Quran’s Apparent and hidden

Summary:

The Holy Quran is the last Book, Revealed by Allah-azwj unto Mohammed-saww (Rasool Allah‑saww, the Prophet of Allah-azwj). There will neither come another Prophet after Mohammed-saww, nor another Book after the Holy Quran until the day of Resurrection and Accountability of all people.  The Quran replaces all previous Divine books due to those being changed and distorted by the people to justify some of their or their ruler’s actions and policies, e.g.,

(In a Hadith, when the 7th Imam-asws was asked by a scholar of the previous Books -, he-asws explained that they (who forcefully got hold of the Books) have been wrongly changing, altering and the rejecting (Commands of Allah-azwj), for a long time’.[1]

The Holy Quran is commonly interpreted as per people’s opinion (Tafseer Bil Ra’yi) as a majority of them believe that ‘مُحْكَماً’ (the Decisive) Verses can be easily understood from apparent meanings and Ahadith are only needed when it comes to the interpretation of ‘مُتَشَابِهاً’ (allegorical) Verses.  Also there has been an emphasis, in some study groups, to explain meanings of the Verses through looking at the ‘Root’ of Arabic words or in extreme cases, assigning the numerical values to the Arabic words and deriving the meaning based on the similarity principles. However, all of these approaches will lead to the false and ambiguous meanings. Only through Ahadith, can one realise the differences between the apparent and hidden meanings of the Holy Verses of the Quran. For example:

وَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ‏ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ أَوْ غَيْرِهِ عَنْ جَمِيلِ بْنِ دَرَّاجٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ: تَفْسِيرُ الْقُرْآنِ‏ عَلَى‏ سَبْعَةِ أَوْجُهٍ مِنْهُ‏ مَا كَانَ‏ وَ مِنْهُ مَا لَمْ يَكُنْ بَعْدُ تَعْرِفُهُ الْأَئِمَّةُ ع.

And from him, from Al Fazl, from Musa Bin Al Qasim, from Ibn Abu Umeyr, or someone else, from Jameel Bin Daraaj, from Zurara,

(It has been narrated) from Abu Ja’far-asws having said; ‘The explanation of the Quran is upon seventy perspectives. From it is what is past, and from it what has not yet transpired. Thereafter, the Imams-asws recognise it’.[2]

Additional details and interpretation of the Holy Verses of Quran, Ahadith based explanation of Quran should be consulted, e.g., https://www.hubeali.com/tafseerhubeali/

Explanation of every letter from the Quran is upon its perspective

الْعَيَّاشِيُّ فِي تَفْسِيرِهِ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ السُّلَمِيِ‏ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً ع مَرَّ عَلَى قَاضٍ فَقَالَ أَ تَعْرِفُ النَّاسِخَ مِنَ الْمَنْسُوخِ قَالَ لَا فَقَالَ هَلَكْتَ وَ أَهْلَكْتَ تَأْوِيلُ‏ كُلِ‏ حَرْفٍ‏ مِنَ‏ الْقُرْآنِ‏ عَلَى‏ وُجُوهٍ‏.

From Abu Abdul Rahman Al Salmy,

‘Ali-asws passed by a judge, so he-asws said: ‘Do you recognise the Abrogating (Verse) from the Abrogated (Verse)?’ He said, ‘No’. So, he-asws said: ‘You are destroyed and will cause others to be destroyed. The explanation of every letter from the Quran is upon its perspective’.[3]

و عنه: عن أحمد بن الحسن القطان (رحمه الله) قال: حدثنا أحمد بن يحيى، عن بكر بن عبدالله بن حبيب، قال: حدثني أحمد بن يعقوب بن مطر، قال: حدثني محمد بن الحسن بن عبد العزيز الأحدب الجنديسابوري، قال: وجدت في كتاب أبي بخطه: حدثنا طلحة بن زيد، عن عبدالله بن عبيد ، عن أبي معمر السعداني،

And from him, from Ahmad Bin Al Hassan Al Qatan, from Ahmad Bin Yahya, from Bakr Bin Abdullah Bin Habeeb, from Ahmad Bin Yaqoub Bin Matar, from Muhammad Bin Al Hassan Bin Abdul Aziz Al Ahdab Al Jandeysapouri, from the book of his father, from Talha Bin Zayd, from Abdullah Bin Ubeyd, from Abu Ma’mar Al Sa’dany,

أن رجلا قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع‏ إِيَّاكَ‏ أَنْ‏ تُفَسِّرَ الْقُرْآنَ‏ بِرَأْيِكَ‏ حَتَّى‏ تَفْقَهَهُ‏ عَنِ‏ الْعُلَمَاءِ فَإِنَّهُ رُبَّ تَنْزِيلٍ يُشْبِهُ بِكَلَامِ الْبَشَرِ وَ هُوَ كَلَامُ اللَّهِ وَ تَأْوِيلُهُ لَا يُشْبِهُ كَلَامَ الْبَشَرِ كَمَا لَيْسَ شَيْ‏ءٌ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ يُشْبِهُهُ

‘There was a man, to whom, Amir Al-Momineen Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws said: ‘Beware of interpreting the Quran by your opinion until you understand it from the knowledgeable ones-asws, for it is such that the Lord-azwj Revealed it in a Speech of the humans, and it is the Speech of Allah-azwj. And its explanation cannot be resembled with the speech of the humans just as there isn’t anything from His-azwj creatures resembling Him-azwj.

كَذَلِكَ لَا يُشْبِهُ فِعْلُهُ تَعَالَى شَيْئاً مِنْ أَفْعَالِ الْبَشَرِ وَ لَا يُشْبِهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ مِنْ كَلَامِهِ بِكَلَامِ الْبَشَرِ فَكَلَامُ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى صِفَتُهُ وَ كَلَامُ الْبَشَرِ أَفْعَالُهُمْ فَلَا تُشَبِّهْ كَلَامَ اللَّهِ بِكَلَامِ الْبَشَرِ فَتَهْلِكَ وَ تَضِلَ‏.

Similar to that, His-azwj Deed, the Blessed and Exalted, nothing can resemble it from the deeds of the humans, nor can anything from His-azwj Speech resemble the speech of the humans. And the Speech of Allah-azwj is His-azwj Attribute, and the speech of the humans is their deed. Therefore, do not resemble the Speech of Allah-azwj with the speech of the humans, for you will be destroyed and stray’.[4]

عيون أخبار الرضا عليه السلام لي، الأمالي للصدوق ابْنُ الْمُتَوَكِّلِ عَنْ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ الرَّيَّانِ عَنِ الرِّضَا عَنْ آبَائِهِ عَنْ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص‏ قَالَ اللَّهُ جَلَّ جَلَالُهُ مَا آمَنَ بِي مَنْ فَسَّرَ بِرَأْيِهِ كَلَامِي وَ مَا عَرَفَنِي مَنْ شَبَّهَنِي بِخَلْقِي وَ مَا عَلَى دِينِي مَنِ اسْتَعْمَلَ الْقِيَاسَ فِي دِينِي‏.

(The books) ‘Uyoun Akhbar Al-Reza-asws’, may the greeting be upon him-asws, (and) ‘Al Amaali’ of Al Sadouq – Ibn Al Mutawakkil, from Ali, from his father, from Al Rayyan,

‘From Al-Reza-asws, from his-asws forefathers-asws, from Amir Al-Momineen-asws having said: ‘Rasool-Allah-saws said that ‘Allah-azwj, says: “He has not believed in Me-azwj, the one who interprets My-azwj Speech by his opinion, and he has not recognised Me-azwj, the one who resembles Me-azwj with My-azwj creation, and he is not upon My-azwj religion, the one who utilises the analogy in My-azwj religion!”’[5]

معاني الأخبار أَبِي عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ الْعَطَّارِ عَنْ سَهْلٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ عَنِ الْقَنْدِيِّ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ ذَرِيحٍ الْمُحَارِبِيِّ قَالَ: قُلْتُ لِأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَمَرَنِي فِي كِتَابِهِ بِأَمْرٍ فَأُحِبُّ أَنْ أَعْلَمَهُ

(The book) ‘Ma’any Al Akhbaar’ – My father, from Muhammad Al Attar, from Sahl, from Ali Bin Suleyman, from Al Qandy, from Abdullah Bin Sinan, from Zareeh Al Muhariby who said,

‘I said to Abu Abdullah-asws, ‘Allah-azwj has Commanded me in His-azwj Book with a Command, I would love to know it!’

قَالَ وَ مَا ذَاكَ

He-asws said: ‘And what is that?’

قُلْتُ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَ‏ ثُمَّ لْيَقْضُوا تَفَثَهُمْ وَ لْيُوفُوا نُذُورَهُمْ‏

I said, ‘Word Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic: Then let them accomplish their rituals, and let them fulfil their vows [22:29]’.

قَالَ‏ لْيَقْضُوا تَفَثَهُمْ‏ لُقَى الْإِمَامِ‏ وَ لْيُوفُوا نُذُورَهُمْ‏ تِلْكَ الْمَنَاسِكُ

He-asws said: ‘Then let them accomplish their rituals, – meet their Imam-aswsand let them fulfil their vows [22:29] – are those rituals’.

قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ سِنَانٍ فَأَتَيْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع فَقُلْتُ جَعَلَنِيَ اللَّهُ فِدَاكَ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَ‏ ثُمَّ لْيَقْضُوا تَفَثَهُمْ وَ لْيُوفُوا نُذُورَهُمْ‏

Abdullah Bin Sinan (the narrator) said, ‘I came to Abu Abdullah-asws. I said, ‘May Allah-azwj Make me to be sacrificed for you-asws! Words of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic: Then let them accomplish their rituals, and let them fulfil their vows [22:29]’.

قَالَ أَخْذُ الشَّارِبِ وَ قَصُّ الْأَظْفَارِ وَ مَا أَشْبَهَ ذَلِكَ

He-asws said: ‘Taking (trimming) the moustache and clipping the nails, and what resembles that’.

قَالَ قُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ فَإِنَّ ذَرِيحاً الْمُحَارِبِيَّ حَدَّثَنِي عَنْكَ أَنَّكَ قُلْتَ لَهُ‏ ثُمَّ لْيَقْضُوا تَفَثَهُمْ‏ لُقَى الْإِمَامِ‏ وَ لْيُوفُوا نُذُورَهُمْ‏ تِلْكَ الْمَنَاسِكُ

He (the narrator) said, ‘I said, ‘May I be sacrificed for you-asws! Zareeh Al-Muhariby (the narrator) narrated to me from you-asws that you-asws had said to him: ‘Then let them accomplish their rituals, – meet their Imam-asws and let them fulfil their vows [22:29] – are those rituals!’’

فَقَالَ صَدَقَ ذَرِيحٌ وَ صَدَقْتَ إِنَ‏ لِلْقُرْآنِ ظَاهِراً وَ بَاطِناً وَ مَنْ يَحْتَمِلُ مَا يَحْتَمِلُ ذَرِيحٌ‏.

He-asws said: ‘Zareeh spoke the truth and you speak the truth. For the Quran there is an apparent (exoteric) and a hidden (esoteric), and who can tolerate what Zareeh can tolerate?’’[6]

The Apparent (exoteric) and Hidden (esoteric) of the Quran:

تفسير العياشي عَنْ جَابِرٍ قَالَ: سَأَلْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ ع عَنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فِي تَفْسِيرِ الْقُرْآنِ فَأَجَابَنِي ثُمَّ سَأَلْتُهُ ثَانِيَةً فَأَجَابَنِي بِجَوَابٍ آخَرَ فَقُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ كُنْتَ أَجَبْتَ فِي هَذِهِ الْمَسْأَلَةِ بِجَوَابٍ غَيْرِ هَذَا قَبْلَ الْيَوْمِ

Tafseer Al Ayyashi – from Jabir who said,

‘I asked Abu Ja’far-asws about something from interpretation of the Quran. He-asws answered me. Then I asked him for a second time. He-asws answered me with another answer. I said, ‘May I be sacrificed for you-asws! You-asws had answered regarding this issue with an answer other than this, before today!’

فَقَالَ لِي يَا جَابِرُ إِنَّ لِلْقُرْآنِ بَطْناً وَ لِلْبَطْنِ بَطْنٌ وَ لَهُ ظَهْرٌ وَ لِلظَّهْرِ ظَهْرٌ

He-asws said to me: ‘O Jabir! For the Quran there is an esoteric (hidden), and for the esoteric there is an esoteric, and there is an apparent for it, and for the apparent there is an apparent!

يَا جَابِرُ وَ لَيْسَ شَيْ‏ءٌ أَبْعَدَ مِنْ عُقُولِ الرِّجَالِ مِنْ تَفْسِيرِ الْقُرْآنِ إِنَّ الْآيَةَ لَتَكُونُ أَوَّلُهَا فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ وَ آخِرُهَا فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ وَ هُوَ كَلَامٌ مُتَّصِلٌ يُتَصَرَّفُ عَلَى وُجُوهٍ‏.

O Jabir, and there isn’t anything further from the intellects of men than interpretation of the Quran. The Verse, it’s beginning could be regarding a thing, and its ending regarding a thing, and it is a connected Speech articulated upon (various) aspects’’.[7]

تفسير العياشي عَنْ حُمْرَانَ بْنِ أَعْيَنَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ: ظَهْرُ الْقُرْآنِ الَّذِينَ نَزَلَ فِيهِمْ وَ بَطْنُهُ الَّذِينَ عَمِلُوا بِمِثْلِ أَعْمَالِهِمْ‏.

Tafseer Al Ayyashi – from Humran Bin Ayn,

‘From Abu Ja’far-asws having said: ‘The Apparent of the Quran is for the ones-asws it was Revealed, and its esoteric is for those who work with the likes of their-asws deeds’’.[8]

تفسير العياشي عَنِ الْفُضَيْلِ بْنِ يَسَارٍ قَالَ: سَأَلْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ ع عَنْ هَذِهِ الرِّوَايَةِ مَا فِي الْقُرْآنِ آيَةٌ إِلَّا وَ لَهَا ظَهْرٌ وَ بَطْنٌ وَ مَا فِيهِ حَرْفٌ إِلَّا وَ لَهُ حَدٌّ وَ لِكُلِّ حَدٍّ مَطْلَعٌ مَا يَعْنِي بِقَوْلِهِ لَهَا ظَهْرٌ وَ بَطْنٌ

Tafseer Al Ayyashi – from Al Fuzeyl Bin Yasaar who said,

‘I asked Abu Ja’far-asws about this report, ‘There is no Verse in the Quran except and for it is an apparent and an esoteric, and there is no letter in it except and there is a limit for it, and for every limit there is a notification of what is meant by His-azwj Word, having an apparent and an esoteric for it’.

