Saqifa and Beyond


The ’SaqifaSaqīfah (سَّقِيفَة) was a shed belonging to the Banu/Bani Sa’ida clan, in which a secret meeting was held (in 11 AH) by a small group of Muslims, soon after the news of the Shahadat of the Holy Prophet-saww was announced.  During the meeting, participating Muslims from both Ansaar and Mahajareen tried to appoint a caliph. The Ansaars[1] claimed that they were more entitled to appoint a caliph from amongst them due to their help and assistance, whilst the Mahajareen (Emigrants) insisted a caliph should be from amongst them, as they were first in embracing Islam and had close kinship with Rasool Allah-saww.  Their arguments continued for hours, turning into ugly altercations, exposing tribal rivalries and personal grudge, and ending in a stampede-like situation. At this point, Umar Ibn Khattab hurriedly took the hand of Abu Bakr and pledged allegiance to him and some followed suit, while others vigorously opposed it.  It took between 1-3 days as per some narrations.

Then they came out compelling and coercing others to pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr, Umar Ibn Khattab being the foremost in doing so[2]. Whilst those Muslims were at Saqifa, Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws, along with some members of Bani Hashim, was busy in washing, embalming, offering the funeral Salat and burial of Rasool Allah-saww.  Here, we present two Ahadith related to the outcome of the Saqifa allegiance:

وَ قَالَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ فِي مَوْضِعٍ آخَرَ: قَالُوا: لَمَّا انْتَهَتْ إِلَى أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ أَنْبَاءُ السَّقِيفَةِ بَعْدَ وَفَاةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ، قَالَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ: مَا قَالَتِ الْأَنْصَارُ؟ قَالُوا: قَالَتْ: مِنَّا أَمِيرٌ وَ مِنْكُمْ أَمِيرٌ.

And he (Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed) said in another place, ‘They said, ‘When it ended to Amir Al-Momineen-asws, news of the Saqifa, after the expiry of Rasool-Allah-saww, he-asws said: ‘What did the Helpers say?’ They said, ‘They said, ‘There should be a ruler from us (Helpers) and a ruler from you (Emigrants)’.

قَالَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ: فَهَلَّا احْتَجَجْتُمْ‏ عَلَيْهِمْ بِأَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ وَصَّى بِأَنْ يُحْسَنَ إِلَى مُحْسِنِهِمْ وَ يُتَجَاوَزَ عَنْ مُسِيئِهِمْ؟

He-asws said: ‘Why did you not argue with them that Rasool-Allah-saww bequeathed that they should be good to their (Helpers) good doers, and they should overlook from their evil ones?’

قَالُوا: وَ مَا فِي هَذَا مِنَ الْحُجَّةِ عَلَيْهِمْ؟. قَالَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ: لَوْ كَانَتِ الْإِمَارَةُ فِيهِمْ لَمْ تَكُنِ الْوَصِيَّةُ بِهِمْ.

They said, ‘And what is the argument in this against them?’ He-asws said: ‘If the government was to be among them, he-saww would not have bequeathed with them’.

ثُمَّ قَالَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ: فَمَا ذَا قَالَتْ قُرَيْشٌ؟!. قَالُوا: احْتَجَّتْ بِأَنَّهَا شَجَرَةُ الرَّسُولِ (ص). فَقَالَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ: احْتَجُّوا بِالشَّجَرَةِ وَ أَضَاعُوا الثَّمَرَةَ!.

Then he-asws said: ‘So, what is that which Quraysh said?’ They said, ‘They argued that they are the tree (lineage) of the Rasool-saww’. He-asws said: ‘They argued with the tree and wasted the fruit!’’[3]

When Abu Bakr succeeded in taking allegiance from most of the Muslims, he wrote to his father about him becoming the caliph of the Muslims, his father replied to him:

رُوِيَ‏ أَنَّ أَبَا قُحَافَةَ كَانَ بِالطَّائِفِ لَمَّا قُبِضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ وَ بُويِعَ لِأَبِي بَكْرٍ، فَكَتَبَ إِلَى أَبِيهِ‏ كِتَاباً عُنْوَانُهُ: مِنْ خَلِيفَةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ إِلَى أَبِي قُحَافَةَ، أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنَّ النَّاسَ قَدْ تَرَاضَوْا بِي، فَأَنَا الْيَوْمَ خَلِيفَةُ اللَّهِ، فَلَوْ قَدِمْتَ عَلَيْنَا لَكَانَ أَحْسَنَ بِكَ.

(The book) ‘Al-Ihtijaj’ – Abu Qohafa (Abu Bakr’s father) was at Al-Taif when Rasool-Allah-saww passed away, and Abu Bakr was pledged allegiance to. He (Abu Bakr) wrote a letter to him, its content was, ‘From caliph of Rasool-Allah-saww to Abu Qohafa. As for after, the people are in agreement with me, so today I am caliph of Allah-azwj. If you would come forward to us, it would be good from you’.

فَلَمَّا قَرَأَ أَبُو قُحَافَةَ الْكِتَابَ قَالَ لِلرَّسُولِ: مَا مَنَعَهُمْ‏ مِنْ عَلِيٍّ؟ قَالَ الرَّسُولُ‏: هُوَ حَدَثُ السِّنِّ، وَ قَدْ أَكْثَرَ الْقَتْلَ فِي قُرَيْشٍ وَ غَيْرِهَا، وَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ أَسَنُّ مِنْهُ.

When Abu Qohafa read the letter he said to the messenger, ‘What prevented them from Ali-asws?’ The messenger said, ‘He-asws is of young age, and he-asws has killed a lot among the Quraysh and others, and Abu Bakr is older than him-asws’.

قَالَ أَبُو قُحَافَةَ: إِنْ كَانَ الْأَمْرُ فِي ذَلِكَ بِالسِّنِّ فَأَنَا أَحَقُّ مِنْ أَبِي بَكْرٍ، لَقَدْ ظَلَمُوا عَلِيّاً حَقَّهُ، وَ لَقَدْ بَايَعَ‏ لَهُ النَّبِيُّ وَ أَمَرَنَا بِبَيْعَتِهِ.

Abu Qohafa said, ‘If this command in that was based upon the age, then I am more rightful than Abu Bakr is. They have oppressed Ali-asws of his-asws right, and the Prophet-saww had got the allegiances to be pledged to him-asws, and had ordered us with pledging to him-asws’.

ثُمَّ كَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ: مِنْ أَبِي قُحَافَةَ إِلَى أَبِي بَكْرٍ أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَقَدْ أَتَانِي كِتَابُكَ، فَوَجَدْتُهُ كِتَابَ أَحْمَقَ يَنْقُضُ بَعْضُهُ بَعْضاً، مَرَّةً تَقُولُ: خَلِيفَةُ اللَّهِ، وَ مَرَّةً تَقُولُ: خَلِيفَةُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ، وَ مَرَّةً تَرَاضَى بِيَ النَّاسُ، وَ هُوَ أَمْرٌ مُلْتَبِسٌ،

Then he (father of Abu Bakr) wrote to him (Abu Bakr), ‘From Abu Qohafa to Abu Bakr. As for after, ‘Your letter came to me and I find it to be a letter of an idiot, contradicting part of it with a part. At times you are saying, ‘Caliph of Allah-azwj’, and at time you are saying, ‘Caliph of Rasool-Allah-saww’, and at times, ‘The people are in agreement with me’, and it is a vague matter.

فَلَا تَدْخُلَنَ‏ فِي أَمْرٍ يَصْعُبُ عَلَيْكَ الْخُرُوجُ مِنْهُ غَداً، وَ يَكُونُ عُقْبَاكَ مِنْهُ إِلَى النَّدَامَةِ، وَ مَلَامَةِ النَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَةِ، لَدَى الْحِسَابِ يَوْمَ‏ الْقِيَامَةِ، فَإِنَّ لِلْأُمُورِ مَدَاخِلَ وَ مَخَارِجَ، وَ أَنْتَ تَعْرِفُ مَنْ هُوَ أَوْلَى مِنْكَ بِهَا، فَرَاقِبِ اللَّهَ كَأَنَّكَ تَرَاهُ، وَ لَا تَدَعَنَّ صَاحِبَهَا، فَإِنَّ تَرْكَهَا الْيَوْمَ أَخَفُّ عَلَيْكَ وَ أَسْلَمُ لَكَ.

Do not enter into a matter it would be difficult for you to exit from it tomorrow, and your posterity would happen to be in regret from it, and the self-accusing soul would blame in front of the Reckoning on the Day of Qiyamah. There are entrances and exits for the matters, and you know one who is foremost with it than you are. Watch out for Allah-azwj as if you can see Him-azwj, and do not leave out its (rightful) owner, for leaving it today is lighter upon you, and peace be to you’’.[4]

The Saqifa meeting, however, needs to be analysed as a reaction to the sermon of Rasool Allah-saww at Ghadeer-e-Khum, where Rasool Allah-saww announced: ‘For the ones for whom I-saww am Moula (Master), for them, Ali-asws is Moula![5]  A group among Muslims, disliked it so much that they agreed among themselves to stop Bani Hashim (mainly Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws) from succeeding to Caliphate.  The leading hypocrites among them were the twelve (12) companions of Al-Uqba, who hatched their first plan when they covered their faces and intended to frighten the camel of the Messenger of Allah-saww.

When did that happen (Sulaym asked from Abu Dharr-ra)?’ He–ra (Abu Dharr-ra) said, ‘At Ghadeer Khum (or Battle of Tabbuk as per some traditions), when the Messenger of Allah-saww was returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage’. I said, ‘May Allah-azwj Keep you well, do you know them?’ He-ra, said, ‘Yes, by Allah-azwj, all of them’. I said, ‘From where did you-ra come to know them and the Messenger of Allah-saww had told Huzayfa to keep it a secret?’ He-ra said, ‘Ammar Bin Yaasar was the guide and Huzayfa was the usher, so Huzayfa was ordered for concealment, but that was not the order to Ammar’. I said, ‘Can you name them for me?’ He-ra said, ‘Five (5) companions of the agreement[6], and five (5) companions of the consultative council (to selected the 3rd Muslim Caliph), and Amr Bin Al-Aas and Mu’awiya’. (See Appendix, Hadith 20).  See for example: Battle of Tabuk ( An assassination attempt to trip the she-camel of Rasool-Allah-saww on the night of Al-Aqaba (at Al-Aqaba), and the remaining ones from the renegade hypocrites at Al-Medina wished to kill Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws.

The animosity of hypocrites against Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws was finally realised at Saqifa, conclusion of the most controversial events in early Islam, due to the exclusion of a large number of the Holy Prophet-saww‘s companions from the secret council at Saqifa, including Rasool Allah--saww’s immediate family members and notably Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws, his-saww most trustworthy, knowledgeable, and flag bearer.

With respect to the succession to the first Caliph, Abu Bakr could not find a better leader than Umar Ibn Khattab and nominated him as his successor. Towards the end of 2nd Caliph’s rein, a completely new method of choosing the 3rd Muslim Caliph was devised and a council was formed consisting of six from the companions of Rasool Allah-saww (all of them from the Quraysh -the Mahajareen – Emigrants).  Then when the third Caliph was murdered by a delegation from Egypt, after days of siege and bloodshed, Muslims started looking for the fourth caliph and pleaded to Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws to lead them, who was also martyred, later on, by the cruel strike of Ibn Muljim.

The Islamic history tainted by divisions caused at Saqifa, continued, however leading to several wars among Muslims (mainly involving the companions of Rasool Allah-saww), e.g., the battle of Camel, (battle of Jamal), where companions of Rasool Allah-saww were killed from both warring groups! The Muslim divisions and contention remained so, and lead to the very tragic and shameful killings of the Ahl Al-Bayt-asws in Karbala, their-asws imprisonment in Sham.  And Saqifa contention still haunts the Islamic community, as some extreme Muslim factions have declared the followers of Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws as hereditary and Kafirs and have attempted to kill them whenever an opportunity present to them – and that is all over the world.

So, can that which started at Saqifa be corrected? Only if we were to analyse the circumstances prior to and after Saqifa and try to correct our ways and develop tolerance for each Islamic faction’s point of view rather than try to eliminate them from the face of the earth – so uprooting the extremism which has been planted by the army of Iblis to divide and disintegrate the Muslim nation.


Shortly, after the last Hajj and the last sermon delivered at the Ghadeer-e-Khum (Ghadeer-e-Khum (, Rasool Allah-saww appointed Usama ibn Zayd as the commander of an expeditionary force which was to invade the region of Balqa in the Byzantine Empire. Rasool Allah-saww commanded all companions, except for Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws, to go with Usama to Syria to avenge the Muslims’ defeat at the Battle of Mu’tah, (see, Battle of Motah ( in which several companions of Rasool Allah-saww were martyred, including Jafar-e-Tayyar (cousin of Rasool Allah-saww) and Usama’s father Zayd Bin Haris.  Initially, Usama’s leadership was rejected by the senior companions as him being too young and inexperienced, but Rasool Allah-saww strongly rejected their reservations and insisted on them going to Jihad under the command of Osama Ibn Zayd.  However, they kept on coming up with excuses, one after the other, discussing among them that Osama is too green to lead them as they were older and more experience of Jihad.

With this background, we come to our topic of Saqifa, citing the following Hadith, which shows the reluctance of companions to the instructions of Rasool Allah-saww, and connects with what is to follow from Rasool Allah-saww‘s illness, passing away and their secret council at Saqifa.

الإحتجاج عَنْ أَبِي الْمُفَضَّلِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الشَّيْبَانِيِّ بِإِسْنَادِهِ الصَّحِيحِ عَنْ رِجَالِهِ‏ ثِقَةً عَنْ ثِقَةٍ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ ص خَرَجَ فِي مَرَضِهِ الَّذِي تُوُفِّيَ فِيهِ إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ مُتَوَكِّياً عَلَى الْفَضْلِ بْنِ الْعَبَّاسِ وَ غُلَامٍ لَهُ يُقَالُ لَهُ ثَوْبَانُ وَ هِيَ الصَّلَاةُ الَّتِي أَرَادَ التَّخَلُّفَ عَنْهَا لِثِقَلِهِ

(The book) ‘Al Ihtijaj’ – From Abu Al-Mufazzal Muhammad Bin Abdullah Al-Shaybani, by his correct chain from his men, a reliable one from a reliable one –

‘The Prophet-saww came out to the Salat during his-saww illness in which he-saww passed away, relying upon Al-Fazl Bin Al-Abbas, and a slave of his-saww called Sowban, and it is the Salat which he-saww wanted a replacement for it due to his-saww heaviness (of illness).

ثُمَّ حَمَلَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ ص وَ خَرَجَ فَلَمَّا صَلَّى عَادَ إِلَى مَنْزِلِهِ فَقَالَ لِغُلَامِهِ اجْلِسْ عَلَى الْبَابِ وَ لَا تَحْجُبْ أَحَداً مِنَ الْأَنْصَارِ وَ تَجَلَّاهُ الْغَشْيُ وَ جَاءَتِ الْأَنْصَارُ فَأَحْدَقُوا بِالْبَابِ وَ قَالُوا ائْذَنْ لَنَا عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ

Then he-saww (took the) load upon himself-saww and went out. When he-saww prayed Salat, he-saww returned to his-saww house. He-saww said to his-saww slave: ‘Sit at the door and do not bar anyone from the Helpers’, and the faintness came to him-saww, and the Helpers came and they knocked on the door and said, ‘Give permission to us upon seeing Rasool-Allah-saww!’

فَقَالَ هُوَ مَغْشِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ وَ عِنْدَهُ نِسَاؤُهُ فَجَعَلُوا يَبْكُونَ فَسَمِعَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص الْبُكَاءَ فَقَالَ مَنْ هَؤُلَاءِ قَالُوا الْأَنْصَارُ فَقَالَ ص مَنْ هَاهُنَا مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِي قَالُوا عَلِيٌّ وَ الْعَبَّاسُ

He said, ‘He-saww is with unconsciousness upon him-saww and with him-saww are his-saww wives. Then went on to wail and Rasool-Allah-saww heard the wailing. He-saww said: ‘Who are they?’ They said, ‘The Helpers’. He-saww said: ‘Who is over here from my-saww family?’ They said: ‘Ali‑asws and Al-Abbas’.

فَدَعَاهُمَا وَ خَرَجَ مُتَوَكِّئاً عَلَيْهِمَا فَاسْتَنَدَ إِلَى جَذَعٍ مِنْ أَسَاطِينِ مَسْجِدِهِ وَ كَانَ الْجَذَعُ جَرِيدُ نَخْلَةٍ فَاجْتَمَعَ النَّاسُ وَ خَطَبَ وَ قَالَ فِي كَلَامِهِ إِنَّهُ لَمْ يَمُتْ نَبِيٌّ قَطُّ إِلَّا خَلَّفَ تَرِكَةً وَ قَدْ خَلَّفْتُ فِيكُمُ الثَّقَلَيْنِ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَ أَهْلَ بَيْتِي فَمَنْ ضَيَّعَهُمْ ضَيَّعَهُ اللَّهُ

He-saww called them, and went out reclining upon them, and he-saww reclined to a trunk from the pillars of his-saww Masjid, and the trunk was a branch of a palm tree. The people gathered, and he-saww addressed and said in his-saww speech: ‘No Prophet-saww dies at all except and a replacement (successor) is left behind, and I-saww am leaving behind among you all the two weighty things – Book of Allah-azwj and People-asws of my-saww Household, so the one who wastes them, Allah-azwj would Waste him.

أَلَا وَ إِنَّ الْأَنْصَارَ كَرِشِيَ الَّتِي آوِي إِلَيْهَا وَ إِنِّي أُوصِيكُمْ بِتَقْوَى اللَّهِ وَ الْإِحْسَانِ إِلَيْهِمْ فَاقْبَلُوا مِنْ مُحْسِنِهِمْ وَ تَجَاوَزُوا عَنْ مُسِيئِهِمْ‏

Indeed! And the Helpers are like my-saww feathers which I-saww can shelter to, and I-saww am bequeathing you with fearing Allah-azwj, and the doing of good to them. Accept from their good deeds and overlook from their evil deeds.

ثُمَّ دَعَا أُسَامَةَ بْنَ زَيْدٍ فَقَالَ سِرْ عَلَى بَرَكَةِ اللَّهِ وَ النَّصْرِ وَ الْعَافِيَةِ حَيْثُ أَمَرْتُكَ بِمَنْ أَمَّرْتُكَ عَلَيْهِ وَ كَانَ ص قَدْ أَمَّرَهُ عَلَى جَمَاعَةٍ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَ الْأَنْصَارِ فِيهِمْ أَبُو بَكْرٍ وَ عُمَرُ وَ جَمَاعَةٌ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ الْأَوَّلِينَ وَ أَمَرَهُ أَنْ يُغِيرُوا عَلَى مُؤْتَةَ وَادٍ فِي فِلَسْطِينَ

Then he-saww called Usama Bin Zayd and said: ‘Travel upon Blessings of Allah-azwj and the Help, and the well-being where I-saww order you to, with the ones I-saww make you to be in charge upon’. And he-saww had made him to be a commander upon a group of Emigrants and the Helpers, among them being Abu Bakr, and Umar, and a group of the Emigrants in the beginning, and he-saww instructed him to change (rest) at Mowtat, a valley in Palestine.

فَقَالَ لَهُ أُسَامَةُ بِأَبِي أَنْتَ وَ أُمِّي يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَ تَأْذَنُ لِي فِي الْمُقَامِ أَيَّاماً حَتَّى يَشْفِيَكَ اللَّهُ فَإِنِّي مَتَى خَرَجْتُ وَ أَنْتَ عَلَى هَذِهِ الْحَالَةِ خَرَجْتُ وَ فِي قَلْبِي مِنْكَ قَرْحَةٌ

Usama said to him-saww, ‘May my father and my mother be (sacrificed) for you-saww, O Rasool-Allah-saww! Will you-saww permit me to stay for days until Allah-azwj Heals you-saww, for when I go out and you-saww are upon this state, I would be going out and, in my heart, would be a sore about you-saww’.

فَقَالَ أَنْفِذْ يَا أُسَامَةُ فَإِنَّ الْقُعُودَ عَنِ الْجِهَادِ لَا يَجِبُ فِي حَالٍ مِنَ الْأَحْوَالِ فَبَلَغَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص أَنَّ النَّاسَ طَعَنُوا فِي عَمَلِهِ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص بَلَغَنِي أَنَّكُمْ طَعَنْتُمْ فِي عَمَلِ أُسَامَةَ وَ فِي عَمَلِ أَبِيهِ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَ ايْمُ اللَّهِ إِنَّهُ لَخَلِيقٌ بِالْإِمَارَةِ وَ إِنَّ أَبَاهُ كَانَ خَلِيقاً بِهَا وَ إِنَّهُ مِنْ أَحَبِّ النَّاسِ إِلَيَّ فَأُوصِيكُمْ بِهِ خَيْراً فَلَئِنْ قُلْتُمْ فِي إِمَارَتِهِ فَقَدْ قَالَ قَائِلُكُمْ فِي إِمَارَةِ أَبِيهِ

He-saww said: ‘Implement, O Usama, for the sitting back from the Jihad is not obliged in a state from the states’. It reached Rasool-Allah-saww that the people were taunting regarding his (Usama) deed, so Rasool-Allah-saww said: ‘It reached me-saww that you are taunting regarding a deed of Usama and regarding a deed of his father of before, and I-saww swear by Allah-azwj, he is creative in his command, and his father was creative with it, and he is from the most beloved of the people to me-saww. I-saww bequeath good with him, so if you were to say (taunts) regarding his command (being chief over you), so your speaker had said regarding the command of his father’.

ثُمَّ دَخَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص إِلَى بَيْتِهِ وَ خَرَجَ أُسَامَةُ مِنْ يَوْمِهِ حَتَّى عَسْكَرَ عَلَى رَأْسِ فَرْسَخٍ مِنَ الْمَدِينَةِ وَ نَادَى مُنَادِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص أَنْ لَا يَتَخَلَّفْ عَنْ أُسَامَةَ أَحَدٌ مِمَّنْ أَمَّرْتُهُ عَلَيْهِ

Then Rasool-Allah-saww entered into his-saww house, and Usama went out from his day until the army was on top of a cliff, a Farsakh from Al-Medina, and a caller of Rasool-Allah-saww called out: ‘No one from the ones I-saww have made him a commander upon should stay behind from Usama!’

فَلَحِقَ النَّاسُ بِهِ وَ كَانَ أَوَّلَ مَنْ سَارَعَ إِلَيْهِ أَبُو بَكْرٍ وَ عُمَرُ وَ أَبُو عُبَيْدَةَ بْنُ الْجَرَّاحِ فَنَزَلُوا فِي زُقَاقٍ وَاحِدٍ مَعَ جُمْلَةِ أَهْلِ الْعَسْكَرِ

The people joined up with him, and the first one to hasten to him were Abu Bakr and Umar and Ubeyda Bin Al-Jarrah. They descended in one lane with the total of the people of the army’.

قَالَ وَ ثَقُلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص فَجَعَلَ النَّاسُ مِمَّنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ فِي بَعْثِ أُسَامَةَ يَدْخُلُونَ عَلَيْهِ أَرْسَالًا وَ سَعْدُ بْنُ عُبَادَةَ شَاكٍ‏ فَكَانَ لَا يَدْخُلُ أَحَدٌ مِنَ الْأَنْصَارِ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ ص إِلَّا انْصَرَفَ إِلَى سَعْدٍ يَعُودُهُ

He (the narrator) said, ‘And Rasool-Allah-saww became heavy (with illness), so the people, from the ones who did not happen to be among the sending of Usama, went on to entered to see him-saww in an orderly manner, and Sa’ad Bin Ubada had a complaint (illness). So, no one from the Helpers entered to see the Prophet-saww except he left to see Sa’ad (too) to console him’.

