُّنُوبِ كَمَا وُلِدْتَ قَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ لِي وَالِدَيْنِ كَبِيرَيْنِ يَزْعُمَانِ أَنَّهُمَا يَأْنَسَانِ بِي وَ يَكْرَهَانِ خُرُوجِي فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص فَقِرَّ مَعَ وَالِدَيْكَ فَوَ الَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَأُنْسُهُمَا بِكَ يَوْماً وَ لَيْلَةً خَيْرٌ مِنْ جِهَادِ سَنَةٍ

Abu Ali al-Ashari has narrated from Muhammad ibn Salim from Ahmad ibn al- Nadr from’ Amr ibn Shamir from Jabir from abu ‘ Abd Allah  Alayhi al-Salam. who has said the following:

‘Once a man came to the Messenger of Allah-saww and said, ‘I am interested in Jihad (joining the army) O Messenger of Allah-saww. I am active and eager.’ The Imam-asws said, ‘The Holy Prophet-saww said, “Do Jihad (join the army) in the way of Allah-saww, if you are killed, you will be living in proximity to Allah-azwj and will receive sustenance. If you die you will receive your reward from Allah-azwj, and if you return you will return free from sins as in the day you were born.” The man then said, ‘O Messenger of Allah-saww, my parents are old and they think my presence is a comfort for them and they do not like my going out.’ The Messenger of Allah-saww then said, ‘Stay with your parents, I-saww say by the One-azwj in whose hand is my soul, that your parents’ receiving comfort from your presence with them for one day and night is more virtuous than Jihad for one year.[89]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شِمْرٍ عَنْ جَابِرٍ قَالَ أَتَى رَجُلٌ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص فَقَالَ إِنِّي رَجُلٌ شَابٌّ نَشِيطٌ وَ أُحِبُّ الْجِهَادَ وَ لِي وَالِدَةٌ تَكْرَهُ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ لَهُ النَّبِيُّ ص ارْجِعْ فَكُنْ مَعَ وَالِدَتِكَ فَوَ الَّذِي بَعَثَنِي بِالْحَقِّ نَبِيّاً لَأُنْسُهَا بِكَ لَيْلَةً خَيْرٌ مِنْ جِهَادِكَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ سَنَةً

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman from’ Amr ibn Shamir from Jabir who has said the following:

‘Once a man came to the Messenger of Allah-saww and said: ‘I am a young and active man and love Jihad, but my mother does not like it.’ The Holy Prophet-saww said: ‘Go back and stay with your mother. I-saww swear by the One-azwj Who has sent me-saww with the truth as a prophet that her feeling comfort because of your presence for one night is better for your Jihad in the way of Allah-azwj for one year.’[90]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبِي الْعَبَّاسِ الزَّيَّاتِ عَنْ حَمْزَةَ بْنِ حُمْرَانَ يَرْفَعُهُ قَالَ أُتِيَ رَجُلٌ وَ هُوَ عِنْدَ النَّبِيِّ ص فَأُخْبِرَ بِمَوْلُودٍ أَصَابَهُ فَتَغَيَّرَ وَجْهُ الرَّجُلِ فَقَالَ لَهُ النَّبِيُّ ع مَا لَكَ فَقَالَ خَيْرٌ فَقَالَ قُلْ قَالَ خَرَجْتُ وَ الْمَرْأَةُ تَمْخَضُ فَأُخْبِرْتُ أَنَّهَا وَلَدَتْ جَارِيَةً فَقَالَ لَهُ النَّبِيُّ ص الْأَرْضُ تُقِلُّهَا وَ السَّمَاءُ تُظِلُّهَا وَ اللَّهُ يَرْزُقُهَا وَ هِيَ رَيْحَانَةٌ تَشَمُّهَا ثُمَّ أَقْبَلَ عَلَى أَصْحَابِهِ فَقَالَ مَنْ كَانَتْ لَهُ ابْنَةٌ فَهُوَ مَفْدُوحٌ وَ مَنْ كَانَتْ لَهُ ابْنَتَانِ فَيَا غَوْثَاهُ بِاللَّهِ وَ مَنْ كَانَتْ لَهُ ثَلَاثٌ وُضِعَ عَنْهُ الْجِهَادُ وَ كُلُّ مَكْرُوهٍ وَ مَنْ كَانَ لَهُ أَرْبَعٌ فَيَا عِبَادَ اللَّهِ أَعِينُوهُ يَا عِبَادَ اللَّهِ أَقْرِضُوهُ يَا عِبَادَ اللَّهِ ارْحَمُوهُ

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Khalid from Ali ibn al-Hakam from abu al-Abbas al-Zayyat from Hamzah ibn Humran in a marfu manner has said the following:

‘A man once was with the Holy Prophet-saww and he informed him-saww about the birth of a child but his face changed. The Holy Prophet-saww asked him, ‘What is the matter with you?’ He-saww (the Messenger of Allah) said, ‘Say that it is good.’ He then said, ‘I left and my wife was in labour. I am informed that she has given birth to a girl.’ The Holy Prophet-saww said, ‘The earth carries her weight, the sky provides her shadow, Allah-azwj Gives her sustenance and she is a sweet smelling flower: you enjoy her fragrance.’ He-saww (the Messenger of Allah) then said this to his-saww companions: ‘One who has one daughter carries a heavy load, one who has two daughters is like scorched land that begs for rain from Allah-azwj and one who has three daughters is exempt from Jihad (serving in the army) and all hardships. One who has four daughters, then O slaves of Allah-azwj you must help him, O slaves of Allah-azwj you must give him loan and O slaves of Allah-azwj you must have mercy on him.’[91]

بِرُّ الوَالِدَيْنِ يُجْزِى‏ءُ عَنِ الجِهَادِ.

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws said: Kindness to parents is tantamount to Jihad.[92]

Masoom-asws was Criticised for Remaining Aloof of Jihad:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ الثُّمَالِيِ ‏قَالَ قَالَ رَجُلٌ لِعَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ ع تَرَكْتَ الْجِهَادَ وَ خُشُونَتَهُ وَ لَزِمْتَ الْحَجَّ وَ لِينَهُ قَالَ وَ كَانَ مُتَّكِئاً فَجَلَسَ وَ قَالَ وَيْحَكَ أَ مَا بَلَغَكَ مَا قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص فِي حَجَّةِ الْوَدَاعِ إِنَّهُ لَمَّا وَقَفَ بِعَرَفَةَ وَ هَمَّتِ الشَّمْسُ أَنْ تَغِيبَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص يَا بِلَالُ قُلْ لِلنَّاسِ فَلْيُنْصِتُوا فَلَمَّا نَصَتُوا قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص إِنَّ رَبَّكُمْ تَطَوَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي هَذَا الْيَوْمِ فَغَفَرَ لِمُحْسِنِكُمْ وَ شَفَّعَ مُحْسِنَكُمْ فِي مُسِيئِكُمْ فَأَفِيضُوا مَغْفُوراً لَكُمْ قَالَ وَ زَادَ غَيْرُ الثُّمَالِيِّ أَنَّهُ قَالَ إِلَّا أَهْلَ التَّبِعَاتِ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَدْلٌ يَأْخُذُ لِلضَّعِيفِ مِنَ الْقَوِيِّ فَلَمَّا كَانَتْ لَيْلَةُ جَمْعٍ لَمْ يَزَلْ يُنَاجِي رَبَّهُ وَ يَسْأَلُهُ لِأَهْلِ التَّبِعَاتِ فَلَمَّا وَقَفَ بِجَمْعٍ قَالَ لِبِلَالٍ قُلْ لِلنَّاسِ فَلْيُنْصِتُوا فَلَمَّا نَصَتُوا قَالَ إِنَّ رَبَّكُمْ تَطَوَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي هَذَا الْيَوْمِ فَغَفَرَ لِمُحْسِنِكُمْ وَ شَفَّعَ مُحْسِنَكُمْ فِي مُسِيئِكُمْ فَأَفِيضُوا مَغْفُوراً لَكُمْ وَ ضَمِنَ لِأَهْلِ التَّبِعَاتِ مِنْ عِنْدِهِ الرِّضَا

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father, who from ibn abu ‘Umayr from abu Ayyub from abu Hamzah al-Thumaliy who has said the following:

‘A man once said to Ali ibn al-Hussain-asws You have given up Jihad because it is harsh, but you have attached yourself to Hajj because it is comfortable.’

He (the Imam-asws) who was leaning sat up straight and said: ‘Fie upon you! Have you not heard what the Messenger of Allah-saww said during his farewell pilgrimage during his stay in ‘Arfat, and it was about sunset. The Messenger of Allah-saww said: ‘O Bilal, ask people to remain silent.’ When people became silent the Messenger of Allah-saww said: ‘Your Lord-azwj has granted you favours on this day. He has granted forgiveness to the individuals of good deeds, and has made the ones of good deed to intercede for the ones of evil deeds. You can leave now with your sins forgiven.’

Narrators other than abu Hamzah al- Thumaliy have mentioned that the Imam-asws additionally said, ‘Except those who are of individuals of al-Tabi’at (acts that require investigation).’ Allah-azwj is just. He brings to justice the stronger ones who wrong the weaker ones. On the night of al-Jam’ he continued quietly speaking to his Lord-azwj and asked Him-azwj for forgiveness for the individuals of al-Tabi’at. When he stayed in Jam’ he said to Bilal. ‘You should ask people to remain silent.’ When people became silent he (the Messenger of Allah-saww) said, ‘Your Lord has granted you favours on this day. He has forgiven the individuals of good deeds among you. He has made the individuals of good deeds among you to intercede on behalf of the individuals of evil deeds. You now may leave with your sins forgiven and He-azwj has made an undertaking in favour of the individuals of al-Tabi’at (people liable for the rights of others) to be happy with them.’[93]

Masoom Answers Why He Prefers Hajj over Jihad:

وَ جَاءَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ ع فَقَالَ قَدْ آثَرْتَ الْحَجَّ عَلَى الْجِهَادِ وَ قَدْ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرى‏ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ وَ أَمْوالَهُمْ بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ إِلَى آخِرِهَا فَقَالَ لَهُ عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ ع فَاقْرَأْ مَا بَعْدَهَا فَقَالَ التَّائِبُونَ الْعابِدُونَ الْحامِدُونَ إِلَى أَنْ بَلَغَ آخِرَ الْآيَةِ فَقَالَ إِذَا رَأَيْتَ هَؤُلَاءِ فَالْجِهَادُ مَعَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ أَفْضَلُ مِنَ الْحَجِّ  وَ رُوِيَ أَنَّهُ ع قَرَأَ التَّائِبِينَ الْعَابِدِينَ إِلَى آخِرِ الْآيَةِ

Once a person came to Ali-asws ibn Hussain-asws and said: ‘You have preferred Hajj over Jihad, whereas Allah-azwj Says: Surely Allah has bought of the believers their persons and their property for this, that they shall have the garden; they fight in Allah’s way, so they slay and are slain; a promise which is binding on Him in the Taurat and the Injeel and the Quran; and who is more faithful to his covenant than Allah? Imam Ali-asws ibn Hussain-asws then said:  Why don’t you also read the next Verse: They who turn (to Allah), who serve (Him), who praise (Him), who fast, who bow down, who prostrate themselves, who enjoin what is good and forbid what is evil, and who keep the limits of Allah; and give good news to the believers. (Imam-asws added) when you see these people-asws, only then Jihad is better than the Hajj, in another narration, it is reported than Imam-asws recited from ‘al-taaibon alabadoom’ until the last.[94]

The Signs Prior to the Appearance of Imam-e-Zaman-ajfj:

الْفَضْلُ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ أَبِي الْمِقْدَامِ عَنْ جَابِرٍ الْجُعْفِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ الْزَمِ الْأَرْضَ وَ لَا تُحَرِّكْ يَداً وَ لَا رِجْلًا حَتَّى تَرَى عَلَامَاتٍ أَذْكُرُهَا لَكَ وَ مَا أَرَاكَ تُدْرِكُ اخْتِلَافُ بَنِي فُلَانٍ وَ مُنَادٍ يُنَادِي مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَ يَجِيئُكُمُ الصَّوْتُ مِنْ نَاحِيَةِ دِمَشْقَ بِالْفَتْحِ وَ خَسْفُ قَرْيَةٍ مِنْ قُرَى الشَّامِ تُسَمَّى الْجَابِيَةَ وَ سَتُقْبِلُ إِخْوَانُ التُّرْكِ حَتَّى يَنْزِلُوا الْجَزِيرَةَ وَ سَتُقْبِلُ مَارِقَةُ الرُّومِ حَتَّى يَنْزِلُوا الرَّمْلَ فَتِلْكَ السَّنَةُ فِيهَا اخْتِلَافٌ كَثِيرٌ فِي كُلِّ الْأَرْضِ مِنْ نَاحِيَةِ الْمَغْرِبِ فَأَوَّلُ أَرْضٍ تُخْرَبُ الشَّامُ يَخْتَلِفُونَ عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى ثَلَاثِ رَايَاتٍ رَايَةِ الْأَصْهَبِ وَ رَايَةِ الْأَبْقَعِ وَ رَايَةِ السُّفْيَانِيِّ

Fazal from Hassan ibn Mahboob, who from Ummro ibn abu Maqdam, who from Jabir Jaafi, who says the following:

Abi Jafar-asws said: ‘You should hold on to the earth without making any strives or campaigns until you observe the signs which I-asws am going to narrate to you, although I-asws know you will not live to see that era:  Conflicts in the children of ‘that one’, a Call from the skies, news of victory from Damascus, a land in Sham forming canyons, which is called Jabia.  Establishment of the ‘Turk’ army in its island, Marqqa and Romans invading the Ramillah, and Western world fuelling conflicts all around the world.  First, Sham will meet with destruction, with three flags being waved, one flag with patterns, one red flag and one flag from Sufyani.[95]

ابْنُ عُقْدَةَ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ يُوسُفَ عَنِ ابْنِ مِهْرَانَ عَنِ ابْنِ الْبَطَائِنِيِّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَ وُهَيْبِ بْنِ حَفْصٍ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع أَنَّهُ قَالَ قَالَ لِيَ أَبِي ع لَا بُدَّ لَنَا مِنْ آذَرْبِيجَانَ لَا يَقُومُ لَهَا شَيْ‏ءٌ وَ إِذَا كَانَ ذَلِكَ فَكُونُوا أَحْلَاسَ بُيُوتِكُمْ وَ أَلْبِدُوا مَا أَلْبَدْنَا فَإِذَا تَحَرَّكَ مُتَحَرِّكُنَا فَاسْعَوْا إِلَيْهِ وَ لَوْ حَبْواً وَ اللَّهِ لَكَأَنِّي أَنْظُرُ إِلَيْهِ بَيْنَ الرُّكْنِ وَ الْمَقَامِ يُبَايِعُ النَّاسَ عَلَى كِتَابٍ جَدِيدٍ عَلَى الْعَرَبِ شَدِيدٌ وَ قَالَ وَيْلٌ لِطُغَاةِ الْعَرَبِ مِنْ شَرٍّ قَدِ اقْتَرَبَ بيان ألبد بالمكان أقام به و لبد الشي‏ء بالأرض يلبد بالضم أي لصق

Ibn Yaqida, from Ahmed ibn Yousif, who from ibn Mehran, who from Bataini, Bataini from his father and Wahab ibn Hafiz, who from abu Basir and abu Basir narrates:

Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq-asws said that I-asws heard it from my father-asws: Surely, an unstoppable force would emerge from Azerbaijan.  When it happens you better stay in your homes and act in accordance with our-asws conduct by adopting solicitude.  And when some one from us-asws comes forward, you should then immediately try to get to his-asws service even if you have to crawl on your knees.

By Allah-azwj, I-asws can see people are taking oath of allegiance to him-ajfj on the New Book between the ‘Rukn and Mukkam’.  But this will not be taken well by the Arabs.  And said, curse be on the arrogant Arabs of that time, who will be too much involved in creating disorder and troubles.[96]

ابْنُ عُقْدَةَ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الصَّبَّاحِ بْنِ الضَّحَّاكِ عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ سَيْفٍ التَّمَّارِ عَنْ أَبِي الْمُرْهِفِ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع هَلَكَتِ الْمَحَاضِيرُ قُلْتُ وَ مَا الْمَحَاضِيرُ قَالَ الْمُسْتَعْجِلُونَ وَ نَجَا الْمُقَرِّبُونَ وَ ثَبَتَ الْحِصْنُ عَلَى أَوْتَادِهَا كُونُوا أَحْلَاسَ بُيُوتِكُمْ فَإِنَّ الْفِتْنَةَ عَلَى مَنْ أَثَارَهَا وَ إِنَّهُمْ لَا يُرِيدُونَكُمْ بِحَاجَةٍ إِلَّا أَتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ بِشَاغِلٍ لِأَمْرٍ يُعْرَضُ لَهُمْ إيضاح المحاضير جمع المحضير و هو الفرس الكثير العدو و المقربون بكسر الراء المشددة أي الذين يقولون الفرج قريب و يرجون قربه أو يدعون لقربه أو بفتح الراء أي الصابرون الذي فازوا بالصبر بقربه تعالى. قوله ع و ثبت الحصن أي استقر حصن دولة المخالفين على أساسها بأن يكون المراد بالأوتاد الأساس مجازا و في الكافي و ثبتت الحصا على أوتادهم أي سهلت لهم الأمور الصعبة كما أن استقرار الحصا على الوتد صعب أو أن أسباب دولتهم تتزايد يوما فيوما أي لا ترفع الحصا عن أوتاد دولتهم بل يدق بها دائما أو المراد بالأوتاد الرؤساء و العظماء أي قدر و لزم نزول حصا العذاب على عظمائهم. قوله ع الفتنة على من أثارها أي يعود ضرر الفتنة على من أثارها أكثر من غيره كما أن بالغبار يتضرر مثيرها أكثر من غيره

Ibn Yaqida, who from Ahmed ibn Ziad, who from Ali ibn Sabah bin Zahak, who from Jafar bin Mohammed ibn Samah, who from Saif Tammar, who from abu Marhif, who has narrated the following:

Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘’Mahazzir will be killed.’ I (the narrator) asked:  ‘Who are the ‘Mahazzir’?  Imam-asws replied:  ‘The one who would want expedition in the Zahoor (of al-Qaim-ajfj), but those who believe that Zahoor is near, will be among the successful ones.  (At that time) the governments of (our-asws) opponents will be on rock-solid foundations.  During that time, I-asws command you to stay within your dwellings, as an uprising will be harmful for its creator, as Allah-azwj will Subject them to those conditions, which they will abhor.[97]

Also see in Appendix: ‘The Time and State of People Before Zahoor-e-Imam-ajfj.