قَالَ ظَهْرُهُ وَ بَطْنُهُ تَأْوِيلُهُ مِنْهُ مَا مَضَى وَ مِنْهُ مَا لَمْ يَكُنْ بَعْدُ يَجْرِي كَمَا تَجْرِي الشَّمْسُ وَ الْقَمَرُ كُلَّمَا جَاءَ مِنْهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَقَعَ قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى‏ وَ ما يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَ الرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ‏ نَحْنُ نَعْلَمُهُ‏.

He-asws said: ‘It’s apparent and it’s esoteric, it’s interpretation. From it is what is past, and from it is what has not happened yet. It flows like what the sun and the moon flow. Every time something comes from it, it (interpretation) occurs. Allah-azwj the Exalted Said: And none knows its interpretation except Allah, and those who are firmly rooted in the Knowledge. [3:7]. We-asws know (all of) it’’.[9]

Examples of Apparent and Hidden meaning of the Holy Verses:

There are numerous examples in the Holy Quran where taking the apparent meaning of a Verse would be misleading. For example:

In another Hadith, Amir Al-Momineen-asws explains:

فَقَالَ ع وَ أَمَّا قَوْلُهُ‏ هَلْ تَعْلَمُ لَهُ سَمِيًّا فَإِنَّ تَأْوِيلَهُ هَلْ تَعْلَمُ لَهُ أَحَداً اسْمُهُ اللَّهُ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى فَإِيَّاكَ أَنْ تُفَسِّرَ الْقُرْآنَ بِرَأْيِكَ حَتَّى‏ تَفْقَهَهُ عَنِ الْعُلَمَاءِ

He-asws said: ‘And as for His-azwj Words: Do you know for Him a (similar) Name? [19:65]. Its interpretation is, ‘Do you know of anyone whose name is ‘Allah’ apart from Allah-azwj Blessed and Exalted?’ Therefore, beware of interpreting the Quran by your opinions until you understanding it from the Scholars-asws!

فَإِنَّهُ رُبَّ تَنْزِيلٍ يُشْبِهُ بِكَلَامِ الْبَشَرِ وَ هُوَ كَلَامُ اللَّهِ وَ تَأْوِيلُهُ لَا يُشْبِهُ كَلَامَ الْبَشَرِ كَمَا لَيْسَ شَيْ‏ءٌ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ يُشْبِهُهُ كَذَلِكَ لَا يُشْبِهُ فِعْلُهُ تَعَالَى شَيْئاً مِنْ أَفْعَالِ الْبَشَرِ وَ لَا يُشْبِهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ مِنْ كَلَامِهِ بِكَلَامِ الْبَشَرِ

Sometimes the Revelation resembles with speech of the ‘الْبَشَرِ’ people, but it is Speech of Allah-azwj, and its interpretation does not resemble speech of the people, just as there isn’t anything from His-azwj creation resembling Him-azwj, like nothing from Actions of the Exalted resembles actions of the people, nor does anything from His-azwj Speech resembles with speech of the people. (An extract)[10]

Some examples of such Verses are cited below:

Looking at their Lord [75:23]:

In a lengthy Hadith, Imam Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws explains that Allah-azwj cannot be visualised through the eyes. When looking at Him-azwj is mentioned in some of the Holy Verses, it means to anticipate His-azwj Rewards in the Hereafter.

قَالَ عَلِيٌّ ع وَ أَمَّا قَوْلُهُ‏ وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ ناضِرَةٌ إِلى‏ رَبِّها ناظِرَةٌ ذَلِكَ فِي مَوْضِعٍ يَنْتَهِي فِيهِ أَوْلِيَاءُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ بَعْدَ مَا يَفْرُغُ مِنَ الْحِسَابِ إِلَى نَهَرٍ يُسَمَّى نَهَرَ الْحَيَوَانِ فَيَغْتَسِلُونَ مِنْهُ وَ يَشْرَبُونَ مِنْ آخَرَ فَتَبْيَضُّ وُجُوهُهُمْ فَيَذْهَبُ عَنْهُمْ كُلَّ أَذًى وَ قَذًى وَ وَعْثٍ ثُمَّ يُؤْمَرُونَ بِدُخُولِ الْجَنَّةِ

Ali-asws said: ‘And as for His-azwj Words: (Some) faces on that Day would be radiant [75:22] Looking at their Lord [75:23]. That is a place wherein the friends of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic would end up to (in the Hereafter), after being free from the Reckoning up to a river named as ‘the river Haywaan’. They will wash from it and drink from another. Their faces will become bright, and every harm, dirt and grudge will be removed from them. Then they will enter the Paradise.

فَمِنْ هَذَا الْمَقَامِ يَنْظُرُونَ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ كَيْفَ يُثِيبُهُمْ وَ مِنْهُ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ فَذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فِي تَسْلِيمِ الْمَلَائِكَةِ عَلَيْهِمْ- سَلامٌ عَلَيْكُمْ طِبْتُمْ فَادْخُلُوها خالِدِينَ‏

From this position, they will be looking at their Lord-azwj (in anticipation) of how He-azwj will be Rewarding them, and from it they will be entering the Paradise. That is the Word of Mighty and Majestic regarding the salutation of the Angels upon them: ‘Peace be upon you! You are good, therefore enter it to abide eternally [39:73].

فَعِنْدَ ذَلِكَ أُثِيبُوا بِدُخُولِ الْجَنَّةِ وَ النَّظَرِ إِلَى مَا وَعَدَهُمُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فَذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى‏ إِلى‏ رَبِّها ناظِرَةٌ وَ النَّاظِرَةُ فِي بَعْضِ اللُّغَةِ هِيَ الْمُنْتَظِرَةُ أَ لَمْ تَسْمَعْ إِلَى قَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى‏ فَناظِرَةٌ بِمَ يَرْجِعُ الْمُرْسَلُونَ‏ أَيْ مُنْتَظِرَةٌ بِمَ يَرْجِعُ الْمُرْسَلُونَ

During that, they will be Rewarded with entering the Paradise and looking at what Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic had Promised them. That is Word of the Exalted: Looking at their Lord [75:23], and the ‘looking’ in some of the languages, it is the awaiting (anticipating). Have you not listened to the Words of the Exalted: then we shall see what the messengers return with’ [27:35], i.e., awaiting what the messengers would be returning with.

وَ أَمَّا قَوْلُهُ‏ لا يَنْظُرُ إِلَيْهِمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيامَةِ يُخْبِرُ أَنَّهُ لَا يُصِيبُهُمْ بِخَيْرٍ وَ قَدْ يَقُولُ الْعَرَبُ وَ اللَّهِ مَا يَنْظُرُ إِلَيْنَا فُلَانٌ وَ إِنَّمَا يَعْنُونَ بِذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ لَا يُصِيبُنَا مِنْهُ بِخَيْرٍ فَذَلِكَ النَّظَرُ هَاهُنَا مِنَ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى إِلَى خَلْقِهِ فَنَظَرُهُ إِلَيْهِمْ رَحْمَةٌ لَهُمْ

And as for His-azwj Words: nor will He Look at them on the Day of Qiyamah, He-azwj Inform that He-azwj will not Deal with them with goodness, and the Arabs tend to say, ‘By Allah-azwj! So and so is not looking at us!’, and rather they mean by that, ‘We are not achieving anything goodness from him’. So that is the ‘looking’ over here from Allah-azwj Blessed and Exalted to His-azwj creatures. His-azwj Looking at them is Mercy for them.

وَ أَمَّا قَوْلُهُ‏ وَ لَقَدْ رَآهُ نَزْلَةً أُخْرى‏- عِنْدَ سِدْرَةِ الْمُنْتَهى‏ يَعْنِي مُحَمَّداً ص حِينَ كَانَ عِنْدَ سِدْرَةِ الْمُنْتَهَى حَيْثُ لَا يُجَاوِزُهَا خَلْقٌ مِنْ خَلْقِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ

And as for His-azwj Words: And he had seen him in another descent [53:13] At the Lote Tree [53:14], meaning Muhammad-saww when he-saww was at the Lote tree whereby no creature from creatures of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic had surpassed it.

وَ قَوْلُهُ فِي آخِرِ الْآيَةِ ما زاغَ الْبَصَرُ وَ ما طَغى‏- لَقَدْ رَأى‏ مِنْ آياتِ رَبِّهِ الْكُبْرى‏ رَأَى جَبْرَئِيلَ ع فِي صُورَتِهِ مَرَّتَيْنِ هَذِهِ الْمَرَّةَ وَ مَرَّةً أُخْرَى وَ ذَلِكَ أَنَّ خَلْقَ جَبْرَئِيلَ ع خَلْقٌ عَظِيمٌ فَهُوَ مِنَ الرُّوحَانِيِّينَ الَّذِينَ لَا يُدْرِكُ خَلْقَهُمْ وَ لَا صِفَتَهُمْ إِلَّا رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ

And His-azwj Words in another Verse: Neither did the sight deviate nor did it exceed [53:17] He saw from the greatest Signs of his Lord [53:18]. He-saww saw Jibraeel-as in his-as own image twice. This time and another time, and that is because the physique of Jibraeel-as is a mighty physique. He-as is from the spiritual beings, those whose physiques cannot be realised nor described except by Lord-azwj of the worlds’

وَ أَمَّا قَوْلُهُ‏ لا يَنْظُرُ إِلَيْهِمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيامَةِ يُخْبِرُ أَنَّهُ لَا يُصِيبُهُمْ بِخَيْرٍ وَ قَدْ يَقُولُ الْعَرَبُ وَ اللَّهِ مَا يَنْظُرُ إِلَيْنَا فُلَانٌ وَ إِنَّمَا يَعْنُونَ بِذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ لَا يُصِيبُنَا مِنْهُ بِخَيْرٍ فَذَلِكَ النَّظَرُ هَاهُنَا مِنَ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى إِلَى خَلْقِهِ فَنَظَرُهُ إِلَيْهِمْ رَحْمَةٌ لَهُمْ

And as for His-azwj Words: nor will He Look at them on the Day of Qiyamah, He-azwj Inform that He-azwj will not Deal with them with goodness, and the Arabs tend to say, ‘By Allah-azwj! So and so is not looking as us!’, and rather they mean by that, ‘We are not achieving anything goodness from him’. So that is the ‘looking’ over here from Allah-azwj Blessed and Exalted to His-azwj creatures. His-azwj Looking at them is Mercy for them.

قَالَ فَرَّجْتَ عَنِّي فَرَّجَ اللَّهُ عَنْكَ وَ حَلَلْتَ عَنِّي عُقْدَةً فَعَظَّمَ اللَّهُ أَجْرَكَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

He said, ‘You have relieved from me, may Allah-azwj Relieve you-asws, and you-asws have untied a knot, may Allah-azwj Magnify your-asws Recompense, O Amir Al-Momineen-asws!’

وَ قَدْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص يَا جَبْرَئِيلُ هَلْ رَأَيْتَ رَبَّكَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ

And Rasool-Allah-saww had said: ‘O Jibraeel-saww! Have you-as seen your-as Lord-azwj Mighty and Majestic?’

فَقَالَ جَبْرَئِيلُ ع إِنَّ رَبِّي عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لَا يُرَى

‘Jibraeel-as said: ‘My-azwj Lord-azwj Mighty and Majestic cannot be seen!’

فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص مِنْ أَيْنَ تَأْخُذُ الْوَحْيَ

Rasool-Allah-saww said: ‘Where do you-as take the Revelation from?’

قَالَ آخُذُهُ مِنْ إِسْرَافِيلَ

He-as said: ‘I-as take is from Israfeel-as’.

قَالَ وَ مِنْ أَيْنَ يَأْخُذُهُ إِسْرَافِيلُ

He-saww said: ‘And where does Israfeel-as take it from?’

قَالَ يَأْخُذُهُ مِنْ مَلَكٍ مِنْ فَوْقِهِ مِنَ الرُّوحَانِيِّينَ

He-as said: ‘He-as takes it from above him-as, from Al-Rouhneen’.

قَالَ فَمِنْ أَيْنَ يَأْخُذُهُ ذَلِكَ الْمَلَكُ

He-saww said: ‘Where does that Angel take from?’

قَالَ يُقْذَفُ فِي قَلْبِهِ قَذْفاً

He-as said: ‘It is cast into his heart with a casting’.

فَهَذَا وَحْيٌ وَ هُوَ كَلَامُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ كَلَامُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لَيْسَ بِنَحْوٍ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُ مَا كَلَّمَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ بِهِ الرُّسُلَ وَ مِنْهُ مَا قَذَفَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ وَ مِنْهُ رُؤْيَا يَرَاهَا الرُّسُلُ وَ مِنْهُ وَحْيٌ وَ تَنْزِيلٌ يُتْلَى وَ يُقْرَأُ فَهُوَ كَلَامُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ

So, this is Revelation, and it is Speech of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic, and the Speech of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic, not one of it is similar to what Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic Spoke to the Messengers-as with – from it is what is cast into their-as hearts, and from it is a dream the Messengers-as see, and from it is Revelation, and descent of recitation and read. It is Speech of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic’

مِنْ ذَلِكَ قَوْلُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ع‏ إِنِّي ذاهِبٌ إِلى‏ رَبِّي سَيَهْدِينِ‏ فَذَهَابُهُ إِلَى رَبِّهِ تَوَجُّهُهُ إِلَيْهِ عِبَادَةً وَ اجْتِهَاداً وَ قُرْبَةً إِلَى اللَّهِ جَلَّ وَ عَزَّ أَ لَا تَرَى أَنَّ تَأْوِيلَهُ غَيْرُ تَنْزِيلِهِ

From that are words of Ibrahim-as: ‘I am going to my Lord. He would be Guiding me’ [37:99]. His-as ‘going’ to his-as Lord-azwj is his-as concentrating to Him-azwj in worship and striving, and his-as drawing closer to Allah-azwj Majestic and Mighty. Don’t you see its interpretation is other than its Revelation?

وَ قَالَ فِي آيَةٍ أُخْرَى‏ فَأَتاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَمْ يَحْتَسِبُوا يَعْنِي أَرْسَلَ عَلَيْهِمْ عَذَاباً وَ كَذَلِكَ إِتْيَانُهُ بُنْيَانَهُمْ وَ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَ‏ فَأَتَى اللَّهُ بُنْيانَهُمْ مِنَ الْقَواعِدِ فَإِتْيَانُهُ بُنْيَانَهُمْ مِنَ الْقَوَاعِدِ إِرْسَالُ الْعَذَابِ

And He-azwj Said in another Verse: But, Allah Came to them from where they had not reckoned, [59:2], meaning Sent Punishment upon them, and like that is His-azwj ‘Coming’ to their foundations, and Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic Said: Allah Came to (Demolished) their building from the foundations, [16:26]. His-azwj ‘Coming’ to their foundation is Sending the Punishment.