قَالَ وَ قُبِضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص وَقْتَ الضُّحَى مِنْ يَوْمِ الْإِثْنَيْنِ بَعْدَ خُرُوجِ أُسَامَةَ إِلَى مُعَسْكَرِهِ بِيَوْمَيْنِ فَرَجَعَ أَهْلُ الْعَسْكَرِ وَ الْمَدِينَةُ قَدْ رَجَفَتْ بِأَهْلِهَا فَأَقْبَلَ‏ أَبُو بَكْرٍ عَلَى نَاقَةٍ لَهُ حَتَّى وَقَفَ عَلَى بَابِ الْمَسْجِدِ فَقَالَ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ مَا لَكُمْ تَمُوجُونَ إِنْ كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ قَدْ مَاتَ فَرَبُّ مُحَمَّدٍ ص لَمْ يَمُتْ‏

He (the narrator) said, ‘And Rasool-Allah-saww passed away at morning time of the day of Monday, two days after the exit of Usama to his soldiers. The people of the army returned and Al-Medina trembled with its inhabitants. Abu Bakr came upon a camel of his until he paused at the door of the Masjid and said, ‘O you people! What is the matter with you all rippling? If Muhammad-saww has died, so perhaps he-saww did not die:

وَ ما مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ أَ فَإِنْ ماتَ أَوْ قُتِلَ انْقَلَبْتُمْ عَلى‏ أَعْقابِكُمْ وَ مَنْ يَنْقَلِبْ عَلى‏ عَقِبَيْهِ فَلَنْ يَضُرَّ اللَّهَ شَيْئاً

And Muhammad is not except for a Rasool; the Rasools have already passed away before him; so if he dies or is killed will you turn back upon your heels? And the one who turns back upon his heels, he will never harm Allah of anything [3:144]’.

ثُمَّ اجْتَمَعَتِ الْأَنْصَارُ إِلَى سَعْدِ بْنِ عُبَادَةَ وَ جَاءُوا بِهِ إِلَى سَقِيفَةِ بَنِي سَاعِدَةَ فَلَمَّا سَمِعَ بِذَلِكَ عُمَرُ أَخْبَرَ بِهِ أَبَا بَكْرٍ وَ مَضَيَا مُسْرِعَيْنِ إِلَى السَّقِيفَةِ وَ مَعَهُمَا أَبُو عُبَيْدَةَ بْنُ الْجَرَّاحِ وَ فِي السَّقِيفَةِ خَلْقٌ كَثِيرٌ مِنَ الْأَنْصَارِ وَ سَعْدُ بْنُ عُبَادَةَ بَيْنَهُمْ مَرِيضٌ

Then the Helpers gathered to Sa’ad Bin Ubada and they came with him to ‘Saqifa Bani Saida’ a shed (Saqifa) of the clan of Saida. When Umar heard of that, he informed Abu Bakr with it, and they both went quickly to the Saqifa and with them was Abu Ubeyda Bin Al-Jarrah, and in the shed there was a lot of people from Al-Ansaar (the Helpers), and Sa’ad Bin Ubada was between them, sick.

فَتَنَازَعُوا الْأَمْرَ بَيْنَهُمْ فَآلُ الْأَمْرُ إِلَى أَنْ قَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ فِي آخِرِ كَلَامِهِ لِلْأَنْصَارِ إِنَّمَا أَدْعُوكُمْ إِلَى أَبِي عُبَيْدَةَ بْنِ الْجَرَّاحِ أَوْ إِلَى عُمَرَ وَ كِلَاهُمَا قَدْ رَضِيتُ لِهَذَا الْأَمْرِ وَ كِلَاهُمَا أَرَاهُ لَهُ أَهْلًا

They contended the command between them, saying the command is to’ – up to Abu Bakr saying at the end of his speech to the Helpers, ‘But rather, I am calling you all to Abu Ubeyda Bin Al-Jarrah, or to Umar, and both of them have agreed to this command, and both of them see themselves to be rightful for it’.

فَقَالَ عُمَرُ وَ أَبُو عُبَيْدَةَ مَا يَنْبَغِي لَنَا أَنْ نَتَقَدَّمَكَ يَا أَبَا بَكْرٍ أَنْتَ أَقْدَمُنَا إِسْلَاماً وَ أَنْتَ صَاحِبُ الْغَارِ وَ ثانِيَ اثْنَيْنِ‏ فَأَنْتَ أَحَقُّ بِهَذَا الْأَمْرِ وَ أَوْلَانَا بِهِ

Umar and Abu Ubeyda said, ‘It is not befitting for us that we precede you, O Abu Bakr. You are our foremost one in Islam, and you were the companion (of Rasool-Allah-saww) in the cave, and second of the two, so you are more rightful with this command, and first one of us with it’.

فَقَالَتِ الْأَنْصَارُ نَحْذَرُ أَنْ يَغْلِبَ عَلَى هَذَا الْأَمْرِ مَنْ لَيْسَ مِنَّا وَ لَا مِنْكُمْ فَنَجْعَلُ مِنَّا أَمِيراً وَ مِنْكُمْ أَمِيراً وَ نَرْضَى بِهِ عَلَى أَنَّهُ إِنْ هَلَكَ اخْتَرْنَا آخَرَ مِنَ الْأَنْصَارِ

The Helpers said, ‘We are cautious that he would overcome upon this command, one who is neither from us nor from you, so we shall make a ruler to be from us and a rule to be from you we shall be pleased with him upon that if he were to die, we shall choose the other one from the Helpers’.

فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ بَعْدَ أَنْ مَدَحَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَ أَنْتُمْ مَعَاشِرَ الْأَنْصَارِ مِمَّنْ لَا يُنْكَرُ فَضْلُهُمْ وَ لَا نِعْمَتُهُمْ الْعَظِيمَةُ فِي الْإِسْلَامِ رَضِيَكُمْ اللَّهُ أَنْصَاراً لِدِينِهِ وَ لِرَسُولِهِ وَ جَعَلَ إِلَيْكُمْ مُهَاجَرَتَهُ وَ فِيكُمْ مَحَلَّ أَزْوَاجِهِ فَلَيْسَ أَحَدٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ بَعْدَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ الْأَوَّلِينَ بِمَنْزِلَتِكُمْ فَهُمُ الْأُمَرَاءُ وَ أَنْتُمُ الْوُزَرَاءُ

Abu Bakr said after having praised the Emigrants, ‘And you, community of the Helpers, are from the ones whose merits cannot be denied, nor your great favours to Al-Islam. You Helpers have Pleased Allah-azwj for His-azwj Religion and for His-azwj Rasool-saww, and Made His-azwj Emigrants to be to you, and among you is a place of his-saww wives. Thus, there isn’t anyone from the people, after the first Emigrants, being with your status, for they are the rulers and you are the ministers’.

فَقَامَ الْحُبَابُ بْنُ الْمُنْذِرِ الْأَنْصَارِيُّ فَقَالَ يَا مَعْشَرَ الْأَنْصَارِ أَمْلِكُوا عَلَى أَيْدِيكُمْ وَ إِنَّمَا النَّاسُ فِي فَيْئِكُمْ وَ ظِلَالِكُمْ وَ لَنْ يَجْتَرِئَ مُجْتَرِئٌ عَلَى خِلَافِكُمْ وَ لَنْ يَصْدُرَ النَّاسُ إِلَّا عَنْ رَأْيِكُمْ وَ أَثْنَى عَلَى الْأَنْصَارِ

Al-Hubab Bin Al-Munzar Al-Ansari stood up and said, ‘O community of the Helpers! Take control upon your own hands, and rather the people are in your shadow and your shade, and no audacious one will have the audacity upon opposing you, and the people will never implement except you, your view’, and he praised upon the Helpers.

ثُمَّ قَالَ فَإِنْ أَبَى هَؤُلَاءِ تَأْمِيرَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ فَلَسْنَا نَرْضَى تَأْمِيرَهُمْ عَلَيْنَا وَ لَا نَقْنَعُ بِدُونِ أَنْ يَكُونَ مِنَّا أَمِيرٌ وَ مِنْهُمْ أَمِيرٌ

Then he said, ‘So, if they were to refuse to make you rulers upon them, then we do not agree their being rulers upon us, and we will not be content without there happening to be a ruler from us and a ruler from them’.

فَقَامَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ فَقَالَ هَيْهَاتَ لَا يَجْتَمِعُ سَيْفَانِ فِي غِمْدٍ وَاحِدٍ إِنَّهُ لَا تَرْضَى الْعَرَبُ أَنْ تُؤَمِّرَكُمْ وَ نَبِيُّهَا مِنْ غَيْرِكُمْ وَ لَكِنَّ الْعَرَبَ لَا تَمْتَنِعُ أَنْ تُوَلِّيَ أَمْرَهَا مَنْ كَانَتِ النُّبُوَّةُ فِيهِمْ وَ لَنَا بِذَلِكَ عَلَى مَنْ خَالَفَنَا الْحُجَّةُ الظَّاهِرَةُ وَ السُّلْطَانُ الْبَيِّنُ

Umar Bin Al-Khattab stood up and said, ‘Far be it! Two swords cannot be gathered to be in one sheath! The Arabs are not pleased to make you rulers and (although) their Prophet-saww is from other than you (Helpers), but the Arabs will not refuse for their affairs to be ruled by the ones the Prophet-hood was among them (Emigrants), and for us with that is the apparent argument against the ones who oppose us and the clear proof.

فَمَا يُنَازِعُنَا فِي سُلْطَانِ مُحَمَّدٍ ص وَ نَحْنُ أَوْلِيَاؤُهُ وَ عَشِيرَتُهُ إِلَّا مُدْلٍ بِبَاطِلٍ أَوْ مُتَجَانِفٌ لِإِثْمٍ أَوْ مُتَوَرِّطٌ فِي الْهَلَاكَةِ مُحِبٌّ لِلْفِتْنَةِ

Therefore, do not contend us regarding the authority of Muhammad-saww and we are his-saww friends and his-saww clan, except the one pointing to the falsehood, or deviating to the sins, or entangled in the destruction, loving the Fitna’.

فَقَامَ الْحُبَابُ بْنُ الْمُنْذِرِ ثَانِيَةً فَقَالَ يَا مَعَاشِرَ الْأَنْصَارِ أَمْسِكُوا عَلَى أَيْدِيكُمْ وَ لَا تَسْمَعُوا مَقَالَةَ هَذَا الْجَاهِلِ وَ أَصْحَابِهِ فَيَذْهَبُوا بِنَصِيبِكُمْ مِنْ هَذَا الْأَمْرِ وَ إِنْ أَبَوْا أَنْ يَكُونَ مِنَّا أَمِيرٌ وَ مِنْهُمْ أَمِيرٌ فَأَجْلُوهُمْ عَنْ بِلَادِكُمْ وَ تَوَلَّوْا هَذَا الْأَمْرَ عَلَيْهِمْ فَأَنْتُمْ وَ اللَّهِ أَحَقُّ بِهِ مِنْهُمْ

Al-Hubab Bin Al-Munzar stood up for a second time and said, ‘O community of the Helpers! Withhold (the command) upon your hands and do not listen to the words of the ignoramus and his companions, for they will go away with your share from this command, and if they refuse for a ruler to be from us and a ruler to be from them, then evacuate them from your city (Al-Medina) and take charge of this command upon them, for by Allah-azwj, you are more rightful with it than them.

فَقَدْ دَانَ بِأَسْيَافِكُمْ قَبْلَ هَذَا الْوَقْتِ مَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ يَدِينُ بِغَيْرِهَا وَ أَنَا جُذَيْلُهَا الْمُحَكَّكُ وَ عُذَيْقُهَا الْمُرَجَّبُ وَ اللَّهِ لَئِنْ رَدَّ أَحَدٌ قَوْلِي لَأَحْطِمَنَّ أَنْفَهُ بِالسَّيْفِ

So, he has made it a religion with your swords before this time, one who did not happen to make it a religion with other than it, and its charm is worn out and its taste is desired. By Allah­-azwj! If anyone were to refute my words, I shall destroy his nose (pride) with the sword’.

قَالَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ فَلَمَّا كَانَ الْحُبَابُ هُوَ الَّذِي يُجِيبُنِي لَمْ يَكُنْ لِي مَعَهُ كَلَامٌ فَإِنَّهُ جَرَتْ بَيْنِي وَ بَيْنَهُ مُنَازَعَةٌ فِي حَيَاةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص فَنَهَانِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص عَنْ مُهَاتَرَتِهِ فَحَلَفْتُ أَنْ لَا أُكَلِّمَهُ أَبَداً

Umar Bin Al-Khattab said, ‘When Al-Hubab was the one who answers me, there would not happen to be any speech for me with him, for there had flowed a contention between me and him during the lifetime of Rasool-Allah-saww, and Rasool-Allah-saww forbade me from battling him, and I vowed that I will not speak to him, ever!’

ثُمَّ قَالَ عُمَرُ لِأَبِي عُبَيْدَةَ يَا أَبَا عُبَيْدَةَ تَكَلَّمْ فَقَامَ أَبُو عُبَيْدَةَ بْنُ الْجَرَّاحِ وَ تَكَلَّمَ بِكَلَامٍ كَثِيرٍ ذَكَرَ فِيهِ فَضَائِلَ الْأَنْصَارِ فَكَانَ بَشِيرُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ سَيِّدَاً مِنْ سَادَاتِ الْأَنْصَارِ لَمَّا رَأَى اجْتِمَاعَ الْأَنْصَارِ عَلَى سَعْدِ بْنِ عُبَادَةَ لِتَأْمِيرِهِ حَسَدَهُ وَ سَعَى فِي إِفْسَادِ الْأَمْرِ عَلَيْهِ وَ تَكَلَّمَ فِي ذَلِكَ وَ رَضِيَ بِتَأْمِيرِ قُرَيْشٍ وَ حَثَّ النَّاسَ كُلَّهُمْ لَا سِيَّمَا الْأَنْصَارِ عَلَى الرِّضَا بِمَا يَفْعَلُهُ الْمُهَاجِرُونَ

Then Umar said to Abu Ubeyda, ‘O Abu Ubeyda! Speak’. Abu Ubeyda Bin Al-Jarrah stood up and spoke with a lot of things, mentioning in it the merits of the Helpers. Bashir Bin Sa’ad was a chief from the chiefs of the Helpers. When he saw the unity of the Helpers upon Sa’ad Bin Ubada to make him the ruler, so he envied him, and strive in spoiling the matter upon him, and spoke regarding that, and agreed with a ruler of Quraysh and urged the people all of them, in particular the Helpers upon the agreement with what the Emigrants were doing.

فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ هَذَا عُمَرُ وَ أَبُو عُبَيْدَةَ شَيْخَا قُرَيْشٍ فَبَايِعُوا أَيَّهُمَا شِئْتُمْ

Abu Bakr said, ‘This is Umar and Abu Ubeyda, sheykhs of Quraysh, so pledge allegiance to whichever of the two you desire to’.

فَقَالَ عُمَرُ وَ أَبُو عُبَيْدَةَ مَا نَتَوَلَّى هَذَا الْأَمْرَ عَلَيْكَ امْدُدْ يَدَكَ نُبَايِعْكَ فَقَالَ بَشِيرُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ وَ أَنَا ثَالِثُكُمَا وَ كَانَ سَيِّدَ الْأَوْسِ‏ وَ سَعْدُ بْنُ عُبَادَةَ سَيِّدَ الْخَزْرَجِ

Umar said and Abu Ubeyda said, ‘We will not be in charge of this command upon you. Extend your hand, we shall pledge allegiance to you’. Bashir Bin Sa’d said, ‘And I am the third of you’, and he was a chief of the Aws (tribe) and Sa’ad Bin Ubada was chief of Al-Khazraj (tribe).

فَلَمَّا رَأَتِ الْأَوْسُ صَنِيعَ بَشِيرٍ وَ مَا دَعَتْ إِلَيْهِ الْخَزْرَجُ مِنْ تَأْمِيرِ سَعْدٍ أَكَبُّوا عَلَى أَبِي بَكْرٍ بِالْبَيْعَةِ وَ تَكَاثَرُوا عَلَى ذَلِكَ وَ تَزَاحَمُوا فَجَعَلُوا يَطَئُونَ سَعْداً مِنْ شِدَّةَ الزَّحْمَةِ وَ هُوَ بَيْنَهُمْ عَلَى فِرَاشِهِ مَرِيضٌ

When Al-Aws saw the doings of Bashir and what he had called Al-Khazraj to from making Sa’ad a rule, they leapt upon Abu Bakr with the allegiance and augmented upon that, and crowded him and went on to trample Sa’d from the intensity of the crowd, and he was between them upon his bed, sick.

فَقَالَ قَتَلْتُمُونِي قَالَ عُمَرُ اقْتُلُوا سَعْداً قَتَلَهُ اللَّهُ فَوَثَبَ قَيْسُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ فَأَخَذَ بِلِحْيَةِ عُمَرَ وَ قَالَ وَ اللَّهِ يَا ابْنَ صُهَاكَ الْجَبَانَ الْفَرَّارَ فِي الْحُرُوبِ اللَّيْثَ فِي الْمَلَإِ وَ الْأَمْنِ لَوْ حَرَّكْتَ مِنْهُ شَعْرَةً مَا رَجَعْتَ وَ فِي وَجْهِكَ وَاضِحَةٌ فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ مَهْلًا يَا عُمَرُ فَإِنَّ الرِّفْقَ أَبْلَغُ وَ أَفْضَلُ

He said, ‘You are killing me!’ Umar said, ‘May Allah-azwj Kill him’. Qays Bin Sa’ad leapt and grabbed the beard of Umar and said, ‘By Allah-azwj! By Allah-azwj, O son of Suhaak, the coward, the fleer in the wars, the lion in the assemblies and during the peace time! Even if a hair moves from him, you will not return and in your face would be clearness!’ Abu Bakr said, ‘No, O Umar, for the kindness is more reaching and better’.

فَقَالَ سَعْدٌ يَا ابْنَ صُهَاكَ وَ كَانَتْ جَدَّةَ عُمَرَ حَبَشِيَّةً أَمَا وَ اللَّهِ لَوْ أَنَّ لِي قُوَّةً عَلَى النُّهُوضِ لَسَمِعْتُمَا مِنِّي فِي سِكَكِهَا زَئِيراً يُزْعِجُكَ وَ أَصْحَابَكَ مِنْهَا وَ لَأَلْحَقْتُكُمَا بِقَوْمٍ كُنْتُمْ فِيهِمْ أَذْنَاباً أَذِلَّاءَ تَابِعَيْنِ غَيْرَ مَتْبُوعَيْنِ لَقَدِ اجْتَرَأْتُمَا يَا آلَ الْخَزْرَجِ احْمِلُونِي مِنْ مَكَانِ الْفِتْنَةِ

Sa’ad said, ‘O son of Suhaak!’ – a grandmother of Umar was Ethiopian, ‘But, by Allah-azwj, if there was strength for me upon the rising, you would have heard me roaring in the markets, you and your companions would have been distressed from it and I would have joined you with a people you used to be among them, a disgraceful offspring, followers not being followed. You are being audacious, O family of Al-Khazraj! Carry me away from the place of Fitna!’

فَحَمَلُوهُ فَأَدْخَلُوهُ مَنْزِلَهُ فَلَمَّا كَانَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ بَعَثَ إِلَيْهِ أَبُو بَكْرٍ أَنْ قَدْ بَايَعَ النَّاسُ فَبَايِعْ

They carried him and entered him into his house. When it was after that, Abu Bakr sent a message to him, ‘The people have pledged allegiance, so (you too) pledge allegiance’.

فَقَالَ لَا وَ اللَّهِ حَتَّى أَرْمِيَكُمْ بِكُلِّ سَهْمٍ فِي كِنَانَتِي وَ أَخْضِبَ مِنْكُمْ سِنَانَ رُمْحِي وَ أَضْرِبَكُمْ بِسَيْفِي مَا أَقَلَّتْ يَدِي فَأُقَاتِلُكُمْ بِمَنْ تَبِعَنِي مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِي وَ عَشِيرَتِي ثُمَّ وَ ايْمُ اللَّهِ لَوِ اجْتَمَعَ‏ الْجِنُّ وَ الْإِنْسُ عَلَيَّ مَا بَايَعْتُكُمَا أَيُّهَا الْغَاصِبَانِ حَتَّى أُعْرَضَ عَلَى رَبِّي وَ أَعْلَمَ مَا حِسَابِي

He said, ‘No, by Allah-azwj, until I shoot at you with every arrow in my quiver, and dye the teeth from my spears, and strike you with my sword. I am not short of hands. I will fight you with the ones who follow me, from my family and my clan. Then, I swear by Allah-azwj! Even if the Jinn and the humans were to gather against me, I will not pledge allegiance to you two (Abu Bakr and Umar), O you usurpers, until I am presented unto my Lord-azwj and know what my Reckoning is’.

فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ كَلَامُهُ قَالَ عُمَرُ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ بَيْعَتِهِ فَقَالَ بَشِيرُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ إِنَّهُ قَدْ أَبَى وَ لَجَّ وَ لَيْسَ بِمُبَايِعٍ أَوْ يُقْتَلَ وَ لَيْسَ بِمَقْتُولٍ حَتَّى تُقْتَلَ مَعَهُ الْخَزْرَجُ وَ الْأَوْسُ فَاتْرُكُوهُ وَ لَيْسَ تَرْكُهُ بِضَائِرٍ

When his speech came to them, Umar said, ‘There is no escape from his allegiance’. Bashir Bin Sa’ad said, ‘He has refused and is vociferous, and will not be pledging allegiance, or he is killed, and he wouldn’t be killed until Al-Khazraj and Al-Aws are killed along with him. So, leave him, and leaving him is not harmful’.

فَقَبِلُوا قَوْلَهُ وَ تَرَكُوا سَعْداً وَ كَانَ سَعْدٌ لَا يُصَلِّي بِصَلَاتِهِمْ وَ لَا يَقْضِي بِقَضَائِهِمْ‏ وَ لَوْ وَجَدَ أَعْوَاناً لَصَالَ بِهِمْ وَ لَقَاتَلَهُمْ فَلَمْ يَزَلْ كَذَلِكَ فِي وِلَايَةِ أَبِي بَكْرٍ حَتَّى هَلَكَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ

They accepted his words and left Sa’ad, and Sa’ad did not use to pray Salat with their Salat nor fulfilled any needs with their needs, and had he found any supporters the ones with him (his tribe), he would have fought against them. He did not cease to be like that during the rule of Abu Bakr until Abu Bakr died.