At the Time of Zahoor of Imam-e-Zaman-ajfj

ابْنُ عُقْدَةَ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ يُوسُفَ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ عَنِ ابْنِ الْبَطَائِنِيِّ عَنِ الْمُفَضَّلِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ ع أَنَّهُ قَالَ إِذَا قَامَ الْقَائِمُ أَذْهَبَ اللَّهُ عَنْ كُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ الْعَاهَةَ وَ رَدَّ إِلَيْهِ قُوَّتَهُ

Ibn Aqadah, who from Ahmed ibn Yousif, who Ismail ibn Mahran, who from ibn Bataini, who from Mofazzil ibn Mohammed, who from Hareez;

Hareez from Abu Abd Allah-asws, who has narrated from his father Ali-asws ibn al-Hussain-asws that Imam-asws said: Upon the rising of ‘al-Qaim-ajfj’, Allah-azwj will Award an extraordinary strength to all (Momineen) and remove any weakness from them.[98]

Arabs will not be Among the Supporters of Imam-ajfj:

الْفَضْلُ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَسْبَاطٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ أَسْبَاطِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ مُوسَى الْأَبَّارِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع أَنَّهُ قَالَ اتَّقِ الْعَرَبَ فَإِنَّ لَهُمْ خَبَرَ سَوْءٍ أَمَا إِنَّهُ لَمْ يَخْرُجْ مَعَ الْقَائِمِ مِنْهُمْ وَاحِدٌ

Al-Fazal, from Ali ibn al-Sabbat, who from his father al-Sabbat ibn Salim, from Musa al-Abbar who narrates the following:

Abi Abd Allah-asws said: Arabs should be worried, (indeed) it is a bad news for them, since not even one of them will be among the supporters of ‘Qaim-ajfj’.[99]

ابْنُ عُقْدَةَ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ يُوسُفَ الْجُعْفِيِّ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ مِنْ كِتَابِهِ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ عَنِ ابْنِ الْبَطَائِنِيِّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَ وُهَيْبٍ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع أَنَّهُ قَالَ مَعَ الْقَائِمِ ع مِنَ الْعَرَبِ شَيْ‏ءٌ يَسِيرٌ فَقِيلَ لَهُ إِنَّ مَنْ يَصِفُ هَذَا الْأَمْرَ مِنْهُمْ لَكَثِيرٌ قَالَ لَا بُدَّ لِلنَّاسِ مِنْ أَنْ يُمَحَّصُوا وَ يُمَيَّزُوا وَ يُغَرْبَلُوا وَ سَيَخْرُجُ مِنَ الْغِرْبَالِ خَلْقٌ كَثِيرٌ

Ibn Aqida, who from Ahmed ibn Yousif Jaffi, who from the book of abu al-Hassan, who from Ismail ibn Mahran, who from ibn Batini, who from his father and Wahab, who from Abu Basir, who has narrated the following:

Abi Abd Allah-asws said: There will be very few with Imam Qaim-ajfj from the people of Arabs.  It was then said:  There are so many among them (the Arabs) who praise the al-Qaim-ajfj.  Imam-asws replied: It is essential to test and pass people through sieves (of Wilayat) and upon subjecting them to these tests; very few will pass through the sieve (tests).[100]

ابْنُ عُقْدَةَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْمُفَضَّلِ بْنِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ زُرَارَةَ عَنِ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ وَ ذَرِيحٍ الْمُحَارِبِيِّ قَالَا قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع مَا بَقِيَ بَيْنَنَا وَ بَيْنَ الْعَرَبِ إِلَّا الذَّبْحُ وَ أَوْمَأَ بِيَدِهِ إِلَى حَلْقِهِ

Ibn Auqada, from Mohammed ibn al-Mufazzil ibn Ibrahim, who from Mohammed ibn Abd Allah ibn Zahar, who from al-Haras ibn al-Mughara and Zarih al-Muhar, who has narrated the following:

Abu Abd Allah-asws said: There will be nothing between us the people of the Arab except killing and after saying this Imam-asws’s pointed to his throat.[101]

بِهَذَا الْإِسْنَادِ عَنِ الْبَزَنْطِيِّ عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ حُمَيْدٍ الْحَنَّاطِ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ ع يَقُومُ الْقَائِمُ بِأَمْرٍ جَدِيدٍ وَ كِتَابٍ جَدِيدٍ وَ قَضَاءٍ جَدِيدٍ عَلَى الْعَرَبِ شَدِيدٌ لَيْسَ شَأْنُهُ إِلَّا بِالسَّيْفِ لَا يَسْتَتِيبُ أَحَداً وَ لَا يَأْخُذُهُ فِي اللَّهِ لَوْمَةُ لَائِمٍ

It is reported through a chain of narrators that al-Baznati, from Asim ibn Hamid al-Hanat, who from abu Basir, who has narrated the following:

Abu Jafar-asws said:  Imam-ajfj will rise with the new Book and the new Commands and Instructions.  And will be harsh on the people of Arab, will not say anything but through sword, will not accept excuses and will ignore call of moderation in favour of Allah-azwj’s Commandments.[102]

أَحْمَدُ بْنُ هَوْذَةَ عَنِ النَّهَاوَنْدِيِّ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ حَمَّادٍ عَنْ‏ أَبِي الْجَارُودِ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ أَصْحَابُ الْقَائِمِ ثَلَاثُمِائَةٍ وَ ثَلَاثَةَ عَشَرَ رَجُلًا أَوْلَادُ الْعَجَمِ بَعْضُهُمْ يُحْمَلُ فِي السَّحَابِ نَهَاراً يُعْرَفُ بِاسْمِهِ وَ اسْمِ أَبِيهِ وَ نَسَبِهِ وَ حِلْيَتِهِ وَ بَعْضُهُمْ نَائِمٌ عَلَى فِرَاشِهِ فَيُرَى فِي مَكَّةَ عَلَى غَيْرِ مِيعَادٍ

Ahmed ibn Howas, who from Nihawandi, who from Abd Allah ibn Hammad, who from Abu Jawarud and Abu Jawarud says the following:

Imam-asws said: The 313 companions of ‘al-Qaim-ajfj’ will all be the children of non-Arabs, some of them will be carried forward by the clouds during the day, their names along with their fathers names and their features are already known and some of them will be sleeping on their beds but will appear in Mecca.[103]

Communication During the Rule of Al-Qaim-ajfj

أَحْمَدُ بْنُ هَوْذَةَ عَنِ النَّهَاوَنْدِيِّ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ حَمَّادٍ الْأَنْصَارِيِّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ ع قَالَ إِذَا قَامَ الْقَائِمُ بَعَثَ فِي أَقَالِيمِ الْأَرْضِ فِي كُلِّ إِقْلِيمٍ رَجُلًا يَقُولُ عَهْدُكَ فِي كَفِّكَ فَإِذَا وَرَدَ عَلَيْكَ مَا لَا تَفْهَمُهُ وَ لَا تَعْرِفُ الْقَضَاءَ فِيهِ فَانْظُرْ إِلَى كَفِّكَ وَ اعْمَلْ بِمَا فِيهَا قَالَ وَ يَبْعَثُ جُنْداً إِلَى الْقُسْطَنْطِينِيَّةِ فَإِذَا بَلَغُوا إِلَى الْخَلِيجِ كَتَبُوا عَلَى أَقْدَامِهِمْ شَيْئاً وَ مَشَوْا عَلَى الْمَاءِ فَإِذَا نَظَرَ إِلَيْهِمُ الرُّومُ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْمَاءِ قَالُوا هَؤُلَاءِ أَصْحَابُهُ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْمَاءِ فَكَيْفَ هُوَ فَعِنْدَ ذَلِكَ يَفْتَحُونَ لَهُمْ بَابَ الْمَدِينَةِ فَيَدْخُلُونَهَا فَيَحْكُمُونَ فِيهَا بِمَا يُرِيدُونَ

Amed ibn Hawaza, who from al-niharwandi, who from Abd Allah ibn Hammad al-ansawri, who from Mohammed ibn Jafar-asws, who has narrated the following:

Mohammed ibn Jafar-asws said: ‘Upon the rising of the ‘al-Qaim-ajfj’, Imam-ajfj will dispatch a representative to each country of the world and will tell him that his-ajfj instruction will be issued to him on his palm, so when a new situation arises and he does not know what to do, then he should just look into his palm and take instructions from there and act accordingly.’[104]

All Believer are Promised Martyrdom:

سَعْدٌ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي الْخَطَّابِ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ عَمَّنْ حَدَّثَهُ عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ سُئِلَ عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ لَئِنْ قُتِلْتُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَوْ مُتُّمْ فَقَالَ يَا جَابِرُ أَ تَدْرِي مَا سَبِيلُ اللَّهِ قُلْتُ لَا وَ اللَّهِ إِلَّا إِذَا سَمِعْتُ مِنْكَ فَقَالَ الْقَتْلُ فِي سَبِيلِ عَلِيٍّ ع وَ ذُرِّيَّتِهِ فَمَنْ قُتِلَ فِي وَلَايَتِهِ قُتِلَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَ لَيْسَ أَحَدٌ يُؤْمِنُ بِهَذِهِ الْآيَةِ إِلَّا وَ لَهُ قَتْلَةٌ وَ مَيْتَةٌ إِنَّهُ مَنْ قُتِلَ يُنْشَرُ حَتَّى يَمُوتَ وَ مَنْ مَاتَ يُنْشَرُ حَتَّى يُقْتَلَ

شي، [تفسير العياشي‏] عن ابن المغيرة مثله بيان لعل آخر الخبر تفسير لآخر الآية و هو قوله وَ لَئِنْ مُتُّمْ أَوْ قُتِلْتُمْ لَإِلَى اللَّهِ تُحْشَرُونَ بأن يكون المراد بالحشر الرجعة

Saeed has reported from ibn Abi al-khatab, who from Abdullah ibn al-Mughara, who from another person, who from Jabir ibn Yazeed and Jabir has said the following:

Once abu Abd Allah-asws was asked about the following Verse:

وَلَئِنْ قُتِلْتُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَوْ مُتُّمْ لَمَغْفِرَةٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرَحْمَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ (1573:)

And if you are slain in the way of Allah or you die, certainly forgiveness from Allah and mercy is better than what they amass.

Imam-asws asked: O Jabir! Do you know what is ‘Sabeel Allah’? I replied: ‘No, by Allah-azwj I only know that much which I have heard from you-asws.  Imam-asws said: The ‘Qatal fee Sabeel Allah’ refers to ‘Fee Sabeel ala wal Zuriat-asws’ (to die for us-asws and our progeny-asws’s cause).  Whoever was martyred on their-asws love has been killed on ‘Sabeel Allah’.  And whoever understands this Verse (in these meanings) has both death as well as martyrdom.  Therefore whoever is killed will come back to this world so that he meets his natural death.  However, the one who had passed away in their-asws love will come back to be martyred.’

In al-Yashee, ibn al-Mughira narrates a similar tradition in which it is stated that the Verse:

وَلَئِنْ مُتُّمْ أَوْ قُتِلْتُمْ لَإِلَى اللَّهِ تُحْشَرُونَ (1583:)

(And if indeed you die or you are slain, certainly to Allah shall you be gathered together), refers to ‘Al-Rajjat’, the coming back to this world. [105]

سَعْدٌ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي الْخَطَّابِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ عَمَّارِ بْنِ مَرْوَانَ عَنِ الْمُنَخَّلِ بْنِ جَمِيلٍ عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ لَيْسَ مِنْ مُؤْمِنٍ إِلَّا وَ لَهُ قَتْلَةٌ وَ مَوْتَةٌ إِنَّهُ مَنْ قُتِلَ نُشِرَ حَتَّى يَمُوتَ وَ مَنْ مَاتَ نُشِرَ حَتَّى يُقْتَلَ ثُمَّ تَلَوْتُ عَلَى أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع هَذِهِ الْآيَةَ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذائِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ فَقَالَ وَ منشوره [مَنْشُورَةٌ] قُلْتُ قَوْلُكَ وَ منشوره [مَنْشُورَةٌ] مَا هُوَ فَقَالَ هَكَذَا أنزل [نَزَلَ‏] بِهَا جَبْرَئِيلُ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ ص كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذائِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ و منشوره [مَنْشُورَةٌ] قَالَ جَابِرٌ قَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع فِي قَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ رُبَما يَوَدُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْ كانُوا مُسْلِمِينَ قَالَ هُوَ أَنَا إِذَا خَرَجْتُ أَنَا وَ شِيعَتِي‏ وَ خَرَجَ عُثْمَانُ بْنُ عَفَّانَ وَ شِيعَتُهُ وَ نَقْتُلُ بَنِي أُمَيَّةَ فَعِنْدَهَا يَوَدُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْ كَانُوا مُسْلِمَيْنِ

Saeed reports from ibn ibi al-Khitab, who form Mohammed ibn Sanan, who from Ammar ibn Marwan, who from Mankil ibn Jameel, who from Jabir ibn Yazeed, who has said the following:

Abi Jafar-asws said:  ‘A momin will experience both the death and the martyrdom.  If a momin is killed (before his natural death) he will be brought back to life in ‘Al-Rajjat’ and then he will die (his natural death).  However, if he passes away in this world without meeting martyrdom, he will be killed when he is brought back to life in ‘Al-Rajjat’.

The narrator says: I then recited the following Verse in front of Imam-asws:

كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذَائِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ   (1853:)

Every soul shall taste of death    

Imam-asws added: ‘Wa Manshura’! I asked you have recited: ‘Wa-Manshura’ what is this?’ Imam-asws said: The Angel Gabriel-as revealed to Prophet-saww like this.’              (كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذائِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ و منشوره) (Every soul shall taste of death and Manshura)   

Al-Jabir reports that Abu Jafar-asws said that Amir-ul-Momineen-asws explained the following Verse of Quran:

رُبَمَا يَوَدُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْ كَانُوا مُسْلِمِينَ (215:)

Again and again will those who disbelieve, wish that they had been Muslims

I-asws will come back (in Al-Rajjat) along with my-asws devotees. And, on the other hand, Usman ibn Ifan-la will also be brought back to life along with his-la followers.  And then we will collectively kill the people of ‘Bani Umayyad’ and at that time who disbelieve will wish that they would have been (among) Muslims.’[106]

Attributes of a Martyred:

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أَبَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص الْخَيْرُ كُلُّهُ فِي السَّيْفِ وَ تَحْتَ ظِلِّ السَّيْفِ وَ لَا يُقِيمُ النَّاسَ إِلَّا السَّيْفُ وَ السُّيُوفُ مَقَالِيدُ الْجَنَّةِ وَ النَّارِ

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam, who from ‘Umar ibn Aban, who from abu ‘Abd Allah-asws who has said the following:

‘The Messenger of Allah-saww has said: ‘All good things are with the sword, under the shadow (protection) of sword and people cannot be improved without the sword. Swords are the key to paradise or hellfire.’[107]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّوْفَلِيِّ عَنِ السَّكُونِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص لِلْجَنَّةِ بَابٌ يُقَالُ لَهُ بَابُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ يَمْضُونَ إِلَيْهِ فَإِذَا هُوَ مَفْتُوحٌ وَ هُمْ مُتَقَلِّدُونَ بِسُيُوفِهِمْ وَ الْجَمْعُ فِي الْمَوْقِفِ وَ الْمَلَائِكَةُ تُرَحِّبُ بِهِمْ ثُمَّ قَالَ فَمَنْ تَرَكَ الْجِهَادَ أَلْبَسَهُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ ذُلًّا وَ فَقْراً فِي مَعِيشَتِهِ وَ مَحْقاً فِي دِينِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ أَغْنَى أُمَّتِي بِسَنَابِكِ خَيْلِهَا وَ مَرَاكِزِ رِمَاحِهَا

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father, from al-Nawfaliy from al-Sakuniy who has said the following:

“Abu’ Abd Allah-asws has said that the Messenger of Allah-saww has said: ‘In paradise there is a door which is called ‘the door of people serving in the army’. They walk to it and it opens up (for them) and they have their swords fixed on them ready and in place. The angels-as welcome them.’ He-saww then said, ‘Whoever ignores joining the army, Allah-azwj Punishes him by subjecting him to humiliation, poverty and his religion is destroyed. Allah-azwj Makes my followers self-sufficient through the hoofs of their horses and the points of their spears.’[108]

Appendix: Jihad During Grand Occultation of Imam-ajfj

Etiquettes of Jihad

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَبَّادِ بْنِ صُهَيْبٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع يَقُولُ مَا بَيَّتَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص عَدُوّاً قَطُّ

Muhammad ibn Yahya from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa, from ibn Mahbub from ‘Abbad ibn Suhayb who has said the following:

“I heard abu ‘Abd Allah-asws saying, ‘The Messenger of Allah-saww never launched a surprise attack against the enemy during the night.[109]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّوْفَلِيِّ عَنِ السَّكُونِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ صَلَوَاتُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ بَعَثَنِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص إِلَى الْيَمَنِ وَ قَالَ لِي يَا عَلِيُّ لَا تُقَاتِلَنَّ أَحَداً حَتَّى تَدْعُوَهُ وَ ايْمُ اللَّهِ لَأَنْ يَهْدِيَ اللَّهُ عَلَى يَدَيْكَ رَجُلًا خَيْرٌ لَكَ مِمَّا طَلَعَتْ عَلَيْهِ الشَّمْسُ وَ غَرَبَتْ وَ لَكَ وَلَاؤُهُ يَا عَلِيُّ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father, from al-Nawfaliy from al-Sakuniy who has said the following:

‘Abu Abd Allah-asws has said that Amir-ul-Momineen-asws has said, ‘The Messenger of Allah-saww sent me to Yemen and said to me, “You must not fight anyone before calling him to Allah-azwj. I swear by Allah-azwj, if Allah-azwj guides through you one man it will be more excellent for you than all the things on which the sun shines and sets. You, O Ali-asws, will have His-azwj Guardianship.[110]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ أَبِي الْعَلَاءِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ كَانَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ص لَا يُقَاتِلُ حَتَّى تَزُولَ الشَّمْسُ وَ يَقُولُ تُفَتَّحُ أَبْوَابُ السَّمَاءِ وَ تُقْبِلُ الرَّحْمَةُ وَ يَنْزِلُ النَّصْرُ وَ يَقُولُ هُوَ أَقْرَبُ إِلَى اللَّيْلِ وَ أَجْدَرُ أَنْ يَقِلَّ الْقَتْلُ وَ يَرْجِعَ الطَّالِبُ وَ يُفْلِتَ الْمُنْهَزِمُ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Aban ibn ‘Uthrnan from Yahya ibn abu al-‘Ala’ who has said the following:

“Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws has said that Amir-ul-Momineen-asws would not launch attacks against the enemy until after declining of the Sun toward the West. He-asws would say, ‘At such time the doors of heaven open up, mercy comes forward and victory descends.’ He-asws would also say, ‘Such time is closer to the night, prone to reduced killing; pursuers return and fleeing ones disappear.[111]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّوْفَلِيِّ عَنِ السَّكُونِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ مَا مَعْنَى قَوْلِ النَّبِيِّ ص يَسْعَى بِذِمَّتِهِمْ أَدْنَاهُمْ قَالَ لَوْ أَنَ ‏جَيْشاً مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ حَاصَرُوا قَوْماً مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ فَأَشْرَفَ رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ أَعْطُونِي الْأَمَانَ حَتَّى أَلْقَى صَاحِبَكُمْ وَ أُنَاظِرَهُ فَأَعْطَاهُ أَدْنَاهُمُ الْأَمَانَ وَجَبَ عَلَى أَفْضَلِهِمُ الْوَفَاءُ بِهِ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Nawfaliy from al-Sakuniy who has said the following:

This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah-asws: ‘What is the meaning of the words of the Holy Prophet, ” … commitment of a person of the lowest position among them becomes a commitment of all of them (Muslims)?” The Imam-asws replied: ‘It means, if the Muslim army surrounds a stronghold of the pagans and a man comes up saying, “Grant me immunity so I can debate your man.” If a man of the lowest position in the Muslim army grants him immunity, it becomes obligatory for all of them to fulfil that commitment.[112]

عَلِيٌّ عَنْ هَارُونَ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ مَسْعَدَةَ بْنِ صَدَقَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع أَنَّ عَلِيّاً ع أَجَازَ أَمَانَ عَبْدٍ مَمْلُوكٍ لِأَهْلِ حِصْنٍ مِنَ الْحُصُونِ وَ قَالَ هُوَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

Ali has narrated from Harun ibn Muslim from Masadah ibn Sadaqah who has said the following: *

“Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws has said that Amir-ul-Momineen-asws once honoured the immunity granted by a Muslim slave to the people of a fortress, saying: ‘He is of the believing people.[113]

عَلِيٌّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ عِمْرَانَ عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ ع يَقُولُ مَا مِنْ رَجُلٍ آمَنَ رَجُلًا عَلَى ذِمَّةٍ ثُمَّ قَتَلَهُ إِلَّا جَاءَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يَحْمِلُ لِوَاءَ الْغَدْرِ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father, who from Yahya ibn ‘Imran, who from Yunus, who from ‘Abd Allah ibn Sulayman, who has said the following:

“I heard abu Ja’far-asws saying, ‘Whoever provides a commitment of immunity to someone but then kills him, he on the Day of Judgment will come, carrying the banner of betrayal.[114]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ طَلْحَةَ بْنِ زَيْدٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع عَنْ أَبِيهِ ع قَالَ قَرَأْتُ فِي كِتَابٍ لِعَلِيٍّ ع أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص كَتَبَ كِتَاباً بَيْنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَ الْأَنْصَارِ وَ مَنْ لَحِقَ بِهِمْ مِنْ أَهْلِ يَثْرِبَ أَنَّ كُلَّ غَازِيَةٍ غَزَتْ بِمَا يُعَقِّبُ بَعْضُهَا بَعْضاً بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَ الْقِسْطِ بَيْنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ فَإِنَّهُ لَا يَجُوزُ حَرْبٌ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ أَهْلِهَا وَ إِنَّ الْجَارَ كَالنَّفْسِ غَيْرَ مُضَارٍّ وَ لَا آثِمٍ وَ حُرْمَةَ الْجَارِ عَلَى الْجَارِ كَحُرْمَةِ أُمِّهِ وَ أَبِيهِ لَا يُسَالِمُ مُؤْمِنٌ دُونَ مُؤْمِنٍ فِي قِتَالٍ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ إِلَّا عَلَى عَدْلٍ وَ سَوَاءٍ

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Yahya from Talhah ibn Zayd, who has said the following:

“Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws has said that he has read in the book of Ali-asws that the Messenger of Allah-saww wrote the following in a letter for al-Muhajirun, al-Ansar and those who join them from the people of Yathrib: “Every mobilisation that is arranged for an armed confrontation must be continued step by step with legitimacy and justice among the Muslims. It is not permissible to start a war without the permission of the people (the appointed authority).