‏ وَ كَذَلِكَ مَا وَصَفَ مِنْ أَمْرِ الْآخِرَةِ تَبَارَكَ اسْمُهُ وَ تَعَالَى عُلُوّاً كَبِيراً وَ تَجْرِي أُمُورُهُ فِي ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ الَّذِي‏ كانَ مِقْدارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ كَمَا تَجْرِي أُمُورُهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا لَا يَلْعَبُ وَ لَا يَأْفِلُ مَعَ الْآفِلِينَ

And like that is what He-azwj Described from matters of the Hereafter. Blessed is His-azwj Name and Exalted, Lofty, Great, and His-azwj Commands will flow during that Day which its measurement would be of fifty thousand years, just as His-azwj Commands flow in the world. He-azwj neither Plays nor Dallies with the idle ones. (An extract).[11]

Never! On that Day they would be Veiled from their Lord [83:15]

قَالَ عَلِيٌّ ع وَ أَمَّا قَوْلُهُ‏ كَلَّا إِنَّهُمْ عَنْ رَبِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ لَمَحْجُوبُونَ‏ فَإِنَّمَا يَعْنِي بِهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ عَنْ ثَوَابِ رَبِّهِمْ لَمَحْجُوبُونَ

Ali-asws said: ‘And as for His-azwj Words: Never! On that Day they would be Veiled from their Lord [83:15], rather He-azwj Means the Day of Qiyamah by it. They would be veiled (barred) from Rewards of their Lord-azwj (an extract).[12]

Are they only waiting that the Angels should come to them, [6:158]

فَقَالَ‏ هَلْ يَنْظُرُونَ إِلَّا أَنْ تَأْتِيَهُمُ الْمَلائِكَةُ أَوْ يَأْتِيَ رَبُّكَ أَوْ يَأْتِيَ بَعْضُ آياتِ رَبِّكَ‏ يَعْنِي بِذَلِكَ الْعَذَابَ يَأْتِيهِمْ فِي دَارِ الدُّنْيَا كَمَا عَذَّبَ الْقُرُونَ الْأُولَى فَهَذَا خَبَرٌ يُخْبِرُ بِهِ النَّبِيَّ ص عَنْهُمْ

He-azwj Said: Are they only waiting that the Angels should come to them, or your Lord should come, or some of the Signs of your Lord should come? [6:158], meaning by that the Punishment coming to them in house of the world, just as the former generations had been Punished. So, this is the news He-azwj Informed the Prophet-saww with about them (an extract).[13]

But, Allah Came to them from where they had not anticipated [59:2]

وَ قَالَ فِي آيَةٍ أُخْرَى‏ فَأَتاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَمْ يَحْتَسِبُوا يَعْنِي أَرْسَلَ عَلَيْهِمْ عَذَاباً وَ كَذَلِكَ إِتْيَانُهُ بُنْيَانَهُمْ حَيْثُ قَالَ‏ فَأَتَى اللَّهُ بُنْيانَهُمْ مِنَ‏ الْقَواعِدِ يَعْنِي أَرْسَلَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْعَذَابَ

And He-azwj Said in another Verse: But, Allah Came to them from where they had not anticipated [59:2], meaning Sending the Punishment upon them. And like that He-azwj Came to their foundations whereby He-azwj Said: Allah Came to (Demolished) their building from the foundations, [16:26], meaning He-azwj Sent the Punishment upon them’ (an extract).[14].

Meeting with Allah-azwj [32:10, 2:46, 9:77, 18:110, 29:5]

There are several Holy Verses having apparent meanings of meeting Allah-azwj but the hidden meanings are totally different than the apparent ones:

قَالَ عَلِيٌّ ع وَ أَمَّا قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَ‏ بَلْ هُمْ بِلِقاءِ رَبِّهِمْ كافِرُونَ‏ وَ قَوْلُهُ‏ الَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُمْ مُلاقُوا رَبِّهِمْ‏ وَ قَوْلُهُ‏ إِلى‏ يَوْمِ يَلْقَوْنَهُ‏ وَ قَوْلُهُ‏ فَمَنْ كانَ يَرْجُوا لِقاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلًا صالِحاً يَعْنِي الْبَعْثَ فَسَمَّاهُ اللَّهُ لِقَاءً

Ali-asws said: ‘And as for Words of Mighty and Majestic:  But, they are disbelievers in the meeting of their Lord [32:10]; and His-azwj Words: Those who are thinking that they would be meeting their Lord, [2:46]; and His-azwj Words: until the Day they meet Him, [9:77]; and His-azwj Words: So the one who wishes to meet his Lord, let him do righteous deeds [18:110], meaning the Resurrection. Allah-azwj Named it as ‘meeting’.

وَ كَذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ‏ مَنْ كانَ يَرْجُوا لِقاءَ اللَّهِ فَإِنَّ أَجَلَ اللَّهِ لَآتٍ‏ يَعْنِي مَنْ كَانَ يُؤْمِنُ أَنَّهُ مَبْعُوثٌ فَإِنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ لَآتٍ مِنَ الثَّوَابِ وَ الْعِقَابِ فَاللِّقَاءُ هَاهُنَا لَيْسَ بِالرُّؤْيَةِ وَ اللِّقَاءُ هُوَ الْبَعْثُ

And like that are His-azwj Words: One who was hopeful of meeting Allah, so the term of Allah shall come, [29:5], meaning one who had believed that he would be Resurrected, for the Promise of Allah-azwj, from the Reward and Punishment, will come. The ‘meeting’ over here isn’t the seeing, and the meeting, it is the Resurrection.

وَ كَذَلِكَ‏ تَحِيَّتُهُمْ يَوْمَ يَلْقَوْنَهُ سَلامٌ‏ يَعْنِي أَنَّهُ لَا يَزُولُ الْإِيمَانُ عَنْ قُلُوبِهِمْ يَوْمَ يُبْعَثُونَ

And like that: Their salutation on the Day that they meet Him shall be, Peace! [33:44], meaning the Eman will not decline from their hearts on the Day they are Resurrected’ (an extract).[15].

و في التوحيد عن أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: يعني من كان يؤمن بأنّه مبعوث‏ فَإِنَ‏ وعد اللَّه‏ لَآتٍ‏ من الثواب و العقاب

And in (the book) Al Tawheed –

‘From Amir Al Momineen-asws (having said re: One who was hopeful of meeting Allah, so the term of Allah shall come, and He is the Hearing, the Knowing [29:5]): It means, one who believed that he would be Resurrected, so the Promise of Allah-azwj will Come, from the Reward and the Punishment’.

قال فاللّقاء هاهنا ليس بالرّؤية و اللّقاء هو البعث‏ وَ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ‏ لاقوال العباد الْعَلِيمُ‏ بعقائدهم و أعمالهم.

He-asws said: ‘So the meeting (with Allah-azwj) over here, isn’t with the sighting, and the meeting (with Allah-azwj), it is the Resurrection, and He is the Hearing – of the speech of the servant, the Knowing [29:5] – with their beliefs and their deeds’’.[16]

In another Hadith;

فَأَمَّا قَوْلُهُ‏ بَلْ هُمْ بِلِقاءِ رَبِّهِمْ كافِرُونَ‏ يَعْنِي الْبَعْثَ فَسَمَّاهُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لِقَاءَهُ وَ كَذَلِكَ ذِكْرُهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ- الَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُمْ مُلاقُوا رَبِّهِمْ‏ يَعْنِي يُوقِنُونَ أَنَّهُمْ يُبْعَثُونَ وَ يُحْشَرُونَ وَ يُحَاسَبُونَ وَ يُجْزَوْنَ بِالثَّوَابِ وَ الْعِقَابِ وَ الظَّنُّ هَاهُنَا الْيَقِينُ

As for His-azwj Words: But, they are disbelievers in the meeting of their Lord [32:10], meaning the Resurrection. Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic Name is as ‘Meeting Him-azwj’, and like that is His-azwj Mentioning the believers: Those who are thinking that they would be meeting their Lord [2:46], meaning they are convinced they will be Resurrected and Gathered and Reckoned with and Recompensed with the Reward and the Punishment, and the ‘thinking’ over here is the certainty.

وَ كَذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ‏ فَمَنْ كانَ يَرْجُوا لِقاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلًا صالِحاً وَ قَوْلُهُ‏ مَنْ كانَ يَرْجُوا لِقاءَ اللَّهِ فَإِنَّ أَجَلَ اللَّهِ لَآتٍ‏ يَعْنِي فَمَنْ كَانَ يُؤْمِنُ بِأَنَّهُ مَبْعُوثٌ فَإِنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ لَآتٍ مِنَ الثَّوَابِ وَ الْعِقَابِ فَاللِّقَاءُ هَاهُنَا لَيْسَ بِالرُّؤْيَةِ وَ اللِّقَاءُ هُوَ الْبَعْثُ فَافْهَمْ جَمِيعَ مَا فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ مِنْ لِقَاءٍ فَإِنَّهُ يَعْنِي بِذَلِكَ الْبَعْثَ‏

And like are His-azwj Words: So, the one who wishes to meet his Lord, let him do righteous deeds [18:110]; and His-azwj Words: One who was hopeful of meeting Allah, so the term of Allah shall come, [29:5], meaning the one who was believing that he would be Resurrected, so the Promise of Allah-azwj will come, of the Rewards and the Punishment. The ‘meeting’ over here isn’t with the seeing, and the ‘meeting’, it is the Resurrection, therefore understand entirety of what is in the Book of Allah-azwj ‘مِنْ لِقَاءٍ’ of ‘meeting’, it means the Resurrection with that. (An extract)[17]

Righteous Guidance and the Righteous Deeds (21:94, 20:82)

Who is a Momin, the one who carries out righteous deeds or the one who follows the righteous guidance and then performs the righteous deeds?

وَ أَجِدُهُ يَقُولُ‏ فَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ مِنَ الصَّالِحاتِ وَ هُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَلا كُفْرانَ لِسَعْيِهِ‏ وَ يَقُولُ‏ وَ إِنِّي لَغَفَّارٌ لِمَنْ تابَ وَ آمَنَ وَ عَمِلَ صالِحاً ثُمَّ اهْتَدى‏ أَعْلَمَ فِي الْآيَةِ الْأَوْلَى أَنَّ الْأَعْمَالَ الصَّالِحَةَ لَا تُكَفَّرُ وَ أَعْلَمَ فِي الْآيَةِ الثَّانِيَةِ أَنَّ الْإِيمَانَ وَ الْأَعْمَالَ الصَّالِحَةَ لَا يَنْفَعُ إِلَّا بَعْدَ الِاهْتِدَاءِ

And I find Him-azwj Saying: So, one who does from the righteous deeds and he is a Momin, then there will be no denying his exertion, [21:94]; and He-azwj Says: And I am Forgiving to the one who repents and believes and does righteous deeds, then (follows) righteous Guidance [20:82]. Know that in the first Verse, the righteous deeds are not denied, and know that in the second Verse the Eman and the righteous deeds do not benefit except after the righteous Guidance (an extract).[18]

And ask ones We Sent from before you from Our Rasools, [43:45]

How can one ask from the dead ones? See for example Allah-azwj Says:

وَ أَجِدُهُ يَقُولُ‏ وَ سْئَلْ مَنْ أَرْسَلْنا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ مِنْ رُسُلِنا فَكَيْفَ يَسْأَلُ الْحَيُّ الْأَمْوَاتَ قَبْلَ الْبَعْثِ وَ النُّشُورِ

And I find Him-azwj Saying: And ask ones We Sent from before you from Our Rasools, [43:45]. How can the living one ask the dead ones, before the Resurrection and the Publication of deeds?

In a lengthy Hadith, Amir Al-Momineen-asws explains:

وَ أَمَّا قَوْلُهُ‏ وَ سْئَلْ مَنْ أَرْسَلْنا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ مِنْ رُسُلِنا فَهَذَا مِنْ بَرَاهِينِ نَبِيِّنَا ص الَّتِي آتَاهُ اللَّهُ إِيَّاهَا وَ أَوْجَبَ بِهِ الْحُجَّةَ عَلَى سَائِرِ خَلْقِهِ لِأَنَّهُ لَمَّا خَتَمَ بِهِ الْأَنْبِيَاءَ وَ جَعَلَهُ اللَّهُ رَسُولًا إِلَى جَمِيعِ الْأُمَمِ وَ سَائِرِ الْمِلَلِ

And as for His-azwj Words: And ask ones We Sent from before you from Our Rasools [43:45], so this is from proofs of our-asws Prophet-saww which Allah-azwj had Given to him-saww and Obligated the argument with it upon rest of His-azwj creatures, because when He-azwj Ended the Prophets-as with him-saww and Allah-azwj Made him-saww him-saww a Rasool-saww to entirety of the communities and rest of the nations.

خَصَّهُ اللَّهُ بِالارْتِقَاءِ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ عِنْدَ الْمِعْرَاجِ وَ جَمَعَ لَهُ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْأَنْبِيَاءَ فَعَلِمَ مِنْهُمْ مَا أُرْسِلُوا بِهِ وَ حَمَلُوهُ مِنْ عَزَائِمِ اللَّهِ وَ آيَاتِهِ وَ بَرَاهِينِهِ

Allah-azwj Particularised him-saww with being raised to the sky during the Ascension, and on that day He-azwj Gathered the Prophets-as to him-saww. He-saww came to know from them-as what they-as had been Sent with and loaded with from Determinations of Allah-azwj, and His-azwj Signs, and His-azwj Proofs.

وَ أَقَرُّوا أَجْمَعِينَ بِفَضْلِهِ وَ فَضْلِ الْأَوْصِيَاءِ وَ الْحُجَجِ فِي الْأَرْضِ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ وَ فَضْلِ شِيعَةِ وَصِيِّهِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ الَّذِينَ سَلَّمُوا لِأَهْلِ الْفَضْلِ فَضْلَهُمْ وَ لَمْ يَسْتَكْبِرُوا عَنْ أَمْرِهِمْ وَ عَرَفَ مَنْ أَطَاعَهُمْ وَ عَصَاهُمْ مِنْ أُمَمِهِمْ وَ سَائِرِ مَنْ مَضَى وَ مَنْ غَبَرَ أَوْ تَقَدَّمَ أَوْ تَأَخَّرَ

And they all accepted his-saww merit and merits of the successors-asws and the Divine Authorities in the earth from after him-saww, and merit of Shias of his-saww successor-asws, from the believing men and the believing women, those who had submitted to the people of merit of their-asws merits and did not become too arrogant from their-asws orders, and he-saww came to know who from their-as communities had obeyed them-as and disobeyed them-as, and reasons of the ones past and remaining, or went ahead or stayed back.