ثُمَّ وُلِّيَ عُمَرُ فَكَانَ كَذَلِكَ فَخَشِيَ سَعْدٌ غَائِلَةَ عُمَرَ فَخَرَجَ إِلَى الشَّامِ فَمَاتَ بِحَوْرَانَ فِي وِلَايَةِ عُمَرَ وَ لَمْ يُبَايِعْ أَحَداً وَ كَانَ سَبَبُ مَوْتِهِ أَنْ رُمِيَ بِسَهْمٍ فِي اللَّيْلِ فَقَتَلَهُ وَ زُعِمَ أَنَّ الْجِنَّ رَمَوْهُ وَ قِيلَ أَيْضاً إِنَّ مُحَمَّدَ بْنَ مَسْلَمَةَ الْأَنْصَارِيَّ تَوَلَّى قَتْلَهُ بِجُعْلٍ جُعِلَتْ لَهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ رُوِيَ أَنَّهُ تَوَلَّى ذَلِكَ الْمُغِيرَةُ بْنُ شُعْبَةَ

Then Umar (Ibn Khattab) became ruler, and he (Sa’ad) was like that. Sa’ad feared the calamity of Umar, so he went out to Syria and died at Howran during the rule of Umar, and did not pledge allegiance to anyone, and the reason for his death was that he was shot at by an arrow during the night and it killed him, and it is claimed that the Jinn shot at him, and it is said as well that Muhammad Bin Maslama Al-Ansari was in-charge of killing him, and kept on coming against him. And it is reported that Al-Mugheira Bin Shu’ba was in charge of (killing) him.

قَالَ وَ بَايَعَ جَمَاعَةٌ مِنَ الْأَنْصَارِ وَ مَنْ حَضَرَ مِنْ غَيْرِهِمْ وَ عَلِيُ‏ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ ع مَشْغُولٌ بِجَهَازِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص فَلَمَّا فَرَغَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَ صَلَّى عَلَى النَّبِيِّ ص وَ النَّاسُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَيْهِ مَنْ بَايَعَ أَبَا بَكْرٍ وَ مَنْ لَمْ يُبَايِعْ جَلَسَ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ

He (the narrator) said, ‘And a group from the Helpers pledged allegiance (to Abu Bakr), and the ones presented from others, and Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws was pre-occupied with the funeral preparations of Rasool-Allah-saww. When he-asws was free from that and had prayed Salat upon the Prophet-saww, and the people prayed Salat upon him-saww, (however) the ones who had pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr, and the ones who did not pledge allegiance sat in the Masjid (did not attend the funeral proceeding).

فَاجْتَمَعَ إِلَيْهِ بَنُو هَاشِمٍ وَ مَعَهُ الزُّبَيْرُ بْنُ الْعَوَّامِ وَ اجْتَمَعَتْ بَنُو أُمَيَّةَ إِلَى عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عَفَّانَ وَ بَنُو زُهْرَةَ إِلَى عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عَوْفٍ فَكَانُوا فِي الْمَسْجِدِ مُجْتَمِعِينَ إِذْ أَقْبَلَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ وَ عُمَرُ وَ أَبُو عُبَيْدَةَ بْنُ الْجَرَّاحِ فَقَالُوا مَا لَنَا نَرَاكُمْ حَلَقاً شَتَّى قُومُوا فَبَايِعُوا أَبَا بَكْرٍ فَقَدْ بَايَعَهُ الْأَنْصَارُ وَ النَّاسُ

The Clan of Hashim-asws gathered to him-asws (Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws), and with him-asws was Al-Zubeyr Bin Al-Awwam, and the clan of Umayya gathered to Usman Bin Affan, and the clan of Zuhra to Abdul Rahman Bin Awf, and they were gathered in the Masjid, when Abu Bakr and Umar and Abu Ubeyda Bin Al-Jarrah came and they said, ‘What is the matter we see you all (seated) in various circles? Arise and pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr, for the Helpers have already pledged and (so have) the people’.

فَقَامَ عُثْمَانُ وَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ عَوْفٍ وَ مَنْ مَعَهُمَا فَبَايَعُوا وَ انْصَرَفَ عَلِيٌّ ع وَ بَنُو هَاشِمٍ إِلَى مَنْزِلِ عَلِيٍّ ع وَ مَعَهُمُ الزُّبَيْرُ

Usman and Abdul Rahman Bin Awf and the ones with them stood up and pledged allegiance, and Ali-asws and the Clan of Hashim-asws left to go to the house of Ali-asws, and Al-Zubeyr was with them.

قَالَ فَذَهَبَ إِلَيْهِمْ عُمَرُ فِي جَمَاعَةٍ مِمَّنْ بَايَعَ فِيهِمْ أُسَيْدُ بْنُ حُضَيْرٍ وَ سَلَمَةُ بْنُ سَلَامَةَ فَأَلْفَوْهُمْ مُجْتَمِعِينَ فَقَالُوا لَهُمْ بَايِعُوا أَبَا بَكْرٍ فَقَدْ بَايَعَهُ النَّاسُ فَوَثَبَ الزُّبَيْرُ إِلَى سَيْفِهِ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ عَلَيْكُمْ بِالْكَلْبِ فَاكْفُونَا شَرَّهُ فَبَادَرَ سَلَمَةُ بْنُ سَلَامَةَ فَانْتَزَعَ السَّيْفَ مِنْ يَدِهِ فَأَخَذَهُ عُمَرُ فَضَرَبَ بِهِ الْأَرْضَ فَكَسَرَهُ‏ وَ أَحْدَقُوا بِمَنْ كَانَ‏ هُنَاكَ مِنْ بَنِي هَاشِمٍ وَ مَضَوْا بِجَمَاعَتِهِمْ إِلَى أَبِي بَكْرٍ

He (the narrator) said, ‘Umar went to them among a group of the one who had pledged allegiance, among them were Aseyd Bin Huzeyr, and Salama Bin Salama, and took them altogether and said to them, ‘Pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr, for the people have already pledged!’ Al-Zubeyr leapt to his sword. Umar said, ‘Upon you is (to deal) with the dog and stop his evil from us’. Salama Bin Salama rushed and snatched the sword from his hand, and Umar took it and struck the ground with it and broke it, and they cordoned off the ones from the Clan of Hashim-asws who were there, and they went with their group to Abu Bakr.

فَلَمَّا حَضَرُوا قَالُوا بَايِعُوا أَبَا بَكْرٍ فَقَدْ بَايَعَهُ النَّاسُ وَ ايْمُ اللَّهِ لَئِنْ أَبَيْتُمْ ذَلِكَ لَنُحَاكِمَنَّكُمْ بِالسَّيْفِ

When they were presented, (Umar) said, ‘Pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr, for the people have pledged, and I swear by Allah-azwj, if you were to refuse that, we shall judge you with the sword!’

فَلَمَّا رَأَى ذَلِكَ بَنُو هَاشِمٍ أَقْبَلَ رَجُلٌ رَجُلٌ فَجَعَلَ يُبَايِعُ حَتَّى لَمْ يَبْقَ مِمَّنْ حَضَرَ إِلَّا عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ ع فَقَالَ لَهُ بَايِعْ أَبَا بَكْرٍ فَقَالَ عَلِيٌّ أَنَا أَحَقُّ بِهَذَا الْأَمْرِ مِنْهُ وَ أَنْتُمْ أَوْلَى بِالْبَيْعَةِ لِي أَخَذْتُمْ هَذَا الْأَمْرَ مِنَ الْأَنْصَارِ وَ احْتَجَجْتُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ بِالْقَرَابَةِ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ وَ تَأْخُذُونَهُ مِنَّا أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ غَصْباً

When the Clan of Hashim-asws saw that, man by man came and pledge allegiance until there did not remain anyone from the ones present except Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws. He (Umar) said to him (Ali-asws), ‘Pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr!’ Ali-asws said: ‘I-asws am more rightful with this command than him, and you all are foremost with pledging the allegiance to me-asws. You seized this command from the Helpers and argued against them with the kinship from Rasool-Allah-saww and seized it from us-asws, People-asws of the Household, usurping.

أَ لَسْتُمْ زَعَمْتُمْ لِلْأَنْصَارِ أَنَّكُمْ أَوْلَى بِهَذَا الْأَمْرِ مِنْهُمْ لِمَكَانِكُمْ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص فَأَعْطَوْكُمُ الْمَقَادَةَ وَ سَلَّمُوا لَكُمُ الْإِمَارَةَ وَ أَنَا أَحْتَجُّ عَلَيْكُمْ بِمِثْلِ مَا احْتَجَجْتُمْ عَلَى الْأَنْصَارِ أَنَا أَوْلَى بِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ حَيّاً وَ مَيِّتاً وَ أَنَا وَصِيُّهُ وَ وَزِيرُهُ وَ مُسْتَوْدَعُ سِرِّهِ وَ عِلْمِهِ

Didn’t you claim to the Helpers that you (Emigrants) are foremost with this command than them due to your position from Rasool-Allah-saww, so they gave you the leadership and submitted the government to you? And I-asws am arguing against you with the like of what you had argued against the Helpers. I-asws am foremost with Rasool-Allah-saww, living and deceased, and I-asws am his-saww successor-asws, and his-saww Vizier, and a depository of his-saww secrets and his-saww knowledge.

وَ أَنَا الصِّدِّيقُ الْأَكْبَرُ أَوَّلُ مَنْ آمَنَ بِهِ وَ صَدَّقَهُ وَ أَحْسَنُكُمْ بَلَاءً فِي جِهَادِ الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَ أَعْرَفُكُمْ بِالْكِتَابِ وَ السُّنَّةِ وَ أَفْقَهُكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَ أَعْلَمُكُمْ بِعَوَاقِبِ الْأُمُورِ وَ أَذْرَبُكُمْ لِسَاناً وَ أَثْبَتُكُمْ جِنَاناً فَعَلَامَ تُنَازِعُونَّا هَذَا الْأَمْرَ

And I-asws am the greatest truthful, the first one to believe in him-saww, and ratify him-saww and the best of you with hardship in fighting the Polytheists, and most recognising of you with the Book and the Sunnah, and most understanding of you in the Religion, and most knowledgeable of you with the results of the matters, and most eloquent of you in speaking, and most proven of you all with the Gardens, so upon what are you contending this command?

أَنْصِفُونَا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَخَافُونَ اللَّهَ مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ وَ اعْرِفُوا لَنَا مِنَ الْأَمْرِ مِثْلَ مَا عَرَفَتْهُ الْأَنْصَارُ لَكُمْ وَ إِلَّا فَبُوءُوا بِالظُّلْمِ وَ أَنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

Be fair to us, if you are fearing Allah-azwj than yourselves, and recognise to us of the command like what you introduced the Helpers as being for you, or else you are going with the injustice and you are knowing’.

فَقَالَ عُمَرُ أَ مَا لَكَ بِأَهْلِ بَيْتِكِ أُسْوَةٌ فَقَالَ عَلِيٌّ ع سَلُوهُمْ عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَابْتَدَرَ الْقَوْمُ الَّذِينَ بَايَعُوا مِنْ بَنِي هَاشِمٍ فَقَالُوا مَا بَيْعَتُنَا بِحُجَّةٍ عَلَى عَلِيٍّ ع وَ مَعَاذَ اللَّهِ أَنْ نَقُولَ إِنَّا نُوَازِيهِ فِي الْهِجْرَةِ وَ حُسْنِ الْجِهَادِ وَ الْمَحَلِّ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص

Umar said, ‘Isn’t there an example for you-asws with your family members (having pledged allegiance)?’ Ali-asws said: ‘Ask them about that’. So, the group, those from the Clan of Hashim_-asws who had pledged allegiance, rushed and said, ‘Our allegiances are not an argument upon Ali-asws, and Allah-azwj Forbid that we should be saying we are his-asws equals in the Emigration, and the goodly Jihad, and the position from Rasool-Allah-saww’.

فَقَالَ عُمَرُ إِنَّكَ لَسْتَ مَتْرُوكاً حَتَّى تُبَايِعَ طَوْعاً أَوْ كَرْهاً

Umar said, ‘You will not be left until you either pledge willingly or unwillingly’. Ali-asws said: ‘

فَقَالَ عَلِيٌّ ع احْلُبْ حَلْباً لَكَ شَطْرُهُ اشْدُدْ لَهُ الْيَوْمَ لِيَرُدَّ عَلَيْكَ غَداً إِذاً وَ اللَّهِ لَا أَقْبَلَ قَوْلَكَ وَ لَا أَحْفِلَ بِمَقَامِكَ وَ لَا أُبَايِعَ

Ali-asws said: ‘You are milking milk for you, being harsh for it today, it will be returned upon you tomorrow when, by Allah-azwj I-asws will neither accept your words, nor will your place be celebrated, and I will not pledge allegiance’.

فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ مَهْلًا يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ مَا نُشَدِّدُ عَلَيْكَ وَ لَا نُكْرِهُكَ

Abu Bakr (at this point intervened and) said: Shh no, O Abu Al-Hassan-asws! We are not being harsh upon you-asws, nor forcing you-asws’.

فَقَامَ أَبُو عُبَيْدَةَ إِلَى عَلِيٍّ فَقَالَ يَا ابْنَ عَمِّ لَسْنَا نَدْفَعُ قَرَابَتَكَ وَ لَا سَابِقَتَكَ وَ لَا عِلْمَكَ وَ لَا نُصْرَتَكَ وَ لَكِنَّكَ حَدَثُ السِّنِّ وَ كَانَ لِعَلِيٍّ ع يَوْمَئِذٍ ثَلَاثٌ وَ ثَلَاثُونَ سَنَةً وَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ شَيْخٌ مِنْ مَشَايِخِ قَوْمِكَ وَ هُوَ أَحْمَلُ لِثِقَلِ هَذَا الْأَمْرِ وَ قَدْ مَضَى الْأَمْرُ بِمَا فِيهِ فَسَلِّمْ‏ لَهُ

Abu Ubeyda stood up to Ali-asws and said, ‘O cousin! We are not refuting your-asws kinship nor preceding you-asws, nor your-asws knowledge, nor your-asws help, but you are of young age’ – and on that day Ali-asws was thirty-three (33) years of age – ‘and Abu Bakr is an old man from the old men of your-asws people, and he has more endurance for the weight of this command, and the command has already passed along with whatever is in it, so submit to him.

فَإِنْ عَمَّرَكَ اللَّهُ لَسَلَّمُوا هَذَا الْأَمْرَ إِلَيْكَ وَ لَا يَخْتَلِفُ عَلَيْكَ اثْنَانِ بَعْدَ هَذَا إِلَّا وَ أَنْتَ بِهِ خَلِيقٌ وَ لَهُ حَقِيقٌ وَ لَا تَبْعَثِ الْفِتْنَةَ قَبْلَ أَوَانِ الْفِتْنَةِ قَدْ عَرَفْتَ مَا فِي قُلُوبِ الْعَرَبِ وَ غَيْرِهِمْ عَلَيْكَ

If Allah-azwj were to Make you-asws a ruler, this command would be submitted to you-asws, and no two would differ upon you-asws after this, except and you would be appropriate with it, and competent for it, and do not resurrect the Fitna before the season of the Fitna (for) you-asws do recognise what is in the hearts of the Arabs and other against you-asws’.

فَقَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع يَا مَعَاشِرَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَ الْأَنْصَارِ اللَّهَ اللَّهَ لَا تَنْسَوْا عَهْدَ نَبِيِّكُمْ إِلَيْكُمْ فِي أَمْرِي وَ لَا تُخْرِجُوا سُلْطَانَ مُحَمَّدٍ مِنْ دَارِهِ وَ قَعْرِ بَيْتِهِ إِلَى دُورِكُمْ وَ قَعْرِ بُيُوتِكُمْ وَ تَدْفَعُوا أَهْلَهُ عَنْ حَقِّهِ وَ مَقَامِهِ فِي النَّاسِ

Amir Al-Momineen-asws said: ‘O community of the Emigrants and the Helpers! Allah-azwj! Allah-azwj! Do not forget the pact of your Prophet-saww to you all regarding my-asws command, and do not throw out the authority of Muhammad-saww from his-saww house and the bottom of his-saww house, to your houses and bottom of your houses, and push away his-saww family from its right and its position among the people.

يَا مَعَاشِرَ الْجَمْعِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَضَى وَ حَكَمَ وَ نَبِيَّهُ أَعْلَمُ وَ أَنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ إِنَّا أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ أَحَقُّ بِهَذَا الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ أَ مَا كَانَ مِنَّا الْقَارِئُ لِكِتَابِ اللَّهِ الْفَقِيهُ فِي دِينِ اللَّهِ الْمُضْطَلِعُ بِأَمْرِ الرَّعِيَّةِ وَ اللَّهِ إِنَّهُ لَفِينَا لَا فِيكُمْ فَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا الْهَوَى فَتَزْدَادُوا مِنَ الْحَقِّ بُعْداً وَ تُفْسِدُوا قَدِيمَكُمْ بِشَرٍّ مِنْ حَدِيثِكُمْ

O community of gatherers! Surely, Allah-azwj Decreed and Judged, and His-azwj Prophet-saww is more knowing, and you are all knowing that we-asws, People-asws of the Household are more rightful with this command than you are! Wasn’t there from us-asws the reader of the Book of Allah-azwj, the jurist in the Religion of Allah-azwj, the expert with the matters of the citizens? By Allah-azwj! It is to be in us-asws, not among you! Therefore, do not pursue the whims for you will renege (default) from the truth far away and spoil your past from the evil of your newly occurring events’.

فَقَالَ بَشِيرُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ الْأَنْصَارِيُّ الَّذِي وَطَّأَ الْأَمْرَ لِأَبِي بَكْرٍ وَ قَالَتْ جَمَاعَةُ الْأَنْصَارِ يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ لَوْ كَانَ هَذَا الْكَلَامَ سَمِعَتْهُ الْأَنْصَارُ مِنْكَ قَبْلَ الِانْضِمَامِ لِأَبِي بَكْرٍ مَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيكَ اثْنَانِ

Bashir Bin Sa’d Al-Ansari, the one who made it worse for Abu Bakr, and on behalf of the Ansaar group (Helpers) said ‘O Abu Al-Hassan-asws! If the Helpers had heard this speech from you-asws before the adherence to Abu Bakr, no two would have differed regarding you-asws’.

‏ فَقَالَ عَلِيٌّ ع يَا هَؤُلَاءِ أَ كُنْتُ أَدَعُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص مُسَجًّى لَا أُوَارِيهِ وَ أَخْرُجُ أُنَازِعُ فِي سُلْطَانِهِ وَ اللَّهِ مَا خِفْتُ أَحَداً يَسْمُو لَهُ وَ يُنَازِعُنَا أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ فِيهِ وَ يَسْتَحِلُّ مَا اسْتَحْلَلْتُمُوهُ‏ وَ لَا عَلِمْتُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص تَرَكَ‏ يَوْمَ غَدِيرِ خُمٍّ لِأَحَدٍ حُجَّةً وَ لَا لِقَائِلٍ مَقَالًا

Ali-asws said: ‘O you all! Was I-asws supposed to leave shrouding Rasool-Allah-saww and not even bury him-saww, and come out to dispute regarding his-saww authority? By Allah-azwj! I-asws do not fear anyone, listening to him, and he would content us-asws, People-asws of the Household regarding it, and he could permit what you all have permitted it, and do you not know that on the day of Ghadeer Khum, Rasool-Allah-saww neither left any argument for anyone nor any words for any speaker?

فَأَنْشُدُ اللَّهَ رَجُلًا سَمِعَ النَّبِيَّ ص يَوْمَ غَدِيرِ خُمٍّ يَقُولُ مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ فَهَذَا عَلِيٌّ مَوْلَاهُ اللَّهُمَّ وَالِ مَنْ وَالاهُ وَ عَادِ مَنْ عَادَاهُ وَ انْصُرْ مَنْ نَصَرَهُ وَ اخْذُلْ مَنْ خَذَلَهُ أَنْ يَشْهَدَ بِمَا سَمِعَ

I-asws adjure any man who heard the Prophet-saww saying on the day of Ghadeer Khum saying: ‘مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ فَهَذَا عَلِيٌّ مَوْلَاهُ’ ‘One whose Master I-saww was, so this Ali-asws is his Master-asws. O Allah-azwj! Befriend the one who befriends him, and be Inimical to the one who is inimical to him-asws, and help the one who helps him-asws, and Abandon the one who abandons him-asws’, he should testify with what he heard’.

قَالَ زَيْدُ بْنُ أَرْقَمَ فَشَهِدَ اثْنَا عَشَرَ رَجُلًا بَدْرِيّاً بِذَلِكَ وَ كُنْتُ مِمَّنْ سَمِعَ الْقَوْلَ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص فَكَتَمْتُ الشَّهَادَةَ يَوْمَئِذٍ فَذَهَبَ بَصَرِي

Zayd Bin Arqam said, ‘Twelve men, participants of Badr, testified with that, and I was from the ones who had heard the words from Rasool-Allah-saww, but I concealed the testimony on that day, so my sight was gone’ (as a result of concealing the truth).

‏قَالَ وَ كَثُرَ الْكَلَامُ فِي هَذَا الْمَعْنَى وَ ارْتَفَعَ الصَّوْتُ وَ خَشِيَ عُمَرُ أَنْ‏ يُصْغَى إِلَى قَوْلِ عَلِيٍّ ع فَفَسَخَ الْمَجْلِسَ وَ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى يُقَلِّبُ الْقُلُوبَ وَ الْأَبْصَارَ وَ لَا يَزَالُ يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ تَرْغَبُ عَنْ قَوْلِ الْجَمَاعَةِ فَانْصَرَفُوا يَوْمَهُمْ ذَلِكَ‏.

He (the narrator) said, ‘And there were numerous talks in this meaning, and the voice was raised, and Umar feared that they would hearken (accept) to the words of Ali-asws, so he annulled the gathering and said, ‘Allah-azwj the Exalted Overturns the hearts and the sights, and you-asws, O Abu Al-Hassan-asws, have not cease to be desirous of the words of the group’. They left on that day of theirs’’.[7]

2nd Hadith on Saqifa: the happenings at Al-Saqifa by the tongue of Bara’a Bin Aazib

وعن سليم، قال: سمعت البراء بن عازب يقول: كنت أحب بني هاشم حبا شديدا في حياة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وبعد وفاته.

And from Sulaym who said, ‘I heard Al-Bara’a Bin Aazib say, ‘I loved the Clan of Hashim with extreme love during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah-saww and after his-saww passing away.

The manner of the washing of the Messenger of Allah-saww

فلما قبض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله أوصى عليا عليه السلام أن لا يلي غسله غيره، وأنه لا ينبغي لأحد أن يرى عورته غيره، وأنه ليس أحد يرى عورة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله إلا ذهب بصره. فقال علي عليه السلام: يا رسول الله، فمن يعينني على غسلك؟ قال: جبرائيل في جنود من الملائكة. فكان علي عليه السلام يغسله، والفضل بن العباس مربوط العينين يصب الماء والملائكة يقلبونه له كيف شاء. ولقد أراد علي عليه السلام أن ينزع قميص رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله، فصاح به صائح: (لا تنزع قميص نبيك، يا علي). فأدخل يده تحت القميص فغسله ثم حنطه وكفنه، ثم نزع القميص عند تكفينه وتحنيطه.

When the Messenger of Allah-saww passed away, he-saww bequeathed to Ali-asws that no one should wash him-saww apart from him-asws, and it does not befit anyone that he should see his‑saww body parts other than him-asws, and that there is no one who would look at the body parts of the Messenger of Allah-saww except that his eyesight will be lost. Ali-asws said: ‘O Messenger of Allah-saww, who will be helping me-asws for washing you-saww?’ He-saww said: ‘Jibraeel-as and the armies of the Angels’. Ali-asws washed him-saww, and Fazl Bin Abbas with his eyes covered, poured the water, and the Angels used to turn him-saww however was needed. And Ali-asws has the intention to remove the shirt of the Messenger of Allah-saww. A shout came from a yeller: ‘Do not remover the shirt of your-asws Prophet-saww, O Ali-asws!’ He-asws entered his-asws hand under the shirt, washed him-saww, then embalmed him-saww and shrouded him‑saww, then he-asws removed the shirt from within his-saww shroud and his-saww embalming’.