The rights of neighbours are just like one’s soul that must be held harmless and sinless. The respect and honour of a neighbour is like the honour and respect of a mother and father. A believing person does not make peace just for himself, ignoring the other believers during a war for the cause of Allah-azwj, except on the basis of justice and equality.’[115]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّوْفَلِيِّ عَنِ السَّكُونِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع أَنَّ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع قَالَ مَنِ اسْتَأْسَرَ مِنْ غَيْرِ جِرَاحَةٍ مُثْقِلَةٍ فَلَا يُفْدَى مِنْ بَيْتِ الْمَالِ وَ لَكِنْ يُفْدَى مِنْ مَالِهِ إِنْ أَحَبَّ أَهْلُهُ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Nawfaliy, from al-Sakuniy, who has said the following:

“Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws has said that one who turns himself into captivity without suffering a disabling wound is not ransomed on the expenses of public treasury. He however may be ransomed with payment from his own properties.’[116]

  حُمَيْدُ بْنُ زِيَادٍ عَنِ الْخَشَّابِ عَنِ ابْنِ بَقَّاحٍ عَنْ مُعَاذِ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ جُمَيْعٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ سُئِلَ عَنِ الْمُبَارَزَةِ بَيْنَ الصَّفَّيْنِ بَعْدَ إِذْنِ الْإِمَامِ ع قَالَ لَا بَأْسَ وَ لَكِنْ لَا يُطْلَبُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ الْإِمَامِ

Hamid ibn Ziyad has narrated from al-Khashshab, who from ibn Baqqah, who from Mu’adh ibn Thabit, who from ‘Amr ibn Jumay’, who has said the following:

“Abu’ Abd Allah-asws was asked about challenging (to fight the enemy) while standing between the two confronting armies after the permission of the Imam. The Imam-asws said, ‘It is fine but it must not take place without the permission of the Imam-asws.[117]

Kindness to the Prisoners of war

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ إِطْعَامُ الْأَسِيرِ حَقٌّ عَلَى مَنْ أَسَرَهُ وَ إِنْ كَانَ يُرَادُ مِنَ الْغَدِ قَتْلُهُ فَإِنَّهُ يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يُطْعَمَ وَ يُسْقَى وَ [يُظَلَ‏] وَ يُرْفَقَ بِهِ كَافِراً كَانَ أَوْ غَيْرَهُ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father, who from Hammad from Hariz from Zurarah who has said the following:

“Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws has said that feeding the prisoner is upon the one who has captured him even if he wants to eliminate him the next day. He should feed him, quench his thirst, [make him comfortable] and be kind to him, regardless, he is an unbeliever or not?’[118]

أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ الْكُوفِيُّ عَنْ حَمْدَانَ الْقَلَانِسِيِّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْوَلِيدِ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ مَنْصُورِ بْنِ حَازِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ الْأَسِيرُ طَعَامُهُ عَلَى مَنْ أَسَرَهُ حَقٌّ عَلَيْهِ وَ إِنْ كَانَ كَافِراً يُقْتَلُ مِنَ الْغَدِ فَإِنَّهُ يَنْبَغِي لَهُ أَنْ يَرْؤُفَهُ وَ يُطْعِمَهُ وَ يَسْقِيَهُ

Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Kufiy has narrated from Hamdan al-Qalanisiy from Muhammad ibn al-Walid from Aban ibn ‘Uthman from Mansur ibn Hazim who has said the following:

“Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws has said that feeding the prisoner is upon the one who has captured him, even if he is an unbeliever whom he wants to eliminate the next day. He should be kind to him, feed him and quench his thirst.’[119]

Calling to Islam before War

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ شَمُّونٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنْ مِسْمَعِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع لَمَّا وَجَّهَنِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص إِلَى الْيَمَنِ قَالَ يَا عَلِيُّ لَا تُقَاتِلْ أَحَداً حَتَّى تَدْعُوَهُ إِلَى الْإِسْلَامِ وَ ايْمُ اللَّهِ لَأَنْ يَهْدِيَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ عَلَى يَدَيْكَ رَجُلًا خَيْرٌ لَكَ مِمَّا طَلَعَتْ عَلَيْهِ الشَّمْسُ وَ غَرَبَتْ وَ لَكَ وَلَاؤُهُ

A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Muhammad ibn al-Hassan, who from ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman, who from Misma’ ibn ‘Abd al-Malik who has said the following:

“Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws has said that Amir-ul-Momineen-asws has said, ‘When the Messenger of Allah-saww instructed me-asws to go to Yemen he-saww said to me-asws, ‘O Ali-asws, you-asws must not fight anyone before calling him to al-Islam. I-saww swear by Allah-azwj, Allah-azwj‘s Guiding only one man (to the right path) is better for you-asws than all things on which the Sun shines or sets, and to you-asws will belong his guardianship and legacy.’[120]

وَ فِي حَدِيثِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ جُنْدَبٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ أَنَّ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ص كَانَ يَأْمُرُ فِي كُلِّ مَوْطِنٍ لَقِينَا فِيهِ عَدُوَّنَا فَيَقُولُ لَا تُقَاتِلُوا الْقَوْمَ حَتَّى يَبْدَءُوكُمْ فَإِنَّكُمْ بِحَمْدِ اللَّهِ عَلَى حُجَّةٍ وَ تَرْكُكُمْ إِيَّاهُمْ حَتَّى يَبْدَءُوكُمْ حُجَّةٌ لَكُمْ أُخْرَى فَإِذَا هَزَمْتُمُوهُمْ فَلَا تَقْتُلُوا مُدْبِراً وَ لَا تُجْهِزُوا عَلَى جَرِيحٍ وَ لَا تَكْشِفُوا عَوْرَةً وَ لَا تُمَثِّلُوا بِقَتِيلٍ

In Hadith narrated from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Jundab, who from his father who has said the following:

‘Amir-ul-Momineen-asws in every battle field, when we faced the enemies issued his commandments and said, ‘You must not fight the people before they attack you; you by the grace of Allah-azwj possess authority and good cause. Your allowing them to attack you first is another valid point in support of the good cause. When you defeat them you must not pursue the fleeing, you must not hurt the wounded and you must not expose anyone’s privacy.’[121]

أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ الْكُوفِيُّ عَنِ ابْنِ جُمْهُورٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ مُفَضَّلِ بْنِ عُمَرَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع وَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الْأَصَمِّ عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ص لِأَصْحَابِهِ إِذَا لَقِيتُمْ عَدُوَّكُمْ فِي الْحَرْبِ فَأَقِلُّوا الْكَلَامَ وَ اذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ لَا تُوَلُّوهُمُ الْأَدْبَارَ فَتُسْخِطُوا اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى وَ تَسْتَوْجِبُوا غَضَبَهُ وَ إِذَا رَأَيْتُمْ مِنْ إِخْوَانِكُمُ الْمَجْرُوحَ وَ مَنْ قَدْ نُكِّلَ بِهِ أَوْ مَنْ قَدْ طَمِعَ عَدُوُّكُمْ فِيهِ فَقُوهُ بِأَنْفُسِكُمْ

Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Kufiy has narrated from ibn Jumhur from his father from Muhammad ibn Sinan from Mufaddal ibn ‘Umar Also ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Asamm has narrated from Hariz from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following:

“Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws has said that Amir-ul-Momineen-asws, has said to his companions, ‘When you face the enemy during a war you must reduce your speech, remember Allah-azwj very often. You must not turn your backs to them; Allah-azwj becomes angry with you and you will become subject to His anger. If you see one of your brother wounded or one who is captured by the enemy or the enemy is about to harm him, you must protect him with your companions.’[122]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ جَمِيعاً عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ أَحَدِهِمَا ع قَالَ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص خَرَجَ بِالنِّسَاءِ فِي الْحَرْبِ حَتَّى يُدَاوِينَ الْجَرْحَى وَ لَمْ يَقْسِمْ لَهُنَّ مِنَ الْفَيْ‏ءِ شَيْئاً وَ لَكِنَّهُ نَفَّلَهُنَّ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from and Muhammad ibn Yahya from Muhammad ibn al-Hussain all from ‘Uthman from ibn ‘Isa from Sama’ah from one of the two Imams, recipients of Divine supreme covenant, who has said the following:

“The Messenger of Allah-saww took part in war in company of women so that they could nurse the wounded. He did not give them a share of the captured properties but he did so in an optional manner.’[123]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ الْقَدَّاحِ عَنْ أَبِيهِ مَيْمُونٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع أَنَّ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع كَانَ إِذَا أَرَادَ الْقِتَالَ قَالَ هَذِهِ الدَّعَوَاتِ اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّكَ أَعْلَمْتَ سَبِيلًا مِنْ سُبُلِكَ جَعَلْتَ فِيهِ رِضَاكَ وَ نَدَبْتَ إِلَيْهِ أَوْلِيَاءَكَ وَ جَعَلْتَهُ أَشْرَفَ سُبُلِكَ عِنْدَكَ ثَوَاباً وَ أَكْرَمَهَا لَدَيْكَ مَآباً وَ أَحَبَّهَا إِلَيْكَ مَسْلَكاً ثُمَّ اشْتَرَيْتَ فِيهِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ وَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَ يُقْتَلُونَ وَعْداً عَلَيْكَ حَقّاً فَاجْعَلْنِي مِمَّنْ اشْتَرَى فِيهِ مِنْكَ نَفْسَهُ ثُمَّ وَفَى لَكَ بِبَيْعِهِ الَّذِي بَايَعَكَ عَلَيْهِ غَيْرَ نَاكِثٍ وَ لَا نَاقِضٍ عَهْداً وَ لَا مُبَدِّلًا تَبْدِيلًا بَلِ اسْتِيجَاباً لِمَحَبَّتِكَ وَ تَقَرُّباً بِهِ إِلَيْكَ فَاجْعَلْهُ خَاتِمَةَ عَمَلِي وَ صَيِّرْ فِيهِ فَنَاءَ عُمُرِي وَ ارْزُقْنِي فِيهِ لَكَ وَ بِهِ مَشْهَداً تُوجِبُ لِي بِهِ مِنْكَ الرِّضَا وَ تَحُطُّ بِهِ عَنِّي الْخَطَايَا وَ تَجْعَلُنِي فِي الْأَحْيَاءِ الْمَرْزُوقِينَ بِأَيْدِي الْعُدَاةِ وَ الْعُصَاةِ تَحْتَ لِوَاءِ الْحَقِّ وَ رَايَةِ الْهُدَى مَاضِياً عَلَى نُصْرَتِهِمْ قُدُماً غَيْرَ مُوَلٍّ دُبُراً وَ لَا مُحْدِثٍ شَكّاً اللَّهُمَّ وَ أَعُوذُ بِكَ عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْجُبْنِ عِنْدَ مَوَارِدِ الْأَهْوَالِ وَ مِنَ الضَّعْفِ عِنْدَ مُسَاوَرَةِ الْأَبْطَالِ وَ مِنَ الذَّنْبِ الْمُحْبِطِ لِلْأَعْمَالِ فَأَحْجُمَ مَنْ شَكَّ أَوْ مَضَى بِغَيْرِ يَقِينٍ فَيَكُونَ سَعْيِي فِي تَبَابٍ وَ عَمَلِي غَيْرَ مَقْبُولٍ

A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ja’far ibn Muhammad from ibn al-Qaddah from his father, Maymun who has said the following:

“Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws has said that whenever Amir-ul-Momineen-asws wanted to take part in a war he would recite the following supplications: ‘O Lord, You-azwj have Made a way of Your-azwj ways public and has placed Your-azwj pleasure in it and have called Your-azwj friends towards it. You have made it the most noble of Your-azwj ways to You-azwj in matters of reward, the most honourable before You-azwj in matters of endings and of the most beloved ones before You-azwj in terms of its direction. In this way, You-azwj then purchased the souls of the believing people and their properties in exchange for paradise.

They are the believers who fight in the way of Allah-azwj, they eliminate the enemy and they themselves are killed because of the promise of Allah-azwj, which is the true promise. O Lord, make me one of those from whom You have purchased in this way their souls and then they made their promise and agreement with You-azwj to come true. Make me of those who do not flee from the battle and those who do not disregard their promise, and do not replace me with others.

Make me of those who do so in response to Your-azwj love and to become closer thereby to You-azwj. O Lord, Make it to be the end of my deed, and turning of my life to its end. O Lord, Grant me therein for Your-azwj sake with it a battle, which will make me deserve Your-azwj pleasure and remove thereby my sins. O Lord, place me among the living martyrs that receive sustenance from You-azwj because of the acts of the enemy who is disobedient. Make it happen under the banner of truth and the flag of guidance when advancing to support them (the believers) without turning my back to the enemy, or move around with doubts. O Lord-azwj, I seek Your-azwj Protection in the battle against cowardice in frightening conditions and against weakness during the exchanges with champions. I seek Your-azwj Protection against the sins that turn good deeds invalid, the sins that feed doubts or make me advance without certainty after which my efforts end in destruction and my deeds become unacceptable.’[124]

Masoom-asws’s Instructions on Al-Khums, Anfal and Jihad

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ هَاشِمٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنِ الْعَبْدِ الصَّالِحِ ع قَالَ الْخُمُسُ مِنْ خَمْسَةِ أَشْيَاءَ مِنَ الْغَنَائِمِ وَ الْغَوْصِ وَ مِنَ الْكُنُوزِ وَ مِنَ الْمَعَادِنِ وَ الْمَلَّاحَةِ يُؤْخَذُ مِنْ كُلِّ هَذِهِ الصُّنُوفِ الْخُمُسُ فَيُجْعَلُ لِمَنْ جَعَلَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى لَهُ وَ يُقْسَمُ الْأَرْبَعَةُ الْأَخْمَاسِ بَيْنَ مَنْ قَاتَلَ عَلَيْهِ وَ وَلِيَ ذَلِكَ وَ يُقْسَمُ بَيْنَهُمُ الْخُمُسُ عَلَى سِتَّةِ أَسْهُمٍ‏

سَهْمٌ لِلَّهِ وَ سَهْمٌ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ وَ سَهْمٌ لِذِي الْقُرْبَى وَ سَهْمٌ لِلْيَتَامَى وَ سَهْمٌ لِلْمَسَاكِينِ وَ سَهْمٌ لِأَبْنَاءِ السَّبِيلِ فَسَهْمُ اللَّهِ وَ سَهْمُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ لِأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْ بَعْدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص وِرَاثَةً فَلَهُ ثَلَاثَةُ أَسْهُمٍ سَهْمَانِ وِرَاثَةً وَ سَهْمٌ مَقْسُومٌ لَهُ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَ لَهُ نِصْفُ الْخُمُسِ كَمَلًا وَ نِصْفُ الْخُمُسِ الْبَاقِي بَيْنَ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ فَسَهْمٌ لِيَتَامَاهُمْ وَ سَهْمٌ لِمَسَاكِينِهِمْ وَ سَهْمٌ لِأَبْنَاءِ سَبِيلِهِمْ يُقْسَمُ بَيْنَهُمْ عَلَى الْكِتَابِ وَ السُّنَّةِ مَا يَسْتَغْنُونَ بِهِ فِي سَنَتِهِمْ فَإِنْ فَضَلَ عَنْهُمْ شَيْ‏ءٌ فَهُوَ لِلْوَالِي وَ إِنْ عَجَزَ أَوْ نَقَصَ عَنِ اسْتِغْنَائِهِمْ كَانَ عَلَى الْوَالِي أَنْ يُنْفِقَ مِنْ عِنْدِهِ بِقَدْرِ مَا يَسْتَغْنُونَ بِهِ وَ إِنَّمَا صَارَ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يَمُونَهُمْ لِأَنَّ لَهُ مَا فَضَلَ عَنْهُمْ وَ إِنَّمَا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ هَذَا الْخُمُسَ خَاصَّةً لَهُمْ دُونَ مَسَاكِينِ النَّاسِ وَ أَبْنَاءِ سَبِيلِهِمْ عِوَضاً لَهُمْ مِنْ صَدَقَاتِ النَّاسِ تَنْزِيهاً مِنَ اللَّهِ لَهُمْ لِقَرَابَتِهِمْ بِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص وَ كَرَامَةً مِنَ اللَّهِ لَهُمْ عَنْ أَوْسَاخِ النَّاسِ فَجَعَلَ لَهُمْ خَاصَّةً مِنْ عِنْدِهِ مَا يُغْنِيهِمْ بِهِ عَنْ أَنْ يُصَيِّرَهُمْ فِي مَوْضِعِ الذُّلِّ وَ الْمَسْكَنَةِ وَ لَا بَأْسَ بِصَدَقَاتِ بَعْضِهِمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ وَ هَؤُلَاءِ الَّذِينَ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لَهُمُ الْخُمُسَ هُمْ قَرَابَةُ النَّبِيِّ ص الَّذِينَ ذَكَرَهُمُ اللَّهُ فَقَالَ وَ أَنْذِرْ عَشِيرَتَكَ الْأَقْرَبِينَ وَ هُمْ بَنُو عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ أَنْفُسُهُمْ الذَّكَرُ مِنْهُمْ وَ الْأُنْثَى لَيْسَ فِيهِمْ مِنْ أَهْلِ بُيُوتَاتِ قُرَيْشٍ وَ لَا مِنَ الْعَرَبِ أَحَدٌ وَ لَا فِيهِمْ وَ لَا مِنْهُمْ فِي هَذَا الْخُمُسِ مِنْ مَوَالِيهِمْ وَ قَدْ تَحِلُّ صَدَقَاتُ النَّاسِ لِمَوَالِيهِمْ وَ هُمْ وَ النَّاسُ سَوَاءٌ وَ مَنْ كَانَتْ أُمُّهُ مِنْ بَنِي هَاشِمٍ وَ أَبُوهُ مِنْ سَائِرِ قُرَيْشٍ فَإِنَّ الصَّدَقَاتِ تَحِلُّ لَهُ وَ لَيْسَ لَهُ مِنَ الْخُمُسِ شَيْ‏ءٌ لِأَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى يَقُولُ ادْعُوهُمْ لِآبائِهِمْ وَ لِلْإِمَامِ صَفْوُ الْمَالِ أَنْ يَأْخُذَ مِنْ هَذِهِ الْأَمْوَالِ صَفْوَهَا الْجَارِيَةَ الْفَارِهَةَ وَ الدَّابَّةَ الْفَارِهَةَ وَ الثَّوْبَ وَ الْمَتَاعَ بِمَا يُحِبُّ أَوْ يَشْتَهِي فَذَلِكَ لَهُ قَبْلَ الْقِسْمَةِ وَ قَبْلَ إِخْرَاجِ الْخُمُسِ وَ لَهُ أَنْ يَسُدَّ بِذَلِكَ الْمَالِ جَمِيعَ مَا يَنُوبُهُ مِنْ مِثْلِ إِعْطَاءِ الْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَ غَيْرِ