وَ أَمَّا هَفَوَاتُ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ ع وَ مَا بَيَّنَهُ اللَّهُ فِي كِتَابِهِ وَ وُقُوعُ الْكِنَايَةِ عَنْ أَسْمَاءِ مَنِ اجْتَرَمَ أَعْظَمُ مِمَّا اجْتَرَمَتْهُ الْأَنْبِيَاءُ مِمَّنْ شَهِدَ الْكِتَابُ بِظُلْمِهِمْ

And as for lapses by the Prophets-as and what Allah-azwj has Stated in His-azwj Book, and occurrence of the metaphors about names of the ones who had committed crimes is mightier than what the Prophets-as had done, from the ones the Book has testified of their injustice.

فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ مِنْ أَدَلِّ الدَّلَائِلِ عَلَى حِكْمَةِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ الْبَاهِرَةِ وَ قُدْرَتِهِ الْقَاهِرَةِ وَ عِزَّتِهِ الظَّاهِرَةِ لِأَنَّهُ عَلِمَ أَنَّ بَرَاهِينَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ تَكْبُرُ فِي صُدُورِ أُمَمِهِمْ وَ أَنَّ مِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَتَّخِذُ بَعْضَهُمْ إِلَهاً كَالَّذِي كَانَ مِنَ النَّصَارَى فِي ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ فَذِكْرُهَا دَلَالَةٌ عَلَى تَخَلُّفِهِمْ عَنِ الْكَمَالِ الَّذِي تَفَرَّدَ بِهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ

That is from the most convincing of the evidences upon the dazzling Wisdom of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic and His-azwj Forceful Power, and His-azwj apparent Might, because He-azwj Knew that proofs of the Prophets-as would be too grievous in the chests of their-as communities, and that from them would be one who will take some of them-as as gods like that which had happened from the Christians regarding the son-as of Maryam-as. Thus, its mention evidences upon their staying behind from the perfection which the Mighty and Majestic had Individualised him-saww with.

أَ لَمْ تَسْمَعْ إِلَى قَوْلِهِ فِي صِفَةِ عِيسَى ع حَيْثُ قَالَ فِيهِ وَ فِي أُمِّهِ- كانا يَأْكُلانِ الطَّعامَ‏ يَعْنِي مَنْ أَكَلَ الطَّعَامَ كَانَ لَهُ ثُفْلٌ وَ مَنْ كَانَ لَهُ ثُفْلٌ فَهُوَ بَعِيدٌ مِمَّا ادَّعَتْهُ النَّصَارَى لِابْنِ مَرْيَمَ

Have you not listened to His-azwj Words in Describing Isa-as whereby He-azwj Said regarding him-as and regarding his-as community: they were both eating the food. [5:75], meaning the one who eats the food, there would be excretion for him, and one who had excretion for him would be remote from what the Christians are claiming for the son-as of Maryam-as.

وَ لَمْ يَكْنْ عَنْ‏ أَسْمَاءِ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ تَجَبُّراً وَ تَعَزُّزاً بَلْ تَعْرِيفاً لِأَهْلِ الِاسْتِبْصَارِ أَنَّ الْكِنَايَةَ عَنْ أَسْمَاءِ ذَوِي الْجَرَائِرِ الْعَظِيمَةِ مِنَ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ لَيْسَتْ مِنْ فِعْلِهِ تَعَالَى وَ أَنَّهَا مِنْ فِعْلِ الْمُغَيِّرِينَ وَ الْمُبَدِّلِينَ الَّذِينَ‏ جَعَلُوا الْقُرْآنَ عِضِينَ‏ وَ اعْتَاضُوا الدُّنْيَا مِنَ الدِّينِ‏

And about names of the Prophets-as, these did not happen out of Forcefulness and Self-Exaltation, but as an Introduction to the people of insight that the metaphors of the names of the hypocrites from the ones with the mighty crimes in the Quran aren’t from the Actions of the Exalted, and rather it is from actions of the distorters and the manipulators, those who made the Quran as a commodity and traded (sold) it from the religion for the world.

وَ قَدْ بَيَّنَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى قِصَصَ الْمُغَيِّرِينَ بِقَوْلِهِ- لِلَّذِينَ يَكْتُبُونَ الْكِتابَ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ يَقُولُونَ هذا مِنْ عِنْدِ اللَّهِ لِيَشْتَرُوا بِهِ ثَمَناً قَلِيلًا وَ بِقَوْلِهِ‏ وَ إِنَّ مِنْهُمْ لَفَرِيقاً يَلْوُونَ أَلْسِنَتَهُمْ بِالْكِتابِ‏

And Allah-azwj the Exalted has Narrated story of the distorters by His-azwj Words: So woe be unto those who are writing the Book with their own hands, then they are saying, ‘This is from the Presence of Allah’, in order to be taking a small price through it [2:79]; and by His-azwj Words: Most surely there is a party among those who are twisting their tongues with the Book [3:78].

وَ بِقَوْلِهِ‏ إِذْ يُبَيِّتُونَ ما لا يَرْضى‏ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ‏ بَعْدَ فَقْدِ الرَّسُولِ مَا يُقِيمُونَ بِهِ أَوَدَ بَاطِلِهِمْ حَسَبَ مَا فَعَلَتْهُ الْيَهُودُ وَ النَّصَارَى بَعْدَ فَقْدِ مُوسَى وَ عِيسَى ع مِنْ تَغْيِيرِ التَّوْرَاةِ وَ الْإِنْجِيلِ وَ تَحْرِيفِ الْكَلِمِ عَنْ مَوَاضِعِهِ

And by His-azwj Words: when they are spending the nights in what does not Please Him from the words; [4:108], after loss of the Rasool-saww what they were establishing the pillars of their falsehood by it, just as the Jews and the Christians had done after the loss of Musa-as and Isa-as, from changing the Torah and the Evangel, and altering the Speech from its place.

وَ بِقَوْلِهِ‏ يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يُطْفِؤُا نُورَ اللَّهِ بِأَفْواهِهِمْ وَ يَأْبَى اللَّهُ إِلَّا أَنْ يُتِمَّ نُورَهُ‏ يَعْنِي أَنَّهُمْ أَثْبَتُوا فِي الْكِتَابِ مَا لَمْ يَقُلْهُ اللَّهُ لِيَلْبِسُوا عَلَى الْخَلِيقَةِ

And by His-azwj Words: They are intending to extinguish the Light of Allah with their mouths, and Allah Refused except that He would Complete His Light, [9:32], meaning they are affirming in the Book what Allah-azwj had not Said in order to confuse upon the people. (An extract)[19]

Adam disobeyed his Lord [20:121] – The Infallibility of the Prophets-as

One would consider Prophets-as as having committed sins (Nouzobillah) by taking apparent meanings of the Holy Verses of the Quran:

وَ أَجِدُهُ قَدْ شَهَرَ هَفَوَاتِ أَنْبِيَائِهِ بِقَوْلِهِ‏ وَ عَصى‏ آدَمُ رَبَّهُ فَغَوى‏ وَ بِتَكْذِيبِهِ‏ نُوحاً لَمَّا قَالَ‏ إِنَّ ابْنِي مِنْ أَهْلِي‏ بِقَوْلِهِ‏ إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ مِنْ أَهْلِكَ‏

And I find Him-azwj to have Publicised the lapses of His-azwj Prophets-as by His-azwj Words: And Adam disobeyed his Lord, so he strayed [20:121]; and His-azwj Belying Noah-as when he-as said: Surely, my son is from my family, [11:45] by His-azwj Words: He is not from your family; [11:46].

وَ بِوَصْفِهِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بِأَنَّهُ عَبَدَ كَوْكَباً مَرَّةً وَ مَرَّةً قَمَراً وَ مَرَّةً شَمْساً وَ بِقَوْلِهِ فِي يُوسُفَ ع‏ وَ لَقَدْ هَمَّتْ بِهِ وَ هَمَّ بِها لَوْ لا أَنْ رَأى‏ بُرْهانَ رَبِّهِ‏

And by His-azwj Describing Ibrahim-as that he-as worshipped a star at times, and at times the moon, and at times the sun; and by His-azwj Words regarding Yusuf-as: And she had desired him, and he would have desired her, had he not seen the convincing Proof of his Lord. [12:24].

وَ بِتَهْجِينِهِ مُوسَى حَيْثُ قَالَ‏ رَبِّ أَرِنِي أَنْظُرْ إِلَيْكَ قالَ لَنْ تَرانِي‏ الْآيَةَ وَ بِبَعْثِهِ عَلَى دَاوُدَ ع جَبْرَئِيلَ وَ مِيكَائِيلَ حَيْثُ تَسَوَّرَا الْمِحْرَابَ إِلَى آخِرِ الْقِصَّةِ وَ بِحَبْسِهِ يُونُسَ فِي بَطْنِ الْحُوتِ حَيْثُ ذَهَبَ مُغَاضِباً مُذْنِباً فَأَظْهَرَ خَطَأَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ وَ زَلَلَهُمْ

And by His-azwj His-azwj being Irritated by Musa-saww when he-as had said, ‘‘Lord! Show me (Yourself), to look at You’. He Said: “You can never see Me, [7:143], the Verse; and by His-azwj Sending Jibraeel-as and Mikaeel-as to Dawood-as whereby they-as imaged the prayer niche, up to end of the story, and by His-azwj Imprisoning Yunus-as in the belly of the whale whereby he-as went away angrily as a sinner. Hence, mistakes of the Prophets-as and their-as slips are apparent.

Infallibility of Prophets-as:

All Prophets-as and their-as successors-asws are infallible (Masoom), including the last Prophet Mohammed-saww and his-saww successors-asws. However, some Muslims who superficially read and interpret the Holy Quran raise some questions on the infallibilities of the Prophets-as.

A centuries old topic, which was discussed in the court of Al-Ma’mum Al-Rashid (an Abbasi Caliph) when he invited some Muslim scholars to question Imam Ali-asws ibn Musa AI-Reza-asws regarding the infallibility of Prophet-as.  Prior to presenting the debate we start with a Holy Verse and some Ahadith in its explanation, the Holy Verse is frequently quoted by some Muslims in opposition to the infallibility of the Prophet Mohammed-saww.  See the Hadith in the Appendix, we briefly touch upon that which is related to Prophet Mohammed-saww.

لِيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ وَيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكَ وَيَهْدِيَكَ صِرَاطًا مُسْتَقِيمًا {2}

For Allah to Forgive you (your community) what has preceded from your (community’s) sins and what is delayed, and Complete His Favour upon you and Guide you on a Straight Path [48:2]

في كتاب الخصال عن الاعمش عن جعفر بن محمد عليهما السلام قال: هذا شرايع الدين إلى ان قال عليه السلام: والانبياء واوصياؤهم لا ذنوب لهم، لانهم معصومون مطهرون.

In the book Al-Khisal, from Al-Amsh,

‘Ja’far-asws Bin Muhammad-asws has said: ‘These are the Laws of the Religion’ – until he-asws  said: ‘And the Prophets-as , and their-as  successors-as , there are no sins to them, because they-as  are (all) Infallible, Purified’.[20]

علي بن إبراهيم: حدثنا محمد بن جعفر، قال: حدثنا محمد بن أحمد، عن محمد بن الحسين، عن علي بن النعمان، عن علي بن أيوب، عن عمر بن يزيد بياع السابري، قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله (عليه السلام): قول الله في كتابه: لِيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ ما تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِكَ وَ ما تَأَخَّرَ، قال: «ما كان له ذنب، و لا هم بذنب، و لكن الله حمله ذنوب شيعته ثم غفرها له».

Ali Bin Ibrahim, from Muhammad Bin Ja’far, from Muhammad Bin Ahmad, from Muhammad Bin Al-Husayn, from Ali Bin Al-No’man, from Ali Bin Ayoub, from Umar Bin Yazeed who said,

‘I said to Abu Abdullah-asws, ‘(What about) the Words of Allah-azwj in His-azwj Book For Allah to Forgive you what has preceded from your sins and what is delayed [48:2]. He-asws  said: ‘There was no sin on him-saww, nor was he-saww with a sin, but Allah-azwj burdened him-saww with the sins of his-saww Shias, then Forgave them for his-saww sake’.[21]

قال شرف الدين النجفي: و يؤيده ما روي مرفوعا عن أبي الحسن الثالث (عليه السلام): أنه سئل عن قول الله عز و جل: لِيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ ما تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِكَ وَ ما تَأَخَّرَ، فقال (عليه السلام): و أي ذنب كان لرسول الله (صلى الله عليه و آله) متقدما أو متأخرا؟ و إنما حمله الله ذنوب شيعة علي (عليه السلام)، من مضى منهم و من بقي، ثم غفرها له».

Sharaf Al-Deen Al-Najafi said,

‘And it is supported by what has been reported from Abu Al-Hassan-asws  the Third having said about the Words of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic: For Allah to Forgive you what has preceded from your sins and what is delayed [48:2], so he-asws  said: ‘And which sin was committed by Rasool-Allah-saww, before or after?’ But rather, Allah-azwj Burdened him-saww with the sins of the Shias of Ali-asws , from the past among them and the ones who remain, then Forgave them on his-saww behalf’.[22]

الطبرسي: روى المفضل بن عمر، عن الصادق (عليه السلام)، قال: سأله رجل، عن هذه الآية، فقال: «و الله ما كان له ذنب، و لكن الله سبحانه ضمن له أن يغفر ذنوب شيعة علي (عليه السلام) ما تقدم من ذنبهم و ما تأخر».

Al-Tabarsy – It has been reported by Al-Mufazzal-Bin Umar,

‘A man asked Al-Sadiq-asws about this Verse, so he-asws  said: ‘By Allah-azwj, there was no sin for him-saww, but Allah-azwj the Glorious, Guaranteed him-saww that He-azwj would Forgive the sins of the Shias of Ali-asws , whatever had preceded from their sins and whatever is to follow’.[23]

The Side, Face and Right Hand of Allah-azwj [39:56, 2:115, 56:27]

The Holy Verses which mention the Hand, Face and Side of Allah-azwj cannot be interpreted from their apparent meanings, e.g.,

وَ أَجِدُهُ يَقُولُ‏ يا حَسْرَتى‏ عَلى‏ ما فَرَّطْتُ فِي جَنْبِ اللَّهِ‏ وَ فَأَيْنَما تُوَلُّوا فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللَّهِ‏ وَ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ هالِكٌ إِلَّا وَجْهَهُ‏ وَ أَصْحابُ الْيَمِينِ ما أَصْحابُ الْيَمِينِ‏- وَ أَصْحابُ الشِّمالِ ما أَصْحابُ الشِّمالِ‏ مَا مَعْنَى الْجَنْبِ وَ الْوَجْهِ وَ الْيَمِينِ وَ الشِّمَالِ فَإِنَّ الْأَمْرَ فِي ذَلِكَ مُلْتَبِسٌ جِدّاً

And I find Him-azwj Saying: ‘O my regret, upon what I wasted regarding the Side of Allah, [39:56]; therefore, wherever you turn to, so there would be the Face of Allah; [2:115]; All things will perish except for His Face [28:88]; And the Companions of the right hand – what are the Companions of the right hand? [56:27]; And the companions of the left hand, what are the companions of the left hand? [56:41]. What is the meaning of ‘الْجَنْبِ ً’ ‘the side’, and ‘الْوَجْهِ’ ‘the face’, and ‘الْيَمِينِ’ the ‘right hand’, and ‘الشِّمَالِ’ the ‘left hand’? The matter regarding that is very confusing.