Surprise of the People-asws of the Household at the deeds of the companions of the Saqifa

قال البراء بن عازب: فلما قبض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله تخوفت أن تتظاهر قريش على إخراج هذا الأمر من بني هاشم. فلما صنع الناس ما صنعوا من بيعة أبي بكر أخذني ما يأخذ الواله الثكول مع ما بي من الحزن لوفاة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله. فجعلت أتردد وأرمق وجوه الناس، وقد خلا الهاشميون برسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله لغسله وتحنيطه.

Bara’a Bin Aazib said, ‘When the Messenger of Allah-saww passed away; I feared that the Quraysh will take this matter (Caliphate) away from the Clan of Hashim. When the people did what they did by pledging allegiance to Abu Bakr, I was overcome by what a mother whose young son dies gets overcome by, along with the grief of the passing away of the Messenger of Allah-saww. I reluctantly went to look at the faces of the people, and the Hashimites were engrossed with the washing of the Messenger of Allah-saww and his-saww embalming.

وقد بلغني الذي كان من قول سعد بن عبادة ومن اتبعه من جهلة أصحابه، فلم أحفل بهم وعلمت أنه لا يؤول إلى شيء. فجعلت أتردد بينهم وبين المسجد وأتفقد وجوه قريش. فإني لكذلك إذ فقدت أبا بكر وعمر. ثم لم ألبث حتى إذا أنا بأبي بكر وعمر وأبي عبيدة قد أقبلوا في أهل السقيفة وهم محتجزون بالأزر الصنعانية لا يمر بهم أحد إلا خبطوه، فإذا عرفوه مدوا يده فمسحوها على يد أبي بكر، شاء ذلك أم أبى

And it had reached to me that which Sa’d Bin Abada and those that followed him from the ignorant ones of his companions had said. I never participated with them and knew that it will not achieve anything. I reluctantly went to be between them and the Masjid, and I looked at the faces of the Quraysh. I lost track of Abu Bakr and Umar. Then, I did not see them until later. Abu Bakr, and Umar, and Abu Ubeyda came in with the people of Al-Saqifa, and they were wearing the ‘San’aniya’ shirt, and there was no one that they would pass by, but would get confused. If they recognised someone, they would make him extend his hand and rub it against the hand of Abu Bakr, whether he liked that, or refused’.

فأنكرت عند ذلك عقلي جزعا منه، مع المصيبة برسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله. فخرجت مسرعا حتى أتيت المسجد، ثم أتيت بني هاشم، والباب مغلق دونهم. فضربت الباب ضربا عنيفا وقلت: يا أهل البيت فخرج إلي الفضل بن العباس، فقلت: قد بايع الناس أبا بكر فقال العباس: (قد تربت أيديكم منها إلى آخر الدهر. أما إني قد أمرتكم فعصيتموني).

My mind did not accept that due to the anxiety from it, along with the calamity of the passing away of the Messenger of Allah-saww. I went out quickly until I came to the Masjid, then I came up to the Clan of Hashim, and the door was closed, with no one there. I knocked on the door violently and said, ‘O People-asws of the Household!’ Fazl Ibn Abbas came out. I said, ‘The people have pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr’. Al-Abbas said, ‘You have raised your hands from it (Caliphate) till the end of times. But, I had asked you to take it (Caliphate) but you disobeyed me’.

What transpired between the rightful companions on the night of Al-Saqifa

فكمثت أكابد ما في نفسي. فلما كان الليل خرجت إلى المسجد، فلما صرت فيه تذكرت أني كنت أسمع همهمة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله بالقرآن. فانبعثت من مكاني فخرجت نحو الفضاء – فضاء بني بياضة -، فوجدت نفرا يتناجون. فلما دنوت منهم سكتوا، فانصرفت عنهم، فعرفوني وما عرفتهم، فدعوني إليهم فأتيتهم فإذا المقداد وأبو ذر وسلمان وعمار بن ياسر وعبادة بن الصامت وحذيفة بن اليمان والزبير بن العوام، وحذيفة يقول: والله ليفعلن ما أخبرتكم به. فوالله ما كذبت ولا كذبت. وإذا القوم يريدون أن يعيدوا الأمر شورى بين المهاجرين والأنصار.

I was remorseful in myself of what had happened. When it was night-time, I went out to the Masjid. When I was inside it, I remembered having heard the humming of the Messenger of Allah-saww reciting the Quran. I got up from my place and went to a place – the place of the Clan of Bayaaza. I found a number of people whispering to each other. When I approached them, they became silent. I went away from them. They had recognised me, and I had not recognised them. They called me over to them’. I came up to them, and there was Al-Miqdad-ra, and Abu Dharr-ra, and Salman-ra, and Ammar Bin Yasser-ra, and Abaadat Bin Al-Saamit, and Huzayfa Bin Al-Yamany-ra, and Al- Zubeyr Bin Al-Awaam, and Huzayfa-ra was saying, ‘By Allah-azwj, he will do what I had informed you all that he will do, for by Allah-azwj, I have not lied to you, nor have I been lied to. And the people want to have this matter referred to the assembly of the ‘al-Mahajir’ and the ‘Al-Ansaar’’.

فقال حذيفة: انطلقوا بنا إلى أبي بن كعب فقد علم مثل ما علمت. فانطلقنا إلى أبي بن كعب فضربنا عليه بابه، فأتى حتى صار خلف الباب، ثم قال: من أنتم؟ فكلمه المقداد. فقال: ما جاء بكم؟ فقال: إفتح بابك، فإن الأمر الذي جئنا فيه أعظم من أن يجري وراء الباب. فقال: ما أنا بفاتح بابي، وقد علمت ما جئتم له. وما أنا بفاتح بابي، كأنكم أردتم النظر في هذا العقد. فقلنا: نعم. فقال: أفيكم حذيفة؟ فقلنا: نعم. قال: القول ما قال حذيفة، فأما أنا فلا أفتح بابي حتى يجري على ما هو جار عليه، ولما يكون بعدها شر منها، وإلى الله جل ثنائه المشتكى. قال: فرجعوا. ثم دخل أبي بن كعب بيته.

Huzayfa-ra said, ‘Come with me to Abay Bin Ka’ab (house), as he knows similar to what I know’. We went to Abay Bin Ka’ab. We knocked on his door. He came but stood behind the door, then said, ‘Who are you all?’ He-ra said, ‘Al-Miqdad-ra ‘. He (Abay) said, ‘What have you come here for?’ He-ra said, ‘Open your door’ for the matter which we have come for (to discuss) is greater than to be discussed from behind the door’. He said, ‘I will not open my door, and I know what you have come for, and I will not open my door, it is as if you want this pact (allegiance to Abu Bakr) to be reconsidered’.

We said, ‘Yes’. He said, ‘Is Huzayfa-ra among you?’ We said, ‘Yes’. He said, ‘I say what Huzayfa-ra says, but, I will not open my door until that, which has happened to him-ra, happens to me, and what will be happening after it (allegiance) is more evil than it. And it is to Allah-azwj, Majestic is His-azwj Praise, that I complain to’. We returned. Then Abay Bin Ka’ab entered into his house.

Attempt of the companions of Al-Saqifa to entice Al-Abbas regarding the Caliphate

قال: وبلغ أبا بكر وعمر الخبر، فأرسلا إلى أبي عبيدة بن الجراح والمغيرة بن شعبة فسألاهما الرأي. فقال المغيرة بن شعبة: أرى أن تلقوا العباس بن عبد المطلب فتطمعوه في أن يكون له في هذا الأمر نصيب يكون له ولعقبه من بعده فتقطعوا عنكم بذلك ناحية علي بن أبي طالب، فإن العباس بن عبد المطلب لو صار معكم كانت الحجة على الناس وهان عليكم أمر علي بن أبي طالب وحده.

And the news reached Abu Bakr and Umar. They sent for Ubeydullah Ibn Jarrah, and Al-Mugheira Bin Sha’ba. They asked them both for them opinions. Al-Mugheira Bin Sha’ba said, ‘My opinion is that you should meet Al-Abbas Bin Abdul Muttalib. You should entice him with regard to this that there will be a share for him in this matter, for him as well as for those after him. By that you will be able to cut him off Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws and side-line him-asws, for if Al-Abbas Bin Abdul Muttalib comes with you, it will be the proof over the people, and the matter will become easier for you, as Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws would end up being alone’.

قال: فانطلق أبو بكر وعمر وأبو عبيدة بن الجراح والمغيرة بن شعبة حتى دخلوا على العباس بن عبد المطلب في الليلة الثانية من وفاة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله. قال: فتكلم أبو بكر فحمد الله جل وعز وأثنى عليه ثم قال: إن الله بعث لكم محمدا نبيا وللمؤمنين وليا، فمن الله عليهم بكونه بين ظهرانيهم، حتى اختار له ما عنده وترك للناس أمرهم ليختاروا لأنفسهم مصلحتهم، متفقين لا مختلفين. فاختاروني عليهم واليا ولأمورهم راعيا، فتوليت ذلك. وما أخاف بعون الله وهنا ولا حيرة ولا جبنا، وما توفيقي إلا بالله. غير أني لا أنفك من طاعن يبلغني فيقول بخلاف قول العامة، فيتخذكم لجأ فتكونون حصنه المنيع وخطبه البديع، فإما دخلتم مع الناس فيما اجتمعوا عليه أو صرفتموهم عما مالوا إليه. فقد جئناك ونحن نريد أن نجعل لك في هذا الأمر نصيبا يكون لك ولعقبك من بعدك، إذ كنت عم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله، وإن كان الناس أيضا قد رأوا مكانك ومكان صاحبك فعدلوا بهذا الأمر عنكما.

Abu Bakr, and Umar, and Abu Ubeyda Bin Al-Jarrah, and Al-Mugheira Bin Sha’ba went to Al-Abbas Bin Abdul Muttalib on the second night from the passing away of the Messenger of Allah-saww. Abu Bakr spoke. He Thanked Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic and Praised Him-azwj. Then he said, ‘Allah-azwj Sent to you Mohammed-saww as a Prophet-saww and a Guardian for the believers. He-saww was from Allah-azwj to them for what Allah-azwj had Chosen him-asws for what He-azwj had, and left the people to choose for themselves for their own affairs, in a united manner, not disputing with each other. They chose me as a guardian to oversee their affairs. I took over that (responsibility). By the Help of Allah-azwj, I have no fear here, nor am I confused, nor a coward, and there is no Reconciliation except by Allah-azwj.  However, the taunts have reached me. They are saying against what the general public has said. They will come to you for shelter and take you as a fortress and magnificent speeches. So, you will either enter along with the people in what they have formed a consensus on, or turn them towards you. We have come to you, and we want you to have a share in this matter (Caliphate) to be for you and those to come after you. This is because you are the uncle of the Messenger of Allah-saww, and the people as well have seen your position, and the position of your companion. They have decided to keep this matter away from both of you (Abbas and Amir-ul-Momineen-asws)’.

فقال عمر: أي والله، وأخرى يا بني هاشم على رسلكم، فإن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله منا ومنكم، وإنا لم نأتكم لحاجة منا إليكم، ولكن كرهنا أن يكون الطعن فيما اجتمع عليه المسلمون، فيتفاقم الخطب بكم وبهم. فانظروا لأنفسكم وللعامة. ثم سكت.

Umar said, ‘Yes, by Allah-azwj, and secondly, O Clan of Hashim, on your Messenger-saww. The Messenger of Allah-saww is from us and from you, and we have not come to you due to our need for you, but we do not like the people taunting us over what the Muslims have formed a consensus on, and the situation gets aggravated between you and them. Look at (the benefits) for yourself and for the people’. Then he became silent’.

Abbas’s confrontation with the conspiracy of the owners of the Saqifa:

فتكلم العباس فقال: إن الله تبارك وتعالى ابتعث محمدا صلى الله عليه وآله – كما وصفت – نبيا وللمؤمنين وليا، فإن كنت برسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله طلبت هذا الأمر فحقنا أخذت، وإن كنت بالمؤمنين طلبت فنحن من المؤمنين، ما تقدمنا في أمرك ولا تشاورنا ولا تآمرنا ولا نحب لك ذلك، إذ كنا من المؤمنين وكنا لك من الكارهين. وأما قولك (أن تجعل لي في هذا الأمر نصيبا)، فإن كان هذا الأمر لك خاصة فأمسك عليك فلسنا محتاجين إليك وإن كان حق المؤمنين فليس لك أن تحكم في حقهم دونهم، وإن كان حقنا فإنا لا نرضى منك ببعضه دون بعض. وأما قولك يا عمر (إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله منا ومنكم)، فإن رسول الله شجرة نحن أغصانها وأنتم جيرانها، فنحن أولى به منكم. وأما قولك (إنا نخاف تفاقم الخطب بكم وبنا)، فهذا الذي فعلتموه أوائل ذلك، والله المستعان.

Al-Abbas spoke. He said, ‘Allah-azwj Blessed and High Sent Mohammed-saww – as you have described – A Prophet-saww and a Guardian for the believers. If you have sought this matter (Caliphate) by the Messenger of Allah-saww, you have taken our right. And if you have sought this by the believers, we are also from the believers. You did not present to us regarding your matter, and you did not consult with us, nor did you tell us about it, and we do not like you due to that.

We are also from the believers, and we are from those that hate you for this. And as for your words, that you will have a share for me in this matter, if this matter is especially for you, you can keep it, for we are not needy of you. And if this matter is the right of the believers, then it is not for you to pass a Judgement in the rights of others. And if this is our right, we are not happy with a part of it without the other parts. And as for your word, O Umar, that the Messenger of Allah-saww is from us and from you, the Messenger of Allah-saww is a tree and we are its branches, and you are in its vicinity, for we are the first ones for it, rather than you. And as for your words that you are afraid it would aggravate the situation between us and them, this is which you have already done earlier, and Allah-azwj is the Helper’.

فخرجوا من عنده وأنشأ العباس يقول: ما كنت أحسب هذا الأمر منحرفا * عن هاشم ثم منهم عن أبي حسن أليس أول من صلى لقبلتكم * وأعلم الناس بالآثار والسنن وأقرب الناس عهدا بالنبي ومن * جبريل عون له في الغسل والكفن من فيه ما في جميع الناس كلهم * وليس في الناس ما فيه من الحسن من ذا الذي ردكم عنه فنعرفه * ها إن بيعتكم من أول الفتن

They went out from his presence, and Al-Abbas recited a eulogy. He said, ‘Don’t think that this matter will pass away from Hashim, then from Abu Al-Hassan-asws. Was he-asws not the first one to Pray to your Qiblah? And he-asws is the most knowledgeable one of the people, of the effects and the Sunnah, and the nearest of the people, and he-asws was alone with the Prophet‑saww being helped by Jibraeel during the washing and the shrouding, and he-asws has all the merits that all the people have put together, and there is nothing in the people what is within him-asws from the merits. I know that, which you have kept away from him. This allegiance of your is the first of the seditions’.[8]

قضايا السقيفة على لسان سلمان الفارسي

3rd Hadith on Saqifa: Issues of Al-Saqifa by the tongue of Salman Al-Farsi-ra

) 1 ( احتجاج الأنصار على أهل السقيفة

1 – Argumentation of the ‘Al-Ansaar’ against the people of Al-Saqifa-

وعن أبان بن أبي عياش عن سليم بن قيس قال: سمعت سلمان الفارسي قال: لما أن قبض النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وصنع الناس ما صنعوا جاءهم أبو بكر وعمر وأبو عبيدة بن الجراح فخاصموا الأنصار فخصموهم بحجة علي عليه السلام فقالوا: يا معاشر الأنصار، قريش أحق بالأمر منكم لأن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله من قريش، والمهاجرون خير منكم لأن الله بدأ بهم في كتابه وفضلهم وقد قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: (الأئمة من قريش).

And from Abaan Bin Abu Ayyash, from Sulaym Bin Qays who said, ‘I heard Salman Al-Farsy-ra say, ‘When the Messenger of Allah-saww passed away, and the people did what they did, Abu Bakr, and Umar, and Abu Ubeyda Bin Al-Jarrah antagonised the ‘Al-Ansaar’[9]. They (the ‘Al-Ansaar’) antagonised them by the proof of Ali-asws. So they said, ‘O group of ‘Al-Ansaar’, the Quraysh are more rightful for this matter (Caliphate) than you because the Messenger of Allah-saww is from the Quraysh, and the ‘al-Mahajir’ are better than you because Allah-azwj Began with them in His-azwj Book, and Extolled their preferences, and the Messenger of Allah-saww has said: ‘The Imams-asws will be from the Quraysh’.’

كيفية تغسيل النبي صلى الله عليه وآله والصلاة عليه

The manner of the washing of the Prophet-saww and the Prayer over him-saww

قال سلمان: فأتيت عليا عليه السلام وهو يغسل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله. وقد كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله أوصى عليا عليه السلام أن لا يلي غسله غيره. فقال: يا رسول الله، فمن يعينني على ذلك؟ فقال: (جبرائيل). فكان علي عليه السلام لا يريد عضوا إلا قلب له. فلما غسله وحنطه وكفنه أدخلني وأدخل أبا ذر والمقداد وفاطمة والحسن والحسين عليهم السلام. فتقدم علي عليه السلام وصففنا خلفه وصلى عليه، وعائشة في الحجرة لا تعلم قد أخذ الله ببصرها. ثم أدخل عشرة من المهاجرين وعشرة من الأنصار، فكانوا يدخلون ويدعون ويخرجون، حتى لم يبق أحد شهد من المهاجرين والأنصار إلا صلى عليه.

Salman-ra said, ‘I-ra came to Ali-asws and he-asws had washed the Messenger of Allah-saww. And the Messenger of Allah-saww had bequeathed to Ali-asws that no one else should wash him-saww. He-asws had said: ‘O Messenger of Allah-saww, who will help me-asws for that?’ He-saww had said: ‘Jibraeel’. Ali-asws had not wanted anyone except for turning him-saww’.

When he-asws has washed him-saww, and shrouded him-saww, I-ra entered, along with Abu Dharr-ra, and Al-Miqdad-ra, and Fatima-asws, and Al-Hassan-asws and Al-Husayn-asws. Ali-asws came forward, and we formed a row behind him-asws and Prayed for him-saww, and Aisha was in the chamber and was unaware, for as Allah-azwj had Taken her vision. Then ten from the ‘al-Mahajir’[10] and ten from the ‘Al-Ansaar’ at a time were entering, and Praying and leaving, until there did not remain anyone who had witnessed from the ‘al-Mahajir’ and the ‘Al-Ansaar’, except that he had Prayed for him-saww’.

أفراد قلائل بايعوا أبا بكر

A few people paid allegiance to Abu Bakr

قال سلمان الفارسي: فأخبرت عليا عليه السلام – وهو يغسل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله – بما صنع القوم، وقلت: إن أبا بكر الساعة لعلى منبر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله، ما يرضون يبايعونه بيد واحدة وإنهم ليبايعونه بيديه جميعا بيمينه وشماله فقال علي عليه السلام: يا سلمان، وهل تدري من أول من بايعه على منبر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله؟ قلت: لا، إلا أني رأيته في ظلة بني ساعدة حين خصمت الأنصار، وكان أول من بايعه المغيرة بن شعبة ثم بشيربن سعيد ثم أبو عبيدة الجراح ثم عمر بن الخطاب ثم سالم مولى أبي حذيفة ومعاذ بن جبل. قال عليه السلام: لست أسألك عن هؤلاء، ولكن هل تدري من أول من بايعه حين صعد المنبر؟ قلت: لا، ولكني رأيت شيخا كبيرا يتوكأ على عصاه، بين عينيه سجادة شديدة التشمير، صعد المنبر أول من صعد وخر وهو يبكي ويقول: (الحمد لله الذي لم يمتني حتى رأيتك في هذا المكان، ابسط يدك). فبسط يده فبايعه، ثم قال: (يوم كيوم آدم) ثم نزل فخرج من المسجد. فقال علي عليه السلام: يا سلمان، أتدري من هو؟ قلت: لا، لقد ساءتني مقالته كأنه شامت بموت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله. قال علي عليه السلام: فإن ذلك إبليس لعنه الله.

Salman-ra said, ‘I-ra informed Ali-asws of what the people had done whilst he-asws was washing the Messenger of Allah-saww, and I-ra said that, ‘Abu Bakr is at this time on the Pulpit of the Messenger of Allah-saww, and the people are not happy with pledging allegiance with one hand, but are pledging their allegiance with both of their hands, right and left’. Ali-asws said: ‘O Salman-ra, do you know who was the first one to pledge allegiance to him on the Pulpit of the Messenger of Allah-saww?’ I said, ‘No, except that I saw him-la in the shade of the Clan of Sa’ida when the ‘Al-Ansaar’ were excluded, and that the first one who pledged allegiance to him was Al-Mugheira Bin Sha’ba, then Basheer Bin Saeed, then Abu Ubeyda Al-Jarrah, then Umar Bin Al-Khattab, then Saalim Mowla Abu Huzayfa, and Ma’az Bin Jabal.

Ali-asws said: ‘I-asws am not asking you about those ones, but do you know the one who was the first one to pledge allegiance to him when he ascended the Pulpit?’ I said, ‘No, but I-ra saw an old person leaning on a staff, with a severe mark of prostration between his-la eyes, climbed upon the Pulpit first, and came down and said whilst weeping, ‘Praise is due to Allah-azwj who did not Cause me-la to die until I-la saw you in this place. Extend your hand!’ He extended his hand, and he-la paid allegiance to him, then said, ‘This day is like the day of Adam-as’, then came down and went out of the Masjid’. Ali-asws said: ‘O Salman-ra, do you know who he-la was?’ I-ra said, ‘No, but his-la talk displeased me-ra, it was as if he-la was gloating at the passing away of the Messenger of Allah-saww’. Ali-asws said: ‘That was Iblees-la, may the Curse of Allah-azwj be upon him-la.

إبليس ينتقم بالسقيفة من يوم الغدير

Iblees-la avenged the Day of Al-Ghadeer by Al-Saqifa

أخبرني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: إن إبليس ورؤساء أصحابه شهدوا نصب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله إياي يوم غدير خم بأمر الله، وأخبرهم بأني أولى بهم من أنفسهم وأمرهم أن يبلغ الشاهد الغائب. فأقبل إلى إبليس أبالسته ومردة أصحابه فقالوا: (إن هذه الأمة أمة مرحومة معصومة، فما لك ولا لنا عليهم سبيل، وقد أعلموا مفزعهم وإمامهم بعد نبيهم). فانطلق إبليس كئيبا حزينا.

(Ali-asws said) The Messenger of Allah-saww informed me that Iblees-la and the leaders of his-la companions witnessed the Messenger of Allah-saww establish me-asws on the Day of Ghadeer Khum by the Order of Allah-azwj, and informed them that I-asws was higher than their own selves and ordered them that those who have witnessed it should make this reach to those who are not present. The devils and the castaway of Iblees-la came to him-la. They said, ‘This community is now a community which is under Mercy and impeccable, there is no way to them for either you-la or for us, and they have come to know their Imam-asws after their Prophet-saww. Iblees-la turned back gloomy and sad.