ذَلِكَ مِمَّا يَنُوبُهُ فَإِنْ بَقِيَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ شَيْ‏ءٌ أَخْرَجَ الْخُمُسَ مِنْهُ فَقَسَمَهُ فِي أَهْلِهِ وَ قَسَمَ الْبَاقِيَ عَلَى مَنْ وَلِيَ ذَلِكَ وَ إِنْ لَمْ يَبْقَ بَعْدَ سَدِّ النَّوَائِبِ شَيْ‏ءٌ فَلَا شَيْ‏ءَ لَهُمْ وَ لَيْسَ لِمَنْ قَاتَلَ شَيْ‏ءٌ مِنَ الْأَرَضِينَ وَ لَا مَا غَلَبُوا عَلَيْهِ إِلَّا مَا احْتَوَى عَلَيْهِ الْعَسْكَرُ وَ لَيْسَ لِلْأَعْرَابِ مِنَ الْقِسْمَةِ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَ إِنْ قَاتَلُوا مَعَ الْوَالِي لِأَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص صَالَحَ الْأَعْرَابَ أَنْ يَدَعَهُمْ فِي دِيَارِهِمْ وَ لَا يُهَاجِرُوا عَلَى أَنَّهُ إِنْ دَهِمَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ دَهْمٌ أَنْ يَسْتَنْفِرَهُمْ فَيُقَاتِلَ بِهِمْ وَ لَيْسَ لَهُمْ فِي الْغَنِيمَةِ نَصِيبٌ وَ سُنَّتُهُ جَارِيَةٌ فِيهِمْ وَ فِي غَيْرِهِمْ وَ الْأَرَضُونَ الَّتِي أُخِذَتْ عَنْوَةً بِخَيْلٍ وَ رِجَالٍ فَهِيَ مَوْقُوفَةٌ مَتْرُوكَةٌ فِي يَدِ مَنْ يَعْمُرُهَا وَ يُحْيِيهَا وَ يَقُومُ عَلَيْهَا عَلَى مَا يُصَالِحُهُمُ الْوَالِي عَلَى قَدْرِ طَاقَتِهِمْ مِنَ الْحَقِّ النِّصْفِ أَوِ الثُّلُثِ أَوِ الثُّلُثَيْنِ وَ عَلَى قَدْرِ مَا يَكُونُ لَهُمْ صَلَاحاً وَ لَا يَضُرُّهُمْ فَإِذَا أُخْرِجَ مِنْهَا مَا أُخْرِجَ بَدَأَ فَأَخْرَجَ مِنْهُ الْعُشْرَ مِنَ الْجَمِيعِ مِمَّا سَقَتِ السَّمَاءُ أَوْ سُقِيَ سَيْحاً وَ نِصْفَ الْعُشْرِ مِمَّا سُقِيَ بِالدَّوَالِي وَ النَّوَاضِحِ فَأَخَذَهُ الْوَالِي فَوَجَّهَهُ فِي الْجِهَةِ الَّتِي وَجَّهَهَا اللَّهُ عَلَى ثَمَانِيَةِ أَسْهُمٍ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ وَ الْمَسَاكِينِ وَ الْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَ الْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَ فِي الرِّقَابِ وَ الْغَارِمِينَ وَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَ ابْنِ السَّبِيلِ ثَمَانِيَةَ أَسْهُمٍ يَقْسِمُ بَيْنَهُمْ فِي مَوَاضِعِهِمْ بِقَدْرِ مَا يَسْتَغْنُونَ بِهِ فِي سَنَتِهِمْ بِلَا ضِيقٍ وَ لَا تَقْتِيرٍ فَإِنْ فَضَلَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْ‏ءٌ رُدَّ إِلَى الْوَالِي وَ إِنْ نَقَصَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَ لَمْ يَكْتَفُوا بِهِ كَانَ عَلَى الْوَالِي أَنْ يَمُونَهُمْ مِنْ عِنْدِهِ بِقَدْرِ سَعَتِهِمْ حَتَّى يَسْتَغْنُوا وَ يُؤْخَذُ بَعْدُ مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ الْعُشْرِ فَيُقْسَمُ بَيْنَ الْوَالِي وَ بَيْنَ شُرَكَائِهِ الَّذِينَ هُمْ عُمَّالُ الْأَرْضِ وَ أَكَرَتُهَا فَيُدْفَعُ إِلَيْهِمْ أَنْصِبَاؤُهُمْ عَلَى مَا صَالَحَهُمْ عَلَيْهِ وَ يُؤْخَذُ الْبَاقِي فَيَكُونُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ أَرْزَاقَ أَعْوَانِهِ عَلَى دِينِ اللَّهِ وَ فِي مَصْلَحَةِ مَا يَنُوبُهُ مِنْ تَقْوِيَةِ الْإِسْلَامِ وَ تَقْوِيَةِ الدِّينِ فِي وُجُوهِ الْجِهَادِ وَ غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ مِمَّا فِيهِ مَصْلَحَةُ الْعَامَّةِ لَيْسَ لِنَفْسِهِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ قَلِيلٌ وَ لَا كَثِيرٌ وَ لَهُ بَعْدَ الْخُمُسِ الْأَنْفَالُ وَ الْأَنْفَالُ كُلُّ أَرْضٍ خَرِبَةٍ قَدْ بَادَ أَهْلُهَا وَ كُلُّ أَرْضٍ‏

لَمْ يُوجَفْ عَلَيْهَا بِخَيْلٍ وَ لَا رِكَابٍ وَ لَكِنْ صَالَحُوا صُلْحاً وَ أَعْطَوْا بِأَيْدِيهِمْ عَلَى غَيْرِ قِتَالٍ وَ لَهُ رُءُوسُ الْجِبَالِ وَ بُطُونُ الْأَوْدِيَةِ وَ الْآجَامُ وَ كُلُّ أَرْضٍ مَيْتَةٍ لَا رَبَّ لَهَا وَ لَهُ صَوَافِي الْمُلُوكِ مَا كَانَ فِي أَيْدِيهِمْ مِنْ غَيْرِ وَجْهِ الْغَصْبِ لِأَنَّ الْغَصْبَ كُلَّهُ مَرْدُودٌ وَ هُوَ وَارِثُ مَنْ لَا وَارِثَ لَهُ يَعُولُ مَنْ لَا حِيلَةَ لَهُ وَ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمْ يَتْرُكْ شَيْئاً مِنْ صُنُوفِ الْأَمْوَالِ إِلَّا وَ قَدْ قَسَمَهُ وَ أَعْطَى كُلَّ ذِي حَقٍّ حَقَّهُ الْخَاصَّةَ وَ الْعَامَّةَ وَ الْفُقَرَاءَ وَ الْمَسَاكِينَ وَ كُلَّ صِنْفٍ مِنْ صُنُوفِ النَّاسِ فَقَالَ لَوْ عُدِلَ فِي النَّاسِ لَاسْتَغْنَوْا ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنَّ الْعَدْلَ أَحْلَى مِنَ الْعَسَلِ وَ لَا يَعْدِلُ إِلَّا مَنْ يُحْسِنُ الْعَدْلَ قَالَ وَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص يَقْسِمُ صَدَقَاتِ الْبَوَادِي فِي الْبَوَادِي وَ صَدَقَاتِ أَهْلِ الْحَضَرِ فِي أَهْلِ الْحَضَرِ وَ لَا يَقْسِمُ بَيْنَهُمْ بِالسَّوِيَّةِ عَلَى ثَمَانِيَةٍ حَتَّى يُعْطِيَ أَهْلَ كُلِّ سَهْمٍ ثُمُناً وَ لَكِنْ يَقْسِمُهَا عَلَى قَدْرِ مَنْ يَحْضُرُهُ مِنْ أَصْنَافِ الثَّمَانِيَةِ عَلَى قَدْرِ مَا يُقِيمُ كُلَّ صِنْفٍ مِنْهُمْ يُقَدِّرُ لِسَنَتِهِ لَيْسَ فِي ذَلِكَ شَيْ‏ءٌ مَوْقُوتٌ وَ لَا مُسَمًّى وَ لَا مُؤَلَّفٌ إِنَّمَا يَضَعُ ذَلِكَ عَلَى قَدْرِ مَا يَرَى وَ مَا يَحْضُرُهُ حَتَّى يَسُدَّ فَاقَةَ كُلِّ قَوْمٍ مِنْهُمْ وَ إِنْ فَضَلَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَضْلٌ عَرَضُوا الْمَالَ جُمْلَةً إِلَى غَيْرِهِمْ وَ الْأَنْفَالُ إِلَى الْوَالِي وَ كُلُّ أَرْضٍ فُتِحَتْ فِي أَيَّامِ النَّبِيِّ ص إِلَى آخِرِ الْأَبَدِ وَ مَا كَانَ افْتِتَاحاً بِدَعْوَةِ أَهْلِ الْجَوْرِ وَ أَهْلِ الْعَدْلِ لِأَنَّ ذِمَّةَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ فِي الْأَوَّلِينَ وَ الْآخِرِينَ ذِمَّةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ لِأَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص قَالَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ إِخْوَةٌ تَتَكَافَى دِمَاؤُهُمْ وَ يَسْعَى بِذِمَّتِهِمْ أَدْنَاهُمْ وَ لَيْسَ فِي مَالِ الْخُمُسِ زَكَاةٌ لِأَنَّ فُقَرَاءَ النَّاسِ جُعِلَ أَرْزَاقُهُمْ فِي أَمْوَالِ النَّاسِ عَلَى ثَمَانِيَةِ أَسْهُمٍ فَلَمْ يَبْقَ مِنْهُمْ أَحَدٌ وَ جَعَلَ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ قَرَابَةِ الرَّسُولِ ص نِصْفَ الْخُمُسِ فَأَغْنَاهُمْ بِهِ عَنْ صَدَقَاتِ النَّاسِ وَ صَدَقَاتِ النَّبِيِّ ص وَ وَلِيِّ الْأَمْرِ فَلَمْ يَبْقَ فَقِيرٌ مِنْ فُقَرَاءِ النَّاسِ وَ لَمْ يَبْقَ فَقِيرٌ مِنْ فُقَرَاءِ قَرَابَةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص إِلَّا وَ قَدِ اسْتَغْنَى‏ فَلَا فَقِيرَ وَ لِذَلِكَ لَمْ يَكُنْ عَلَى مَالِ النَّبِيِّ ص وَ الْوَالِي زَكَاةٌ لِأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَبْقَ فَقِيرٌ مُحْتَاجٌ وَ لَكِنْ عَلَيْهِمْ أَشْيَاءُ تَنُوبُهُمْ مِنْ وُجُوهٍ وَ لَهُمْ مِنْ تِلْكَ الْوُجُوهِ كَمَا عَلَيْهِم‏

Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashim has narrated from his father from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from certain persons of our people from the virtuous servant of Allah who has said the following:

“Al-Khums (one-fifth tax) is due on five categories of properties. It is due on (1) spoils of war or general net income, (2) properties acquired from diving deep waters, (3) the treasures found, (4) the mines and (5) salt mines. On each of such categories al-Khums is due. Al-Khums, such one-fifth, is distributed just as Allah-azwj has done. The remaining four portions are distributed among those who have taken part in the actual fighting or those lending support behind the front. The one-fifth is distributed in six portions as follows: One portion for Allah-azwj, one for the Messenger of Allah-saww, one for the relatives (of the Messenger of Allah-saww), one for the orphans, one for the destitute and one portion for those who become needy on a journey.

“Thus, the portion for Allah-azwj and the Messenger of Allah-saww belongs to Leadership with Divine Authority after the Messenger of Allah-saww as the portion of inheritance. He-asws (Leader with Divine Authority) will have three portions. Two portions are inheritance and one is that which Allah-azwj has granted to him. “Fifty percent of (al)-Khums (one-fifth) belongs to him, the Imam (Leader with Divine Authority). The other fifty percent of (al)-Khums belongs to his (the Holy Prophet’s) family members. One portion is for the orphans thereat: one portion for the destitute thereof, one portion for those of them who become needy while on a journey. It is distributed among them according to the rules in the Book and the Sunnah. The limit is an amount that can suffice for their expenses for a whole year. If anything is left extra it will go to the Wali, (Leader with Divine Authority). In the case of deficit the Wali is responsible for providing and paying the deficit to meet their needs.

“Wali is responsible for paying the deficit; the extra is given to him. Allah-azwj has given this one-fifth exclusively to them, not to the destitute from the masses. It is also given to those of them (relatives) who become needy on a journey as a replacement for the charities due on people. It is a sign of distinction from Allah-azwj for them because of their being the relatives of the Messenger of Allah-saww and an honour from Allah-azwj to keep them secure from the filth in the hands of people. Thus, it is for them only as sustenance to save them from humiliation and destitution. They may receive other forms of charities from each other.

“These are those for whom Allah-azwj has assigned al-Khums. They are the relatives of the Holy Prophet-saww; as Allah-azwj has mentioned in His words, ‘Warn your close relatives.’ (26:214) They are the children of ‘Abd al-Muttalib themselves, male and female. No one of the families of Quraysh or the Arabs is of them. Among them or from them also is none of their slaves to have a portion in al-Khums. The charities of the masses of people are lawful for their slaves to consume. Their slaves and the masses of people are the same. One whose mother is from the family of Hashim and his father from the masses of Quraysh, the charities are lawful for such person to consume. Such person is not entitled to receive from al-Khums; Allah-azwj has said, ‘Call them sons of their own fathers.’ (33:5) “The properties of the best quality in the taxable properties are as the portion of the Imam. The female slave, the best horse, the best clothes and other items that are liked and desired for; such items are for him before the distribution and before the subtraction of ‘al-Khums,

“He will pay and maintain with such properties, the causes where he may need to pay such as grants to people who are inclined to the system of belief and so forth. If anything is left extra then al-Khums is taken out there from and is distributed to the causes for which it is. If anything is left extra then it is given to the Wali. If nothing is left after the expenses then there is nothing for the Wali. Nothing from the land is for the fighters. So also are the properties that are acquired by overwhelming the enemy except for what the army has physically captured.

“The Bedouins have no share in the distribution even if they take part in fighting in support of the Wali. It is because the Messenger of Allah-saww reached a settlement with them. It said, ‘They will not be exiled, and that if the Messenger of Allah-saww will be attacked by his enemies they will come to help to fight the enemy but will have no share in the properties of the enemies confiscated.’ This practice has been continuous ever since about them and others.

“The lands that were captured by the forces of the army will remain in the public domain. The developers may keep them and reach a settlement with the Wali who uses his discretion in the matter. They may find a fair and proportionate agreement on the basis of proper protection of all parties rights and interests. The apportionment may take shape in the form of a half, a one-third or two-thirds and so forth.

“The tax on whatever is harvested, after necessary deductions, will be ten percent if the plantation is irrigated by rain. It is five percent if irrigation is by mechanical means such as al-Dawaliy and al-Nawadih. Wali collects this tax and spends on the causes that Allah-azwj has Described which are eight categories: (l) The needy, (2) the destitute, (3) the employees of the taxation office, (4) the people who sympathize with the faith, (5) to set free the slaves, (6) to help the bankrupt, (7) for the cause of Allah-azwj and (8) to help those who become needy on a journey.

“Each cause can receive an amount enough for its expenses and maintenance for up to one year in a reasonable manner. If anything is left extra it is for the Wali. If it is not sufficient the Wali must provide the needed funds from his resources. The ten percent tax is divided between the Wali and his partners such as workers and supervisors of the land. They will receive their shares according to the standing agreements. The remaining will be spent on those who help him in the matters of religion of Allah-azwj and in the interest of Islam and the strengthening of the religion such as defence and so forth, in which there is general but not personal interest. It is not for his personal interests small or large.

“Besides al-Khums for Imam there is ‘al-Anfal ‘. Al-Anfal is every kind of abandoned land whose owners are no more and all the lands that are acquired without the use of force and fighting but are achieved through settlement or the owners may have given them to the Imam without fight. “To the Imam belongs the mountain, inside of the valleys, marshes and undeveloped lands that have no owners. To the Imam belong the properties of the kings defeated if such properties are not usurped. The usurped properties are all returned to the owner. The Imam is the heir of those who have no heirs. He supports those who have no supporters financially. “The Imam has said, ‘There is no category of the properties that Allah-azwj may not have distributed and has given every rightful person his or her rights of the general or particular nature of the needy and the destitute and all categories of people.’

“Also the Imam has said, ‘If justice is practiced among the people they will become free from want.’ The Imam then said, ‘Justice is more sweet than honey. No one practices it properly except those who are good in justice.’ “The Imam then said, ‘The Messenger of Allah-saww would distribute the charities of the rural areas in the rural areas and the charities of the towns to the people of the towns. He would not divide every amount of charity received into eight portions. He would divide it proportionate to the categories of the causes present before him and to the degree for each cause that would suffice it for one year. There was no limit of time or a certain date or the combination of both. He based it on what was available and who was present and how much of the need of each category could have been fulfilled. He offered the remaining to other people. “Al-Anfal belongs to the Wali and so are all the lands that were captured during the time of the Holy Prophet-asws to eternity. It does not matter whether the conquest was made through the people of justice or otherwise. The responsibility of the Messenger of Allah-saww is one and the same in the past, present or future generations. It is because the Messenger of Allah-saww said: ‘Muslims, as brothers, are equal in the matters of lives. Even the small ones among them strive for the fulfilment of their responsibilities. ‘

“There is no zakat on al-Khums property. It is because the shares of the needy from the masses are placed in the properties of the people in eight categories. No one of the needy in the masses is left out. The needy from the relatives of the Messenger of Allah-saww have their share in the fifty percent of al-Khums. This suffices them and they do not need the charities of the masses, the charities of the Holy Prophet-saww and the charities of Wali (Leadership with Divine Authority). In this way the system leaves no one as a needy person of the masses or of the relatives of the Messenger of Allah-saww without proper coverage and welfare benefits, so all the needy benefit. For this reason there is no zakat on the properties of the Holy Prophet-asws or Wali-asws. It is due to the fact that for all kinds of needs there are resources in the system to facilitate them. There are responsibilities as well as rights on the parts of the Holy Prophet-saww and the Wali-asws.’

بِالْإِسْنَادِ الْأَوَّلِ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ يَعْقُوبَ السَّرَّاجِ عَنْ جَابِرٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ سُئِلَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع عَنِ الْإِيمَانِ فَقَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ جَعَلَ الْإِيمَانَ عَلَى أَرْبَعِ دَعَائِمَ عَلَى الصَّبْرِ وَ الْيَقِينِ وَ الْعَدْلِ وَ الْجِهَادِ فَالصَّبْرُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ عَلَى أَرْبَعِ شُعَبٍ عَلَى الشَّوْقِ وَ الْإِشْفَاقِ وَ الزُّهْدِ وَ التَّرَقُّبِ فَمَنِ اشْتَاقَ إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ سَلَا عَنِ الشَّهَوَاتِ وَ مَنْ أَشْفَقَ مِنَ النَّارِ رَجَعَ عَنِ الْمُحَرَّمَاتِ وَ مَنْ زَهِدَ فِي الدُّنْيَا هَانَتْ عَلَيْهِ الْمُصِيبَاتُ وَ مَنْ رَاقَبَ الْمَوْتَ سَارَعَ إِلَى الْخَيْرَاتِ وَ الْيَقِينُ عَلَى أَرْبَعِ شُعَب تَبْصِرَةِ الْفِطْنَةِ وَ تَأَوُّلِ الْحِكْمَةِ وَ مَعْرِفَةِ الْعِبْرَةِ وَ سُنَّةِ الْأَوَّلِينَ فَمَنْ أَبْصَرَ الْفِطْنَةَ عَرَفَ الْحِكْمَةَ وَ مَنْ تَأَوَّلَ الْحِكْمَةَ عَرَفَ الْعِبْرَةَ وَ مَنْ عَرَفَ الْعِبْرَةَ عَرَفَ السُّنَّةَ وَ مَنْ عَرَفَ السُّنَّةَ فَكَأَنَّمَا كَانَ مَعَ الْأَوَّلِينَ وَ اهْتَدَى إِلَى الَّتِي هِيَ أَقْوَمُ وَ نَظَرَ إِلَى مَنْ نَجَا بِمَا نَجَا وَ مَنْ هَلَكَ بِمَا هَلَكَ وَ إِنَّمَا أَهْلَكَ اللَّهُ مَنْ أَهْلَكَ بِمَعْصِيَتِهِ وَ أَنْجَى مَنْ أَنْجَى بِطَاعَتِهِ وَ الْعَدْلُ عَلَى أَرْبَعِ شُعَبٍ غَامِضِ الْفَهْمِ وَ غَمْرِ الْعِلْمِ وَ زَهْرَةِ الْحُكْمِ وَ رَوْضَةِ الْحِلْمِ فَمَنْ فَهِمَ فَسَّرَ جَمِيعَ الْعِلْمِ وَ مَنْ عَلِمَ عَرَفَ شَرَائِعَ الْحُكْمِ وَ مَنْ حَلُمَ لَمْ يُفَرِّطْ فِي أَمْرِهِ وَ عَاشَ فِي النَّاسِ حَمِيداً وَ الْجِهَادُ عَلَى أَرْبَعِ شُعَبٍ عَلَى الْأَمْرِ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَ النَّهْيِ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَ الصِّدْقِ فِي الْمَوَاطِنِ وَ شَنَآنِ الْفَاسِقِينَ فَمَنْ أَمَرَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ شَدَّ ظَهْرَ الْمُؤْمِنِ وَ مَنْ نَهَى عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ أَرْغَمَ أَنْفَ الْمُنَافِقِ وَ أَمِنَ كَيْدَهُ وَ مَنْ صَدَقَ فِي الْمَوَاطِنِ قَضَى الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ وَ مَنْ شَنِئَ الْفَاسِقِينَ غَضِبَ لِلَّهِ وَ مَنْ غَضِبَ لِلَّهِ غَضِبَ اللَّهُ لَهُ فَذَلِكَ الْإِيمَانُ وَ دَعَائِمُهُ وَ شُعَبُهُ

Through the same chain of narrators as the above Hadith it is narrated from ibn Mahbub from Yaqub al-Sarraj from Jabir from abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salarn, who has said the following:

“Amir-ul-Momineen-asws was asked about Eman (belief) and he said, ‘Allah-azwj made belief upon four pillars: ‘Al-Sabr’; Al-Yaqeen; Al-Adel and Al-Jihad’ ‘Patience, Certainty, Justice and Jihad. ‘The Patience therein has four branches: striving for good, fear, restraint and vigilance. One who has a longing for paradise forgets the worldly desires. One who has fear of hell abstains from unlawful things. One who exercises restraint in worldly matters the worldly hardships become easier for him, and one who is vigilant of death hastens to good deeds.