Amir Al-Momineen Ali-asws explained:

وَ هُمْ وَجْهُ اللَّهِ الَّذِي قَالَ- فَأَيْنَما تُوَلُّوا فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ‏ اللَّهِ‏ هُمْ بَقِيَّةُ اللَّهِ يَعْنِي الْمَهْدِيَّ الَّذِي يَأْتِي عِنْدَ انْقِضَاءِ هَذِهِ النَّظِرَةِ فَيَمْلَأُ الْأَرْضَ عَدْلًا كَمَا مُلِئَتْ ظُلْماً وَ جَوْراً

And they are the Face of Allah-azwj which He-azwj Said: therefore wherever you turn to, so there would be the Face of Allah; [2:115]. They-asws are remainders of Allah-azwj, meaning the Mahdi-ajfj, the one who will come at the expiry of this deferment of time. He-ajfj will fill the earth with justice just as it would have been filled with injustice and tyranny.

وَ مِنْ آيَاتِهِ الْغِيبَةُ وَ الِاكْتِتَامُ عِنْدَ عُمُومِ الطُّغْيَانِ وَ حُلُولِ الِانْتِقَامِ وَ لَوْ كَانَ هَذَا الْأَمْرُ الَّذِي عَرَّفْتُكَ نَبَأَهُ لِلنَّبِيِّ دُونَ غَيْرِهِ لَكَانَ الْخِطَابُ يَدُلُّ عَلَى فِعْلٍ خَاصٍّ غَيْرِ دَائِمٍ وَ لَا مُسْتَقْبَلٍ وَ لَقَالَ نَزَلَتِ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَ فُرِقَ كُلُّ أَمْرٍ حَكِيمٍ وَ لَمْ يَقُلْ‏ تَنَزَّلُ الْمَلائِكَةُ وَ يُفْرَقُ كُلُّ أَمْرٍ حَكِيمٍ‏

And from his-ajfj signs is the occultation and the concealment during the prevalence of tyranny and the permeation of revenge, and had this matter which I-asws have introduced you to were news to the Prophet-saww only besides others, the Address would have evidenced upon a special (temporary) action, not permanent, nor of the future, and He-azwj would have Said: ‘The Angels have descended and made distinct every wise matter’, and would not have said: The Angels and the Spirit descend [97:4], and During it, every wise matter is made distinct [44:4].

وَ قَدْ زَادَ جَلَّ ذِكْرُهُ فِي التِّبْيَانِ وَ إِثْبَاتِ الْحُجَّةِ بِقَوْلِهِ فِي أَصْفِيَائِهِ وَ أَوْلِيَائِهِ ع‏ أَنْ تَقُولَ نَفْسٌ يا حَسْرَتى‏ عَلى‏ ما فَرَّطْتُ فِي جَنْبِ اللَّهِ‏ تَعْرِيفاً لِلْخَلِيقَةِ قُرْبَهُمْ

And He-azwj, Majestic is His-azwj Book, has Increased in the explanation and the proof of the argument by His-azwj Words regarding His-azwj elites and His-azwj Guardians-asws: ‘O my regret, upon what I wasted regarding the Side of Allah, [39:56], as an introduction to the people of their-asws closeness (to Allah-azwj).

أَ لَا تَرَى أَنَّكَ تَقُولُ فُلَانٌ إِلَى جَنْبِ فُلَانٍ إِذَا أَرَدْتَ أَنْ تَصِفَ قُرْبَهُ مِنْهُ: وَ إِنَّمَا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى فِي كِتَابِهِ هَذِهِ الرُّمُوزَ الَّتِي لَا يَعْلَمُهَا غَيْرُهُ وَ غَيْرُ أَنْبِيَائِهِ وَ حُجَجِهِ فِي أَرْضِهِ لِعِلْمِهِ بِمَا يُحْدِثُهُ فِي كِتَابِهِ الْمُبَدِّلُونَ مِنْ إِسْقَاطِ أَسْمَاءِ حُجَجِهِ مِنْهُ وَ تَلْبِيسِهِمْ ذَلِكَ عَلَى الْأُمَّةِ لِيُعِينُوهُمْ عَلَى بَاطِلِهِمْ

Don’t you see that (when) you tend to say, ‘So and so is to the side of so and so’, when you intend to describe his closeness to him? And rather, Allah-azwj Blessed and Exalted has Made to be in His-azwj Book these codes which no one knows of apart from Him-azwj and His-azwj Prophets-as and His-azwj Divine Authorities in His-azwj earth, due to His-azwj Knowledge of what the distorters would be innovating in His-azwj Book, from dropping names of His-azwj Divine Authorities from it and confusing them of that upon the community in order to assist them upon their falsehoods.

Meanings of Hand of Allah-azwj:

وعنه، قال: حدثنا محمد بن محمد بن عصام الكليني، قال: حدثنا محمد بن يعقوب الكليني، قال: حدثنا أحمد بن إدريس، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن علي بن سيف، عن محمد بن عبيد، قال: سألت الرضا (عليه السلام) عن قول الله عز و جل لإبليس: ما مَنَعَكَ أَنْ تَسْجُدَ لِما خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَيَّ؟ قال: «يعني بقدرتي [و قوتي‏]».

And from him, from Muhammad Bin Muhammad Bin Asaam Al-kulayni, from Muhammad Bin Yaqoub Al-Kulayni, from Ahmad Bin Idrees, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Isa, from Ali Bin Sayf, from Muhammad Bin Ubeyd who said,

‘I asked Al-Reza-asws about the Words of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic to Iblees-la: What prevented you from doing Sajdah to what I Created by My Hands? Were you arrogant or were you from the exalted ones?” [38:75]. He-asws said: ‘He-azwj Means – By My-azwj Power and My-azwj Strength’.[24]  

ابن بابويه، قال: حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق (رحمه الله)، قال: حدثنا محمد ابن أبي عبد الله الكوفي، قال: حدثنا محمد بن إسماعيل، قال: حدثنا الحسين بن الحسن، قال: حدثنا بكر، عن أبي عبد الله البرقي، عن عبد الله بن بحر، عن أبي أيوب الخزاز، عن محمد بن مسلم، قال: سألت أبا جعفر (عليه السلام) فقلت: قوله عز و جل: يا إِبْلِيسُ ما مَنَعَكَ أَنْ تَسْجُدَ لِما خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَيَّ؟

Ibn Babuwayh said, ‘It was narrated to us by Ali Bin Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Umran Al Daqaq, from Muhammad Ibn Abu Abdullah Al Kufy, from Muhammad Bin Ismail, from Al Husayn Bin Al Hassan, from Bakr, from Abu Abdullah Al Barqy, from Abdullah Bin Bahr, from Abu Ayoub Al Khazaz, from Muhammad Bin Muslim who said,

‘I asked Abu Ja’far-asws, so I said, ‘The Words of the Mighty and Majestic: He said: O Iblees! What prevented you performing Sajda to what I Created with My Two hands? [38:75]’.

فقال: «اليد في كلام العرب القوة و النعمة. قال: وَ اذْكُرْ عَبْدَنا داوُدَ ذَا الْأَيْدِ و قال: وَ السَّماءَ بَنَيْناها بِأَيْدٍ أي بقوة وَ إِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ و قال: وَ أَيَّدَهُمْ بِرُوحٍ مِنْهُ أي قواهم. و يقال: لفلان عندي يد بيضاء، أي نعمة».-

So he-asws said: ‘The ‘hand’ in the speech of the Arabs is (means) the strength and the favour. He-azwj Said: and remember Our servant Dawood, the possessor of the hand (strength) [38:17]. And Said: And the sky, We Built it by Hand  – i.e. by Strength and We are the Expanders [51:47]. And Said: and He Supported them with a Spirit from Him [58:22], i.e. Strengthened them. And it is said, ‘For so and so there is a white hand with me’, i.e. a favour’.[25]

وعنه، قال: حدثنا علي بن الحسن، قال: حدثنا أبو محمد هارون بن موسى، قال: حدثني محمد بن همام، قال: حدثني عبد الله بن جعفر الحميري، قال: حدثني عمر بن علي العبدي، عن داود بن كثير الرقي، عن يونس بن ظبيان، قال: دخلت على الصادق جعفر بن محمد (عليه السلام)، فقلت: يا ابن رسول الله، إني دخلت على مالك و أصحابه، فسمعت بعضهم يقول: إن لله وجها كالوجوه، و بعضهم يقول: له يدان، و احتجوا في ذلك بقوله تعالى: بِيَدَيَّ أَسْتَكْبَرْتَ، و بعضهم يقول: هو كالشاب من أبناء ثلاثين سنة، فما عندك في هذا، يا ابن رسول الله؟!

And from him, from Ali Bin Al-Hasaan, from Abu Muhammad Haroun Bin Musa, from Muhammad Bin Hamaam, from Abdullah Bin Ja’far Al-Humeyri, from Umar bin Ali Al-Abdy, from Dawood Bin Kaseer Al-Raqy, from Yunus Bin Zibyan who said,

‘I came up to Al-Sadiq Ja’far-asws Bin Muhammad-asws, so I said, ‘O son-asws of Rasool-Allah-saww! I went to Maalik and his companions and I heard some of them saying, ‘Allah-azwj has a Face like the faces’, and some of them were saying, ‘He-azwj has Hands’, and they were arguing that by the Words of the Exalted: by My Hands? Were you arrogant [38:75], and some of them were saying, ‘He-azwj is like a youth like a thirty year old son’. So what is with you-asws regarding this, O son-asws of Rasool-Allah-saww?’

قال: و كان متكئا، فاستوى جالسا، و قال: «اللهم عفوك عفوك». ثم قال: «يا يونس من زعم أن لله وجها كالوجوه فقد أشرك، و من زعم أن لله جوارحا كجوارح المخلوقين فهو كافر بالله،

He-asws said, and he-asws had been reclining, so he-asws sat upright and said: ‘May Allah-azwj Pardon you, Pardon you!’ Then he-asws said: ‘O Yunus! The one who alleges that there is a Face for Allah-azwj like the faces, so he has associated, and the one who alleges that Allah-azwj has organs like the organs of the creatures, so he is a Kafir with Allah-azwj.

فلا تقبلوا شهادته، و لا تأكلوا ذبيحته، تعالى الله عما يصفه المشبهون بصفة المخلوقين، فوجه الله أنبياؤه و أولياؤه،

Thus, neither accept his testimony, nor eat his slaughtered (meat). Allah-azwj is more Elevated than what they are describing Him-azwj with the description of the creatures, for the Face of Allah-azwj are His-azwj Prophets-as, and His-azwj Guardians-asws.

و قوله تعالى: خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَيَّ أَسْتَكْبَرْتَ فاليد القدرة، كقوله تعالى: وَ أَيَّدَكُمْ بِنَصْرِهِ

And the Words of the Exalted: by My Hands? Were you arrogant [38:75], so the Hand is the Power, just like the Words of the Exalted: and Supported you with His Help [8:26].

فمن زعم أن الله في شي‏ء، أو على شي‏ء، أو تحول من شي‏ء إلى شي‏ء، أو يخلو من شي‏ء، أو يشغل به شي‏ء، فقد وصفه بصفة المخلوقين، و الله خالق كل شي‏ء، لا يقاس بالمقياس، و لا يشبه بالناس، و لا يخلو منه مكان، و لا يشغل به مكان، قريب في بعده، بعيد في قربه،

So the one who alleges that Allah-azwj is inside something, or upon something, or transfers from something to something, or empty from something, or pre-occupied by something, so he would have Described Him-azwj with the description of the creatures. And Allah-azwj is the Creator of everything, not being compared by analogies, and not resembling the people, and no place is empty from Him-azwj, nor is a place occupied by Him-azwj. He-azwj is near in His-azwj remoteness, and remote in His-azwj nearness.

ذلك الله ربنا لا إله غيره، فمن أراد الله و أحبه بهذه الصفة، فهو من الموحدين، و من أحبه بغير هذه الصفة فالله منه‏ بري‏ء، و نحن منه برآء».

That is our Lord-azwj, there is not god apart from Him-azwj. So the one who intends Allah-azwj and Loves Him-azwj with these Attributes, so he is from the Monotheists, and the one who Loves Him-azwj with other than these Attributes, so Allah-azwj is Disavowed from him, and we-asws are also disavowed from him’.

ثم قال: «يا يونس، إذا أردت العلم الصحيح فعندنا أهل البيت، فإنا ورثناه، و أوتينا شرح  الحكمة، و فصل الخطاب». فقلت: يا ابن رسول الله، و كل من كان من أهل البيت، ورث كما ورثتم من  علي و فاطمة (عليهما السلام)؟

Then he-asws said: ‘O Yunus! If you want the correct Knowledge, so it is with us-asws the People-asws of the Household, for we-asws are its inheritors, and we-asws have been Given the explanation of the Wisdom, and the Decisive Speech’.

فقال: ما ورثه إلا الأئمة الإثنا عشر».

So I said, ‘O son-asws of Rasool-Allah-saww! And does everyone from the People-asws of the Household inherit like you-asws have inherited from Ali-asws and (Syeda) Fatima-asws?’ So he-asws said: ‘It does not get inherited except by the twelve Imams-asws’.

فقلت: سمهم يا ابن رسول الله؟ فقال: «أولهم علي بن أبي طالب و بعده الحسن، و بعده الحسين، و بعده علي ابن الحسين، و بعده محمد بن علي، ثم أنا، و بعدي موسى ولدي، و بعد موسى علي ابنه، و بعد علي محمد، و بعد محمد علي، و بعد علي الحسن، و بعد الحسن الحجة، اصطفانا الله و طهرنا و آتانا ما لم يؤت أحدا من العالمين».