قال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: أخبرني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله بعد ذلك وقال: يبايع الناس أبا بكر في ظلة بني ساعدة بعد تخاصمهم بحقنا وحجتنا. ثم يأتون المسجد فيكون أول من يبايعه على منبري إبليس في صورة شيخ كبير مشمر يقول كذا وكذا. ثم يخرج فيجمع أصحابه وشياطينه وأبالسته فيخرون سجدا فيقولون: (يا سيدنا، يا كبيرنا، أنت الذي أخرجت آدم من الجنة). فيقول: أي أمة لن تضل بعد نبيها؟ كلا، زعمتم أن ليس لي عليهم سلطان ولا سبيل؟ فكيف رأيتموني صنعت بهم حين تركوا ما أمرهم الله به من طاعته وأمرهم به رسول الله وذلك قوله تعالى: (ولقد صدق عليهم إبليس ظنه فاتبعوه إلا فريقا من المؤمنين).

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws said: ‘After that, the Messenger of Allah-saww informed me-asws, and said: ‘The people will pay allegiance to Abu Bakr in the shade of the Clan of Sa’ida after having quarrelled against our-asws rights and our-asws proofs. Then they will come to Al-Masjid. The first one who will pledge allegiance to him on my-saww Pulpit will be Iblees-la in the form of an old man who will say such and such.

Then he-la would go out and gather his-la companions, and his-la devils, and his-la satans around him-la, who will prostrate before him-la saying, ‘O our chief, O our great one, you-la are the one who got Adam-as taken out from the Paradise’. He-la will say, ‘Which community did not go astray after its Prophet-as? Never, you thought that I-la would not have authority over them and no way to them? So, how do you see me-la now of what I-la have made them leave what Allah-azwj had Ordered them to do of the obedience, and the Messenger of Allah-saww had ordered them to do’. And that is the Statement of the High-azwj: “[34:20] And Satan indeed found his calculation true concerning them, for they follow him, all except for a group of true believers”.

) 2 ( أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام يقيم الحجة على الأجيال

2 – Amir-ul-Momineen-asws established his-asws proof on the generations to come

قال سلمان: فلما أن كان الليل حمل علي عليه السلام فاطمة عليها السلام على حمار وأخذ بيدي ابنيه الحسن والحسين عليهما السلام، فلم يدع أحدا من أهل بدر من المهاجرين ولا من الأنصار إلا أتاه في منزله فذكرهم حقه ودعاهم إلى نصرته، فما استجاب له منهم إلا أربعة وأربعون رجلا. فأمرهم أن يصبحوا بكرة محلقين رؤوسهم معهم سلاحهم ليبايعوا على الموت. فأصبحوا فلم يواف منهم أحد إلا أربعة. فقلت لسلمان: من الأربعة؟ فقال: أنا وأبو ذر والمقداد والزبير بن العوام. ثم أتاهم علي عليه السلام من الليلة المقبلة فناشدهم، فقالوا: (نصبحك بكرة) فما منهم أحد أتاه غيرنا. ثم أتاهم الليلة الثالثة فما أتاه غيرنا.

Salman-ra said, ‘When it was night time, Ali-asws made (Syeda) Fatima-asws ride on a mule, and took both of his-asws sons-asws, Al-Hassan-asws and Al-Husayn-asws by their-asws hands. He-asws did not call upon anyone from the people of Badr from the ‘al-Mahajir’ as well as the ‘Al-Ansaar’ but he‑asws came up to them in their houses. He-asws reminded them of his-asws rights, and called upon them to his-asws help. No one answered his-asws call for this except for forty-four of them. He‑asws ordered them to shave off their heads and come over the next morning with their weapons to pay allegiance to death. No one was faithful to it except for four. I said to Salman-ra, ‘Who were the four?’ He-ra said, ‘I-ra, and Abu Dharr-ra, and Miqdad-ra and Zubeyr Bin Al-Awaam’. Then Ali-asws went back to them on the second night and urged them for help. They said, ‘Tomorrow morning’. Not one of them came to him-asws except for us. Then he-asws went to them on the third night. No one came to him-asws apart from us’.

علي عليه السلام يجمع القرآن ويعرضه على الناس فلما رآى غدرهم وقلة وفائهم له لزم بيته وأقبل على القرآن يؤلفه ويجمعه، فلم يخرج من بيته حتى جمعه وكان في الصحف والشظاظ والأسيار والرقاع. فلما جمعه كله وكتبه بيده على تنزيله وتأويله والناسخ منه والمنسوخ، بعث إليه أبو بكر أن اخرج فبايع. فبعث إليه علي عليه السلام: (إني لمشغول وقد آليت نفسي يمينا أن لا أرتدي رداء إلا للصلاة حتى أؤلف القرآن وأجمعه).

Ali-asws started collecting the Quran to present it to the people. When he-asws saw their treachery and their lack of loyalty to him-asws, he-asws turned towards the Quran to collect it. He-asws did not come out from his-asws house until he-asws had collected it, and it used to be written on the paper, and on the wood, and the skin, and other bits. When he-asws had collected the whole of it, and (was in the process of) writing it by his-asws own hand in accordance with its Revelation, and its explanation, and the Abrogating and the Abrogated, Abu Bakr sent for him-asws to come out and pay allegiance to him. Ali-asws sent a message to him: ‘I-asws am busy and have taken it upon myself-asws that I-asws shall not put on a robe except for Prayer until I-asws have compiled the Quran and collected it’.

فسكتوا عنه أياما فجمعه في ثوب واحد وختمه، ثم خرج إلى الناس وهم مجتمعون مع أبي بكر في مسجد رسول الله. فنادى علي عليه السلام بأعلى صوته: (يا أيها الناس، إني لم أزل منذ قبض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله مشغولا بغسله ثم بالقرآن حتى جمعته كله في هذا الثوب الواحد. فلم ينزل الله تعالى على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله آية إلا وقد جمعتها، وليست منه آية إلا وقد جمعتها وليست منه آية إلا وقد أقرأنيها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وعلمني تأويلها). ثم قال لهم علي عليه السلام: لئلا تقولوا غدا: (إنا كنا عن هذا غافلين). ثم قال لهم علي عليه السلام: لئلا تقولوا يوم القيامة إني لم أدعكم إلى نصرتي ولم أذكركم حقي، ولم أدعكم إلى كتاب الله من فاتحته إلى خاتمته. فقال عمر: ما أغنانا ما معنا من القرآن عما تدعونا إليه ثم دخل علي عليه السلام بيته.

So, they kept quiet from him-asws for a few days. He-asws collected in one piece of cloth and sealed it, then came out to the people, and they had gathered around Abu Bakr in the Masjid of the Messenger of Allah-saww. Ali-asws called out in a loud voice: ‘O you people! I-asws Since the passing away of the Messenger of Allah-saww, I have been preoccupied with his-saww washing, then with the Quran, and did not cease until I-asws have collected all of it in this one cloth. There is no Verse that Allah-azwj the High has Sent down on the Messenger of Allah-azwj but I-asws have collected it, and there is no Verse from it except that I-asws have collected it, and there is no Verse from it except that the Messenger of Allah-saww had read it out to me-asws and made known its explanation to me-asws’. Then Ali-asws said to them: ‘Lest you say tomorrow that “[7:172] Surely we were heedless of this”. Then Ali-asws said to them: ‘Lest you say on the Day of Judgement that I-asws did not call you to help me-asws and did not remind you of my-asws right, and did not call you to the Book of Allah-azwj from its opening up to its end’. Umar said, ‘What we have from the Quran is sufficient for us, but rather, you-asws are calling us to yourself-asws’. Then Ali-asws entered his-asws house’.

وقال عمر لأبي بكر: أرسل إلى علي فليبايع، فإنا لسنا في شيئ حتى يبايع، ولو قد بايع أمناه. فأرسل إليه أبو بكر: (أجب خليفة رسول الله) فأتاه الرسول فقال له ذلك. فقال له علي عليه السلام: (سبحان الله ما أسرع ما كذبتم على رسول الله، إنه ليعلم ويعلم الذين حوله أن الله ورسوله لم يستخلفا غيري). وذهب الرسول فأخبره بما قال له.

And Umar said to Abu Bakr, ‘Send a message to Ali-asws to pay allegiance, for there is nothing in this (Caliphate) until he-asws pays allegiance, and if he-asws were to do so, it will be secure’. Abu Bakr sent a message to him-asws, ‘Answer to the Caliph of the Messenger of Allah-saww’. The messenger came and said that to him-asws. Ali-asws replied to him: ‘Glory be to Allah-azwj, with what haste you have forged a lie to the Messenger of Allah-saww, he knows and those that surround him know that the Allah-azwj and His-azwj Messenger-saww did not appoint a Caliph other than myself-asws’. The messenger went and informed him (Abu Bakr) of what he-asws had said to him.

قال: اذهب فقل له: (أجب أمير المؤمنين أبا بكر) فأتاه فأخبره بما قال. فقال له علي عليه السلام: سبحان الله ما والله طال العهد فينسى. فوالله إنه ليعلم أن هذا الاسم لا يصلح إلا لي، ولقد أمره رسول الله وهو سابع سبعة فسلموا علي بإمرة المؤمنين. فاستفهم هو وصاحبه عمر من بين السبعة فقالا: أحق من الله ورسوله؟ فقال لهما رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: نعم، حقا حقا من الله ورسوله إنه أمير المؤمنين وسيد المسلمين وصاحب لواء الغر المحجلين، يقعده الله عز وجل يوم القيامة على الصراط، فيدخل أوليائه الجنة وأعداءه النار. فانطلق الرسول فأخبره بما قال. قال: فسكتوا عنه يومهم ذلك.

Abu Bakr said, ‘Say to him-asws, ‘Answer to Amir-ul-Momineen Abu Bakr’. He came to him-asws, and informed him of what Abu Bakr had said. Ali-asws said to him: ‘Glory be to Allah-azwj, by Allah-azwj it has not been long and he has forgotten it. By Allah-azwj, he knows that this is a name, which is not correct except for myself-asws, and the Messenger of Allah-saww has ordered it, and he himself was the seventh one who had saluted me-asws as Amir-ul-Momineen. He (Abu Bakr) and his companion Umar were among those seven (people) who inquired by saying, ‘Is this truth from Allah-azwj and His-azwj Prophet-saww?’ The Messenger of Allah-saww said to them: ‘Yes, truth. Truth from Allah-azwj and from His-azwj Messenger-saww that he-asws is Amir-ul-Momineen and the Chief of the Muslims, and the standard bearer, and the resplendent face.

Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic will Make him-asws to be seated on the Day of Judgement, on the Path. He-asws will make to enter his-asws friends into the Paradise, and his-asws enemies into the Fire’. The messenger returned and informed him of what he-asws had said. He kept quiet from him on that day.

إتمام الحجة على الأنصار ومطالبتهم بالوفاء ببيعتهم

Completion of the argument on the ‘Al-Ansaar’ and seeking their loyalty by their allegiance –

فلما كان الليل حمل علي عليه السلام فاطمة عليها السلام على حمار وأخذ بيدي ابنيه الحسن والحسين عليهما السلام، فلم يدع أحدا من أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله إلا أتاه في منزله، فناشدهم الله حقه ودعاهم إلى نصرته. فما استجاب منهم رجل غيرنا الأربعة، فإنا حلقنا رؤوسنا وبذلنا له نصرتنا، وكان الزبير أشدنا بصيرة في نصرته.

When it was night time, Ali-asws made Fatima-asws ride on a mule, and took the hand of his-asws sons-asws Al-Hassan-asws and Al-Husayn-asws. There was not a single one from the companions of the Messenger of Allah-saww, but he-asws visited him in his house. He-asws urged them of Allah-azwj and of his-asws rights, and called upon them for his-asws help. No man answered from them except for us four. So we shaved our heads, and expressed our support to him-asws, and Al-Zubeyr was, among us showing the most fervour and support’.

) 3 ( شهادة فاطمة الزهراء عليها السلام هجوم قبائل قريش على بيت الوحي وإحراقه

3 – The testimony of Fatima Al-Zahra-asws at the attack of the tribe of Quraysh on the House of Revelation and burning of it

فلما رآى علي عليه السلام خذلان الناس إياه وتركهم نصرته واجتماع كلمتهم مع أبي بكر وطاعتهم له وتعظيمهم إياه لزم بيته. فقال عمر لأبي بكر: ما يمنعك أن تبعث إليه فيبايع، فإنه لم يبق أحد إلا وقد بايع غيره وغير هؤلاء الأربعة. وكان أبو بكر أرق الرجلين وأرفقهما وأدهاهما وأبعدهما غورا، والآخر أفظهما وأغلظهما وأجفاهما. فقال أبو بكر: من نرسل إليه؟ فقال عمر: نرسل إليه قنفذا، وهو رجل فظ غليظ جاف من الطلقاء أحد بني عدي بن كعب.

When Ali-asws saw the Abandonment of the people, their avoidance of supporting him-asws, and their gathering around Abu Bakr and their obedience to him, and revering him, he-asws resorted to staying at his-asws house.

Umar said to Abu Bakr, ‘What is preventing you to send someone to him for the allegiance, for there is no one remaining except that he has paid allegiance apart from him-asws and those four’. And Abu Bakr was softer of the two men, and more thoughtful of the two, and the more benign of the two, and had more foresight of the two, and the other one was more short-tempered of the two, and hard-hearted of the two, and more oppressive of the two. Abu Bakr said, ‘Who shall we sent to him-asws?’ Umar said, ‘We should send to him-asws Qunfuz, and he was a man who was rude, muscular, short-tempered from the freed ones of the Clan of Uday Bin Ka’ab.[11]

فأرسله إليه وأرسل معه أعوانا وانطلق فاستأذن على علي عليه السلام، فأبى أن يأذن لهم. فرجع أصحاب قنفذ إلى أبي بكر وعمر – وهما جالسان في المسجد والناس حولهما – فقالوا: لم يؤذن لنا. فقال عمر: اذهبوا، فإن أذن لكم وإلا فادخلوا عليه بغير إذن فانطلقوا فاستأذنوا، فقالت فاطمة عليها السلام: (أحرج عليكم أن تدخلوا على بيتي بغير إذن). فرجعوا وثبت قنفذ الملعون. فقالوا: إن فاطمة قالت كذا وكذا فتحرجنا أن ندخل بيتها بغير إذن. فغضب عمر وقال: ما لنا وللنساء

He sent him, and sent some ‘Al-Ansaar’ along with him, and they dashed to him-asws. They sought permission from Ali-asws to enter the house. He-asws did not permit them. The companions of Qunfuz returned to Abu Bakr and Umar – and they were both seated in the Masjid, and the people were around them. They said, ‘He-asws is not permitting us’. Umar said, ‘Go, if he-asws gives you permission, and if not, enter without permission. They rushed across. They sought permission. Fatima-asws said, ‘Get out of here all of you that you cannot entered into my-asws house without my-asws permission!’ They returned, and Qunfuz the accursed, remained steadfast. They said (to Abu Bakr and Umar), ‘Fatima-asws said such and such. She told us to get out of her-asws house, for we entered without permission’. Umar got angry and said, ‘What have we to do with the women?’

ثم أمر أناسا حوله أن يحملوا الحطب فحملوا الحطب وحمل معهم عمر، فجعلوه حول منزل علي وفاطمة وابناهما عليهم السلام. ثم نادى عمر حتى أسمع عليا وفاطمة عليهما السلام: (والله لتخرجن يا علي ولتبايعن خليفة رسول الله وإلا أضرمت عليك بيتك النار) فقالت فاطمة عليها السلام: يا عمر، ما لنا ولك؟ فقال: افتحي الباب وإلا أحرقنا عليكم بيتكم. فقالت: (يا عمر، أما تتقي الله تدخل على بيتي)؟ فأبى أن ينصرف. ودعا عمر بالنار فأضرمها في الباب ثم دفعه فدخل فاستقبلته فاطمة عليها السلام وصاحت: (يا أبتاه يا رسول الله) فرفع عمر السيف وهو في غمده فوجأ به جنبها فصرخت: (يا أبتاه) فرفع السوط فضرب به ذراعها فنادت: (يا رسول الله، لبئس ما خلفك أبو بكر وعمر).

Then he ordered the people around him to carry firewood. They all carried firewood, and Umar carried it with them. They went around the home of Ali-asws and Fatima-asws, and their‑asws two sons-asws. Then Umar called out until Ali-asws and Fatima-asws heard, ‘By Allah-azwj, Come out to us, O Ali-asws, and pay allegiance to the Caliph of the Messenger of Allah-saww, or else we will burn down your-asws house upon you-asws’. Fatima-asws said: ‘O Umar, what have you to do with us-asws?’ He said, ‘Open the door or else we will burn down your-asws house upon you-asws’.

She-asws said: ‘O Umar, do you not fear Allah-azwj that you want to enter into my-asws house?’ He refused to leave. And Umar called for the fire. He set fire to the door, then pushed it and entered. Fatima-asws confronted him and shouted: ‘O my-asws father-saww, O Messenger of Allah‑saww! Umar raised his sword, and it was in its sheath, and hit her-asws with it on her-asws side. She-asws screamed: ‘O my-asws father!’ He raised the whip. He struck her-asws with it on her-asws arm. She-asws called out: ‘O Messenger of Allah-saww! Evil it is what Abu Bakr and Umar have done after you-saww!’

دفاع علي عليه السلام عن سليلة النبوة

Defence of Ali-asws for the descendant of the Prophet-hood

فوثب علي عليه السلام فأخذ بتلابيبه ثم نتره فصرعه ووجأ أنفه ورقبته وهم بقتله، فذكر قول رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وما أوصاه به، فقال: (والذي كرم محمدا بالنبوة – يا بن صهاك – لولا كتاب من الله سبق وعهد عهده إلي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله لعلمت إنك لا تدخل بيتي).

Ali-asws leapt up and grabbed him by the collar and pushed him away. He fell and injured his neck and nose. He-asws resolved to kill him. He-asws remembered the statement of the Messenger of Allah-saww and what he-saww had bequeathed to him-asws. he-asws said: ‘By the One Who-azwj has Honoured Mohammed-saww with Prophet-hood – O son of Suhaak – had the Book of Allah-azwj not been in front of me-asws, and the pledge, pledged to me-asws by the Messenger of Allah-saww, you would have known that you could not enter my-asws house’.

أبو بكر يصدر أمره بإحراق البيت مرة أخرى

Abu Bakr issues an order to set fire to the house once again

فأرسل عمر يستغيث، فأقبل الناس حتى دخلوا الدار وثار علي عليه السلام إلى سيفه. فرجع قنفذ إلى أبي بكر وهو يتخوف أن يخرج علي عليه السلام إليه بسيفه، لما قد عرف من بأسه وشدته. فقال أبو بكر لقنفذ: (إرجع، فإن خرج وإلا فاقتحم عليه بيته، فإن امتنع فاضرم عليهم بيتهم النار). فانطلق قنفذ الملعون فاقتحم هو وأصحابه بغير إذن، وثار علي عليه السلام إلى سيفه فسبقوه إليه وكاثروه وهم كثيرون، فتناول بعضهم سيوفهم فكاثروه وضبطوه فألقوا في عنقه حبلا وحالت بينهم وبينه فاطمة عليها السلام عند باب البيت، فضربها قنفذ الملعون بالسوط فماتت حين ماتت وإن في عضدها كمثل الدملج من ضربته، لعنه الله ولعن من بعث به.

Umar yelled out for help. The people came over until they entered the house, and Ali-asws reached for his-asws sword. Qunfuz returned to Abu Bakr and he feared that Ali-asws would come out to him with his-asws sword, having known of his-asws bravery and determination. Abu Bakr said to Qunfuz, ‘Return, and see if he-asws comes out, or else break down his-asws house, and if he-asws still refuses, burn down his-asws house upon him-asws’. Qunfuz the accursed returned. He and his companions entered without permission, and Ali-asws reached for his-asws sword. They got to him-asws first, and they captured him-asws, and they were many of them. Some of them took their swords out, grabbed him-asws and seized him-asws. They put a rope around his-asws neck. Fatima-asws came in between him-asws and them near the door of the house. Qunfuz the accursed struck her-asws with the whip, she fell unconscious like she-asws had died, and on her-asws shoulder was a mark from the whip when she-asws passed away. May Allah-azwj Curse him and the one who sent him’.

) 4 ( بيعة أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام بالجبر والإكراه

4 – “Allegiance” of Amir-ul-Momineen-asws by compulsion and abhorrence

ثم انطلق بعلي عليه السلام يعتل عتلا حتى انتهي به إلى أبي بكر، وعمر قائم بالسيف على رأسه ، وخالد بن الوليد وأبو عبيدة بن الجراح وسالم مولى أبي حذيفة ومعاذ بن جبل والمغيرة بن شعبة وأسيد بن حضير وبشير بن سعيد وسائر الناس جلوس حول أبي بكر عليهم السلاح

Then they dragged Ali-asws in a cruel manner until they ended him-asws up to Abu Bakr, and Umar was standing ready with his sword, and Khalid Bin Waleed, and Abu Ubeyda Bin Al-Jarrah, and Saalim Mowla Abu Huzayfa, and Ma’az Bin Jabal, and Al-Mugheira Bin Shayba, and Aseyd Bin Hazeyr, and Bashir Bin Saeed, and rest of the people were seated around Abu Bakr, ready with their weapons.

الدخول إلى بيت فاطمة عليها السلام بغير إذن

The entry into the House of (Syeda) Fatima-asws without permission

قال: قلت لسلمان: أدخلوا على فاطمة عليها السلام بغير إذن؟ قال: إي والله، وما عليها من خمار فنادت: (وا أبتاه، وارسول الله يا أبتاه فلبئس ما خلفك أبو بكر وعمر عيناك لم تتفقأ في قبرك) – تنادي بأعلى صوتها -. فلقد رأيت أبا بكر ومن حوله يبكون وينتحبون ما فيهم إلا باك غير عمر وخالد بن الوليد والمغيرة بن شعبة وعمر يقول: إنا لسنا من النساء ورأيهن في شيئ.

I said to Salman-ra, ‘They entered into the House of Fatima-asws without permission?’ He-ra said, ‘Yes, by Allah-azwj, and she-asws did not have a veil on her-asws. She-asws called out: ‘O father-saww! O Messenger of Allah-saww! O father-saww! Evil it is what Abu Bakr and Umar are after you-saww, before your-saww eyes did not even close in your-saww grave’ – She-asws had called out in a loud voice. I saw Abu Bakr and those around him crying, and there was none among them except that he wept apart from Umar, and Khalid Bin Waleed, and Al-Mugheira Bin Shayba; and Umar was saying, ‘We have nothing to do with the women and their opinions’.

أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام يقيم الحجة على قريش

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws establishes his-asws argument on the Quraysh

قال: فانتهوا بعلي عليه السلام إلى أبي بكر وهو يقول: أما والله لو وقع سيفي في يدي لعلمتم أنكم لن تصلوا إلى هذا أبدا. أما والله ما ألوم نفسي في جهادكم، ولو كنت استمكنت من الأربعين رجلا لفرقت جماعتكم، ولكن لعن الله أقواما بايعوني ثم خذلوني. ولما أن بصر به أبو بكر صاح: (خلوا سبيله) فقال علي عليه السلام: يا أبا بكر، ما أسرع ما توثبتم على رسول الله بأي حق وبأي منزلة دعوت الناس إلى بيعتك؟ ألم تبايعني بالأمس بأمر الله وأمر رسول الله؟

They ended up with Ali-asws to Abu Bakr, and he-asws was saying, ‘But, by Allah-azwj, if my-asws sword was present in my-asws hands, you would have known that you would have never arrived at this stage, ever. But, by Allah-azwj, I-asws do not blame myself-asws in fighting against you. And if there had been forty men (in my support) I-asws would have been able to disperse your group, but may Allah-azwj Curse the people who paid allegiance to me-asws and then abandoned me-asws’. When Abu Bakr saw him-asws, he shouted, ‘Release him-asws!’ Ali-asws said: ‘O Abu Bakr, with what ease you have gone against the Messenger of Allah-saww. With what right, and with which status have you called the people to your allegiance?’ Did you not pay allegiance to me-asws yesterday by the order of the Messenger of Allah-azwj?’