‘The Certainty therein is also of four branches. They consist of sharp understanding, proper application of wisdom, recognising good lessons and knowledge of the traditions of the people of the past. One who possesses sharp understanding recognises the matters of wisdom. One who applies wisdom properly recognises the good lessons, and one who recognises the good lessons recognises the traditions, and one who recognises traditions is like the one who has lived with the people of the past and has found proper and firm guidance. He has seen who found salvation and through which means as the previous ones had found. He has also seen those who were destroyed and things that destroyed them. Allah-azwj Destroys only those who disobey Him-azwj and Grants salvation for the ones who seek obedience to His-azwj commands.

‘The Justice therein is also of four branches. It is a matter of deep understanding, a huge body of knowledge, the bloom of wisdom and the garden of forbearance. One who has deep understanding has the ability to interpret all knowledge. One who has a huge body of knowledge knows the ways of wisdom, and one who is forbearing is not an extremist in his decrees and lives among the people with a good name.

‘The Jihad therein, is also of four branches. They consist of helping others to perform their duties and to stay away from that, which is prohibited, to speak the truth whenever needed and to shun sins and sinners. One who helps others to perform their duties has supported the believer. One who helps stop others from sinning has humiliated the hypocrites and has thwarted their wicked plans. One who speaks the truth at the right time, his is the winning side. One who shuns the sinners has used anger for Allah-azwj. One who becomes angry for Allah-azwj, Allah-azwj becomes angry for him. Such is Eman, its foundations and branches.’[125]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ يَحْيَى فِيمَا أَعْلَمُ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ مُدْرِكٍ الطَّائِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص لِأَصْحَابِهِ أَيُّ عُرَى الْإِيمَانِ أَوْثَقُ فَقَالُوا اللَّهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ أَعْلَمُ وَ قَالَ بَعْضُهُمُ الصَّلَاةُ وَ قَالَ بَعْضُهُمُ الزَّكَاةُ وَ قَالَ بَعْضُهُمُ الصِّيَامُ وَ قَالَ بَعْضُهُمُ الْحَجُ‏

وَ الْعُمْرَةُ وَ قَالَ بَعْضُهُمُ الْجِهَادُ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص لِكُلِّ مَا قُلْتُمْ فَضْلٌ وَ لَيْسَ بِهِ وَ لَكِنْ أَوْثَقُ عُرَى الْإِيمَانِ الْحُبُّ فِي اللَّهِ وَ الْبُغْضُ فِي اللَّهِ وَ تَوَالِي أَوْلِيَاءِ اللَّهِ وَ التَّبَرِّي مِنْ أَعْدَاءِ اللَّهِ

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah from Muhammad ibn “lsa from abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Yahya, who from ‘Amr ibn Mudrik al-Ta’i from abu ‘Abd Allah-asws who has said the following:

“The Messenger of Allah-saww once asked his companions, ‘Which essence of belief is stronger to hold on to?’ They said, ‘Allah-azwj and His Messenger-saww know best.’ Certain individuals among them said, ‘It is prayer,’ others said, ‘It is al-Zakaat (charity)” a few of them said, ‘It is fasting’, others said, ‘It is Hajj and ‘Umrah’ and still others said, ‘It is the Jihad.’

‘The Messenger of Allah-saww then said: ‘For everything, you said there is a merit but is not such an essence. In fact, the strongest essence of belief is to hold on to is love for the sake of Allah-azwj, hate for the sake of Allah-azwj, support and love those who have received authority-asws from Allah-azwj and to disassociate from the enemies of Allah-azwj.’[126]

Prayers of Amir-ul-Momineen-asws:

Iتَقُولُ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَلِيَّ اللَّهِ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا حُجَّةَ اللَّهِ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا خَلِيفَةَ اللَّهِ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا عَمُودَ الدِّينِ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ النَّبِيِّينَ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا قَسِيمَ الْجَنَّةِ وَ النَّارِ وَ صَاحِبَ الْعَصَا وَ الْمِيسَمِ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّكَ كَلِمَةُ التَّقْوَى وَ بَابُ الْهُدَى وَ الْعُرْوَةُ الْوُثْقَى وَ الْحَبْلُ الْمَتِينُ وَ الصِّرَاطُ الْمُسْتَقِيمُ وَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّكَ حُجَّةُ اللَّهِ عَلَى خَلْقِهِ وَ شَاهِدُهُ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ وَ أَمِينُهُ عَلَى عِلْمِهِ وَ خَازِنُ سِرِّهِ وَ مَوْضِعُ حِكْمَتِهِ وَ أَخُو رَسُولِهِ ع وَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ دَعْوَتَكَ حَقٌّ وَ كُلَّ دَاعٍ مَنْصُوبٍ دُونَكَ بَاطِلٌ مَدْحُوضٌ أَنْتَ أَوَّلُ مَظْلُومٍ وَ أَوَّلُ مَغْصُوبٍ حَقُّهُ فَصَبَرْتَ وَ احْتَسَبْتَ لَعَنَ اللَّهُ مَنْ ظَلَمَكَ وَ اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكَ وَ صَدَّ عَنْكَ لَعْناً كَثِيراً يَلْعَنُهُمْ بِهِ كُلُّ مَلَكٍ مُقَرَّبٍ وَ كُلُّ نَبِيٍّ مُرْسَلٍ وَ كُلُّ عَبْدٍ مُؤْمِنٍ مُمْتَحَنٍ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَى رُوحِكَ وَ بَدَنِكَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّكَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ وَ أَمِينُهُ بَلَّغْتَ نَاصِحاً وَ أَدَّيْتَ أَمِيناً وَ قُتِلْتَ صِدِّيقاً وَ مَضَيْتَ عَلَى يَقِينٍ لَمْ تُؤْثِرْ عَمًى عَلَى هُدًى وَ لَمْ تَمِلْ مِنْ حَقٍّ إِلَى بَاطِلٍ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّكَ قَدْ أَقَمْتَ الصَّلَاةَ وَ آتَيْتَ الزَّكَاةَ وَ أَمَرْتَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَ نَهَيْتَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَ اتَّبَعْتَ الرَّسُولَ وَ نَصَحْتَ لِلْأُمَّةِ وَ تَلَوْتَ الْكِتَابَ حَقَّ تِلَاوَتِهِ وَ جَاهَدْتَ فِي اللَّهِ حَقَّ جِهَادِهِ وَ دَعَوْتَ إِلَى سَبِيلِهِ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَ الْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ حَتَّى أَتَاكَ الْيَقِينُ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّكَ كُنْتَ عَلَى بَيِّنَةٍ مِنْ رَبِّكَ وَ دَعَوْتَ إِلَيْهِ عَلَى بَصِيرَةٍ وَ بَلَّغْتَ مَا أُمِرْتَ بِهِ وَ قُمْتَ بِحَقِّ اللَّهِ غَيْرَ وَاهِنٍ وَ لَا مُوهِنٍ فَصَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ صَلَاةً مُتَّبَعَةً مُتَوَاصِلَةً مُتَرَادِفَةً يَتْبَعُ بَعْضُهَا بَعْضاً لَا انْقِطَاعَ لَهَا وَ لَا أَمَدَ وَ لَا أَجَلَ وَ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ وَ رَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَ بَرَكَاتُهُ وَ جَزَاكَ اللَّهُ مِنْ صِدِّيقٍ خَيْراً عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ الْجِهَادَ مَعَكَ جِهَادٌ وَ أَنَّ الْحَقَّ مَعَكَ وَ إِلَيْكَ وَ أَنْتَ أَهْلُهُ وَ مَعْدِنُهُ وَ مِيرَاثَ النُّبُوَّةِ عِنْدَكَ فَصَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ وَ سَلَّمَ تَسْلِيماً وَ عَذَّبَ اللَّهُ قَاتِلَكَ بِأَنْوَاعِ الْعَذَابِ أَتَيْتُكَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَارِفاً بِحَقِّكَ مُسْتَبْصِراً بِشَأْنِكَ مُعَادِياً لِأَعْدَائِكَ مُوَالِياً لِأَوْلِيَائِكَ بِأَبِي أَنْتَ وَ أُمِّي أَتَيْتُكَ عَائِذاً بِكَ مِنْ نَارٍ اسْتَحَقَّهَا مِثْلِي بِمَا جَنَيْتُ عَلَى نَفْسِي أَتَيْتُكَ زَائِراً أَبْتَغِي بِزِيَارَتِكَ فَكَاكَ رَقَبَتِي مِنَ النَّارِ أَتَيْتُكَ هَارِباً مِنْ ذُنُوبِيَ الَّتِي احْتَطَبْتُهَا عَلَى ظَهْرِي أَتَيْتُكَ وَافِداً لِعَظِيمِ حَالِكَ وَ مَنْزِلَتِكَ عِنْدَ رَبِّي فَاشْفَعْ لِي عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ فَإِنَّ لِي ذُنُوباً كَثِيرَةً وَ إِنَّ لَكَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ مَقَاماً مَعْلُوماً وَ جَاهاً عَظِيماً وَ شَأْناً كَبِيراً وَ شَفَاعَةً مَقْبُولَةً وَ قَدْ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ لا يَشْفَعُونَ إِلَّا لِمَنِ ارْتَضى‏ اللَّهُمَّ رَبَّ الْأَرْبَابِ صَرِيخَ الْأَحْبَابِ إِنِّي عُذْتُ بِأَخِي رَسُولِكَ مَعَاذاً فَفُكَّ رَقَبَتِي مِنَ النَّارِ آمَنْتُ بِاللَّهِ وَ مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ وَ أَتَوَلَّى آخِرَكُمْ بِمَا تَوَلَّيْتُ بِهِ أَوَّلَكُمْ وَ كَفَرْتُ بِالْجِبْتِ وَ الطَّاغُوتِ وَ اللَّاتِ وَ الْعُزَّى

A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Muhammad ibn ‘Uramah from those who have said the following:

“Al-Sadiq abu al-Hassan-asws the 3rd has said that one should say this near the gravesite of ‘Amir-ul-Momineen-asws. ‘I hereby declare, affirm and acknowledge that you are a ‘Alayhi al-Salarn and my submission to your commandments O the one-asws who possesses Authority from Allah-azwj. You are the first oppressed and the first one whose rights were usurped. You exercised patience nobly until the time of your departure. I testify that you went before Allah-azwj as a martyr. May Allah-azwj punish your assassin by all kinds of punishments and renew his punishments. I, with understanding of your rights and position, have come to visit you-asws. I am aware of your-asws prominent status and I am an enemy of your-asws enemies and those who did injustice to you-asws. I will go before my Lord-azwj with this belief, if Allah-azwj so wills. O possessor of authority from Allah-azwj, I have committed a great deal of sins. So intercede on my behalf before your Lord-azwj. You-asws have a praiseworthy position, before Allah-azwj, which is well known. You-asws possess high honour before Allah-azwj as well as approved intercession. Allah-azwj has said: ‘No one will be able to intercede before Him except those whom He accepts.’ (21 :28)” Muhammad ibn Ja’far al-Raziy has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa ibn ‘Ubayd from certain individuals of our people from abu al-Hassan, a similar Hadith.

Another Prayer to be Made Near the Gravesite of ‘Amir-ul-Momineen-asws: “You should say the following near the gravesite of Amir-ul-Momineen-asws. “I hereby declare, affirm and acknowledge that you are a ‘Alayhi al-Salarn and my) submission to your commandments O the friend of Allah-azwj. I hereby declare, affirm and acknowledge that you-asws are a ‘Alayhi al-Salam and my submission to your commandments. O Authority of Allah-azwj. I hereby declare, affirm and acknowledge that you are a ‘Alayhi al-Salam and my submission to your commandments.  O deputy of Allah-azwj. (I hereby declare, affirm and acknowledge that you are a ‘Alayhi al-Salam and my submission to (your commandments) O the pillar of religion. (I hereby declare, affirm and acknowledge that you are a ‘Alayhi al-Salam and my) submission to (your commandments) O heir of the prophets-as. (I hereby declare, affirm and acknowledge that you are a ‘Alayhi al-Salam and my) submission to (your commandments) O the person in-charge of paradise and hellfire, the person in charge of the ‘Isa ‘ and Misam (Staff and Marking item). (I hereby declare, affirm and acknowledge that you are a ‘Alayhi al-Salam and my) submission to (your commandments) O Amir-ul-Momineen-asws.

I testify that you-asws are the word of piety, the gateway of guidance, the unbreakable ring, the strong rope and the straight path. I testify that you-asws are the authority of Allah-azwj over His-azwj creatures, His-azwj witness over His-azwj servants, His-azwj trustee of the treasure of His-azwj knowledge, the reservoir of His-azwj secret, and the place of His-azwj wisdom and brother of His messenger-saww.

I testify that your-asws call and preaching is the truth; and all callers and preachers appointed before you are false and invalid. You-asws are the oppressed, the first one-asws whose rights were usurped, but you-asws exercised patience to be rewarded in the hereafter. May Allah-azwj condemn those who did injustice to you-asws, transgressed against you-asws and installed obstacles in your-asws way. May Allah-azwj condemn them with the strongest condemnation along with condemnation by the angels of prominent positions before Allah-azwj, by the messenger-prophets and all believing people whose faith has passed (Allah-azwj‘s) Test.

I appeal before Allah-azwj to grant salawat (favours and kindness to you-asws worthy of Your services to His cause), O Amir-ul-Momineen-asws. I appeal before Allah-azwj to shower salawat (favours and kindness) upon your-asws spirit and body. I testify that you are the servant and trustee of Allah-azwj. You-asws have preached good advice and kept your-asws trust properly; you-asws died as a truthful person and passed away with pure certainty. You-asws did not give preference to blindness over guidance and you-asws never inclined toward falsehood against the truth. I testify that you performed Salat, paid Zakat, asked people to obey Allah-azwj‘s commands and to stay away from what Allah-azwj has prohibited.

You followed the Messenger of Allah-saww, provided guidance to his followers, recited the book in a true manner of recitation, and strove hard in true manners for the cause of Allah-azwj. You invited people to the path of Allah-azwj with wisdom and good advice until the time of your-asws death. I testify that you-asws lived with the strongest proof and good reason about your Lord and invited people to Him-azwj with full awareness. You-asws preached what you-asws were commanded to preach and stood firm for the rights of Allah-azwj without acting weakly or showing any weakness. I appeal before Allah-azwj to Grant salawat (favours and compensation to you worthy of Your services to His-azwj cause), with such Salat, thereafter, along with it and on its sides one after the other, without any break in between, a timeless and endless one, (l hereby declare, affirm and acknowledge that you are a ‘Alayhi al-Salam and my) submission to (your commandments) and may Allah-azwj Grant you-asws blessings and kindness. May Allah-azwj reward you-asws, as the truthful ‘one-asws’ and because of your services to His-azwj followers.

I testify that Jihad in your-asws support is the true form of Jihad and that truth is on your side and in your favour. You are the man of Jihad and its source and that the legacy of prophet-hood is with you. May Allah-azwj Grant you-asws salawat (favours and compensation to you ‘Worthy of your services to Allah-azwj‘s cause) and may Allah-azwj Grant you-asws safety and blessing. May Allah-azwj Punish your assassin with all kinds of punishment. O Amir-ul-Momineen-asws! I have come with my knowledge of your-asws rights and my awareness about your-asws prominent status. I am an enemy of your enemies and a friend of your friends. I pray to Allah-azwj to keep my soul and the soul of my parents in service for your-asws cause. I have come to seek refuge with you-asws against the fire, which is prepared for people like myself because of what I have committed against my soul. I have come to you-asws as a visitor seeking thereby freedom for my neck from the hellfire. I have come to you-asws fleeing from my sins, which I have loaded on my back. I have come to you-asws because of your-asws great status and position before my Lord-azwj. So intercede on my behalf before your Lord; I have committed great many sins. You-asws have a well-known position before Allah-azwj and a great status, and an accepted intercession. Allah-azwj has said, ‘They do not intercede except for the chosen ones.’ O Allah-azwj, (You-azwj are) the Lord-azwj of lords, the One-azwj who Responds to those whom He-azwj loves. I have sought protection with the brother of Your Messenger-saww. Set my neck free from the hellfire. I believe in Allah-azwj and in whatever He-azwj has revealed to you-saww (family of the Messenger of Allah-asws). I accept as my guardian with love the first one-asws among you-asws and the last one-asws of you just as I do so with first one-asws of you-asws. [reject al-Jibt and al-Taghut, al-Lat and al-‘Uzza’.’[127]