So I said, ‘Name them, O son-asws of Rasool-Allah-saww’. So he-asws said: ‘The first of them-asws is Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws, and after him-asws is Al-Hassan-asws, and after him-asws is Al-Husayn-asws, and after him-asws is Ali Ibn Al-Husayn-asws, and after him-asws is Muhammad Bin Ali-asws, then myself-asws, and after me-asws is Musa-asws my-asws son-asws, and after Musa-asws is Ali-asws his-asws son-asws, and after Ali-asws is Muhammad-asws, and after Muhammad-asws is Ali-asws, and after Ali-asws is Al-Hassan-asws, and after Al-Hassan-asws is The Divine Authority (الحجة). Allah-azwj has Chosen us-asws, and Purified us-asws, and Gave us-asws what no one from the Worlds has been Given’.

ثم قلت: يا ابن رسول الله، إن عبد الله بن سعد دخل عليك بالأمس، فسألك عما سألتك، فأجبته بخلاف هذا؟!

Then I said, ‘O son-asws of Rasool-Allah-saww! Abdullah Bin Sa’d came up to you-asws yesterday, and he asked you-asws about what I asked you-asws, but you-asws answered him differently to this?’

فقال: «يا يونس، كل امرى و ما يحتمله، و لكل وقت حديثه، و إنك لأهل لما سألت، فاكتمه إلا عن أهله، و السلام».

So he-asws said: ‘O Yunus! Each person is with what he can bear, and for each time is its Hadeeth, and you are deserving of what you have asked, therefore conceal it, except from its deserving ones. Greetings!’’[26]

Surely, Allah and His Angels are Sending Salawat upon the Prophet [33:56]

The meanings of Allah-azwj’s Sending Salawat upon His Prophet-saww are different than its apparent interpretation.

فَأَمَّا مَا عَلِمَهُ الْجَاهِلُ وَ الْعَالِمُ مِنْ فَضْلِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص مِنْ كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَ هُوَ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ سُبْحَانَهُ- مَنْ يُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطاعَ اللَّهَ‏ وَ قَوْلُهُ‏ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَ مَلائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا صَلُّوا عَلَيْهِ وَ سَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيماً وَ لِهَذِهِ الْآيَةِ ظَاهِرٌ وَ بَاطِنٌ

As for what the ignorant one and the knowledgeable one knows of the merits of Rasool-Allah-saww from the Book of Allah-azwj, and it is Word of Allah-azwj the Glorious: There is one who obeys the Rasool, so he has obeyed Allah, [4:80]; and His-azwj Words: Surely, Allah and His Angels are Sending Salawat upon the Prophet. O you those who believe! Send Salawat upon him and submit submissively [33:56], and for this Verse there is an apparent and an esoteric (interpretation).

فَالظَّاهِرُ قَوْلُهُ‏ صَلُّوا عَلَيْهِ‏ وَ الْبَاطِنُ قَوْلُهُ‏ وَ سَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيماً أَيْ سَلِّمُوا لِمَنْ وَصَّاهُ وَ اسْتَخْلَفَهُ عَلَيْكُمْ فَضْلَهُ وَ مَا عَهِدَ بِهِ إِلَيْهِ تَسْلِيماً وَ هَذَا مِمَّا أَخْبَرْتُكَ أَنَّهُ لَا يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلَّا مَنْ لَطُفَ حِسُّهُ وَ صَفَا ذِهْنُهُ وَ صَحَّ تَمِيزُهُ

The apparent is His-azwj Words: Send Salawat upon him, and the esoteric is: submit submissively [33:56] to the merits of the one whom he-saww has chosen as successor-asws and a caliph upon you all, and what has been covenanted with to him-asws, submissively, and this is from what I-asws have informed you that no one knows its interpretation except one whose perception is subtle and his mind is clear and his distinguishing is correct.

وَ كَذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ سَلَامٌ عَلَى آلِ يَاسِينَ‏ لِأَنَّ اللَّهَ سَمَّى النَّبِيَّ ص بِهَذَا الِاسْمِ حَيْثُ قَالَ- يس وَ الْقُرْآنِ الْحَكِيمِ إِنَّكَ لَمِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ‏ لِعِلْمِهِ بِأَنَّهُمْ يُسْقِطُونَ قَوْلَ سَلَامٌ عَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا أَسْقَطُوا غَيْرَهُ

And like that are His-azwj Words: ‘Greetings be on Progeny of Yaseen [37:130], because Allah-azwj has Named the Prophet-saww with this name whereby He-azwj Said: Ya Seen [36:1] By the Wise Quran [36:2] You are one of the Rasools [36:3], due to His-azwj Knowledge that they would be dropping the words: ‘Greetings be on Progeny-asws of Muhammad-saww’, just as they have dropped others.

وَ مَا زَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص يَتَأَلَّفُهُمْ وَ يُقَرِّبُهُمْ يُجْلِسُهُمْ عَنْ يَمِينِهِ وَ شِمَالِهِ حَتَّى أَذِنَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لَهُ فِي إِبْعَادِهِمْ‏ بِقَوْلِهِ‏ وَ اهْجُرْهُمْ هَجْراً جَمِيلًا وَ بِقَوْلِهِ‏ فَما لِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا قِبَلَكَ مُهْطِعِينَ عَنِ الْيَمِينِ وَ عَنِ الشِّمالِ عِزِينَ- أَ يَطْمَعُ كُلُّ امْرِئٍ مِنْهُمْ أَنْ يُدْخَلَ جَنَّةَ نَعِيمٍ- كَلَّا إِنَّا خَلَقْناهُمْ مِمَّا يَعْلَمُونَ‏

And Rasool-Allah-saww did not cease to unite them and draw them closer. He-saww would make them sit on his-saww right and his-saww left until Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic Permitted for him-saww in distancing them by His-azwj Words: and avoid them with a beautiful avoidance [73:10]; and by His-azwj Words: So what is the matter with those who commit Kufr racing ahead before you, [70:36] On the right and on the left in separate groups? [70:37] Does every person from them desires that he should enter the Garden of Bliss? [70:38] Never! Surely, We Created them of what they know [70:39].

وَ كَذَلِكَ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَ‏ يَوْمَ نَدْعُوا كُلَّ أُناسٍ بِإِمامِهِمْ‏ وَ لَمْ يُسَمَّ بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ وَ أَسْمَاءِ آبَائِهِمْ وَ أُمَّهَاتِهِمْ

And like that Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic Said: On the Day (of Qiyamah), We will be Calling every human being with their Imam. [17:71], and He-azwj did not Name them-asws with their-asws names, and names of their-asws fathers-asws and their-asws mothers-as.

وَ أَمَّا قَوْلُهُ‏ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ هالِكٌ إِلَّا وَجْهَهُ‏ فَإِنَّمَا أُنْزِلَتْ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ هَالِكٌ إِلَّا دِينَهُ لِأَنَّهُ مِنَ الْمُحَالِ أَنْ يَهْلِكَ مِنْهُ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ وَ يَبْقَى الْوَجْهُ هُوَ أَجَلُّ وَ أَعْظَمُ وَ أَكْرَمُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ

And as for His-azwj Words: All things will perish except for His Face [28:88]. But rather it was Revealed as: “All things will perish except His-azwj religion”, for it is from the impossibilities that all things from Him-azwj would perish and the face would remain. He-azwj is more Majestic and more Magnificent and more Honourable than that.

إِنَّمَا يَهْلِكُ مَنْ لَيْسَ مِنْهُ أَ لَا تَرَى أَنَّهُ قَالَ- كُلُّ مَنْ عَلَيْها فانٍ وَ يَبْقى‏ وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ‏ فَفَصَلَ بَيْنَ خَلْقِهِ وَ وَجْهِهِ

But rather, he will be destroyed, one who isn’t from Him-azwj. Don’t you see He-azwj Said: Everyone upon it will perish [55:26] And there will remain the Face of your Lord, [55:27]. He-azwj Detached between His-azwj creatures and His-azwj Face.

وَ أَمَّا ظُهُورُكَ عَلَى تَنَاكُرِ قَوْلِهِ- وَ إِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا تُقْسِطُوا فِي الْيَتامى‏ فَانْكِحُوا ما طابَ لَكُمْ مِنَ النِّساءِ وَ لَيْسَ يُشْبِهُ الْقِسْطَ فِي الْيَتَامَى نِكَاحُ النِّسَاءِ وَ لَا كُلُّ النِّسَاءِ أَيْتَاماً فَهُوَ مِمَّا قَدَّمْتُ ذِكْرَهُ مِنْ إِسْقَاطِ الْمُنَافِقِينَ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ وَ بَيْنَ الْقَوْلِ فِي الْيَتَامَى وَ بَيْنَ نِكَاحِ النِّسَاءِ مِنَ الْخِطَابِ وَ الْقِصَصِ أَكْثَرُ مِنْ ثُلُثِ الْقُرْآنِ وَ هَذَا وَ مَا أَشْبَهَهُ مِمَّا ظَهَرَتْ حَوَادِثُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِيهِ لِأَهْلِ النَّظَرِ وَ التَّأَمُّلِ

And as for your appearance upon the denial, are His-azwj Words: And if you fear that you cannot act equitably regarding the orphans, then marry such women as seem good to you, [4:3], and the fairness among the orphans isn’t similar to marrying the women, and not all women are orphans. It is from what its mention has preceded, from dropping the hypocrites from the Quran, and between the words regarding the orphans, and marry such women, from the Address and the story (which are dropped) are more than a third of the Quran, and this and what resembles it is from what reveals the innovations by the hypocrites in it, for the people of consideration and the contemplation.

وَ وَجَدَ الْمُعَطِّلُونَ وَ أَهْلُ الْمِلَلِ الْمُخَالِفَةِ مَسَاغاً إِلَى الْقَدْحِ فِي الْقُرْآنِ وَ لَوْ شَرَحْتُ لَكَ كُلَّ مَا أُسْقِطَ وَ حُرِّفَ وَ بُدِّلَ مِمَّا يَجْرِي هَذَا الْمَجْرَى لَطَالَ وَ ظَهَرَ مَا تَحْظُرُ التَّقِيَّةُ إِظْهَارَهُ مِنْ مَنَاقِبِ الْأَوْلِيَاءِ وَ مَثَالِبِ الْأَعْدَاءِ

And the obstructors and the people of the opposing sects found a way to casting the doubts in the Quran, and if I-asws were to comment upon all what has been dropped and distorted and replaced from what flows this flow, it would be prolonged, and it would appear what the Taqiyya would reveal the virtues of the Guardians-asws and vices (sins) of the enemies (an extract). [27]

And she had desired him, and he would have desired her [12:24]

In the above verse a completely wrong interpretation is derived from the apparent meanings of the Verse 12:24

وَلَقَدْ هَمَّتْ بِهِ ۖ وَهَمَّ بِهَا لَوْلَا أَنْ رَأَىٰ بُرْهَانَ رَبِّهِ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ لِنَصْرِفَ عَنْهُ السُّوءَ وَالْفَحْشَاءَ ۚ إِنَّهُ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا الْمُخْلَصِينَ {24}

And she had desired him, and he would have desired her, had he not seen the convincing Proof of his Lord. Like that We Turned away from him the evil and the immorality. He was from Our sincere servants [12:24]

ابن بابويه، قال: حدثنا أحمد بن زياد بن جعفر الهمداني، و الحسين بن إبراهيم بن أحمد بن هشام المكتب، و علي بن عبد الله الوراق (رضي الله عنهم)، قالوا: حدثنا علي بن إبراهيم بن هاشم، قال: حدثنا القاسم بن محمد البرمكي، قال: حدثنا أبو الصلت الهروي، قال: لما جمع المأمون لعلي بن موسى الرضا (عليه السلام) أهل المقالات، من أهل الإسلام و الديانات من اليهود و النصارى و المجوس و الصابئين و سائر أهل المقالات، فلم يقم أحد إلا و قد ألزمه حجته، كأنه القم حجرا،

Ibn babuwah said, ‘Ahmad Bin Ziyad Bin Ja’far Al Hamdany narrated to us, and Al Husayn Bin Ibrahim Bin Ahmad Bin Hisham Al Maktab, and Ali Bin Abdullah Al Waraq, from Ali Bin Ibrahim Bin Hashim, from Al Qasim Bin Muhammad Al Barmakky, from Al Al Salt Al Harawy who said,

‘When Al-Mamoun gathered the people of debate to Ali-asws Bin Musa Al-Reza-asws, from the people of Al-Islam, and the Religions of the Jews, and the Christians, and the Magians, and the Sabeans, and the rest of the debaters, so no one stood up except that he was defeated in his argument, as if he had swallowed a stone.

قام إليه علي بن محمد بن الجهم، فقال: يا بن رسول الله، أتقول بعصمة الأنبياء؟ قال: «نعم». فقال له: فما تقول في قوله عز و جل في يوسف. وَ لَقَدْ هَمَّتْ بِهِ وَ هَمَّ بِها؟

(Then) Ali Bin Muhammad Al-Jaham stood up, so he said, ‘O son-asws of Rasool-Allah-saww! Are you-asws speaking for the infallibility of the Prophets-as?’ He-asws said: ‘Yes’. So he said to him-asws, ‘So what are you-asws saying regarding the Words of the Mighty and Majestic regarding Yusuf-as: And she had desired him, and he would have desired her [12:24]?’

فقال (عليه السلام): «أما قوله تعالى في يوسف (عليه السلام): وَ لَقَدْ هَمَّتْ بِهِ وَ هَمَّ بِها فإنها همت بالمعصية، و هم يوسف بقتلها إن أجبرته، لعظم ما تداخله، فصرف الله عنه قتلها و الفاحشة، و هو قوله عز و جل: كَذلِكَ لِنَصْرِفَ عَنْهُ السُّوءَ وَ الْفَحْشاءَ و السوء: القتل، و الفحشاء: الزنا».

So he-asws said: ‘As for the Words of the Exalted regarding Yusuf-as: And she had desired him, and he would have desired her [12:24], so she had desired with the disobedience (in sin), and Yusuf -as had desired to kill her if she had compelled him-as. It was grievous what he-as was considering. Therefore, Allah-azwj Turned away from him-as, the matter of killing her, and the immorality. And these are the Words of the Mighty and Majestic: Like that We Turned away from him the evil and the immorality [12:24]. The evil – the killing, and the immorality – the adultery’.[28]

So, he was (at a distance of) two bows or nearer [53:9]

When interpreting Holy Verses (53:7-9), apparent meanings are far from the hidden meanings:

And he was in the highest horizon [53:7], Then he approached, so he bowed [53:8]

فَكَانَ قَابَ قَوْسَيْنِ أَوْ أَدْنَىٰ {9}

So he was (at a distance of) two bows or nearer [53:9]

و عنه، قال: حدثنا محمد بن أحمد السناني، و علي بن أحمد بن محمد الدقاق، و الحسين بن إبراهيم بن هاشم المؤدب، و علي بن عبد الله الوراق (رضي الله عنهم)، قالوا: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله الكوفي الأسدي، عن موسى بن عمران النخعي، عن عمه الحسين بن يزيد النوفلي، عن علي بن سالم، عن أبيه، عن ثابت ابن دينار، قال: سألت زين العابدين علي بن الحسين بن علي بن أبي طالب (عليهم السلام)، عن الله جل جلاله، هل يوصف بمكان؟ فقال: «تعالى الله عن ذلك».