وقد كان قنفذ لعنه الله ضرب فاطمة عليها السلام بالسوط – حين حالت بينه وبين زوجها وأرسل إليه عمر: (إن حالت بينك وبينه فاطمة فاضربها) – فألجأها قنفذ لعنه الله إلى عضادة باب بيتها ودفعها فكسر ضلعها من جنبها فألقت جنينا من بطنها. فلم تزل صاحبة فراش حتى ماتت صلى الله عليها من ذلك شهيدة.

And Qunfuz did hit Fatima-asws with the whip when she-asws came between him and her-asws husband-asws, and Umar had sent him with a message, ‘If Fatima-asws comes between you and him-asws, hit her-asws’. Qunfuz, may Allah-azwj Curse him, forced her-asws to take refuge behind the door of her-asws house, and he pushed it. The ribs on her-asws side broke, and as a result of which (Mohsin-asws) was martyred. She-asws did not cease being bed-ridden as a result, until she-asws passed away from that as a martyr’.

قال: ولما انتهى بعلي عليه السلام إلى أبي بكر انتهره عمر وقال له: بايع ودع عنك هذه الأباطيل فقال عليه السلام له: فإن لم أفعل فما أنتم صانعون ؟ قالوا: نقتلك ذلا وصغارا فقال عليه السلام: إذا تقتلون عبد الله وأخا رسوله. فقال أبو بكر: أما عبد الله فنعم، وأما أخو رسول الله فما نقر بهذا قال: أتجحدون أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله آخى بيني وبينه ؟ قال: نعم. فأعاد ذلك عليهم ثلاث مرات. ثم أقبل عليهم علي عليه السلام فقال: يا معشر المسلمين والمهاجرين والأنصار، أنشدكم الله، أسمعتم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يقول يوم غدير خم كذا وكذا وفي غزوة تبوك كذا وكذا ؟ فلم يدع عليه السلام شيئا قاله فيه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله علانية للعامة إلا ذكرهم إياه. قالوا: اللهم نعم.

When they ended up with Ali-asws to Abu Bakr, Umar rebuked him-asws, ‘Pay allegiance, and stay away from these vanities. Ali-asws said: ‘And if I-asws do not do this, what will you do?’ He said, ‘We will kill you-asws with humiliation and degradation’. He-asws said: ‘Will you kill the servant of Allah-azwj and the brother of His-azwj Messenger-saww?’ Abu Bakr said, ‘As for being a servant of Allah-azwj, it is correct, but as for being a brother of the Messenger of Allah-saww, we do not accept it’.

He-asws said: ‘Are you denying that the Messenger of Allah-saww established brotherhood between myself-asws and himself-saww?’ He said, ‘Yes’. He-asws repeated that thrice to him. Then Ali-asws addressed them by saying: ‘O group of Muslims, and the ‘al-Mahajir’ and the ‘Al-Ansaar’. I-asws would like you all to swear to Allah-azwj, did you all not hear the Messenger of Allah-saww say on the Day of Ghadeer Khum such and such, and during the expedition of Tabuk, such and such?’ He-asws did not leave out anything that the Messenger of Allah-saww had said in the open, except that he-asws reminded them of it. They said, ‘Our Allah-azwj, yes’.

أبو بكر يختلق حديثا لغصب الخلافة

Abu Bakr fabricates a Hadith to usurp the Caliphate

فلما تخوف أبو بكر أن ينصره الناس وأن يمنعوه بادرهم فقال له: كل ما قلت حق قد سمعناه بآذاننا وعرفناه ووعته قلوبنا، ولكن قد سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يقول بعد هذا: (إنا أهل بيت اصطفانا الله وأكرمنا واختار لنا الاخرة على الدنيا، وإن الله لم يكن ليجمع لنا أهل البيت النبوة والخلافة). فقال علي عليه السلام: هل أحد من أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله شهد هذا معك ؟ فقال عمر: صدق خليفة رسول الله، قد سمعته منه كما قال. وقال أبو عبيدة وسالم مولى أبي حذيفة ومعاذ بن جبل: صدق، قد سمعنا ذلك من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله.

When Abu Bakr feared that the people might help him-asws, in order to stop them he surprised them by saying to him-asws, ‘All that which you-asws have said is true. We have heard it with our ears, and understood it, and realised it by our hearts, but, I heard the Messenger of Allah-saww say after this that: ‘The People-asws of the Household, Allah-azwj has Chosen us-asws and Honoured us-asws, and has Chosen for us the Hereafter over the world, and that Allah-azwj does not want to gather for us-asws, the People-asws of the Household, the Prophet-hood and the Caliphate together’.

Ali-asws said: ‘Is there anyone from the companions of the Messenger of Allah-saww of this which is with you?’ Umar said, ‘The Caliph of the Messenger of Allah-saww has spoken the truth, I heard from him-saww as he has said’. And Abu Ubeyda, and Saalim Mowla Abu Huzayfa, and Ma’az Bin Jabal said, ‘It is true, we have heard that from the Messenger of Allah-saww’.

أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام يفضح الصحيفة الملعونة

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws exposes the accursed document

فقال لهم علي عليه السلام: لقد وفيتم بصحيفتكم الملعونة التي تعاقدتم عليها في الكعبة: ” إن قتل الله محمدا أو مات لتزون هذا الامر عنا أهل البيت “. فقال أبو بكر: فما علمك بذلك ؟ ما أطلعناك عليها فقال عليه السلام: أنت يا زبير وأنت يا سلمان وأنت يا أبا ذر وأنت يا مقداد، أسألكم بالله وبالأسلام، أما سمعتم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يقول ذلك وأنتم تسمعون: (إن فلانا وفلانا – حتى عد هؤلاء الخمسة – قد كتبوا بينهم كتابا وتعاهدوا فيه وتعاقدوا أيمانا على ما صنعوا إن قتلت أو مت) ؟  فقالوا: اللهم نعم، قد سمعنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يقول ذلك لك: (إنهم قد تعاهدوا وتعاقدوا على ما صنعوا، وكتبوا بينهم كتابا إن قتلت أو مت أن يتظاهروا عليك وأن يزووا عنك هذا يا علي).

Ali-asws said to them: ‘You have been faithful to the accursed document which you contracted to him in the Kabah that stated, “If Allah-azwj Kills Mohammed-saww or he-saww passes away, we will keep away this matter (Caliphate) from us the People-asws of the Household”. Abu Bakr said, ‘What is your-asws knowledge of that? We have not informed you-asws of this’. He-asws said: ‘You, O Zubeyr, and you, O Salman-ra, and you, O Abu Dharr-ra, and you, O Miqdad-ra, I-asws ask you for the sake Allah-azwj and for the sake of the Islam, but did you not hear the Messenger of Allah-saww say that, and you were listening: ‘So and so, and so and so – until he-saww counted these five – have written between them a writing, and they have taken an oath in it, if I-saww am killed or were to pass away?’ They said, ‘Our Allah-azwj, yes. We have indeed heard the Messenger of Allah-saww say that to you-asws that they have made an agreement between them and have vowed to keep to it, and wrote out an agreement among them that if he-saww were to be killed or passed away, they will make appear against you these happenings, O Ali-asws’.

قلت: بأبي أنت وأمي يا رسول الله، فما تأمرني إذا كان ذلك أن أفعل ؟ فقال لك: إن وجدت عليهم أعوانا فجاهدهم ونابذهم، وإن أنت لم تجد أعوانا فبايع واحقن دمك. فقال علي عليه السلام: أما والله، لو أن اولئك الأربعين رجلا الذين بايعوني وفوا لي لجاهدتكم في الله، ولكن أما والله لا ينالها أحد من عقبكما إلى يوم القيامة.

I said, ‘May my-asws father-as and my-asws mother-sa be sacrificed for you-saww, O Messenger of Allah-saww, so what do you-saww order me-asws to do if that is what they do?’ They said, ‘He-saww said to you-asws: ‘If you-asws find supporters, fight against them, and reject them, and if you-asws do not find any supporters, then pay allegiance and save your-asws blood’. Ali-asws said: ‘But, by Allah-azwj, if those forty men who had paid allegiance to me-asws had been faithful, I-asws would have fought against you in the Way of Allah-azwj, but, by Allah-azwj, neither one of both your offspring will attain it (Caliphate) until the Day of Judgement.

الرد على الحديث المختلق بكتاب الله تعالى

The refutation of the fabricated Hadith, by the Book of Allah-azwj the High

وفيما يكذب قولكم على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله قوله تعالى: (أم يحسدون الناس على ما آتاهم الله من فضله فقد آتينا آل إبراهيم الكتاب والحكمة وآتيناهم ملكا عظيما) ، فالكتاب النبوة، والحكمة السنة، والملك الخلافة، ونحن آل إبراهيم.

And what belies your statements to the Messenger of Allah-saww is the Statement of Allah-azwj the High “[4:54] Or do they envy the people for what Allah has given them of His grace? But indeed We have given to Ibrahim’s children the Book and the wisdom, and We have given them a grand kingdom”, for the Book is the Prophet-hood, and the Wisdom is the Sunnah, and the Kingdom is the Caliphate, and we-asws are the Children of Ibrahim-as’.

دفاع المقداد وسلمان وأبي ذر عن علي عليه السلام

Defence of Al-Miqdad-ra, and Salman-ra, and Abu Dharr-ra regarding Ali-asws

فقام المقداد فقال: يا علي، بما تأمرني ؟ والله إن أمرتني لأضربن بسيفي وإن أمرتني كففت. فقال علي عليه السلام: كف يا مقداد، واذكر عهد رسول الله وما أوصاك به.

Al-Miqdad-ra stood up and said, ‘O Ali-asws, what is your order for me-ra? By Allah-azwj, if you-asws were to order me-ra so, I-ra would strike by my sword, and if you-asws were to order me so, I-ra would hold back my-ra hand’. Ali-asws said: ‘Hold back, O Miqdad, and remember the oath of the Messenger of Allah-saww, and what he-saww has bequeathed to you-ra’.

فقمت وقلت: والذي نفسي بيده، لو أني أعلم أني أدفع ضيما وأعز لله دينا لوضعت سيفي على عنقي ثم ضربت به قدما قدما. أتثبون على أخي رسول الله ووصيه وخليفته في أمته وأبي ولده ؟ فابشروا بالبلاء واقنطوا من الرخاء.

I-ra (Salman-ra) stood up and said, ‘By the One in Whose-azwj Hand is my-ra soul, if I-ra knew that I-asws could remove injustice and honour the Religion of Allah-azwj, I-asws would have placed my-ra sword on my-ra neck, then would have struck with it step by step. You are pouncing on the brother-asws of the Messenger of Allah-saww, and his-saww successor-asws, and his-saww Caliph in his-azwj community, and the father of his-asws sons-asws? I give you the news of the afflictions that will cut you off from prosperity’.

وقام أبو ذر فقال: أيتها الامة المتحيرة بعد نبيها المخذولة بعصيانها، إن الله يقول: (إن الله اصطفى آدم ونوحا وآل إبراهيم وآل عمران على العالمين ذرية بعضها من بعض والله سميع عليم). وآل محمد الأخلاف من نوح وآل إبراهيم من إبراهيم والصفوة والسلالة من إسماعيل وعترة النبي محمد، أهل بيت النبوة وموضع الرسالة ومختلف الملائكة، وهم كالسماء المرفوعة والجبال المنصوبة والكعبة المستورة والعين الصافية والنجوم الهادية والشجرة المباركة، أضاء نورها وبورك زيتها. محمد خاتم الأنبياء وسيد ولد آدم، وعلي وصي الأوصياء وإمام المتقين وقائد الغر المحجلين، وهو الصديق الأكبر والفاروق الأعظم ووصي محمد ووارث علمه وأولى الناس بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم كما قال الله: (النبي أولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم وأزواجه امهاتهم واولوا الأرحام بعضهم أولى ببعض في كتاب الله). فقدموا من قدم الله وأخروا من أخر الله واجعلوا الولاية والوراثة لمن جعل الله.

And Abu Dharr-ra stood up and said, ‘O you community you surely have gone astray after the Prophet-saww, you have Abandoned (the religion) adapted the way of sins. Surely Allah-azwj has Said “[4:54] Or do they envy the people for what Allah has given them of His grace? But indeed We have given to Ibrahim’s children the Book and the wisdom, and We have given them a grand kingdom”. And the Progeny-asws of Mohammed-saww are the successors from Nuh-as, and the Children of Ibrahim-as from Ibrahim-as, and the elite, and the dynasty from Ismail-as, and the Family of the Prophet Mohammed-saww, People-asws of the Household of the Prophet-hood, and the Place of the Message and interchange of the Angels, and they-asws are like the raised sky, and the firm mountain, and the veiled Kabah, and the pure spring, and the guiding stars, and the Blessed Tree, illuminating its light, and its oil is blessed.

Mohammed-saww is the last of the Prophets-as and the chief of the children of Adam-as, and Ali‑asws is the successor-asws of the successors-as, and the Imam-asws of the pious, and the guide of the resplendent, and he-asws is the Great True one (Al-Siddique Al-Akbar), and the Great Differentiator (Al-Faroouq Al-Aazam), and the successor-asws of Mohammed-saww, and the inheritor of his-saww knowledge, and the foremost of the believing people than themselves, as Allah-azwj has Said “[33:6] The Prophet has a greater claim on the faithful than they have on themselves, and his wives are (as) their mothers; and the possessors of relationship have the better claim in the ordinance of Allah”. So, the one who gives them preference has given preference to Allah-azwj, and the one who has disfavoured them has disfavoured Allah-azwj, and make the Wilayah and the inheritance to be to the one-asws whom Allah-azwj has Made it to be in’.

عمر يهدد عليا بالقتل

Umar threatens to kill Ali-asws

فقام عمر فقال لأبي بكر – وهو جالس فوق المنبر -: ما يجلسك فوق المنبر وهذا جالس محارب لا يقوم فيبايعك ؟ أو تأمر به فنضرب عنقه – والحسن والحسين قائمان – فلما سمعا مقالة عمر بكيا، فضمهما عليه السلام إلى صدره فقال: لا تبكيا، فو الله ما يقدران على قتل أبيكما.

Umar stood up. He said to Abu Bakr – and he was seated on top of the Pulpit – ‘What are you sitting on the Pulpit for, and this (man) is seated to battle against you and is not standing up to pay allegiance to you? Or give an order for his neck to be cut off’ – and Al-Hassan-asws and Al-Husayn-asws were standing there – when they-asws heard the words of Umar, they-asws started crying. He-asws embraced them-asws to his-asws chest and said: ‘Do not cry, for by Allah-azwj, they do not have the ability to kill your-asws father-asws’.

دفاع ام أيمن وبريدة عن علي عليه السلام

Defence of Umm Ayman and Bureyda about Ali-asws

وأقبلت ام أيمن حاضنة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله فقالت: (يا أبا بكر، ما أسرع ما أبديتم حسدكم ونفاقكم) فأمر بها عمر فأخرجت من المسجد وقال: ما لنا وللنساء. وقام بريدة الأسلمي وقال: أتثب – يا عمر – على أخي رسول الله وأبي ولده وأنت الذي نعرفك في قريش بما نعرفك ؟ ألستما قال لكما رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: (انطلقا إلى علي وسلما عليه بإمرة المؤمنين) ؟ فقلتما: أعن أمر الله وأمر رسوله ؟ قال: نعم. فقال أبو بكر: قد كان ذلك ولكن رسول الله قال بعد ذلك: (لا يجتمع لأهل بيتي النبوة والخلافة). فقال: والله ما قال هذا رسول الله، والله لا سكنت في بلدة أنت فيها أمير. فأمر به عمر فضرب وطرد

And Umm Ayman-sa, the nurse maid of the Messenger of Allah-saww came forward. She-sa said, ‘O Abu Bakr, with what ease you have begun your envy and your hypocrisy’. Umar ordered for her-sa to be thrown out of the Masjid and said, ‘What have we to do with women’. Bureyda Al-Aslamy stood up and said, ‘O Umar, you are pouncing upon Ali-asws, the brother of the Messenger of Allah-saww, and the father of his-saww children-asws, and you are the one about whom we know among the Quraysh what we know? Are you two to whom the Messenger of Allah-saww said: ‘Go to Ali-asws and salute him-asws as Amir-ul-Momineen?’ You both said, ‘Is this the Order of Allah-azwj and His-azwj Messenger-saww?’ He-saww said: ‘Yes’. Abu Bakr said, ‘That is how it was, but the Messenger of Allah-saww said after that: ‘For the People-asws of my-saww Household, the Prophet-hood and the Caliphate will not be gathered together’. He said, ‘By Allah-azwj, the Messenger of Allah-saww did not say this. By Allah-azwj I will not stay in the city in which you are the Emir’. Umar ordered for him to be beaten up and thrown out’.

كيفية بيعة أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام

Manner of the “allegiance” of Amir-ul-Momineen-asws

ثم قال: قم يابن أبي طالب فبايع. فقال: فإن لم أفعل ؟ قال: إذا والله نضرب عنقك فاحتج عليهم ثلاث مرات، ثم مد يده من غير أن يفتح كفه، فضرب عليها أبو بكر ورضي بذلك منه. فنادى علي عليه السلام قبل أن يبايع – والحبل في عنقه -: (يابن أام إن القوم استضعفوني وكادوا يقتلونني).

Then he (Umar) said, ‘Arise, O son-asws of Abu Talib-asws, pay allegiance’. He-asws said: ‘If I-asws don’t do it?’ He said, ‘Then, by Allah-azwj, we will cut off your-asws neck’. He said this to him-asws three times, then another one extended his-asws hand and opened his-asws hand. Abu Bakr struck his-asws hand and he was happy with that regarding it. Ali-asws called out, before the allegiance – and the rope was around his-asws neck -: “[7:150] Son of my mother! surely the people reckoned me weak and had well-nigh slain me”.

بيعة الزبير وسلمان وأبي ذر والمقداد

Allegiance of Al-Zubeyr, and Salman-ra, and Abu Dharr-ra and Al-Miqdad-ra

وقيل للزبير: بايع، فأبى، فوثب إليه عمر وخالد بن الوليد والمغيرة بن شعبة في أناس معهم، فانتزعوا سيفه من يده فضربوا به الأرض حتى كسروه ثم لببوه. فقال الزبير – وعمر على صدره -: يابن صهاك، أما والله لو أن سيفي في يدي لحدت عني). ثم بايع. قال سلمان: ثم أخذوني فوجئوا عنقي حتى تركوها كالسلعة، ثم أخذوا يدي وفتلوها فبايعت مكرها. ثم بايع أبو ذر والمقداد مكرهين، وما بايع أحد من الامة مكرها غير علي عليه السلام وأربعتنا.

And it was said to Al-Zubeyr, ‘Pay allegiance’. He refused. Umar, and Khalid Bin Waleed, and Al-Mugheira Bin Sha’ba were among the people who rushed towards him. They seized his sword from his hand. They struck it on the ground until they broke it, then they held him in a stranglehold. Al-Zubeyr said – and Umar was on his chest – ‘O son of Suhaak, but by Allah‑azwj, if my sword was in my hand I would have buried you’. Then he (was forced to) paid allegiance. Salman-ra said, ‘Then they grabbed me-ra and throttle my-ra neck until it was like a commodity. Then they grabbed my-ra hand and twisted it. I-ra unwillingly paid allegiance. Then Abu Dharr-ra and Al-Miqdad paid allegiance unwillingly. No one from the community was forced to paid allegiance (unwillingly) apart from Ali-asws and four of us’.

ولم يكن منا أحد أشد قولا من الزبير، فإنه لما بايع قال: يابن صهاك، أما والله لولا هؤلاء الطغاة الذين أعانوك لما كنت تقدم علي ومعي سيفي لما أعرف من جبنك ولؤمك، ولكن وجدت طغاة تقوي بهم وتصول. فغضب عمر وقال: أتذكر صهاك ؟ فقال: ومن صهاك وما يمنعني من ذكرها ؟ وقد كانت صهاك زانية، أو تنكر ذلك ؟ أو ليس كانت أمة حبشية لجدي عبد المطلب، فزنى بها جدك نفيل، فولدت أباك الخطاب فوهبها عبد المطلب لجدك – بعد ما زنى بها – فولدته، وإنه لعبد لجدي ولد زنا ؟ فأصلح بينهما أبو بكر وكف كل واحد منهما عن صاحبه.

And there was no one from us who was harsher in his words than Al-Zubeyr, for when he paid allegiance, he said, ‘O son of Suhaak, but, by Allah-azwj, were it not for these tyrants who are your ‘Al-Ansaar’ you would not have been able to overcome me and I would have had my sword with me since I am aware of your cowardice and wickedness, but you have found strength in the tyrants and are on the attack’. Umar got angry and said, ‘You are mentioning Suhaak?’ He said, ‘And who Suhaak, and what prevents me from mentioning her? And Suhaak was an adulteress, or are you denying that? Or was she not from the people of Ethiopia given to my grandfather Abdul Muttalib-as? Your grandfather Nufail committed adultery with her and your father Al-Khattab was born as a result. Abdul Muttalib-as gifted her to your grandfather – after him (Nufail) having committed adultery with her – and he was born, and he is therefore the slave of my grandfather having been born from adultery? Abu Bakr made peace between the two, and made each of them withhold his hand from his companion.

) 5 ( أصحاب أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام يقيمون الحجة على الغاصبين  –كلمة سلمان بعد البيعة

5 – The companions of Amir-ul-Momineen-asws establish the argument against the usurpers: The words of Salman-ra after the allegiance

قال سليم بن قيس: فقلت لسلمان: أفبايعت أبا بكر – يا سلمان – ولم تقل شيئا ؟ قال: قد قلت – بعد ما بايعت -: تبا لكم سائر الدهر أو تدرون ما صنعتم بأنفسكم ؟ أصبتم وأخطأتم أصبتم سنة من كان قبلكم من الفرقة والاختلاف، وأخطأتم سنة نبيكم حتى أخرجتموها من معدنها وأهلها. فقال عمر: يا سلمان، أما إذ بايع صاحبك وبايعت فقل ما شئت وافعل ما بدا لك وليقل صاحبك ما بدا له.

Sulaym Bin Qays said, ‘I said to Salman-ra, ‘So, you paid allegiance to Abu Bakr, O Salman-ra, and did not say anything?’ He-ra said, ‘I-ra said, after having paid allegiance, ‘Woe unto you for the rest of eternity. Do you know what you have done to yourselves? You are right, and you have erred as well. You are right in that you have chosen the way of those have been before you for sectarianism and infighting, and you have erred from the Sunnah of your Prophet-saww, to the extent that you have taken it out from is mine, and its deserving ones-asws’. Umar said, ‘O Salman-ra, now that your companion-asws has paid allegiance and so have you, you can say what you like and do what you like, and your companion-asws can say what he-asws wants’.