Reference to Jihad in the Last Will of Amir-ul-Momaneen-asws

أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الْأَشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ وَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ قَالَ بَعَثَ إِلَيَّ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ مُوسَى ع بِوَصِيَّةِ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع وَ هِيَ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ هَذَا مَا أَوْصَى بِهِ وَ قَضَى بِهِ فِي مَالِهِ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ عَلِيٌّ ابْتِغَاءَ وَجْهِ اللَّهِ لِيُولِجَنِي بِهِ الْجَنَّةَ وَ يَصْرِفَنِي بِهِ عَنِ النَّارِ وَ يَصْرِفَ النَّارَ عَنِّي يَوْمَ تَبْيَضُّ وُجُوهٌ وَ تَسْوَدُّ وُجُوهٌ أَنَّ مَا كَانَ لِي مِنْ مَالٍ بِيَنْبُعَ يُعْرَفُ لِي فِيهَا وَ مَا حَوْلَهَا صَدَقَةٌ وَ رَقِيقَهَا غَيْرَ أَنَّ رَبَاحاً وَ أَبَا نَيْزَرَ وَ جُبَيْراً عُتَقَاءُ لَيْسَ لِأَحَدٍ عَلَيْهِمْ سَبِيلٌ فَهُمْ مَوَالِيَّ يَعْمَلُونَ فِي الْمَالِ خَمْسَ حِجَجٍ وَ فِيهِ نَفَقَتُهُمْ وَ رِزْقُهُمْ وَ أَرْزَاقُ أَهَالِيهِمْ وَ مَعَ ذَلِكَ مَا كَانَ لِي بِوَادِي الْقُرَى كُلُّهُ مِنْ مَالٍ لِبَنِي فَاطِمَةَ وَ رَقِيقُهَا صَدَقَةٌ وَ مَا كَانَ لِي بِدَيْمَةَ وَ أَهْلُهَا صَدَقَةٌ غَيْرَ أَنَّ زُرَيْقاً لَهُ مِثْلُ مَا كَتَبْتُ لِأَصْحَابِهِ وَ مَا كَانَ لِي بِأُذَيْنَةَ وَ أَهْلُهَا صَدَقَةٌ وَ الْفُقَيْرَيْنِ كَمَا قَدْ عَلِمْتُمْ صَدَقَةٌ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَ إِنَّ الَّذِي كَتَبْتُ مِنْ أَمْوَالِي هَذِهِ صَدَقَةٌ وَاجِبَةٌ بَتْلَةٌ حَيّاً أَنَا أَوْ مَيِّتاً يُنْفَقُ فِي كُلِّ نَفَقَةٍ يُبْتَغَى بِهَا وَجْهُ اللَّهِ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَ وَجْهِهِ وَ ذَوِي الرَّحِمِ مِنْ بَنِي هَاشِمٍ وَ بَنِي الْمُطَّلِبِ وَ الْقَرِيبِ وَ الْبَعِيدِ فَإِنَّهُ يَقُومُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ يَأْكُلُ مِنْهُ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَ يُنْفِقُهُ حَيْثُ يَرَاهُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فِي حِلٍّ مُحَلَّلٍ لَا حَرَجَ عَلَيْهِ فِيهِ فَإِنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَبِيعَ نَصِيباً مِنَ الْمَالِ فَيَقْضِيَ بِهِ الدَّيْنَ فَلْيَفْعَلْ إِنْ شَاءَ وَ لَا حَرَجَ عَلَيْهِ فِيهِ وَ إِنْ شَاءَ جَعَلَهُ سَرِيَّ الْمِلْكِ وَ إِنَّ وُلْدَ عَلِيٍّ وَ مَوَالِيَهُمْ وَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ إِلَى الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ وَ إِنْ كَانَتْ دَارُ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ غَيْرَ دَارِ الصَّدَقَةِ فَبَدَا لَهُ أَنْ يَبِيعَهَا فَلْيَبِعْ إِنْ شَاءَ لَا حَرَجَ عَلَيْهِ فِيهِ وَ إِن ْ‏ بَاعَ فَإِنَّهُ يَقْسِمُ ثَمَنَهَا ثَلَاثَةَ أَثْلَاثٍ فَيَجْعَلُ ثُلُثاً فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَ ثُلُثاً فِي بَنِي هَاشِمٍ وَ بَنِي الْمُطَّلِبِ وَ يَجْعَلُ الثُّلُثَ فِي آلِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ وَ إِنَّهُ يَضَعُهُ فِيهِمْ حَيْثُ يَرَاهُ اللَّهُ وَ إِنْ حَدَثَ بِحَسَنٍ حَدَثٌ وَ حُسَيْنٌ حَيٌّ فَإِنَّهُ إِلَى الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ وَ إِنَّ حُسَيْناً يَفْعَلُ فِيهِ مِثْلَ الَّذِي أَمَرْتُ بِهِ حَسَناً لَهُ مِثْلُ الَّذِي كَتَبْتُ لِلْحَسَنِ وَ عَلَيْهِ مِثْلُ الَّذِي عَلَى الْحَسَنِ وَ إِنَّ لِبَنِي [ابْنَيْ‏] فَاطِمَةَ مِنْ صَدَقَةِ عَلِيٍّ مِثْلَ الَّذِي لِبَنِي عَلِيٍّ وَ إِنِّي إِنَّمَا جَعَلْتُ الَّذِي جَعَلْتُ لِابْنَيْ فَاطِمَةَ ابْتِغَاءَ وَجْهِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ تَكْرِيمَ حُرْمَةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص وَ تَعْظِيمَهُمَا وَ تَشْرِيفَهُمَا وَ رِضَاهُمَا وَ إِنْ حَدَثَ بِحَسَنٍ وَ حُسَيْنٍ حَدَثٌ فَإِنَّ الْآخِرَ مِنْهُمَا يَنْظُرُ فِي بَنِي عَلِيٍّ فَإِنْ وَجَدَ فِيهِمْ مَنْ يَرْضَى بِهُدَاهُ وَ إِسْلَامِهِ وَ أَمَانَتِهِ فَإِنَّهُ يَجْعَلُهُ إِلَيْهِ إِنْ شَاءَ وَ إِنْ لَمْ يَرَ فِيهِمْ بَعْضَ الَّذِي يُرِيدُهُ فَإِنَّهُ يَجْعَلُهُ إِلَى رَجُلٍ مِنْ آلِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ يَرْضَى بِهِ فَإِنْ وَجَدَ آلَ أَبِي طَالِبٍ قَدْ ذَهَبَ كُبَرَاؤُهُمْ وَ ذَوُو آرَائِهِمْ فَإِنَّهُ يَجْعَلُهُ إِلَى رَجُلٍ يَرْضَاهُ مِنْ بَنِي هَاشِمٍ وَ إِنَّهُ يَشْتَرِطُ عَلَى الَّذِي يَجْعَلُهُ إِلَيْهِ أَنْ يَتْرُكَ الْمَالَ عَلَى أُصُولِهِ وَ يُنْفِقَ ثَمَرَهُ حَيْثُ أَمَرْتُهُ بِهِ مِنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَ وَجْهِهِ وَ ذَوِي الرَّحِمِ مِنْ بَنِي هَاشِمٍ وَ بَنِي الْمُطَّلِبِ وَ الْقَرِيبِ وَ الْبَعِيدِ لَا يُبَاعُ مِنْهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَ لَا يُوهَبُ وَ لَا يُورَثُ وَ إِنَّ مَالَ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَلَى نَاحِيَتِهِ وَ هُوَ إِلَى ابْنَيْ فَاطِمَةَ وَ إِنَّ رَقِيقِيَ الَّذِينَ فِي صَحِيفَةٍ صَغِيرَةٍ الَّتِي كُتِبَتْ لِي عُتَقَاءُ هَذَا مَا قَضَى بِهِ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ فِي أَمْوَالِهِ هَذِهِ الْغَدَ مِنْ يَوْمَ قَدِمَ مَسْكِنَ ابْتِغَاءَ وَجْهِ اللَّهِ وَ الدَّارِ الْآخِرَةِ وَ اللَّهُ الْمُسْتَعَانُ عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ وَ لَا يَحِلُّ لِامْرِئٍ مُسْلِمٍ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَ الْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ أَنْ يَقُولَ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ قَضَيْتُهُ مِنْ مَالِي وَ لَا يُخَالِفَ فِيهِ أَمْرِي مِنْ قَرِيبٍ أَوْ بَعِيدٍ أَمَّا بَعْدُ فَإِنَّ وَلَائِدِيَ اللَّائِي أَطُوفُ عَلَيْهِنَّ السَّبْعَةَ عَشَرَ مِنْهُنَّ أُمَّهَاتُ أَوْلَادٍ مَعَهُنَّ أَوْلَادُهُنَّ وَ مِنْهُنَّ حَبَالَى وَ مِنْهُنَّ مَنْ لَا وَلَدَ لَهُ فَقَضَايَ فِيهِنَّ إِنْ حَدَثَ بِي حَدَثٌ أَنَّهُ مَنْ كَانَ مِنْهُنَّ لَيْسَ لَهَا وَلَدٌ وَ لَيْسَتْ بِحُبْلَى فَهِيَ عَتِيقٌ لِوَجْهِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لَيْسَ لِأَحَدٍ عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلٌ وَ مَنْ كَانَ مِنْهُنَّ لَهَا وَلَدٌ أَوْ حُبْلَى فَتُمْسَكُ عَلَى وَلَدِهَا وَ هِيَ مِنْ حَظِّهِ فَإِنْ مَاتَ وَلَدُهَا

وَ هِيَ حَيَّةٌ فَهِيَ عَتِيقٌ لَيْسَ لِأَحَدٍ عَلَيْهَا سَبِيلٌ هَذَا مَا قَضَى بِهِ عَلِيٌّ فِي مَالِهِ الْغَدَ مِنْ يَوْمَ قَدِمَ مَسْكِنَ شَهِدَ أَبُو شِمْرِ بْنُ أَبْرَهَةَ وَ صَعْصَعَةُ بْنُ صُوحَانَ وَ يَزِيدُ بْنُ قَيْسٍ وَ هَيَّاجُ بْنُ أَبِي هَيَّاجٍ وَ كَتَبَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ بِيَدِهِ لِعَشْرٍ خَلَوْنَ مِنْ جُمَادَى الْأُولَى سَنَةَ سَبْعٍ وَ ثَلَاثِينَ وَ كَانَتِ الْوَصِيَّةُ الْأُخْرَى مَعَ الْأُولَى بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ هَذَا مَا أَوْصَى بِهِ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ أَوْصَى أَنَّهُ يَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ أَرْسَلَهُ بِالْهُدَى وَ دِينِ الْحَقِّ لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ وَ لَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ ثُمَّ إِنَّ صَلَاتِي وَ نُسُكِي وَ مَحْيَايَ وَ مَمَاتِي لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَ بِذَلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَ أَنَا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ ثُمَّ إِنِّي أُوصِيكَ يَا حَسَنُ وَ جَمِيعَ أَهْلِ بَيْتِي وَ وُلْدِي وَ مَنْ بَلَغَهُ كِتَابِي بِتَقْوَى اللَّهِ رَبِّكُمْ وَ لَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَ أَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ وَ اعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّهِ جَمِيعاً وَ لَا تَفَرَّقُوا فَإِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص يَقُولُ صَلَاحُ ذَاتِ الْبَيْنِ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ عَامَّةِ الصَّلَاةِ وَ الصِّيَامِ وَ أَنَّ الْمُبِيرَةَ الْحَالِقَةَ لِلدِّينِ فَسَادُ ذَاتِ الْبَيْنِ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْعَظِيمِ انْظُرُوا ذَوِي أَرْحَامِكُمْ فَصِلُوهُمْ يُهَوِّنِ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمُ الْحِسَابَ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ فِي الْأَيْتَامِ فَلَا تُغِبُّوا أَفْوَاهَهُمْ وَ لَا يَضِيعُوا بِحَضْرَتِكُمْ فَقَدْ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص يَقُولُ مَنْ عَالَ يَتِيماً حَتَّى يَسْتَغْنِيَ أَوْجَبَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لَهُ بِذَلِكَ الْجَنَّةَ كَمَا أَوْجَبَ لآِكِلِ مَالِ الْيَتِيمِ النَّارَ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ فَلَا يَسْبِقُكُمْ إِلَى الْعَمَلِ بِهِ أَحَدٌ غَيْرُكُمْ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ فِي جِيرَانِكُمْ فَإِنَّ النَّبِيَّ ص أَوْصَى بِهِمْ وَ مَا زَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص يُوصِي بِهِمْ حَتَّى ظَنَنَّا أَنَّهُ سَيُوَرِّثُهُمْ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ فِي بَيْتِ رَبِّكُمْ فَلَا يَخْلُو مِنْكُمْ مَا بَقِيتُمْ فَإِنَّهُ إِنْ تُرِكَ لَمْ تُنَاظَرُوا وَ أَدْنَى مَا

يَرْجِعُ بِهِ مَنْ أَمَّهُ أَنْ يُغْفَرَ لَهُ مَا سَلَفَ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ فِي الصَّلَاةِ فَإِنَّهَا خَيْرُ الْعَمَلِ إِنَّهَا عَمُودُ دِينِكُمْ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ فِي الزَّكَاةِ فَإِنَّهَا تُطْفِئُ غَضَبَ رَبِّكُمْ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ فَإِنَّ صِيَامَهُ جُنَّةٌ مِنَ النَّارِ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ فِي الْفُقَرَاءِ وَ الْمَسَاكِينِ فَشَارِكُوهُمْ فِي مَعَايِشِكُمْ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ فِي الْجِهَادِ بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَ أَنْفُسِكُمْ وَ أَلْسِنَتِكُمْ فَإِنَّمَا يُجَاهِدُ رَجُلَانِ إِمَامُ هُدًى أَوْ مُطِيعٌ لَهُ مُقْتَدٍ بِهُدَاهُ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ فِي ذُرِّيَّةِ نَبِيِّكُمْ فَلَا يُظْلَمَنَّ بِحَضْرَتِكُمْ وَ بَيْنَ ظَهْرَانَيْكُمْ وَ أَنْتُمْ تَقْدِرُونَ عَلَى الدَّفْعِ عَنْهُمْ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ فِي أَصْحَابِ نَبِيِّكُمُ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُحْدِثُوا حَدَثاً وَ لَمْ يُؤْوُوا مُحْدِثاً فَإِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص أَوْصَى بِهِمْ وَ لَعَنَ الْمُحْدِثَ مِنْهُمْ وَ مِنْ غَيْرِهِمْ وَ الْمُؤْوِيَ لِلْمُحْدِثِ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ فِي النِّسَاءِ وَ فِيمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ فَإِنَّ آخِرَ مَا تَكَلَّمَ بِهِ نَبِيُّكُمْ ع أَنْ قَالَ أُوصِيكُمْ بِالضَّعِيفَيْنِ النِّسَاءِ وَ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمُ الصَّلَاةَ الصَّلَاةَ الصَّلَاةَ لَا تَخَافُوا فِي اللَّهِ لَوْمَةَ لَائِمٍ يَكْفِكُمُ اللَّهُ مَنْ آذَاكُمْ وَ بَغَى عَلَيْكُمْ قُولُوا لِلنَّاسِ حُسْناً كَمَا أَمَرَكُمُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ لَا تَتْرُكُوا الْأَمْرَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَ النَّهْيَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ فَيُوَلِّيَ اللَّهُ أَمْرَكُمْ شِرَارَكُمْ ثُمَّ تَدْعُونَ فَلَا يُسْتَجَابُ لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ عَلَيْكُمْ يَا بَنِيَّ بِالتَّوَاصُلِ وَ التَّبَاذُلِ وَ التَّبَارِّ وَ إِيَّاكُمْ وَ التَّقَاطُعَ وَ التَّدَابُرَ وَ التَّفَرُّقَ وَ تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَ التَّقْوَى وَ لَا تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْإِثْمِ وَ الْعُدْوَانِ وَ اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ حَفِظَكُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتٍ وَ حَفِظَ فِيكُمْ نَبِيَّكُمْ أَسْتَوْدِعُكُمُ اللَّهَ وَ أَقْرَأُ عَلَيْكُمُ السَّلَامَ وَ رَحْمَةَ اللَّهِ وَ بَرَكَاتِهِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَزَلْ يَقُولُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ حَتَّى قُبِضَ صَلَوَاتُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَ رَحْمَتُهُ فِي ثَلَاثِ لَيَالٍ مِنَ الْعَشْرِ الْأَوَاخِرِ لَيْلَةَ ثَلَاثٍ وَ عِشْرِينَ مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ لَيْلَةَ الْجُمُعَةِ سَنَةَ أَرْبَعِينَ مِنَ الْهِجْرَةِ وَ كَانَ ضُرِبَ لَيْلَةَ إِحْدَى وَ عِشْرِينَ مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ

Abu Ali al-Ash ‘ariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar and Muhammad ibn “Isma’il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from Safwan ibn Yahya from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Hajjaj who has narrated the following:

“Abu al-Hassan-asws sent to me the will of ‘ Amir-ul-Momineen-asws which reads as follows: ‘(I begin) in the name of Allah-azwj. “This is the will and decision of the servant of Allah-azwj about his assets seeking thereby the pleasure of Allah-azwj so that He-azwj will admit him-asws in the garden (paradises), keep away from him the fire and keep him away from the fire on the day when certain faces will be white and others will be black. The assets that belong to me in Yanba’ which are known to be my assets with its surrounding are endowed as charities as well as the slaves except Rabah, abu Nayzar and Jubayr who are set free and no one has any authority over them. They are my Mawali who will work for five years with the properties from which will be their sustenance, expenses and the expenses of their families. Besides these my properties in Wadi al-Qura ” all of it are of the assets of the children of Fatimah-asws and the slaves are charities. My-asws assets in Daymah and its people are charities except Zurayq. For him is what I write for his companions.

My-asws assets in ‘Udhaynah and its people are charities and al-Fuqayrayn as you know are charities in the way of Allah-azwj. My-asws assets that I-asws have mentioned are charities in obligatory sense, whether I-asws will be living or dead.  They will be used in the ways that will please Allah-azwj, for the cause of Allah-azwj, and for the sake of Allah-azwj, and for my-asws relatives from banu Hashim, banu al-Muttalib, the nearer ones and the farther ones.  Al-Hassan-asws will supervise these proper- ties. He-asws will use them for his lawful needs and will spend in the sight of Allah-azwj in lawful ways. It is not unlawful for him-asws to do so. If he-asws deems necessary to sell from these assets to pay off debts, he can do so if he-asws will so like. It is not unlawful for him-asws. If he will like he can make them very attractive assets. The children of AIi-asws, their Mawali and assets are under the authority of al-Hassan-asws ibn Ali-asws.

If the house of al-Hassan-asws ibn AIi-asws will not be the house of charity and if he-asws will so decide to sell it he can do so. It is not unlawful for him-asws. If he will sell it, he will divide its price in three parts: one-third in the way of Allah-azwj, one-third for banu Hashim and banu al-Muttalib, and keep one-third in the assets of Ali-asws abu Talib-asws. He will manage it in the sight of Allah-azwj as he deems it lawful. If something happens to al-Hassan and al-Hussain-asws will be living, then al-Hussain-asws ibn Ali-asws will be the person in charge of his (Hassan-asws) task. Al-Hussain-asws will deal with these assets just as al-Hassan-asws had been dealing. He-asws will have for himself what I-asws have written for al-Hassan-asws. On him will also be what was on al-Hassan-asws. For the children of (the two sons of) Fatimah-asws of the charities are whatever is for the children of Ali-asws. I-asws have prepared what I-asws have prepared for the two sons of Fatima-asws. It is for the sake of Allah-azwj in the honour of the Messenger of Allah-saww and for their greatness, in service of their nobility and pleasure. If something will happen to al-Hassan-asws and al-Hussain-asws, the last one-asws of them-asws will look among the children of Ali-asws. If he-asws finds among them one about whose guidance he-asws is happy as well as his Islam and trustworthiness, he-asws will designate him for the task if he will so wish. If he-asws will not find among them anyone who can make him happy, he will designate someone from Ale abu Talib-asws with whom he-asws will be happy. If he will find all of Ale abu Talib, their elders and people of understanding have passed away; he-asws then will designate a man from banu Hashim. He-asws will place a condition on one to whom he-asws will leave the assets that they must be left on their original basis, only their fruits will be spent as I-asws have commanded, such as, in the way of Allah-azwj and for His sake, for the relatives of banu Hashim and banu al-Muttalib, those nearer and those farther.

They must not be sold, gifted or inherited. The assets of Muhammad ibn Ali are on his side. It is for the two sons of Fatimah-asws to decide about it. My slaves whom I have listed in a small document are free. “This is what Ali-asws ibn abu Talib-asws has decided about his assets this morning of the day that he has arrived in Maskin (a place near al-Kufah on the bank of Euphrates) for the sake of Allah-azwj, seeking His-azwj pleasure, and for the dwelling in the next life. Allah-azwj is the support in all conditions. It is not lawful for a Muslim, who believes in Allah-azwj and the Day to come, to say something about what I have decided about my assets or oppose me-asws in my affairs of the people near or far.

“Thereafter the mothers of my children with whom I maintain connections, seventeen of whom are mothers of children who are with their children, those of them who are pregnant and those who do not have children. My-asws decision about them, if something happens to me, is as follows: Those of them who do not have children and are not pregnant they are free for the sake of Allah-azwj. No one will have any authority over them. Those of them who have children or are pregnant must keep their children as their share. If her child will die and she is living she then is free and no one will have any authority on them. This is the decision that Ali-asws has made about his assets this morning when he has arrived in Maskin. It is witnessed by abu Samar ibn Abrahah, Sa’sa’h ibn Suhan, Yazid ibn Qays and Hayyaj ibn abu Hayyaj and it is written by Ali-asws ibn abu Talib-asws with his own hand on tenth of Jamadi al-Thani’, in the year thirty-seven.

There was another will (with the first one): “In the name of Allah-azwj, the Beneficent, the Merciful ‘This is the will of Ali-asws ibn abu Talib-asws. I (Ali-asws ibn abu Talib-asws) testify that no one deserves worship except Allah-azwj alone, who has no partners, and Muhammad-saww is His-azwj servant and Messenger. He-azwj sent him-saww with guidance, true religion to make it dominant over all other religions even though the pagans dislike. O Allah-azwj, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your-azwj cause.

My Salat, good deeds, life and death are for Allah-azwj, Lord of the worlds who has no partners. I-asws am commanded for this and I am the first Muslim. “I make this will for you O al-Hassan-asws and all members of my family, my children and those to whom my writing reaches, to be pious before Allah-asws, your Lord, and do not die unless you are a Muslim. Hold firmly to the rope of Allah-asws, all of you, and do not become scattered because of difference. I heard the Messenger of Allah-saww saying: Establishing reconciliation and peace between two disputing people is better than all Salat and fasting.