And from him, from Muhammad Bin Ahmad Al-Sanany, from Ali Bin Ahmad Bin Muhammad Daqaq, and Al-Husayn Bin Ibrahim Bin Hisham Al-Mowdab, and Ali Bin Abdullah Al-Waraq, from Muhammad Bin Abu Abdullah Al-Kufy Al-Asady, from Musa Bin Umran Al-Nakha’ie, from his uncle Al-Husayn Bin Yazeed Al-Nowfaly, from Ali Bin Salim, from his father, from Sabit Ibn Dinar who said,

‘I asked Zayn Al-Abideen-asws Ali-asws Bin Al-Husayn-asws Bin Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws about Allah-azwj Majestic is His-azwj Majesty, can He-azwj be described as being in a (particular) place?’ So he-asws said: ‘Allah-azwj is Higher than that’.

قلت: لم أسرى بنبيه (صلى الله عليه و آله) إلى السماء؟ قال: «ليريه ملكوت السماوات و ما فيها من عجائب صنعه و بدائع خلقه».

I said, ‘Why did He-azwj Make His-azwj Prophet-saww to ascend to the sky?’ He-asws said: ‘To Make him-saww see the Kingdoms of the skies and whatever is in these from the wonders of His-azwj Making and His-azwj creatures’.

قلت: فقول الله عز و جل: ثُمَّ دَنا فَتَدَلَّى فَكانَ قابَ قَوْسَيْنِ أَوْ أَدْنى؟

I said, ‘So (what about) the Words of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic: Then he approached, so he bowed [53:8] So he was (at a distance of) two bows or nearer [53:9]?’

قال: «ذاك رسول الله (صلى الله عليه و آله)، دنا من حجب النور، فرأى ملكوت السماوات، ثم تدلى (صلى الله عليه و آله) فنظر من تحته إلى ملكوت الأرض، حتى ظن أنه في القرب من الأرض كقاب قوسين أو أدنى».

He-asws said: ‘That is Rasool-Allah-saww, approaching the Veils of the Light. So he-saww saw the Kingdoms of the skies, then he-asws bowed, so he-saww looked underneath him-saww to the kingdoms of the earth until he-saww thought he-saww was near to the earth: So he was (at a distance of) two bows or nearer [53:9]’.[29]

الطبرسي في (الاحتجاج): عن يعقوب بن جعفر الجعفري قال: سأل رجل يقال له عبد الغفار السلمي أبا إبراهيم موسى بن جعفر (عليه السلام) عن قول الله تعالى: ثُمَّ دَنا فَتَدَلَّى فَكانَ قابَ قَوْسَيْنِ أَوْ أَدْنى، قال: أرى هاهنا خروجا من حجب، و تدليا إلى الأرض، و أرى محمدا رأى ربه بقلبه، و نسب إلى بصره، فكيف هذا؟

Al Tabarsy, in (the book) Al Ihtijaj – ‘From Yaqoub Bin Al Ja’fary who said,

‘A man called Abdul Ghaffar Al-Salmy asked Abu Ibrahim Musa-asws Bin Ja’far-asws about the Words of Allah-azwj the Exalted: ‘Then he approached, so he bowed [53:8] So he was (at a distance of) two bows or nearer [53:9]. He said, ‘I see over here an exiting from the Veils and approaching towards the earth, and I see Muhammad-saww seeing his-saww Lord-azwj by his-saww heart, and being attributed to his-saww sight. So how is this so?’

فقال أبو إبراهيم (عليه السلام): «دَنا فَتَدَلَّى فإنه لم يزل من موضع، و لم يتدل ببدن».

So, Abu Ibrahim-as said: ‘Then he approached, so he bowed [53:8] – he-saww did not move from his-saww place, and did not bow with his-saww body’.

فقال عبد الغفار أصفه بما وصف به نفسه حيث قال: دَنا فَتَدَلَّى، فلم يتدل ببدن عن مجلسه، و إلا قد زال عنه، و لو لا ذلك لم يوصف بذلك نفسه؟

Abdul Ghaffar said, ‘I am describing it with what He-azwj has Described it Himself-azwj. He-azwj Said: ‘Then he approached, so he bowed [53:8]. So (if) he-saww did not bow with his-saww body from his-saww place, or else he-saww has moved from it, and had it not been that, He-azwj would not have Described by that Himself-azwj?’

فقال أبو إبراهيم (عليه السلام): «إن هذه لغة قريش، إذا أراد الرجل منهم أن يقول: قد سمعت، يقول: قد تدليت و إنما التدلي: الفهم».

So, Abu Ibrahim-asws said: ‘Surely this is the language of Quraysh. Whenever the man from them wants to say, ‘I have heard’, he is saying, ‘I have ‘Tadalayyat (bowed)’. And rather ‘Al-Tadla’ is the understanding (i.e. Rasool-Allah-saww’s understanding approached nearer to Allah-azwj)’’.[30]

Surely, I am your Lord, therefore remove your slippers! [20:12]

Did Prophet Musa-as carry on without removing his-as shoes when Allah-azwj Called him-as, as per the apparent meanings? Of Course, the hidden meanings are different to the apparent meaning, and beyond our imagination.

فَلَمَّا أَتَاهَا نُودِيَ يَا مُوسَىٰ {11}

So when he came to it, We Called out: “O Musa! [20:11]

إِنِّي أَنَا رَبُّكَ فَاخْلَعْ نَعْلَيْكَ ۖ إِنَّكَ بِالْوَادِ الْمُقَدَّسِ طُوًى {12}

Surely, I am your Lord, therefore remove your slippers! You are in the Holy valley of Tuwa! [20:12]

و عنه، قال: حدثنا محمد بن علي بن محمد بن حاتم النوفلي المعروف بالكرماني، قال: حدثنا أبو العباس أحمد بن عيسى الوشاء البغدادي، قال: حدثنا أحمد بن طاهر القمي، قال: حدثنا محمد بن بحر بن سهل الشيباني، قال: حدثنا أحمد بن مسرور، عن سعد بن عبد الله القمي، عن القائم الحجة (عليه السلام)- في حديث طويل يتضمن مسائل كثيرة- قال: قلت: فأخبرني، يا بن رسول الله، عن أمر الله تعالى لنبيه موسى (عليه السلام): فَاخْلَعْ نَعْلَيْكَ إِنَّكَ بِالْوادِ الْمُقَدَّسِ طُوىً فإن فقهاء الفريقين يزعمون أنها كانت من إهاب الميتة.

And from him, from Muhammad Bin Ali Bin Muhammad Bin Hatim Al Nowfaly Al Ma’rouf At Al karmany, from Abu Al Abbas Ahmad Bin Isa Al Washa Al Baghdady, from Ahmad Bin Tahir Al Qummi, from Muhammad Bin Bahr Bin Sahl Al Sahybani, from Ahmad Bin masrour, from Sa’ad Bin Abdullah Al Qummi,

(It has been narrated) from Al-Qaim Al-Hujjat-asws – in a lengthy Hadeeth including many issues, (the narrator) said, ‘So inform me, O son-asws of Rasool-Allah-saww, about the Command of Allah-azwj the Exalted: to His-azwj Prophet-as Musa-as: Surely I am your Lord, therefore remove your slippers! You are in the Holy valley of Tuwa! [20:12], for the Jurists are of two groups claiming that these were (made) from dead skin’.

فقال (عليه السلام): «من قال ذلك فقد افترى على موسى (عليه السلام)، و استجهله في نبوته، لأنه ما خلا الأمر فيها من خصلتين: إما أن تكون صلاة موسى فيها جائزة أو غير جائزة، فإن كانت صلاته جائزة، جاز له لبسها في تلك البقعة إذ لم تكن مقدسة، و إن كانت مقدسة مطهرة، فليست بأقدس و أطهر من الصلاة،

So he-asws said: ‘The one who says that, so he has forged (a lie) against Musa-as and considered him-as to be ignorant in his-as Prophet-hood, because apart from the Command with regards to it, it has two characteristics. Either the Salat of Musa-as was allowed or not allowed. So if his-as Salat was allowed, then it would be allowed for him-as to wear these in a spot which is not Holy. And if it was Holy, Pure, then it was not Holier and Purer than the Salat (itself).

و إن كانت صلاته غير جائزة فيها، فقد أوجب على موسى (عليه السلام) أنه لم يعرف الحلال من الحرام، و ما علم ما تجوز فيه الصلاة و ما لم تجز، و هذا كفر».

And if his-as Salat was not allowed therein, so it would be more than Obligated upon Musa-as that he-as should recognise the Permissible and the Prohibited, and (how come) he-as did not know what is allowed in the Salat and what is not allowed? And this is Kufr’.

قلت: فأخبرني- يا مولاي- عن التأويل فيها؟

I said, ‘So inform me – O my Master-asws – about the explanation regarding it?’

قال: «إن موسى (عليه السلام) ناجى ربه بالوادي المقدس، فقال: يا رب، إني قد أخلصت لك المحبة مني، و غسلت قلبي عمن سواك- و كان شديد الحب لأهله- فقال الله تبارك و تعالى: فَاخْلَعْ نَعْلَيْكَ أي انزع حب أهلك من قبلك إن كانت محبتك لي خالصة، و قلبك من الميل إلى من سواي مغسولا».

He-asws said: ‘Musa-as whispered to his-as Lord-azwj at the Holy Valley, so he-as said: ‘O Lord-azwj! I-as am sincere in my-as love for You-azwj, and have washed my-as heart from everyone else apart from You-azwj’ – and he-as (also) had intense love for his-as wife – so Allah-azwj Blessed and Exalted Said: therefore remove your slippers! [20:12] [20:12], i.e., remove the love for your-as wife from your-as heart if you-as have sincere love for Me-azwj, and wash away the inclination from your-as heart apart from (inclination for) Me-azwj’.[31]

Appendix: The Debate of Imam Ali-asws ibn Musa AI-Reza-asws with Muslim scholars on infallibility of Prophet-as

حدثنا أحمد بن زياد بن جعفر الهمداني رضي الله عنه و الحسين بن إبراهيم بن‏ أحمد بن هشام المكتب و علي بن عبد الله الوراق رضي الله عنهم قالوا حدثنا علي بن إبراهيم بن هاشم قال حدثنا القاسم بن محمد البرمكي قال حدثنا أبو الصلت الهروي قال لما جمع المأمون لعلي بن موسى الرضا ع أهل المقالات من أهل الإسلام و الديانات من اليهود و النصارى و المجوس و الصابئين و سائر أهل المقالات فلم يقم أحد إلا و قد ألزمه حجته كأنه ألقم حجرا قام إليه علي بن محمد بن الجهم فقال له يا ابن رسول الله أ تقول بعصمة الأنبياء قال نعم قال فما تعمل في قول الله عز و جل وَ عَصى‏ آدَمُ رَبَّهُ فَغَوى‏ و في قوله عز و جل وَ ذَا النُّونِ إِذْ ذَهَبَ مُغاضِباً فَظَنَّ أَنْ لَنْ نَقْدِرَ عَلَيْهِ و في قوله عز و جل في يوسف ع وَ لَقَدْ هَمَّتْ بِهِ وَ هَمَّ بِها و في قوله عز و جل في داود ظَنَّ داوُدُ أَنَّما فَتَنَّاهُ و قوله تعالى في نبيه محمد ص وَ تُخْفِي فِي نَفْسِكَ مَا اللَّهُ مُبْدِيهِ فقال الرضا ع ويحك يا علي اتق الله و لا تنسب إلى أنبياء الله الفواحش و لا تتأول كتاب الله برأيك فإن الله عز و جل قد قال وَ ما يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَ الرَّاسِخُونَ و أما قوله عز و جل في آدم وَ عَصى‏ آدَمُ رَبَّهُ فَغَوى ‏فإن الله عز و جل خلق آدم حجة في أرضه و خليفة في بلاده لم يخلقه للجنة و كانت المعصية من آدم في الجنة لا في الأرض و عصمته تجب أن يكون في الأرض ليتم مقادير أمر الله فلما أهبط إلى الأرض و جعل حجة و خليفة عصم بقوله عز و جل إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفى‏ آدَمَ وَ نُوحاً وَ آلَ إِبْراهِيمَ وَ آلَ عِمْرانَ عَلَى الْعالَمِينَ و أما قوله عز و جل وَ ذَا النُّونِ إِذْ ذَهَبَ مُغاضِباً فَظَنَّ أَنْ لَنْ نَقْدِرَ عَلَيْهِ إنما ظن بمعنى استيقن أن الله لن يضيق عليه رزقه أ لا تسمع قول الله عز و جل وَ أَمَّا إِذا مَا ابْتَلاهُ فَقَدَرَ عَلَيْهِ رِزْقَهُ أي ضيق عليه رزقه و لو ظن أن الله لا يقدر عليه لكان قد كفر و أما قوله عز و جل في يوسف وَ لَقَدْ هَمَّتْ بِهِ وَ هَمَّ بِها فإنها همت بالمعصية و هم يوسف بقتلها إن أجبرته لعظم ما تداخله فصرف الله عنه قتلها و الفاحشة و هو قوله عز و جل كَذلِكَ لِنَصْرِفَ عَنْهُ السُّوءَ وَ الْفَحْشاءَ يعني القتل و الزناء و أما داود ع فما يقول من قبلكم فيه فقال علي بن محمد بن الجهم يقولون إن داود ع كان في محرابه يصلي فتصور له إبليس على صورة طير أحسن ما يكون من الطيور فقطع داود صلاته و قام ليأخذ الطير فخرج الطير إلى الدار فخرج الطير إلى السطح فصعد في طلبه فسقط الطير في دار أوريا بن حنان فاطلع داود في أثر الطير فإذا بامرأة أوريا تغتسل فلما نظر إليها هواها و كان قد أخرج أوريا في بعض غزواته فكتب إلى صاحبه أن قدم أوريا أمام التابوت فقدم فظفر أوريا بالمشركين فصعب ذلك على داود فكتب إليه ثانية أن قدمه أمام التابوت فقدم فقتل أوريا فتزوج داود بامرأته قال فضرب الرضا ع بيده على جبهته و قال إنا لله و إنا إليه راجعون لقد نسبتم نبيا من أنبياء الله إلى التهاون بصلاته حتى خرج في أثر الطير ثم بالفاحشة ثم بالقتل فقال يا ابن رسول الله فما كان خطيئته فقال ويحك إن داود إنما ظن أن ما خلق الله عز و جل خلقا هو أعلم منه فبعث الله عز و جل إليه الملكين فتسورا المحراب فقالا خَصْمانِ بَغى‏ بَعْضُنا عَلى‏ بَعْضٍ فَاحْكُمْ بَيْنَنا بِالْحَقِّ وَ لا تُشْطِطْ وَ اهْدِنا إِلى‏ سَواءِ الصِّراطِ إِنَّ هذا أَخِي لَهُ تِسْعٌ وَ تِسْعُونَ نَعْجَةً وَ لِيَ نَعْجَةٌ واحِدَةٌ فَقالَ أَكْفِلْنِيها وَ عَزَّنِي فِي الْخِطابِ فعجل داود ع على المدعى عليه فقال لَقَدْ ظَلَمَكَ بِسُؤالِ نَعْجَتِكَ إِلى‏ نِعاجِهِ و لم يسأل المدعي البينة على ذلك و لم يقبل على المدعى عليه فيقول له ما تقول فكان هذا خطيئة رسم الحكم لا ما ذهبتم إليه أ لا تسمع الله عز و جل يقول يا داوُدُ إِنَّا جَعَلْناكَ خَلِيفَةً فِي الْأَرْضِ فَاحْكُمْ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِالْحَقِّ وَ لا تَتَّبِعِ الْهَوى‏ إلى آخر الآية فقال يا ابن رسول الله فما قصته مع أوريا فقال الرضا ع إن المرأة في أيام داود ع كانت إذا مات بعلها أو قتل لا تتزوج بعده أبدا و أول من أباح الله له أن يتزوج بامرأة قتل بعلها كان داود ع فتزوج بامرأة أوريا لما قتل و انقضت عدتها منه فذلك الذي شق على الناس من قبل أوريا و أما محمد ص‏ و قول الله عز و جل وَ تُخْفِي فِي نَفْسِكَ مَا اللَّهُ مُبْدِيهِ وَ تَخْشَى النَّاسَ وَ اللَّهُ أَحَقُّ أَنْ تَخْشاهُ فإن الله عز و جل عرف نبيه ص أسماء أزواجه في دار الدنيا و أسماء أزواجه في دار الآخرة و إنهن أمهات المؤمنين و إحداهن من سمي له زينب بنت جحش و هي يومئذ تحت زيد بن حارثة فأخفى اسمها في نفسه و لم يبده لكيلا يقول أحد من المنافقين إنه قال في امرأة في بيت رجل إنها إحدى أزواجه من أمهات المؤمنين و خشي قول المنافقين فقال الله عز و جل وَ تَخْشَى النَّاسَ وَ اللَّهُ أَحَقُّ أَنْ تَخْشاهُ يعني في نفسك و إن الله عز و جل ما تولى تزويج أحد من خلقه إلا تزويج حواء من آدم ع و زينب من رسول الله ص بقوله فَلَمَّا قَضى‏ زَيْدٌ مِنْها وَطَراً زَوَّجْناكَها الآية و فاطمة من علي ع قال فبكى علي بن محمد بن الجهم فقال يا ابن رسول الله أنا تائب إلى الله عز و جل من أن أنطق في أنبياء الله ع بعد يومي هذا إلا بما ذكرته