قال سلمان: فقلت: سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يقول: (إن عليك وعلى صاحبك الذي بايعته مثل ذنوب جميع أمته إلى يوم القيامة ومثل عذابهم جميعا). فقال: قل ما شئت، أليس قد بايعت ولم يقر الله عينيك بأن يليها صاحبك ؟ فقلت: أشهد أني قد قرأت في بعض كتب الله المنزلة: (إنك – باسمك ونسبك وصفتك – باب من أبواب جهنم) فقالوا لي: قل ما شئت، أليس قد أزالها الله عن أهل هذا البيت الذين اتخذتموهم أربابا من دون الله؟

Salman-ra said, ‘I-ra said, ‘I-ra have heard the Messenger of Allah-saww say that to you (Umar) and to your companion (Abu Bakr) whom you have paid allegiance to, will be the like (carrying) sins of the entire community up to the Day of Judgement, and the like of their entire Punishment’. He said, ‘Say what you like. Have you not paid allegiance, and Allah-azwj did not Accept that your-ra eyes see it go to your-ra companion-asws?’ I-ra said, ‘I-ra testify that I-ra have read in some Books of Allah-azwj Sent down that you, by your name and your lineage and our characteristics on a door from the door of Hell’. He said to me-ra, ‘Say what you like, has not Allah-azwj Taken away from the People-asws of this Household whom you-ra have taken as lords besides Allah-azwj?’

فقلت له: أشهد أني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يقول، وسألته عن هذه الاية: (فيومئذ لا يعذب عذابه أحد ولا يوثق وثاقه أحد)، فأخبرني بأنك أنت هو. فقال عمر: أسكت، أسكت الله نامتك، أيها العبد، يابن اللخناء فقال علي عليه السلام: أقسمت عليك يا سلمان لما سكت. فقال سلمان: والله لو لم يأمرني علي عليه السلام بالسكوت لخبرته بكل شيئ نزل فيه، وكل شيئ سمعته من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله فيه وفي صاحبه. فلما رأني عمر قد سكت قال لي: إنك له لمطيع مسلم.

I-ra said to him, ‘I-ra bear witness that I-ra have heard the Messenger of Allah-saww say, and I-ra asked him-saww about this Verse “[89:25] But on that day shall no one chastise with (anything like) His chastisement, [89:26] And no one shall bind with (anything like) His binding”, he-saww informed me-ra that it means you’. Umar said, ‘Silence, silence, may Allah-azwj Make you sleep (die), O slave, O son of the evil-tongued’.

Ali-asws said: ‘I-asws give you-ra a vow, O Salman-ra, keep quiet’. Salman-ra said, ‘By Allah-azwj, had Ali-asws not ordered me-ra to keep quiet, I-ra would have informed him of everything that had Come down regarding him, and everything that I-ra have heard from the Messenger of Allah-saww regarding him and his companion’. When Umar saw me-ra that I-ra have observed silence, he said to me-ra, ‘You-ra are an obedient submitter to him-asws’.

كلمة أبي ذر بعد البيعة

The words of Abu Dharr-ra after the allegiance

فلما أن بايع أبو ذر والمقداد ولم يقولا شيئا قال عمر: يا سلمان، ألا تكف كما كف صاحباك ؟ والله ما أنت بأشد حبا لأهل هذا البيت منهما ولا أشد تعظيما لحقهم منهما، وقد كفا كما ترى وبايعا. فقال أبو ذر: يا عمر، أفتعيرنا بحب آل محمد وتعظيمهم ؟ لعن الله – وقد فعل – من أبغضهم وافترى عليهم وظلمهم حقهم وحمل الناس على رقابهم ورد هذه الامة القهقرى على أدبارها. فقال عمر: آمين لعن الله من ظلمهم حقهم لا والله ما لهم فيها من حق وما هم فيها وعرض الناس إلا سواء. قال أبو ذر: فلم خاصمتم الأنصار بحقهم وحجتهم ؟

When Abu Dharr-ra and Al-Miqdad-ra paid allegiance without having said a word, Umar said, ‘O Salman-ra, why did you not leave off like these two companions of yours? By Allah-azwj, you-ra are not stronger in your-ra love of the People-asws of this Household that these two-ra, nor stronger in respecting them-asws that these two-ra, and they-ra held back as you-ra have seen, and paid allegiance. Abu Dharr-ra said, ‘Are you taunting us-ra with the love of the Progeny-asws of Mohammed-saww?

May Allah-azwj Curse (you) – and He-azwj did Curse – the one who harbours hatred towards them-asws, and fabricates to them-asws, and does injustice on their-asws rights, and make the people to attack their-asws necks, and revert this community back on its prior beliefs’. Umar said, ‘Amen, may Allah-azwj Curse the one who is unjust on their-asws rights. No, by Allah-azwj, there is nothing in this for them-asws of their-asws rights, and they-asws do not have in this but except for equality with the people’. Abu Dharr-ra said, ‘Why did you then antagonise the ‘Al-Ansaar’ by their rights and their arguments?’

كلمة أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام بعد البيعة

Words of Amir-ul-Momineen-asws after the allegiance

فقال علي عليه السلام لعمر: يابن صهاك، فليس لنا فيها حق وهي لك ولابن آكلة الذبان ؟ فقال عمر: كف الان يا أبا الحسن إذ بايعت، فإن العامة رضوا بصاحبي ولم يرضوا، بك فما ذنبي ؟ فقال علي عليه السلام: ولكن الله عز وجل ورسوله لم يرضيا إلا بي، فابشر أنت وصاحبك ومن اتبعكما ووازركما بسخط من الله وعذابه وخزيه. ويلك يابن الخطاب، لو ترى ماذا جنيت على نفسك لو تدري ما منه خرجت وفيما دخلت وما ذا جنيت على نفسك وعلى صاحبك ؟ فقال أبو بكر: يا عمر، أما إذ قد بايعنا وآمنا شره وفتكه وغائلته فدعه يقول ما شاء.

Ali-asws said to Umar: ‘O son of Suhaak, there is no right for us-asws in this (Caliphate), and it is for you, and the son of the one who used to eat swarms of flies? Umar said, ‘Be silent now, O Abu Al-Hassan-asws since you-asws have now paid allegiance. Since the general public are happy with my companion and are not happy with you-asws, so what is my fault?’ Ali-asws said: ‘But, Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic, and His-azwj Messenger-saww were never happy except with me-asws. Receive news that you, and your companion, and the one who followed the two of you, and strengthened you two, of the Wrath of Allah-azwj and His-azwj Punishment, and shame. Woe be unto you, O son of Al-Khattab, can you not see what you have gained for yourself, and what you have come out of and into what you have entered, and what you have done for yourself and your companion?’ Abu Bakr said, ‘O Umar, but he-asws has paid allegiance to us, and we are safe from its evil, and its calamity. Let him-asws say what he-asws wants to’.

أصحاب الصحيفة الملعونة في تابوت جهنم

The companions of the accursed agreement are in the Fire of Hell

فقال علي عليه السلام: لست بقائل غير شيئ واحد. أذكركم بالله أيها الأربعة – يعنيني وأبا ذر والزبير والمقداد -: سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يقول: إن تابوتا من نار فيه اثنا عشر رجلا، ستة من الأولين وستة من الاخرين، في جب في قعر جهنم في تابوت مقفل، على ذلك الجب صخرة. فإذا أراد الله أن يسعر جهنم كشف تلك الصخرة عن ذلك الجب فاستعرت جهنم من وهج ذلك الجب ومن حره.

Ali-asws said: ‘I-asws am not going to say apart from one thing. I-asws remind you four’ – meaning myself (Salman-ra), and Abu Dharr-ra, and Al-Zubeyr and Al-Miqdad-ra – ‘I-asws heard the Messenger of Allah-saww say that: ‘There is a coffin of Fire in which will be twelve men, six from the former ones and six from the later ones in a pit in the bottom of Hell inside a locked coffin, on top of which is a rock. Whenever Allah-azwj Intends to increase the heat of Hell, He-azwj will Remove that rock from that pit. Hell will be set ablaze from the glow of that pit and its heat’.

قال علي عليه السلام: فسألت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله عنهم – وأنتم شهود به – عن الأولين، فقال: أما الأولون فابن آدم الذي قتل أخاه، وفرعون الفراعنة، والذي حاج إبراهيم في ربه، ورجلان من بني إسرائيل بدلا كتابهم وغيرا سنتهم، أما أحدهما فهود اليهود والاخر نصر النصارى، وإبليس سادسهم. وفي الاخرين الدجال وهؤلاء الخمسة أصحاب الصحيفة والكتاب وجبتهم وطاغوتهم الذي تعاهدوا عليه وتعاقدوا على عداوتك يا أخي، وتظاهرون عليك بعدي، هذا وهذا حتى سماهم وعدهم لنا. قال سلمان: فقلنا: صدقت، نشهد أنا سمعنا ذلك من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله.

Ali-asws said: ‘I-asws asked the Messenger of Allah-saww about them – and you four are witness to it – about the former ones, he-saww said: ‘But as for the former ones, it is the son-as of Adam-as who killed his brother-as, and Pharaoh of the Pharaohs, and the one who argued with Ibrahim-as about his-as Lord-azwj, and two men from the Children of Israel who altered their Books and replaced their ways, as for one of them made the Jews to be Jews, and the other one made the Christians to be Christians, and Iblees-la is the sixth of them.

And regarding the later ones, it included these five, the companions of the agreement and the writing, and are their obligors and their tyrants who made their vows and held on to their beliefs on being inimical to you-asws O my-saww brother, and they will make appear to you-asws after me-saww, this one and this one, until he-saww named them and counted them for us. Salman-ra said, ‘We said, ‘You-asws have spoken the truth, we testify that we have heard that from the Messenger of Allah-saww’.

كلمة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله في عثمان والزبير

Words of the Messenger of Allah-saww regarding Usman and Al-Zubeyr

فقال عثمان: يا أبا الحسن، أما عندك وعند أصحابك هؤلاء حديث في ؟ فقال علي عليه السلام: بلى، سمعت رسول الله يلعنك مرتين ثم لم يستغفر الله لك بعد ما لعنك. فغضب عثمان ثم قال: ما لي وما لك ولا تدعني على حال، عهد النبي ولا بعده. فقال علي عليه السلام: نعم، فأرغم الله أنفك. فقال عثمان: فو الله لقد سمعت من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يقول: (إن الزبير يقتل مرتدا عن الأسلام) قال سلمان: فقال علي عليه السلام لي – فيما بيني وبينه -: صدق عثمان، وذلك أنه يبايعني بعد قتل عثمان وينكث بيعتي فيقتل مرتدا.

Usman said, ‘O Abu Al-Hassan-asws, but is there with you-asws and with these companions of yours-asws a Hadith regarding myself?’ Ali-asws said: ‘Yes, I-asws heard the Messenger of Allah-saww curse you twice, then did not seek Forgiveness from Allah-azwj for you after having cursed you’. Usman got angry, then said, ‘What is it to me and what is it to you-asws that you-asws do not leave me to myself, neither in the era of the Prophet-saww, nor after him-saww.

Ali-asws said: ‘Yes, may Allah-azwj Grind your nose’ (Humiliate you). Usman said, ‘By Allah-azwj, I have heard from the Messenger of Allah-saww, he-saww said that: ‘Al-Zubeyr will be killed as an apostate from Islam’. Salman-ra said, ‘Ali-asws said to me-ra – just between me-ra and him-asws – Usman spoke the truth, and that he will pay allegiance to me-asws after the killing of Usman, and will break the allegiance and will be killed as an apostate.

إرتد الناس بعد الرسول صلى الله عليه وآله إلا أربعة

Apostasy of the people after the Messenger of Allah-saww, except for four

قال سلمان: فقال علي عليه السلام: (إن الناس كلهم ارتدوا بعد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله غير أربعة). إن الناس صاروا بعد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله بمنزلة هارون ومن تبعه ومنزلة العجل ومن تبعه. فعلي في شبه هارون وعتيق في شبه العجل وعمر في شبه السامري.

Salman-ra said, ‘Ali-asws said that: ‘The whole of the people turned apostate, after the Messenger of Allah-saww, except for four’. After the Messenger of Allah-saww, the people became at the position of Haroun-as and the ones who followed him-as, and the position of the calf and the ones who followed it. As for Ali-asws, he-asws was in the position of Haroun-as, and Ateeq (Abu Bakr) was in the position of the calf, and Umar was in the position of Al-Samiri[12].

وسمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يقول: ليجيئن قوم من أصحابي من أهل العلية والمكانة مني ليمروا على الصراط. فإذا رأيتهم ورأوني وعرفتهم وعرفوني اختلجوا دوني. فأقول: أي رب، أصحابي أصحابي فيقال: ما تدري ما أحدثوا بعدك، إنهم ارتدوا على أدبارهم حيث فارقتهم. فأقول: بعدا وسحقا.

And I-ra heard the Messenger of Allah-saww say: ‘There will come a group of my-saww companions from the people who used to be held in high regard and position with me-saww, to cross over the Bridge. They will see me-saww, and I-saww will see them, and I-saww will recognise them and they will recognise me-saww. They will be taken away from me-saww. I-saww will say: ‘O Lord-azwj, my-saww companions, my-saww companions!’ He-azwj will Say: ‘Don’t you-saww know what they did after you-saww, they turned back on their backs as soon as you-saww parted from them’. I-saww will say: ‘Be distant and get crushed’.

وسمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يقول: لتركبن أمتي سنة بني إسرائيل حذو النعل بالنعل وحذو القذة بالقذة، شبرا بشبر وذراعا بذراع وباعا بباع، حتى لو دخلوا جحرا لدخلوا فيه معهم. إن التوراة والقرآن كتبه ملك واحد في رق واحد بقلم واحد، وجرت الأمثال والسنن سواء.

And I-ra heard the Messenger of Allah-saww say: ‘My-saww community will adopt the way of the Children of Israel, like the slipper follows the slipper, step by step, inch by inch, and cubit by cubit, to the extent that if they entered into a hole, so will they along with them. The Torah and the Quran were written by one Angel, in one Parchment, with one Pen, and the Parables and the Sunnah became the same’.

(6) إبليس ومؤسس السقيفة يوم القيامة

6 – Hadith Iblees-la and the founder of Al-Saqifa on the day of Judgement

عن أبان بن أبي عياش عن سليم بن قيس الهلالي، قال: سمعت سلمان الفارسي يقول: إذا كان يوم القيامة يؤتى بإبليس مزموما بزمام من نار، ويؤتى بزفرمزموما بزمامين من نار فينطلق إليه إبليس فيصرخ ويقول: ثكلتك أمك، من أنت؟ أنا الذي فتنت الأولين والآخرين وأنا مزموم بزمام واحد وأنت مزموم بزمامين فيقول: أنا الذي أمرت فأطعت، وأمر الله فعصي.

From Abaan Bin Abu Ayyash, from Sulaym Bin Qays Al-Hilali who said, ‘I heard Salman Al-Farsy-ra say: ‘When it will be the Day of Judgement, Iblees-la will be brought chained with a rein of Fire, and they will come with Zafar (Umar) chained with two reins of Fire.

Iblees-la will rush towards him. He-la will scream at him saying, ‘May your mother be bereft of you, who are you? I-la am the one who corrupted the former ones and the later ones, and I-la have been chained with one rein of Fire while you have been chained with two reins of Fire’.

He will say, ‘I am the one who issued the orders and was obeyed, and I disobeyed the Order of Allah-azwj’.

السقيفة لأبي بكر وعمر

The Saqifa of Abu Bakr and Umar

فتظاهروا على علي عليه السلام، فاحتج عليهم بما قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله فيه وما سمعته العامة. فقالوا: صدقت، قد قال ذلك رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله ولكن قد نسخه فقال: (إنا أهل بيت أكرمنا الله عز وجل واصطفانا ولم يرض لنا بالدنيا، وإن الله لا يجمع لنا النبوة والخلافة) فشهد بذلك أربعة نفر: عمر وأبو عبيدة ومعاذ بن جبل وسالم مولى أبي حذيفة، فشبهوا على العامة وصدقوهم وردوهم على أدبارهم وأخرجوها من معدنها من حيث جعلها الله. واحتجوا على الأنصار بحقنا وحجتنا فعقدوها لأبي بكر. ثم ردها أبو بكر إلى عمر يكافيه بها.

Ali-asws manifested to them and argued against them by what the Messenger of Allah-saww had said with regards to it and what the general public had heard. They (the Quraysh) said (Ya Ali-asws), ‘You-asws speak the truth, the Messenger of Allah-saww has said it, but it has been abrogated. (The Quraysh said) The Prophet of Allah-saww had said that Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic has Honoured us-asws, the People-asws of the Household, and has Chosen us-asws and never Chose for us-asws the world, and that Allah-azwj has not Gathered for us-asws the Prophet-hood and the Caliphate’. Four of them testified to that – Umar, and Abu Ubeyda, and Ma’az Bin Jabal, and Salim Mowla Abu Huzayfa. They confused the people who ratified them and turned them on their backs, and took it (Caliphate) out from its origin (Amir-ul-Momineen-asws) from where Allah-azwj had Made it to be. And they argued against the Helpers of our-asws rights and our-asws arguments. They pacified them to Abu Bakr. Then Abu Bakr returned it (Caliphate) to Umar, thereby paying him back by it.

الشورى لعثمان

The consultation of Usman

ثم جعلها عمر شورى بين ستة، فقلدوها عبد الرحمن. ثم جعلها ابن عوف لعثمان على أن يردها عليه، فغدر به عثمان وأظهر ابن عوف كفره وجهله وطعن عليه في حياته وزعم ولده أن عثمان سمه فمات.

Then Umar established a ‘Shura’[13] consisting of six persons (in the matter of Caliphate). They collared it on Abdul Rahman. Then Ibn Awf (Abdul Rahman) made it (Caliphate) to go to Usman on the condition that he would return it back to him. Usman betrayed him, and Ibn Awf (Abdul Rahman) slandered him as an infidel and an ignorant one during his lifetime. His children (Abdul Rahman’s) thought that Usman had poisoned him, which (led to his) death.

لما ذا لم يقم أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام بالسيف في قضايا السقيفة

Why Amir-ul-Momineen-asws did not make a stand with the sword during the issues of Al-Saqifa

فقال الأشعث بن قيس – وغضب من قوله -: فما يمنعك يا بن أبي طالب حين بويع أخو تيم بن مرة وأخو بني عدي بن كعب وأخو بني أمية بعدهما، أن تقاتل وتضرب بسيفك؟ وأنت لم تخطبنا خطبة – منذ كنت قدمت العراق – إلا وقد قلت فيها قبل أن تنزل عن منبرك: (والله إني لأولى الناس بالناس وما زلت مظلوما منذ قبض الله محمدا صلى الله عليه وآله). فما منعك أن تضرب بسيفك دون مظلمتك؟

Ash’as Bin Qays said that he was angered from his-asws words – : ‘So, what prevented you-asws, O Ibn Abu Talib-asws, when allegiances were given to the brother of Taym Bin Marat (Abu Bakr), and the brother of the Clan of Udayy Bin Ka’ab (Umar), and the brother of the Clan of Umayya (Usman) after these two, to fight and strike by the sword? And you-asws have never preached us with a sermon – since you-asws came to Al-Iraq – except that you-asws have said in it, before you-asws came down from your-asws Pulpit: ‘By Allah-azwj, I-asws am the highest of the people than the people themselves, and I-asws have not ceased to be an oppressed one since Allah-azwj Captured Muhammad-saww’. So what prevented you-asws to strike by your-asws sword to do away with being oppressed?’

فقال له علي عليه السلام: يا بن قيس، قلت فاسمع الجواب: لم يمنعني من ذلك الجبن ولا كراهية للقاء ربي، وأن لا أكون أعلم أن ما عند الله خير لي من الدنيا والبقاء فيها، ولكن منعني من ذلك أمر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وعهده إلي. أخبرني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله بما الأمة صانعة بي بعده، فلم أك بما صنعوا – حين عاينته – بأعلم مني ولا أشد يقينا مني به قبل ذلك، بل أنا بقول رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله أشد يقينا مني بما عاينت وشهدت. فقلت: يا رسول الله، فما تعهد إلي إذا كان ذلك؟ قال: إن وجدت أعوانا فانبذ إليهم وجاهدهم، وإن لم تجد أعوانا فاكفف يدك واحقن دمك حتى تجد على إقامة الدين وكتاب الله وسنتي أعوانا.

Ali-asws said to him: ‘O Ibn Qays, you have said, so now listen to the answer. Neither was it the cowardice that prevented me-asws nor was it abhorrence of meeting my-asws Lord-azwj, and it was not the knowledge that what is with Allah-azwj is better for me-asws than the words and what remains within it, but what prevented me-asws from that was the order of the Messenger of Allah-saww and his-saww oath to me-asws.

The Messenger of Allah-saww informed me-asws of what the community will be plotting against me-asws after him-saww. There was none more knowledgeable than myself-asws of what they were going to do – when I-asws saw it with my-asws own eyes – and more intensely convinced than myself-asws about it even before that, but I-asws had more conviction on the words of the Messenger of Allah-saww than what I-asws saw with my-asws own eyes and witnessed. I-asws said: ‘O Messenger of Allah-saww, so what is your-saww oath to me-asws, if that were to happen?’ He-saww said: ‘If you-asws find helpers, then reject them and struggle against them, and if you-asws do not find helpers, hold back your-asws hand and save your-asws blood, and until such time as you-asws find helpers for the Establishment of the Religion, and the Book of Allah-azwj, and my‑saww Sunnah’.

وأخبرني صلى الله عليه وآله أن الأمة ستخذلني وتبايع غيري وتتبع غيري. وأخبرني صلى الله عليه وآله أني منه بمنزلة هارون من موسى، وأن الأمة سيصيرون من بعده بمنزلة هارون ومن تبعه والعجل ومن تبعه، إذ قال له موسى: (يا هارون، ما منعك إذ رأيتهم ضلوا ألا تتبعن أفعصيت أمري قال يا بن أم إن القوم استضعفوني وكادوا يقتلونني)، وقال: (يا بن أم لا تأخذ بلحيتي ولا برأسي، إني خشيت أن تقول فرقت بين بني إسرائيل ولم ترقب قولي).

And he-saww informed me-asws that the community will be abandoning me-asws and will pay allegiance to someone else and follow him. And he-saww informed me-asws that I-asws am to him-saww at the status which Haroun-as had with Musa-as, and that the community will end up becoming, after him-saww, in a similar position that Haroun-as faced and the ones that followed him-as, and the calf and the ones that followed it, when Musa-as said to him-as: ‘O Haroun-as, what prevented you-as, when you-as saw them going astray and disobeying my-as orders?’ He-as said [7:150] Son of my mother! Lo! the folk did judge me as weak and almost killed me.”, and said: ‘Do not hold me-as by my-as beard and my-as head, I-asws was afraid to tell the dispersed ones of the Children of Israel, and they did not wait for my-as words’.

وإنما يعني: إن موسى أمر هارون – حين استخلفه عليهم – إن ضلوا فوجد أعوانا أن يجاهدهم، وإن لم يجد أعوانا أن يكف يده ويحقن دمه ولا يفرق بينهم. وإني خشيت أن يقول لي ذلك أخي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: (لم فرقت بين الأمة ولم ترقب قولي وقد عهدت إليك إن لم تجد أعوانا أن تكف يدك وتحقن دمك ودم أهل بيتك وشيعتك)؟

And it means that Musa-as ordered Haroun-as – when he-as made him-as to be the Caliph – that when they go astray, so if he-as were to find helpers then he-as should strive against them, and if he-as does not find any helpers then he-as should hold back his-as hand and save his-as blood and not cause friction between them. And I-asws am afraid that my-asws brother-saww the Messenger of Allah-saww would say to me-asws that: ‘Why did you-asws create friction between the community and did not heed my-saww words and what I-saww had covenanted to you-asws that if you-asws do not find helpers then you-asws should hold back your-asws hand and save your-asws blood, and the blood of the People-asws of your-asws Household, and your-asws Shiites?’