That denouncing (each other) is destructive to religion and the good relationship between two people. There is no power without Allah-azwj. You-asws must look after your relatives and maintain good relations with them; Allah-azwj will make your accounting very easy. “(I remind you of) Allah-azwj, (I remind you of) Allah-azwj, about the orphans. You must not remain ignorant of the condition of what they cannot and you must not allow yourselves to see that they are lost and destroyed in your presence. I-asws heard the Messenger of Allah-saww saying: ‘If one supports an orphan until he becomes self-sufficient, Allah-azwj Makes the garden (paradises) obligatory for him just as He-azwj makes the fire obligatory tor those who consume the assets of the orphans.’ ‘(I remind you of) Allah-azwj, (I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, about al-Quran, you must not give others the chance to excel you in acting according to it. (I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, (I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, about your neighbours; the Holy Prophet-saww has urged to take care of them and he-saww continued urging about them until we thought that he-saww will command to inherit each other. (I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, (I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, about the house of your Lord. You must not leave it without your presence as long as you are here. If it is left alone, you will not be given a chance to visit the house. The least that one, who intends to visit the house, brings back is forgiveness of the past sins. (I-asws remind you of Allah-azwj), (I-asws remind you of) Allah-asws, about Salat; it is the best of deeds. It is the pillar of your religion. (I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, (I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, of Zakat because it extinguishes the anger of your Lord-azwj. (I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, (I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, about the month of Ramdan. Fasting in this month is the shield against the fire. (I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, (I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, about the poor and the destitute. You must share your financial resources with them.

(I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, (I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, about Jihad by means of your wealth, your souls and your tongue. Two kinds of men complete the duty of the Jihad, the Imam of guidance or one obedient to him who follows his guidance. (I remind you of) Allah-azwj, (I remind you of) Allah-azwj, about the descendents of your Prophet-saww. You must not allow their being subjected to injustice in your presence and before your eyes when you are able to defend them. (I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, (I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, about the companions of your Prophet-saww, the companions who did not invent heresy or give protection to heretics. The Messenger of Allah-saww has urged to be good to them, has condemned the heretics among them and others who protect heretics.

“(I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, (I-asws remind you of) Allah-azwj, about women and slaves. The last word your Prophet-saww spoke was, ‘I-saww urge you to take care of the two weak kinds of people: the women and slaves. Salat (prayer), Salat (prayer), Salat (prayer). Do not fear the blame of blaming people; Allah-azwj is sufficient for you against their harming you and their rebelliousness against you. Speak to people about what is good as Allah-azwj has Commanded you. If you disregard urging people to do what is good and prohibit evil; Allah-azwj will Make people of evil deeds to dominate you then you pray but it will not be answered in your favour.

My-asws sons, you must continue to maintain good relations, generosity and acting virtuously. You must not cut-off good relations and turn away from each other because of differences. Cooperate with each other with virtuous deeds and piety and do not work together toward sin and animosity. Be pious before Allah-azwj because Allah-azwj‘s punishment is intense and severe. I pray to Allah-azwj to protect you against misfortunes, all of you, people of the house as He-azwj protected among you your Prophet-saww. I-asws leave you in the trust of Allah-azwj and offer you the greeting of peace, the kindness of Allah-azwj and His-azwj blessings.’ “He-asws (the Imam) then continued saying Tahlil, (no one deserves worship except Allah-azwj), until he passed away. O Allah-azwj, Grant compensation to him-asws (the Imam) and blessings, in the third night of the last ten days in the end of the twenty-third night of the month of Ramadan, on Friday night in the year forty after the migration of the Holy Prophet-saww, from Makkah to al-Madinah. He-asws was injured in the nineteenth night of the month of Ramadan.’[128]

When Jihad and Salat Became Mandatory

ابْنُ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ عَلِيَّ بْنَ الْحُسَيْنِ ع ابْنُ كَمْ كَانَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ ع يَوْمَ أَسْلَمَ فَقَالَ أَ وَ كَانَ كَافِراً قَطُّ إِنَّمَا كَانَ لِعَلِيٍّ ع حَيْثُ بَعَثَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ رَسُولَهُ ص عَشْرُ سِنِينَ وَ لَمْ يَكُنْ يَوْمَئِذٍ كَافِراً وَ لَقَدْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى وَ بِرَسُولِهِ ص وَ سَبَقَ النَّاسَ كُلَّهُمْ إِلَى الْإِيمَانِ بِاللَّهِ وَ بِرَسُولِهِ ص وَ إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ بِثَلَاثِ سِنِينَ وَ كَانَتْ أَوَّلُ صَلَاةٍ صَلَّاهَا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص الظُّهْرَ رَكْعَتَيْنِ وَ كَذَلِكَ فَرَضَهَا اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى عَلَى مَنْ أَسْلَمَ بِمَكَّةَ رَكْعَتَيْنِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ وَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص يُصَلِّيهَا بِمَكَّةَ رَكْعَتَيْنِ وَ يُصَلِّيهَا عَلِيٌّ ع مَعَهُ بِمَكَّةَ رَكْعَتَيْنِ مُدَّةَ عَشْرِ سِنِينَ حَتَّى هَاجَرَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ وَ خَلَّفَ عَلِيّاً ع فِي أُمُورٍ لَمْ يَكُنْ يَقُومُ بِهَا أَحَدٌ غَيْرُهُ وَ كَانَ خُرُوجُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص مِنْ مَكَّةَ فِي أَوَّلِ يَوْمٍ مِنْ رَبِيعٍ الْأَوَّلِ وَ ذَلِكَ يَوْمُ الْخَمِيسِ مِنْ سَنَةِ ثَلَاثَ عَشْرَةَ مِنَ الْمَبْعَثِ وَ قَدِمَ الْمَدِينَةَ لِاثْنَتَيْ عَشْرَةَ لَيْلَةً خَلَتْ مِنْ شَهْرِ رَبِيعٍ الْأَوَّلِ مَعَ زَوَالِ الشَّمْسِ فَنَزَلَ بِقُبَا فَصَلَّى الظُّهْرَ رَكْعَتَيْنِ وَ الْعَصْرَ رَكْعَتَيْنِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَزَلْ مُقِيماً يَنْتَظِرُ عَلِيّاً ع يُصَلِّي الْخَمْسَ صَلَوَاتٍ رَكْعَتَيْنِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ وَ كَانَ نَازِلًا عَلَى عَمْرِو بْنِ عَوْفٍ فَأَقَامَ عِنْدَهُمْ بِضْعَةَ عَشَرَ يَوْماً يَقُولُونَ لَهُ أَ تُقِيمُ عِنْدَنَا فَنَتَّخِذَ لَكَ مَنْزِلًا وَ مَسْجِداً فَيَقُولُ لَا إِنِّي أَنْتَظِرُ عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طَالِبٍ وَ قَدْ أَمَرْتُهُ أَنْ يَلْحَقَنِي وَ لَسْتُ مُسْتَوْطِناً مَنْزِلًا حَتَّى يَقْدَمَ عَلِيٌّ وَ مَا أَسْرَعَهُ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ فَقَدِمَ عَلِيٌّ ع وَ النَّبِيُّ ص فِي بَيْتِ عَمْرِو بْنِ عَوْفٍ فَنَزَلَ مَعَهُ ثُمَّ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص لَمَّا قَدِمَ عَلَيْهِ عَلِيٌّ ع تَحَوَّلَ مِنْ قُبَا إِلَى بَنِي سَالِمِ بْنِ عَوْفٍ وَ عَلِيٌّ ع مَعَهُ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ مَعَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ فَخَطَّ لَهُمْ مَسْجِداً وَ نَصَبَ قِبْلَتَهُ فَصَلَّى بِهِمْ فِيهِ الْجُمُعَةَ رَكْعَتَيْنِ وَ خَطَبَ خُطْبَتَيْنِ ثُمَّ رَاحَ مِنْ يَوْمِهِ إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ عَلَى نَاقَتِهِ الَّتِي كَانَ قَدِمَ عَلَيْهَا وَ عَلِيٌّ ع مَعَهُ لَا يُفَارِقُهُ يَمْشِي بِمَشْيِهِ وَ لَيْسَ يَمُرُّ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص بِبَطْنٍ مِنْ بُطُونِ الْأَنْصَارِ إِلَّا قَامُوا إِلَيْهِ يَسْأَلُونَهُ أَنْ يَنْزِلَ عَلَيْهِمْ فَيَقُولُ لَهُمْ خَلُّوا سَبِيلَ النَّاقَةِ فَإِنَّهَا مَأْمُورَةٌ فَانْطَلَقَتْ بِهِ وَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص وَاضِعٌ لَهَا زِمَامَهَا حَتَّى انْتَهَتْ إِلَى الْمَوْضِعِ الَّذِي تَرَى وَ أَشَارَ بِيَدِهِ إِلَى بَابِ مَسْجِدِ

رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص الَّذِي يُصَلَّى عِنْدَهُ بِالْجَنَائِزِ فَوَقَفَتْ عِنْدَهُ وَ بَرَكَتْ وَ وَضَعَتْ جِرَانَهَا عَلَى الْأَرْضِ فَنَزَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص وَ أَقْبَلَ أَبُو أَيُّوبَ مُبَادِراً حَتَّى احْتَمَلَ رَحْلَهُ فَأَدْخَلَهُ مَنْزِلَهُ وَ نَزَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص وَ عَلِيٌّ ع مَعَهُ حَتَّى بُنِيَ لَهُ مَسْجِدُهُ بُنِيَتْ لَهُ مَسَاكِنُهُ وَ مَنْزِلُ عَلِيٍّ ع فَتَحَوَّلَا إِلَى مَنَازِلِهِمَا فَقَالَ سَعِيدُ بْنُ الْمُسَيَّبِ لِعَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ ع جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ كَانَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص حِينَ أَقْبَلَ إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ فَأَيْنَ فَارَقَهُ فَقَالَ إِنَّ أَبَا بَكْرٍ لَمَّا قَدِمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص إِلَى قُبَا فَنَزَلَ بِهِمْ يَنْتَظِرُ قُدُومَ عَلِيٍّ ع فَقَالَ لَهُ أَبُو بَكْرٍ انْهَضْ بِنَا إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ فَإِنَّ الْقَوْمَ قَدْ فَرِحُوا بِقُدُومِكَ وَ هُمْ يَسْتَرِيثُونَ إِقْبَالَكَ إِلَيْهِمْ فَانْطَلِقْ بِنَا وَ لَا تَقُمْ هَاهُنَا تَنْتَظِرُ عَلِيّاً فَمَا أَظُنُّهُ يَقْدَمُ عَلَيْكَ إِلَى شَهْرٍ فَقَالَ لَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص كَلَّا مَا أَسْرَعَهُ وَ لَسْتُ أَرِيمُ حَتَّى يَقْدَمَ ابْنُ عَمِّي وَ أَخِي فِي اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ أَحَبُّ أَهْلِ بَيْتِي إِلَيَّ فَقَدْ وَقَانِي بِنَفْسِهِ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ قَالَ فَغَضِبَ عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ وَ اشْمَأَزَّ وَ دَاخَلَهُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ حَسَدٌ لِعَلِيٍّ ع وَ كَانَ ذَلِكَ أَوَّلَ عَدَاوَةٍ بَدَتْ مِنْهُ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص فِي عَلِيٍّ ع وَ أَوَّلَ خِلَافٍ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص فَانْطَلَقَ حَتَّى دَخَلَ الْمَدِينَةَ وَ تَخَلَّفَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص بِقُبَا يَنْتَظِرُ عَلِيّاً ع قَالَ فَقُلْتُ لِعَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ ع فَمَتَى زَوَّجَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص فَاطِمَةَ مِنْ عَلِيٍّ ع فَقَالَ بِالْمَدِينَةِ بَعْدَ الْهِجْرَةِ بِسَنَةٍ وَ كَانَ لَهَا يَوْمَئِذٍ تِسْعُ سِنِينَ قَالَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ ع وَ لَمْ يُولَدْ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص مِنْ خَدِيجَةَ ع عَلَى فِطْرَةِ الْإِسْلَامِ إِلَّا فَاطِمَةُ ع وَ قَدْ كَانَتْ خَدِيجَةُ مَاتَتْ قَبْلَ الْهِجْرَةِ بِسَنَةٍ وَ مَاتَ أَبُو طَالِبٍ بَعْدَ مَوْتِ خَدِيجَةَ بِسَنَةٍ فَلَمَّا فَقَدَهُمَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص سَئِمَ الْمُقَامَ بِمَكَّةَ وَ دَخَلَهُ حُزْنٌ شَدِيدٌ وَ أَشْفَقَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ مِنْ كُفَّارِ قُرَيْشٍ فَشَكَا إِلَى جَبْرَئِيلَ ع ذَلِكَ فَأَوْحَى اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ إِلَيْهِ اخْرُجْ ‏

مِنَ الْقَرْيَةِ الظَّالِمِ أَهْلُهَا وَ هَاجِرْ إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ فَلَيْسَ لَكَ الْيَوْمَ بِمَكَّةَ نَاصِرٌ وَ انْصِبْ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ حَرْباً فَعِنْدَ ذَلِكَ تَوَجَّهَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ فَمَتَى فُرِضَتِ الصَّلَاةُ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِينَ عَلَى مَا هُمْ عَلَيْهِ الْيَوْمَ فَقَالَ بِالْمَدِينَةِ حِينَ ظَهَرَتِ الدَّعْوَةُ وَ قَوِيَ الْإِسْلَامُ وَ كَتَبَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِينَ الْجِهَادَ وَ زَادَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص فِي الصَّلَاةِ سَبْعَ رَكَعَاتٍ فِي الظُّهْرِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ وَ فِي الْعَصْرِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ وَ فِي الْمَغْرِبِ رَكْعَةً وَ فِي الْعِشَاءِ الْآخِرَةِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ وَ أَقَرَّ الْفَجْرَ عَلَى مَا فُرِضَتْ لِتَعْجِيلِ نُزُولِ مَلَائِكَةِ النَّهَارِ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَ لِتَعْجِيلِ عُرُوجِ مَلَائِكَةِ اللَّيْلِ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ وَ كَانَ مَلَائِكَةُ اللَّيْلِ وَ مَلَائِكَةُ النَّهَارِ يَشْهَدُونَ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص صَلَاةَ الْفَجْرِ فَلِذَلِكَ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كانَ مَشْهُوداً يَشْهَدُهُ الْمُسْلِمُونَ وَ يَشْهَدُهُ مَلَائِكَةُ النَّهَارِ وَ مَلَائِكَةُ اللَّيْلِ

Ibn Mahbub has narrated from Hisham ibn Salim from abu Hamzah from Sa’id ibn al-Musayyib who has narrated the following:

“I once asked Ali-asws ibn al-Hussain-asws about how old was Ali-asws, ibn abu Talib-asws on the day he became a Muslim (nouzobillah)?’ He-asws said: ‘Was he ever a non-Muslim?’ In fact, on the day Allah-azwj Commanded His Messenger-saww to work as His-azwj Messenger, Ali-asws was ten years old but he-asws was never a non-Muslim. He-asws believed in Allah-azwj and the Messenger of Allah-saww before all people (at least) by three years, in the form of performing Salat. The first Salat that he-asws (AIi) performed with the Messenger of Allah-saww consisted of two Rak’ats of al-Zuhr and it was as Allah-azwj had made it obligatory on those who became Muslims in Makkah, It was two and two Rak’ats. The Messenger of Allah-saww performed them two and two Rak’ats for ten years until he-saww migrated to al-Madinah and left Ali-asws as his successor for certain things which no one could do besides him-asws (Ali). ‘The Messenger of Allah-saww left Makkah on the first day of Rabi’ al-‘Awwal. It was on a Thursday after thirteen years from the day Allah-azwj had Commanded him-saww to work as His-azwj Messenger and he-saww arrived in al-Madinah, twelve days after the beginning of the month of Rabi’ al-Awwal at noon time. He-saww disembarked in al-Quba’, performed al-Zuhr as two Rak’ats and al-‘Asr’ as two Rak’ats. He-saww then stayed there in order to wait for Ali-asws. He-saww performed five Salat of two Rak’ats each, every day, He had stayed with ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf. He-saww stayed with him for ten days or so. They asked him-saww, if he-saww wanted to stay with them so that they could) prepare for him a Masjid and home. He-saww answered, ‘No, I-saww am waiting for Ali-asws ibn abu Talib-asws and I-saww have advised him-asws to meet me-saww, I-saww am not choosing a living place until he-asws comes and he-asws will arrive shortly by the will of Allah-azwj.’ “Ali-asws arrived when the Holy Prophet was with ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf. He-asws disembarked, When Ali-asws arrived then the Messenger of Allah-saww  said: ‘O Allah-azwj Grant compensation to Muhammad-saww and his-saww family-asws worthy of their services to Your cause, when he-saww moved from Quba’ to bani Salim ibn ‘Awf, Ali-asws was with him. It was on a Friday at noon time, He marked (the place) for a Masjid, marked its al-Qiblah (the direction of al-Ka ‘bah) and performed Salat (prayer) with them on Friday, two Rak’ats with two sermons; then on the same day moved to al-Madinah on the camel which Ali-asws had brought with him-asws who remained with him-saww without separation and walked as he-saww walked. Through every neighbourhood of al-Ansar[129] that the Messenger of Allah-saww passed they stood up for him, asked him to disembark and stay with them. He-saww said: ‘You must allow the camel because it has the instruction where to go. ‘The camel moved with the Messenger of Allah-saww. He-saww had left its rein uncontrolled until it arrived at the place that you see.’ He-asws pointed with his hand to the door of the Masjid of the Messenger of Allah-saww where Salat for dead people are performed. ‘It stopped there and sat down, placing its neck on the ground. The Messenger of Allah-saww disembarked and abu Ayyub came forward quickly to hold his saddle and took it to his home. The Messenger of Allah-saww disembarked as well as Ali-asws. They stayed there)until his-saww Masjid was built as well as his homes were built and the house for AIi-asws. Then they moved to their homes.

Sa’id ibn al-Musayyib then asked Ali ibn al-Hussain-asws saying, ‘I pray to Allah-azwj to keep my soul in service for your cause. Abu Bakr-la was with the Messenger of Allah-saww when he came to al-Madinah, when did he depart?’ He-asws said: ‘The Messenger of Allah-saww arrived in Quba’ and he was waiting for Ali-asws. Abu Bakr-la said: ‘Allow us to move to al-Madinah; people are very happy because of your arrival and they are waiting for the glad news, so allow us to go and not to stay here waiting for Ali-asws. I-la do not think he-asws can come before a month.” “The Messenger of Allah-saww told him: ‘No, I-saww will never do so and he will arrive very soon. I-saww do not want to move without my cousin-asws, my brother-asws for the sake of Allah-azwj and the most beloved one to me-saww in my family-asws; he-asws saved my-saww life with his-asws own life from the pagans.”

He-asws said: ‘Abu Bakr-la became angry and detested it. He-la felt jealous against Ali-asws. It was his first time that he-la expressed hatred before the Messenger of Allah-saww (towards) Ali-asws. It was his-la first disagreement with the Messenger of Allah-saww. He-la left until he-la arrived in al-Madinah and left the Messenger of Allah-saww in Quba’ waiting for Ali-asws.

I (the narrator) then asked Ali-asws ibn al-Hussain-asws about when the Messenger of Allah-saww gave Fatimah-asws in marriage to AIi-asws. He-asws said: ‘It was in al-Madinah one year after migration and Syeda-asws was nine years old.’ Ali-asws ibn al- Hussain-asws then said, ‘The only child Prophet-saww was blessed from Khadijah-asws in nature of Islam was Fatimah-asws, Khadijah-asws had died one year before migration and abu Talib-asws died after the death of Khadijah-asws one year later. Upon loosing both them-asws, the Messenger of Allah-saww disliked living in Makkah and felt great sadness, so much so that he feared for his life because of unbelievers of Quraysh and he-saww communicated to Jibrail-as.  ‘Allah-azwj Sent revelation to him-saww to leave the town of unjust inhabitants and to migrate to al-Madinah; there is no helper for you-saww in Makkah and you-saww must fight the pagans.