Ahmad ibn Ziyad ibn Ja’far al-Hamadani – may Allah-azwj be Pleased with him, AI-Hussein ibn Ibrahim ibn Ahmad ibn Hisham al-Mokattib and Ali ibn Abdullah al-Warraq -may Allah-azwj be Pleased with them, narrated that Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashem quoted on the authority of AI-Qasim ibn Muhammad al-Barmaki on the authority of Abu Salt al- Harawi:

‘When AI-Ma’mun gathered together the rhetoricians and men of religions from the Jews, the Christians, the Magi, the Sabians, and other scholars around Ali-asws ibn Musa AI-Reza-asws, each person stood up to ask a question, got a firm answer, and received such an answer that he got quiet as if they had put a stone in his mouth.

Then Ali ibn Muhammad ibn AI-Jahm stood up and asked, ‘O son of the Prophet of Allah-asws! Do you believe in the Infallibility of the Prophets-as?’ ‘Yes,’ replied the Imam-asws.

He said, ‘Then what do you have to say about the following Verses? what do you have to say about what the Honourable the Exalted Allah-azwj said, ‘ … Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, and allow himself to be seduced (20:121); and about what the Honourable the Exalted Allah-azwj said, ‘And remember Thun-nun (Yunus-Jonah), when he departed in wrath: He imagined that We had no power over him! (21:87), and about what the Honourable the Exalted Allah-azwj Told Joseph-as, ‘And (with passion) did she desire him, and he would have desired her .(12:24)

And about what the Honourable the Exalted Allah-azwj told David (s), ‘and David gathered that We had tried him .(38:24)..  , and about what the Sublime (Allah-azwj) told His Prophet Muhammad-saww‘ … But thou didst hide in thy heart that which Allah was about to make manifest … (33:37)

Al-Reza-asws said, ‘Woe be to you! Fear Allah-azwj. Do not ascribe transgressions to the Prophets-as, and do not interpret Allah-azwj’s Book according to your own opinion. Indeed the Honourable the Exalted Allah-azwj said, ‘ … but no one knows its hidden meanings except Allah-azwj. And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge … ,(3:7) And regarding His-azwj Words about Adam, ‘ … Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, and allow himself to be seduced ,(20:121) it must be noted that the Honourable the Exalted Allah-azwj Created Adam-as as His-azwj Proof on Earth, and as His-azwj Successor in the towns.

However, Allah-azwj had not created Adam for Paradise and Adam-as’s act of disobedience occurred in Paradise, not on the Earth. Adam-as’s being Infallible was a must for him-as to fully implement the Decrees of Allah-azwj. Once he-as was sent down to the Earth as Allah-azwj’s Proof and Successor, he-as was Infallible according to what the Honourable the Exalted Allah-azwj said, ‘Allah did Choose Adam and Noah, the family of Abraham, and the family of Imran above all people. (3:33) And regarding the Honourable the Exalted Allah-azwj’s Words, ‘And remember Thun-noon (Jonah), when he departed in wrath: He imagined that We had no power over him! (21:87)

Here what is meant by ‘imagine’ is ‘to be sure.’ That means ‘We will not restrict his sustenance.’ Have you not heard the Honourable the Exalted Allah-azwj’s Words, ‘But when He tried him, restricting his subsistence for him … (89:16). This means Allah-azwj will Restrict his sustenance. Had Yunus thought that Allah had no power over him, he would certainly have turned into an atheist.

And regarding what the Honourable the Exalted Allah-azwj said about Joseph-as, ‘And (with passion) did she desire him, and he would have desired her … ‘ This means that he-as got upset and decided that if she tries to force him to commit sin, he would try to kill her. Then Allah-azwj Changed his (Joseph’s) mind and turned him away from killing her and all shameful deeds. This is what is meant by the Honourable the Exalted Allah’s words, • … thus (did We order) that We might turn away from him (all) evil and shameful deeds … (12:24) meaning killing and adultery.

The Imam-asws said, ‘And regarding David-as, what do the people on your side say about him? Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Jahm said, ‘They say that David-as was in his praying niche when Satan appeared in front of him in the form of a very beautiful bird. David-as stopped praying and stood up to go catch the bird. The bird left the room and went into the courtyard. Then it flew up to the top of the house. David climbed up to the roof looking for it. Then the bird flew into the house of Uryah ibn Hannan. David followed the bird with his eyes, and suddenly saw Uryah’s wife who was making major ritual ablutions. Once he looked at her, he fell in love with her. As for Uryah, he had been sent to a battle. David-as wrote to his commander, ‘Place Uryah in front of the coffin.’ Thus he was placed in front of it. Uryah defeated the pagans. That was hard on David, so he wrote to his commander again and ordered him to place Uryah ahead of the coffin. Then Uryah was placed ahead of it and was killed. Then David-as married his wife.’

The narrator added, ‘AI-Reza-asws hit himself on the forehead and said, ‘From Allah-azwj we are, and unto Him-azwj is our return! You have ascribed neglecting prayers and going out and looking for the bird’s tracks, fornication and killing to one of the Prophets of Allah-azwj.’’’ Ali ibn AI-Jahm said, ‘O son of the Prophet of Allah-asws! Then what was his sin?’

The Imam-asws  said, ‘Woe be to you! David thought that the Honourable the Exalted Allah-azwj had not Created anyone more learned than himself. Therefore, the Honourable the Exalted Allah-azwj sent two angels towards him-as who climbed up the walls of the prayer niche and said, ‘ … Fear not: we are two disputants, one of whom has wronged the other: Decide now between us with truth, and treat us not with injustice, but guide us to the even Path. This man is my brother: He has nine and ninety ewes, and I have (but) one: Yet he says, ‘commit her to my care,’ and is (moreover) harsh to me in speech. (38:22-23)

Then David turned to the one against whom a claim was made and said, ‘He (Dawood) said: ‘He has wronged you by asking for your ewe to (be added) to his ewes, … .(38:24) He did not turn to the claimant to ask him for any evidence. Thus, this was just a fault in the way he judged, not a fault in the way you think about it. Have you ever heard that the Honourable the Exalted Allah-azwj said, “O Dawood! Surely, We Made you a Caliph in the earth, therefore judge between the people with the Truth and do not follow the vain desires, for you will stray from the Way of Allah. Surely, those who stray from the way of Allah, for them is a severe Punishment due to their forgetting the Day of Reckoning!” (38:26)

He then asked: ‘O son of the Prophet of Allah-asws! What was behind the story of Uryah?’

Al-Reza-asws said, ‘When a woman’s husband died or got killed during the time of David-as, she never married again. The first man who was permitted to marry a widow whose husband was killed was David-as. He married Uryah’s wife when after Uryah’s husband got killed and after her waiting period was over. This was what was hard on the people regarding Uryah.’

And regarding Muhammad-saww and the Honourable the Exalted Allah-azwj’s Words, ‘and you concealed within yourself what Allah would be Manifesting, and you feared the people while Allah is more deserving that you fear Him. (33:37)

The Honourable the Exalted Allah-azwj had already informed His Prophet-saww about the names of his wives in this world, and the names of his wives in the Hereafter, and that they will be the mothers of the believers. One of them was called Zaynab – the daughter of Jahsh who was married to Zayd ibn Haritha at that time. The Prophet-saww kept her name a secret to himself and did not say anything fearing that the hypocrites might say that Muhammad-saww considers a married woman to be his own wife and one of the mothers of the believers.

He-saww feared what the hypocrites might say. The Honourable the Exalted Allah-azwj said, and you concealed within yourself what Allah would be Manifesting, and you feared the people while Allah is more deserving that you fear Him (33:37) meaning in himself. And the Honourable the Exalted Allah-azwj has not Taken charge of marrying off any of His-azwj creatures Himself except for the marriage of Eve with Adam, and Zaynab with Allah’s Prophet-saww as He-azwj said, ‘ … Then when Zayd had dissolved (his marriage) with her, with the necessary (formality), We joined her in marriage to you . ’ (33:37) So did We-azwj Join (the Blessed Lady) Fatima-asws in marriage to Ali-asws.

The narrator added, ‘Then Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Jahm cried and said, ‘O son of the Prophet of Allah-asws! I turn to the Honourable the Exalted Allah-azwj in repentance and from now on will never say anything about the Prophets-as of Allah-azwj other that what you have mentioned.’[32]

[1] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 120 H 4

مِنَ الْقَوْمِ أَصِفُ لَكَ مَا يَخْرُجُ مِنْ نَسْلِهِ وَ إِنَّهُ عِنْدَكُمْ لَفِي الْكُتُبِ الَّتِي نَزَلَتْ عَلَيْكُمْ إِنْ لَمْ تُغَيِّرُوا وَ تُحَرِّفُوا وَ تُكَفِّرُوا وَ قَدِيماً مَا فَعَلْتُمْ

(The 7th Imam asws) said when asked by a scholar of the previous Books: I-asws shall describe to you, what came out from his-asws (Imam Ali-asws) lineage, and he-asws is with you all in the Books which were Revealed unto you, if you have not changed, altered and the rejected (these), and for long (this is) what you have been doing’.

[2] بصائر الدرجات: 216/ 8

[3] تفسير العيّاشي 1: 12/ 9

[4] التّوحيد: 264/ 5.

[5] Bihar Al-Anwaar V 89 – The Book of Quran – Ch 10 H 1

[6] Bihar Al-Anwaar V 89 – The Book of Quran – Ch 8 H 15

[7] Bihar Al-Anwaar V 89 – The Book of Quran – Ch 8 H 48

[8] Bihar Al-Anwaar V 89 – The Book of Quran – Ch 8 H 46

[9] Bihar Al-Anwaar V 89 – The Book of Quran – Ch 8 H 47

[10] Bihar Al-Anwaar V 90 – The Book of Quran – Ch 129 H 2

[11] Bihar Al-Anwaar V 90 – The Book of Quran – Ch 129 H 1

[12] Bihar Al-Anwaar V 90 – The Book of Quran – Ch 129 H 1

[13] Bihar Al-Anwaar V 90 – The Book of Quran – Ch 129 H 1

[14] Bihar Al-Anwaar V 90 – The Book of Quran – Ch 129 H 1

[15] Bihar Al-Anwaar V 90 – The Book of Quran – Ch 129 H 1

[16] تفسير الصافي، ج‏4، ص: 111

[17] Bihar Al-Anwaar V 90 – The Book of Quran – Ch 129 H 2

[18] Bihar Al-Anwaar V 90 – The Book of Quran – Ch 129 H 1

[19] Bihar Al-Anwaar V 90 – The Book of Quran – Ch 129 H 1

[20] Tafseer Noor Al Saqalayn – CH 48 H 19

[21] تفسير القمّي 2: 314.

[22] تأويل الآيات 2: 593/ 4.

[23] مجمع البيان 9: 168.

[24] التوحيد: 153/ 2.

[25] معاني الأخبار: 15/ 8، التوحيد: 153/ 1

[26] كفاية الأثر: 255 (Extract)

[27] Bihar Al-Anwaar V 90 – The Book of Quran – Ch 129 H 1

[28] عيون أخبار الرّضا (عليه السّلام) 1: 191/ 1.

[29] علل الشرائع: 131/ 1

[30] الاحتجاج: 386.

[31] كمال الدين و تمام النعمة: 460. (Extract)

[32] عيون‏أخبارالرضا(ع) ج : 1 ص : 192, Vol. 1. Chapter 14, H. 1