Then the Messenger of Allah-saww left for al-Madinah.’ I then asked, ‘When Salat became obligatory for the Muslims as it is today?’ He-asws said: ‘It happened in al-Madinah when his call spread in public and Islam became strong. Allah-azwj has made Jihad obligatory on the Muslims. Then the Messenger of Allah-saww increased the number of Rak’ats of Salat by seven Rak ‘ats. He increased two Rak’at with al-Zuhr, two with al-‘Asr, one with al-Maghrib, two with ‘Isha’ and left the morning Salat as it was because of the quicker coming of the angels of the day from the sky and the ascending of the angels of the night to the sky. The angels of the day and the angels of the night attended the morning Salat with the Messenger of Allah-saww and for this reason Allah-azwj has said, ‘ … the reading at dawn, because the reading at dawn is attended.’ (17:78) The Muslims attended as well as the angels of the day and the angels of the night.’[130]

The Time and State of People Before Zahoor-e-Imam-ajfj

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ وَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ جَمِيعاً عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ حُمْرَانَ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع وَ ذُكِرَ هَؤُلَاءِ عِنْدَهُ وَ سُوءُ حَالِ الشِّيعَةِ عِنْدَهُمْ فَقَالَ إِنِّي سِرْتُ مَعَ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ الْمَنْصُورِ وَ هُوَ فِي مَوْكِبِهِ وَ هُوَ عَلَى فَرَسٍ وَ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ خَيْلٌ وَ مِنْ خَلْفِهِ خَيْلٌ وَ أَنَا عَلَى حِمَارٍ إِلَى جَانِبِهِ فَقَالَ لِي يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ قَدْ كَانَ فَيَنْبَغِي لَكَ أَنْ تَفْرَحَ بِمَا أَعْطَانَا اللَّهُ مِنَ الْقُوَّةِ وَ فَتَحَ لَنَا مِنَ الْعِزِّ وَ لَا تُخْبِرَ النَّاسَ أَنَّكَ أَحَقُّ بِهَذَا الْأَمْرِ مِنَّا وَ أَهْلَ بَيْتِكَ فَتُغْرِيَنَا بِكَ وَ بِهِمْ قَالَ فَقُلْتُ وَ مَنْ رَفَعَ هَذَا إِلَيْكَ عَنِّي فَقَدْ كَذَبَ فَقَالَ لِي أَ تَحْلِفُ عَلَى مَا تَقُولُ قَالَ فَقُلْتُ إِنَّ النَّاسَ سَحَرَةٌ يَعْنِي يُحِبُّونَ أَنْ يُفْسِدُوا قَلْبَكَ عَلَيَّ فَلَا تُمَكِّنْهُمْ مِنْ سَمْعِكَ فَإِنَّا إِلَيْكَ أَحْوَجُ مِنْكَ إِلَيْنَا فَقَالَ لِي تَذْكُرُ يَوْمَ سَأَلْتُكَ هَلْ لَنَا مُلْكٌ فَقُلْتَ نَعَمْ طَوِيلٌ عَرِيضٌ شَدِيدٌ فَلَا تَزَالُونَ فِي مُهْلَةٍ مِنْ أَمْرِكُمْ وَ فُسْحَةٍ مِنْ دُنْيَاكُمْ حَتَّى تُصِيبُوا مِنَّا دَماً حَرَاماً فِي شَهْرٍ حَرَامٍ فِي بَلَدٍ حَرَامٍ فَعَرَفْتُ أَنَّهُ قَدْ حَفِظَ الْحَدِيثَ فَقُلْتُ لَعَلَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ أَنْ يَكْفِيَكَ فَإِنِّي لَمْ أَخُصَّكَ بِهَذَا وَ إِنَّمَا هُوَ حَدِيثٌ رَوَيْتُهُ ثُمَّ لَعَلَّ غَيْرَكَ مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِكَ يَتَوَلَّى ذَلِكَ فَسَكَتَ عَنِّي فَلَمَّا رَجَعْتُ إِلَى مَنْزِلِي أَتَانِي بَعْضُ مَوَالِينَا فَقَالَ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ وَ اللَّهِ لَقَدْ رَأَيْتُكَ فِي مَوْكِبِ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ وَ أَنْتَ عَلَى حِمَارٍ وَ هُوَ عَلَى فَرَسٍ وَ قَدْ أَشْرَفَ عَلَيْكَ يُكَلِّمُكَ كَأَنَّكَ تَحْتَهُ فَقُلْتُ بَيْنِي وَ بَيْنَ نَفْسِي هَذَا حُجَّةُ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْخَلْقِ وَ صَاحِبُ هَذَا الْأَمْرِ الَّذِي يُقْتَدَى بِهِ وَ هَذَا الْآخَرُ يَعْمَلُ بِالْجَوْرِ وَ يَقْتُلُ أَوْلَادَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ وَ يَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاءَ فِي الْأَرْضِ بِمَا لَا يُحِبُّ اللَّهُ وَ هُوَ فِي مَوْكِبِهِ وَ أَنْتَ عَلَى حِمَارٍ فَدَخَلَنِي مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَكٌّ حَتَّى خِفْتُ عَلَى دِينِي وَ نَفْسِي قَالَ فَقُلْتُ لَوْ رَأَيْتَ مَنْ كَانَ حَوْلِي وَ بَيْنَ يَدَيَّ وَ مِنْ خَلْفِي وَ عَنْ يَمِينِي وَ عَنْ شِمَالِي مِنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ لَاحْتَقَرْتَهُ وَ احْتَقَرْتَ مَا هُوَ فِيهِ فَقَالَ الْآنَ سَكَنَ قَلْبِي ثُمَّ قَالَ إِلَى مَتَى هَؤُلَاءِ يَمْلِكُونَ أَوْ مَتَى الرَّاحَةُ مِنْهُمْ فَقُلْتُ أَ لَيْسَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّ لِكُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ مُدَّةً قَالَ بَلَى فَقُلْتُ هَلْ يَنْفَعُكَ عِلْمُكَ أَنَّ هَذَا الْأَمْرَ إِذَا جَاءَ كَانَ أَسْرَعَ مِنْ طَرْفَةِ الْعَيْنِ إِنَّكَ لَوْ تَعْلَمُ حَالَهُمْ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ كَيْفَ هِيَ كُنْتَ لَهُمْ أَشَدَّ بُغْضاً وَ لَوْ جَهَدْتَ أَوْ جَهَدَ أَهْلُ الْأَرْضِ أَنْ يُدْخِلُوهُمْ فِي أَشَدِّ مَا هُمْ فِيهِمْ مِنَ الْإِثْمِ لَمْ يَقْدِرُوا فَلَا يَسْتَفِزَّنَّكَ الشَّيْطَانُ فَإِنَّ الْعِزَّةَ لِلَّهِ وَ لِرَسُولِهِ وَ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ لَكِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ أَ لَا تَعْلَمُ أَنَّ مَنِ انْتَظَرَ أَمْرَنَا وَ صَبَرَ عَلَى مَا يَرَى مِنَ الْأَذَى وَ الْخَوْفِ هُوَ غَداً فِي زُمْرَتِنَا فَإِذَا رَأَيْتَ الْحَقَّ قَدْ مَاتَ وَ ذَهَبَ أَهْلُهُ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْجَوْرَ قَدْ شَمِلَ الْبِلَادَ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْقُرْآنَ قَدْ خَلُقَ وَ أُحْدِثَ فِيهِ مَا لَيْسَ فِيهِ وَ وُجِّهَ عَلَى الْأَهْوَاءِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الدِّينَ قَدِ انْكَفَأَ كَمَا يَنْكَفِئُ

الْمَاءُ وَ رَأَيْتَ أَهْلَ الْبَاطِلِ قَدِ اسْتَعْلَوْا عَلَى أَهْلِ الْحَقِّ وَ رَأَيْتَ الشَّرَّ ظَاهِراً لَا يُنْهَى عَنْهُ وَ يُعْذَرُ أَصْحَابُهُ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْفِسْقَ قَدْ ظَهَرَ وَ اكْتَفَى الرِّجَالُ بِالرِّجَالِ وَ النِّسَاءُ بِالنِّسَاءِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْمُؤْمِنَ صَامِتاً لَا يُقْبَلُ قَوْلُهُ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْفَاسِقَ يَكْذِبُ وَ لَا يُرَدُّ عَلَيْهِ كَذِبُهُ وَ فِرْيَتُهُ وَ رَأَيْتَ الصَّغِيرَ يَسْتَحْقِرُ بِالْكَبِيرِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْأَرْحَامَ قَدْ تَقَطَّعَتْ وَ رَأَيْتَ مَنْ يَمْتَدِحُ بِالْفِسْقِ يَضْحَكُ مِنْهُ وَ لَا يُرَدُّ عَلَيْهِ قَوْلُهُ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْغُلَامَ يُعْطِي مَا تُعْطِي الْمَرْأَةُ وَ رَأَيْتَ النِّسَاءَ يَتَزَوَّجْنَ النِّسَاءَ وَ رَأَيْتَ الثَّنَاءَ قَدْ كَثُرَ وَ رَأَيْتَ الرَّجُلَ يُنْفِقُ الْمَالَ فِي غَيْرِ طَاعَةِ اللَّهِ فَلَا يُنْهَى وَ لَا يُؤْخَذُ عَلَى يَدَيْهِ وَ رَأَيْتَ النَّاظِرَ يَتَعَوَّذُ بِاللَّهِ مِمَّا يَرَى الْمُؤْمِنَ فِيهِ مِنَ الِاجْتِهَادِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْجَارَ يُؤْذِي جَارَهُ وَ لَيْسَ لَهُ مَانِعٌ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْكَافِرَ فَرِحاً لِمَا يَرَى فِي الْمُؤْمِنِ مَرِحاً لِمَا يَرَى فِي الْأَرْضِ مِنَ الْفَسَادِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْخُمُورَ تُشْرَبُ عَلَانِيَةً وَ يَجْتَمِعُ عَلَيْهَا مَنْ لَا يَخَافُ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْآمِرَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ذَلِيلًا وَ رَأَيْتَ الْفَاسِقَ فِيمَا لَا يُحِبُّ اللَّهُ قَوِيّاً مَحْمُوداً وَ رَأَيْتَ أَصْحَابَ الْآيَاتِ يُحْتَقَرُونَ وَ يُحْتَقَرُ مَنْ يُحِبُّهُمْ وَ رَأَيْتَ سَبِيلَ الْخَيْرِ مُنْقَطِعاً وَ سَبِيلَ الشَّرِّ مَسْلُوكاً وَ رَأَيْتَ بَيْتَ اللَّهِ قَدْ عُطِّلَ وَ يُؤْمَرُ بِتَرْكِهِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الرَّجُلَ يَقُولُ مَا لَا يَفْعَلُهُ وَ رَأَيْتَ الرِّجَالَ يَتَسَمَّنُونَ لِلرِّجَالِ وَ النِّسَاءَ لِلنِّسَاءِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الرَّجُلَ مَعِيشَتُهُ مِنْ دُبُرِهِ وَ مَعِيشَةُ الْمَرْأَةِ مِنْ فَرْجِهَا وَ رَأَيْتَ النِّسَاءَ يَتَّخِذْنَ الْمَجَالِسَ كَمَا يَتَّخِذُهَا الرِّجَالُ وَ رَأَيْتَ التَّأْنِيثَ فِي وُلْدِ الْعَبَّاسِ قَدْ ظَهَرَ وَ أَظْهَرُوا الْخِضَابَ وَ امْتَشَطُوا كَمَا تَمْتَشِطُ الْمَرْأَةُ لِزَوْجِهَا وَ أَعْطَوُا

الرِّجَالَ الْأَمْوَالَ عَلَى فُرُوجِهِمْ وَ تُنُوفِسَ فِي الرَّجُلِ وَ تَغَايَرَ عَلَيْهِ الرِّجَالُ وَ كَانَ صَاحِبُ الْمَالِ أَعَزَّ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِ وَ كَانَ الرِّبَا ظَاهِراً لَا يُعَيَّرُ وَ كَانَ الزِّنَا تُمْتَدَحُ بِهِ النِّسَاءُ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْمَرْأَةَ تُصَانِعُ زَوْجَهَا عَلَى نِكَاحِ الرِّجَالِ وَ رَأَيْتَ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ وَ خَيْرَ بَيْتٍ مَنْ يُسَاعِدُ النِّسَاءَ عَلَى فِسْقِهِنَّ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْمُؤْمِنَ مَحْزُوناً مُحْتَقَراً ذَلِيلًا وَ رَأَيْتَ الْبِدَعَ وَ الزِّنَا قَدْ ظَهَرَ وَ رَأَيْتَ النَّاسَ يَعْتَدُّونَ بِشَاهِدِ الزُّورِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْحَرَامَ يُحَلَّلُ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْحَلَالَ يُحَرَّمُ وَ رَأَيْتَ الدِّينِ بِالرَّأْيِ وَ عُطِّلَ الْكِتَابُ وَ أَحْكَامُهُ وَ رَأَيْتَ اللَّيْلَ لَا يُسْتَخْفَى بِهِ مِنَ الْجُرْأَةِ عَلَى اللَّهِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْمُؤْمِنَ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُ أَنْ يُنْكِرَ إِلَّا بِقَلْبِهِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْعَظِيمَ مِنَ الْمَالِ يُنْفَقُ فِي سَخَطِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْوُلَاةَ يُقَرِّبُونَ أَهْلَ الْكُفْرِ وَ يُبَاعِدُونَ أَهْلَ الْخَيْرِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْوُلَاةَ يَرْتَشُونَ فِي الْحُكْمِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْوِلَايَةَ قَبَالَةً لِمَنْ زَادَ وَ رَأَيْتَ ذَوَاتِ الْأَرْحَامِ يُنْكَحْنَ وَ يُكْتَفَى بِهِنَّ وَ رَأَيْتَ الرَّجُلَ يُقْتَلُ عَلَى التُّهَمَةِ وَ عَلَى الظِّنَّةِ وَ يَتَغَايَرُ عَلَى الرَّجُلِ الذَّكَرِ فَيَبْذُلُ لَهُ نَفْسَهُ وَ مَالَهُ وَ رَأَيْتَ الرَّجُلَ يُعَيَّرُ عَلَى إِتْيَانِ النِّسَاءِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الرَّجُلَ يَأْكُلُ مِنْ كَسْبِ امْرَأَتِهِ مِنَ الْفُجُورِ يَعْلَمُ ذَلِكَ وَ يُقِيمُ عَلَيْهِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْمَرْأَةَ تَقْهَرُ زَوْجَهَا وَ تَعْمَلُ مَا لَا يَشْتَهِي وَ تُنْفِقُ عَلَى زَوْجِهَا وَ رَأَيْتَ الرَّجُلَ يُكْرِي امْرَأَتَهُ وَ جَارِيَتَهُ وَ يَرْضَى بِالدَّنِيِّ مِنَ الطَّعَامِ وَ الشَّرَابِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْأَيْمَانَ بِاللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ كَثِيرَةً عَلَى الزُّورِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْقِمَارَ قَدْ ظَهَرَ وَ رَأَيْتَ الشَّرَابَ يُبَاعُ ظَاهِراً لَيْسَ لَهُ مَانِعٌ وَ رَأَيْتَ النِّسَاءَ يَبْذُلْنَ أَنْفُسَهُنَّ لِأَهْلِ الْكُفْرِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْمَلَاهِيَ قَدْ ظَهَرَتْ يُمَرُّ بِهَا لَا يَمْنَعُهَا أَحَدٌ أَحَداً وَ لَا يَجْتَرِئُ أَحَدٌ عَلَى مَنْعِهَا وَ رَأَيْتَ الشَّرِيفَ يَسْتَذِلُّهُ الَّذِي يُخَافُ سُلْطَانُهُ وَ رَأَيْتَ أَقْرَبَ النَّاسِ مِنَ الْوُلَاةِ مَنْ يَمْتَدِحُ بِشَتْمِنَا أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَ رَأَيْتَ مَنْ يُحِبُّنَا يُزَوَّرُ وَ لَا تُقْبَلُ شَهَادَتُهُ وَ رَأَيْتَ الزُّورَ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ يُتَنَافَسُ فِيهِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْقُرْآنَ قَدْ ثَقُلَ عَلَى النَّاسِ اسْتِمَاعُهُ وَ خَفَّ عَلَى النَّاسِ اسْتِمَاعُ

الْبَاطِلِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْجَارَ يُكْرِمُ الْجَارَ خَوْفاً مِنْ لِسَانِهِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْحُدُودَ قَدْ عُطِّلَتْ وَ عُمِلَ فِيهَا بِالْأَهْوَاءِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْمَسَاجِدَ قَدْ زُخْرِفَتْ وَ رَأَيْتَ أَصْدَقَ النَّاسِ عِنْدَ النَّاسِ الْمُفْتَرِيَ الْكَذِبَ وَ رَأَيْتَ الشَّرَّ قَدْ ظَهَرَ وَ السَّعْيَ بِالنَّمِيمَةِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْبَغْيَ قَدْ فَشَا وَ رَأَيْتَ الْغِيبَةَ تُسْتَمْلَحُ وَ يُبَشِّرُ بِهَا النَّاسُ بَعْضُهُمْ بَعْضاً وَ رَأَيْتَ طَلَبَ الْحَجِّ وَ الْجِهَادِ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ وَ رَأَيْتَ السُّلْطَانَ يُذِلُّ لِلْكَافِرِ الْمُؤْمِنَ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْخَرَابَ قَدْ أُدِيلَ مِنَ الْعُمْرَانِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الرَّجُلَ مَعِيشَتُهُ مِنْ بَخْسِ الْمِكْيَالِ وَ الْمِيزَانِ وَ رَأَيْتَ سَفْكَ الدِّمَاءِ يُسْتَخَفُّ بِهَا وَ رَأَيْتَ الرَّجُلَ يَطْلُبُ الرِّئَاسَةَ لِعَرَضِ الدُّنْيَا وَ يَشْهَرُ نَفْسَهُ بِخُبْثِ اللِّسَانِ لِيُتَّقَى وَ تُسْنَدَ إِلَيْهِ الْأُمُورُ وَ رَأَيْتَ الصَّلَاةَ قَدِ اسْتُخِفَّ بِهَا وَ رَأَيْتَ الرَّجُلَ عِنْدَهُ الْمَالُ الْكَثِيرُ ثُمَّ لَمْ يُزَكِّهِ مُنْذُ مَلَكَهُ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْمَيِّتَ يُنْبَشُ مِنْ قَبْرِهِ وَ يُؤْذَى وَ تُبَاعُ أَكْفَانُهُ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْهَرْجَ قَدْ كَثُرَ وَ رَأَيْتَ الرَّجُلَ يُمْسِي نَشْوَانَ وَ يُصْبِحُ سَكْرَانَ لَا يَهْتَمُّ بِمَا النَّاسُ فِيهِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْبَهَائِمَ تُنْكَحُ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْبَهَائِمَ يَفْرِسُ بَعْضُهَا بَعْضاً وَ رَأَيْتَ الرَّجُلَ يَخْرُجُ إِلَى مُصَلَّاهُ وَ يَرْجِعُ وَ لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ مِنْ ثِيَابِهِ وَ رَأَيْتَ قُلُوبَ النَّاسِ قَدْ قَسَتْ وَ جَمَدَتْ أَعْيُنُهُمْ وَ ثَقُلَ الذِّكْرُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ رَأَيْتَ السُّحْتَ قَدْ ظَهَرَ يُتَنَافَسُ فِيهِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْمُصَلِّيَ إِنَّمَا يُصَلِّي لِيَرَاهُ النَّاسُ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْفَقِيهَ يَتَفَقَّهُ لِغَيْرِ الدِّينِ يَطْلُبُ الدُّنْيَا وَ الرِّئَاسَةَ وَ رَأَيْتَ النَّاسَ مَعَ مَنْ غَلَبَ وَ رَأَيْتَ طَالِبَ الْحَلَالِ يُذَمُّ وَ يُعَيَّرُ وَ طَالِبَ الْحَرَامِ يُمْدَحُ وَ يُعَظَّمُ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْحَرَمَيْنِ يُعْمَلُ فِيهِمَا بِمَا لَا يُحِبُّ اللَّهُ لَا يَمْنَعُهُمْ مَانِعٌ وَ لَا يَحُولُ بَيْنَهُمْ وَ بَيْنَ الْعَمَلِ الْقَبِيحِ أَحَدٌ وَ رَأَيْتَ الْمَعَازِفَ ظَاهِرَةً فِي الْحَرَمَيْنِ وَ رَأَيْتَ الرَّجُلَ يَتَكَلَّمُ بِشَيْ‏ءٍ مِنَ الْحَقِّ وَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَ يَنْهَى عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ فَيَقُومُ إِلَيْهِ مَنْ يَنْصَحُهُ فِي نَفْسِهِ فَيَ