إقدام أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام لمحاربة أبي بكر وعمر

Steps taken by Amir-ul-Momineen-asws to fight against Abu Bakr and Umar

فلما قبض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله مال الناس إلى أبي بكر فبايعوه وأنا مشغول برسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله بغسله ودفنه. ثم شغلت بالقرآن، فآليت على نفسي أن لا أرتدي إلا للصلاة حتى أجمعه في كتاب، ففعلت.

When the Messenger of Allah-saww passed away, the people turned to Abu Bakr. So they paid allegiance to him, and I-asws was preoccupied with the washing and the burial of the Messenger of Allah-saww. Then I-asws occupied myself-asws with the Quran. I-asws took it upon myself-asws that I-asws shall not wear (a cloak) except for the Prayer until I-asws collect it in a Book. So I-asws did that.

ثم حملت فاطمة وأخذت بيد ابني الحسن والحسين، فلم أدع أحدا من أهل بدر وأهل السابقة من المهاجرين والأنصار إلا ناشدتهم الله في حقي ودعوتهم إلى نصرتي. فلم يستجب لي من جميع الناس إلا أربعة رهط: سلمان وأبو ذر والمقداد والزبير، ولم يكن معي أحد من أهل بيتي أصول به ولا أقوى به، أما حمزة فقتل يوم أحد، وأما جعفر فقتل يوم مؤتة، وبقيت بين جلفين جافيين ذليلين حقيرين عاجزين: العباس وعقيل، وكانا قريبي العهد بكفر. فأكرهوني وقهروني، فقلت كما قال هارون لأخيه: (يا بن أم، إن القوم استضعفوني وكادوا يقتلونني). فلي بهارون أسوة حسنة ولي بعهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله حجة قوية.

Then I-asws got Fatima-asws to ride (on a mule), and took my-asws sons-asws Al-Hassan-asws and Al-Husayn-asws by the hand, and there was none from the people of Badr, and the former ones from the ‘المهاجرين والأنصار’ (Emigrants and the Helpers) except that I-asws got them to bear witness to Allah-azwj for my-asws rights and called upon them to help me-asws. None answered me-asws from the whole of the people except for a group of four – Salman-ra, and Abu Dharr-ra, and Al-Miqdad-ra, and Al-Zubeyr-ra, and there was no one with me-asws from the people of my-asws Household that I-asws could attack by or derive strength from. As for Hamza-ra, he-ra was killed on the Day of Badr, and as for Ja’far-ra, he-ra was killed on the Day of Mu’ta, and I-asws remained in between two weak ones, fearful ones, disgraced ones, lowly ones, helpless ones – Al-Abbas and Aqeel, apart from them all around me had committed to disbelief. So they (Abu Bakr and Umar and the people) forced me-asws and overpowered me-asws. So I-asws said as Haroun-as had said to his-as brother-as (Musa-as) [7:150] Son of my mother! Lo! the folk did judge me as weak and almost killed me.” So to me-asws, with Haroun-as was the best example (to give), and for me-asws with the oath to me-asws of the Messenger of Allah-saww was a strong argument (to present).

فقال الأشعث: كذلك صنع عثمان، استغاث بالناس ودعاهم إلى نصرته فلم يجد أعوانا فكف يده حتى قتل مظلوما. قال عليه السلام: ويلك يا بن قيس، إن القوم – حين قهروني واستضعفوني وكادوا يقتلونني – لو قالوا لي: (نقتلك البتة) لامتنعت من قتلهم إياي ولو لم أجد غير نفسي وحدي، ولكن قالوا: (إن بايعت كففنا عنك وأكرمناك وقربناك وفضلناك وإن لم تفعل قتلناك). فلما لم أجد أحدا بايعتهم، وبيعتي إياهم لا يحق لهم باطلا ولا يوجب لهم حقا. فلو كان عثمان – حين قال له الناس: (اخلعها ونكف عنك) – خلعها لم يقتلوه، ولكنه قال: (لا أخلعها). قالوا: (فإنا قاتلوك)، فكف يده عنهم حتى قتلوه. ولعمري لخلعه إياها كان خيرا له، لأنه أخذها بغير حق ولم يكن له فيها نصيب وادعى ما ليس له وتناول حق غيره.

Al-Ash’as said, ‘That is what Usman did. He sought help of the people and called them to his help. So when he could not find helpers, he held back his hand until he was killed as an oppressed person. Ali-asws said; ‘Woe be unto you O Ibn Qays, the people – when they overpowered me-asws and considered me-asws to be weak, and almost killed me-asws – had they said to me-asws, ‘We will kill you-asws regardless’, I-asws would have stopped them from killing me-asws even though I-asws would not have found anyone (for help) apart from myself-asws, but they said to me, ‘If you-asws give allegiance, we will hold back our hands from you-asws, and will honour you-asws, and consider you-asws as a near one, and will give you-asws preference, and if you-asws do not do it, we will kill you-asws’. So when I-asws did not find anyone (for help) I-asws was forced for allegiance, and my-asws allegiance to him (that way when he forcefully touched my-asws hand) does not make his falsehood to be true nor does it obligate any of his rights (upon me-asws). When the people said to Usman, ‘Leave it (Caliphate) and we will hold back from you’, had he left it he would not have been killed, but he said, ‘I will not leave it’.

They said, ‘Therefore we will kill you’. So he held back his hand from them until they killed him. And by my-asws life, had he left it, it would have been better for him, because he had grabbed it wrongfully, and there was no share in it for him, and he sought that which was not for him, and had swallowed up somebody else’s right.

عثمان أعان على قتل نفسه

Usman helped in his own killing

ويلك يا بن قيس، إن عثمان لا يعدو أن يكون أحد رجلين: إما أن يكون دعا الناس إلى نصرته فلم ينصروه، وإما أن يكون القوم دعوه إلى أن ينصروه فنهاهم عن نصرته، فلم يكن يحل له أن ينهى المسلمين عن أن ينصروا إماما هاديا مهتديا لم يحدث حدثا ولم يؤو محدثا. وبئس ما صنع حين نهاهم وبئس ما صنعوا حين أطاعوه وإما أن يكون جوره وسوء سريرته قضى أنهم لم يروه أهلا لنصرته لجوره وحكمه بخلاف الكتاب والسنة.

Woe be unto you, O Ibn Qays, Usman’s position cannot be void of two situations; either he called upon the people for his help but they did not help him, or the people called upon him to offer their help but he prevented them from helping him. So it was not permissible for him to prevent the Muslims to help a guiding Imam-asws, who is guided one, and who did neither innovate nor did he ever help an innovator. And it was evil what he did when he prevented them, and evil was what they did (to kill him) after having obeyed him, but it was his oppression and his bad personality that made them judge that he was not deserving of help due to his cruelty and rulings against the Book and the Sunnah.

وقد كان مع عثمان – من أهل بيته ومواليه وأصحابه – أكثر من أربعة آلاف رجل، ولو شاء أن يمتنع بهم لفعل. فلم نهاهم عن نصرته؟ ولو كنت وجدت يوم بويع أخو تيم تتمة أربعين رجلا مطيعين لي لجاهدتهم، وأما يوم بويع عمر وعثمان فلا، لأني قد كنت بايعت ومثلي لا ينكث بيعته.

And there were with Usman – from his family and friends and companions – more than four thousand men. And had he so desired, he could have refrained by them to do it (killing him). So why did he prevent them from helping him? And had I found, on the day that the allegiance was paid to the brother of Taym (Abu Bakr), forty men obedient to me-asws, I-asws would have fought them, and on the day of the allegiance to Umar and Usman. Nay, because I-asws was (forced to) pay allegiance, and a person like me-asws does not break his allegiance.

مواقف أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام في الحروب

Attitude of Amir-ul-Momineen-asws in the battles

ويلك يا بن قيس، كيف رأيتني صنعت حين قتل عثمان إذ وجدت أعوانا؟ هل رأيت مني فشلا أو تأخرا أو جبنا أو تقصيرا في وقعتي يوم البصرة وهم حول جملهم. الملعون من معه، الملعون من قتل حوله، الملعون من رجع بعده لا تائبا ولا مستغفرا، فإنهم قتلوا أنصاري ونكثوا بيعتي ومثلوا بعاملي وبغوا علي. وسرت إليهم في اثني عشر ألفا وهم نيف على عشرين ومائة ألف، فنصرني الله عليهم وقتلهم بأيدينا وشفى صدور قوم مؤمنين.

Woe be unto you, O Ibn Qays, how did you see me-asws react when they killed Usman, if I-asws had found helpers? Did you see from me-asws any failure, or hesitation, or cowardice, or negligence at what took place on the Day of Al-Basra and they were around their camel? He is the accursed, the one who was with them; the accursed, the one who was killed around it; the accursed, the one who returned after it and did not repent nor sought Forgiveness, for they killed my-asws helpers, and broke their allegiance to me-asws, and mutilated my-asws workers, and rebelled against me-asws. And I-asws went against them and I-asws had with me-asws twelve thousand (men) and they were just over twenty thousand of them. So, Allah-azwj Helped me-asws against them, and got them killed by our hands and healed the chests of the believing people.

وكيف رأيت – يا بن قيس – وقعتنا بصفين وما قتل الله منهم بأيدينا خمسين ألفا في صعيد واحد إلى النار. وكيف رأيتنا يوم النهروان، إذ لقيت المارقين وهم مستمسكون يومئذ بدين الذين ضل سعيهم في الحياة الدنيا وهم يحسبون أنهم يحسنون صنعا؟ فقتلهم الله بأيدينا في صعيد واحد إلى النار لم يبق منهم عشرة ولم يقتلوا من المؤمنين عشرة.

O Ibn Qays, how did you see me-asws at the occurrence of Siffeen[14], and what Allah-azwj Killed from them by our hands, fifty thousand in one place who proceeded to the Fire. And how did you see me-asws on the day of Nahrwaan[15], when I-asws met the renegades and they were attaching themselves, on that day, to a religion which strayed them in the life of this world and they were reckoning that they were acting in a good way? So, Allah-azwj Killed them by our hands in one place and they proceeded to the Fire. Not even ten of them remained, and they did not even kill ten of the believers.

ويلك يا بن قيس، هل رأيت لي لواء رد أو راية ردت؟ إياي تعير يا بن قيس؟ وأنا صاحب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله في جميع مواطنه ومشاهده والمتقدم إلى الشدائد بين يديه، لا أفر ولا أزول ولا أعيى ولا أنحاز ولا أمنح العدو دبري، لأنه لا ينبغي للنبي ولا للوصي إذا لبس لامته وقصد لعدوه أن يرجع أو ينثني حتى يقتل أو يفتح الله له.

Woe be unto you, O Ibn Qays, did you see me-asws turn back or return the flag? Are you taunting me-asws, O Ibn Qays? And I-asws was the companion of the Messenger of Allah-saww in all the places and witnessed it, and I-asws advanced in the face of extremities facing him-saww. Neither did I-asws flee, nor eased off, nor got exhausted, nor aligned myself-asws with the enemies, nor turned my-asws back on them, because it does not befit for the Prophet-saww nor for the successor-asws, when they-asws dress up for battle against the enemies that he-asws should turn back or fold (surrender), until he-asws is either killed or Allah-azwj Grants victory to him-asws’.

لو وجدت أربعين رجلا مثل الأربعة يا بن قيس، هل سمعت لي بفرار قط أو نبوة؟ يا بن قيس، أما والذي فلق الحبة وبرأ النسمة، إني لو وجدت يوم بويع أخو تيم – الذي عيرتني بدخولي في بيعته – أربعين رجلا كلهم على مثل بصيرة الأربعة الذين قد وجدت لما كففت يدي ولناهضت القوم، ولكن لم أجد خامسا فأمسكت.

If only I-asws could have found forty men like the four, O Ibn Qays. Have you ever heard for me-asws to have fled at all or even hesitate? O Ibn Qays, but by the One-azwj Who Split the grain and Created the species, if I-asws could have found, on the day the allegiance was paid to the brother of Taym (Abu Bakr) – that which you are taunting me-asws with by including me-asws in the allegiance to him – forty people, all of whom having the ‘بصيرة’ (knowledge and understanding) of the four which I-asws did find, I-asws would not have held back my-asws hand and would have fought against the people, but I-asws could not find even a fifth one, so I-asws kept quiet’.

قال الأشعث: فمن الأربعة، يا أمير المؤمنين؟ قال عليه السلام: سلمان وأبو ذر والمقداد والزبير بن صفية قبل نكثه بيعتي، فإنه بايعني مرتين: أما بيعته الأولى التي وفى بها فإنه لما بويع أبو بكر أتاني أربعون رجلا من المهاجرين والأنصار فبايعوني وفيهم الزبير، فأمرتهم أن يصبحوا عند بابي محلقين رؤوسهم عليهم السلاح، فما وفى لي ولا صدقني منهم أحد غير أربعة: سلمان وأبو ذر والمقداد والزبير.

Al-Ash’as said, ‘So who are the four, O Amir-ul-Momineen-asws?’ He-asws said: ‘Salman-ra, and Abu Dharr-ra, and Al-Miqdad-ra, and Al-Zubeyr Bin Safiya before he broke his allegiance to me-asws, for he had paid allegiance to me-asws twice. As for the first allegiance, he was faithful to it. So when allegiance was paid to Abu Bakr, forty men from the ‘المهاجرين والأنصار’ (Emigrants and the Helpers) came up to me-asws. They paid allegiance to me-asws and Al- Zubeyr was among them. So I-asws ordered them to be at my-asws door in the morning, with their weapons and having shaved off their heads. No one was faithful to me-asws, nor ratified me-asws from among them anyone except for four – Salman-ra, and Abu Dharr-ra, and Al-Miqdad-ra, and Al- Zubeyr -ra.

وأما بيعته الأخرى إياي، فإنه أتاني هو وصاحبه طلحة بعد ما قتل عثمان فبايعاني طائعين غير مكرهين، ثم رجعا عن دينهما مرتدين ناكثين مكابرين معاندين خاسرين، فقتلهما الله إلى النار. وأما الثلاثة – سلمان وأبو ذر والمقداد – فثبتوا على دين محمد صلى الله عليه وآله وعلى ملة إبراهيم حتى لحقوا بالله يرحمهم الله.

As for his second allegiance to me-asws, so he came up to me-asws along with his companion Talha after the killing of Usman. So he paid allegiance to me-asws obediently, not grudgingly. Then they turned back from their religion as two apostates, breakers (of allegiance), and stubborn, obstinate, losers. So Allah-azwj Killed them both and they proceeded to the Fire. And as for the three – Salman-ra, and Abu Dharr-ra and Al-Miqdad-ra – they were steadfast on the Religion of Muhammad-saww, and on the Creed of Ibrahim-as until they met Allah-azwj. May Allah-azwj have Mercy on them-ra’.

يا بن قيس، والذي فلق الحبة وبرء النسمة، لو أن أولئك الأربعين الذين بايعوا وفوا لي وأصبحوا على بابي محلقين رؤوسهم قبل أن تجب لعتيق في عنقي بيعته لناهضته وحاكمته إلى الله عز وجل. ولو وجدت قبل بيعة عثمان أعوانا لناهضتهم وحاكمتهم إلى الله، فإن ابن عوف جعلها لعثمان واشترط عليه فيما بينه وبينه أن يردها عليه عند موته، وأما بعد بيعتي إياهم فليس إلى مجاهدتهم سبيل.

O Ibn Qays, by the One-azwj Who split the grain and Created the species, had those forty of them who had paid allegiance to me-asws been faithful to me-asws, and came up to my-asws door with shaved heads, before the allegiance to Ateeq (Abu Bakr) was forced upon my-asws neck, I-asws would have confronted them, and left their judgement to Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic. And had I-asws found helpers, before the allegiance to Usman, I-asws would have confronted them and left their judgement to Allah-azwj. So, Ibn Awf made it (Caliphate) to go to Usman, and made a deal with him for it to remain between the two of them, and that he shall return it back to him at the time of his death, and after my-asws (forced) allegiance to them, there was no way of fighting against them’.

الشيعة، النواصب، المستضعفون

The Shiites, the Nasibis, the Weak ones

فقال الأشعث: والله لئن كان الأمر كما تقول لقد هلكت أمة محمد صلى الله عليه وآله غيرك وغير شيعتك. فقال له علي عليه السلام: فإن الحق والله معي يا بن قيس كما أقول. وما هلك من الأمة إلا الناصبون والناكثون والمكابرون والجاحدون والمعاندون، فأما من تمسك بالتوحيد والإقرار بمحمد صلى الله عليه وآله والإسلام ولم يخرج من الملة ولم يظاهر علينا الظلمة ولم ينصب لنا العداوة وشك في الخلافة ولم يعرف أهلها وولاتها ولم يعرف لنا ولاية ولم ينصب لنا عداوة، فإن ذلك مسلم مستضعف يرجى له رحمة الله ويتخوف عليه ذنوبه.

Al-Ash’as said, ‘By Allah-azwj, if the matter is as you-asws are saying, the community of Muhammad-saww will be destroyed apart from you-asws and your-asws Shiites’.

He-asws said to him: ‘As for the truth, by Allah-azwj, it is with me-asws, O Ibn Qays, as I-asws have said. And none from the community will perish except for the Nasibis, and the Breakers (of the allegiance), and the stubborn, and the deniers, and the obstinate ones. So, as for the one who adheres to the Oneness (Al-Tawheed), and accepts Muhammad-saww, and the Islam, and does not exit from the nation, and does not perpetrate injustices against us-asws, and does not establish enmity to us-asws, and they have doubts in the Caliphate, and do not recognise its deserving ones-asws, and its governors, and did not recognise our-asws Wilayah, but did not establish enmity against us-asws, so those are the weak Muslims, there is hope for the Mercy of Allah-azwj for them, and there is fear for their sins (whether they will be Forgiven or not)’.

قال أبان: قال سليم بن قيس: فلم يبق يومئذ من شيعة علي عليه السلام أحد إلا تهلل وجهه وفرح بمقالته، إذ شرح أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام الأمر وباح به وكشف الغطاء وترك التقية. ولم يبق أحد من القراء ممن كان يشك في الماضين ويكف عنهم ويدع البراءة منهم ورعا وتأثما إلا استيقن واستبصر وحسن رأيه وترك الشك يومئذ والوقوف. ولم يبق حوله ممن أبى بيعته إلا على وجه ما بويع عليه عثمان والماضون قبله إلا رئي ذلك في وجهه وضاق به أمره وكره مقالته. ثم إنه استبصر عامتهم وذهب شكهم.

Aban said that Sulaym said, ‘On that day, there did not remain anyone from the Shiites of Ali-asws except that he had joy on his face and was happy with his-asws words when Amir-ul-Momineen-asws explained the matters, and revealed it and uncovered the mask, and left the ‘Taqqiya’ (dissimulation). And there did not remain anyone from the reciters (of the Quran) who had doubts with regards the people of the past, and had paused from then and stayed away from them thinking it to be a sin except that they now had conviction in their perceptions and corrected their opinions, and on that day they left their doubts and their hesitation.

And there did not remain anyone from those who had refused to pay allegiance to him-asws although they had paid allegiance to Usman and those before him, but you could see the disgust on their faces due to their abhorrence of his-asws words. Then, gradually their eyes were opened, and their doubts disappeared.

قال أبان عن سليم: فما شهدت يوما قط على رؤوس العامة كان أقر لأعيننا من ذلك اليوم، لما كشف أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام للناس من الغطاء وأظهر فيه من الحق وشرح فيه من الأمر والعاقبة وألقى فيه من التقية، وكثرت الشيعة بعد ذلك المجلس من ذلك اليوم وتكلموا، وقد كانوا أقل أهل عسكره وسائر الناس يقاتلون معه على غير علم بمكانه من الله ورسوله، وصارت الشيعة بعد ذلك المجلس أجل الناس وأعظمهم. شهادة أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام وذلك بعد وقعة أهل النهروان وهو يأمر بالتهيئة والمسير إلى معاوية. ثم لم يلبث أن قتل صلوات الله عليه، قتله ابن ملجم لعنه الله غيلة وفتكا، وقد كان سيفه مسموما قد سمه قبل ذلك. وصلى الله على سيدنا أمير المؤمنين وسلم تسليما.

Aban said that Sulaym said, ‘I had never witnessed a day which was more pleasing to our eyes, on the chiefs of the people, than that day, when Amir-ul-Momineen-asws uncovered from the people, the cover and exposed the truth and explained in it the matters and the outcome of having left the ‘Taqqiya’ (dissimulation). After that, the Shiites became more numerous in their gatherings from that day onwards and used to speak freely, and they used to be very few in his-asws army and among the rest of the people, who would object him-asws due to lack of their knowledge about his-asws position from Allah-azwj and His-azwj Messenger-saww.

After that, the Shiites became to be more respectable and of elevated status. Then, it was not long before he-asws was assassinated. Ibn Muljim, may Allah-azwj Curse him, martyred him-asws in cold blood with a deadly strike of his poisoned sword which he had applied poison to beforehand. And Peace of Allah-azwj be upon Amir-ul-Momineen-asws, and Greetings’.

عمار وحذيفة في فتنة السقيفة

Ammar and Huzayfa during the ‘Fitna’ of Al-Saqifa

قلت: أصلحك الله، كيف تردد عمار وحذيفة في أمرهم بعد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله حين رأياهم؟ قال: إنهم أظهروا التوبة والندامة بعد ذلك، وادعى عجلهم منزلة وشهد لهم سامريهم والثلاثة معهم بأنهم سمعوا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يقول ذلك، فقالوا: لعل هذا أمر حدث بعد الأول، فشكا فيمن شك منهم إلا أنهما تابا وعرفا وسلما.

I said, ‘May Allah-azwj Keep you well, how come Ammar and Huzayfa hesitated in their affairs after the Messenger of Allah-saww, when they had both seen them (companions of Al-Uqba)?’ He-ra said, ‘They had both apparently repented, and were remorseful after that. Their calf had made a claim for status and their Samiri had testified to them, and three (people) were with them, that they had heard the Messenger of Allah-saww saying that. So they said, ‘Perhaps this matter happened after the first one. So they doubted with the doubters, except that these two repented and understood, and were safe’.

قال سليم بن قيس: فلقيت عمارا في خلافة عثمان بعد ما مات أبو ذر، فأخبرته بما قال أبو ذر. فقال: صدق أخي أبو ذر، إنه لأبر وأصدق من أن يحدث عن عمار بما لا يسمع منه. فقلت: أصلحك الله، بما تصدق أبا ذر؟ قال: أشهد لقد سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يقول: (ما أظلت الخضراء ولا أقلت الغبراء على ذي لهجة أصدق من أبي ذر ولا أبر). قلت: يا نبي الله، ولا أهل بيتك؟ قال: إنما أعني غيرهم من الناس.

Sulaym Bin Qays said, ‘I met Ammar during the Caliphate of Usman after Abu Dharr-ra had passed away and informed him of what Abu Dharr-ra had said. He said, ‘My brother Abu Dharr‑ra spoke the truth. He-ra is more righteous and truthful than to narrate from Ammar what he-ra had not heard from him’. I said, ‘May Allah-azwj Keep you well, you are ratifying Abu Dharr-ra?’ He said, ‘I hereby testify that I have heard the Messenger of Allah-saww say: ‘The sky has not cast a shadow, nor has the dust (ground) carried anyone who is more truthful in his words than Abu Dharr-ra, nor anyone more righteous’. So I (Ammar) said, ‘O Prophet-saww of Allah-azwj, not even the People-asws of your-saww Household?’ He-saww said: ‘What I-saww mean is apart from them-asws, from the (other) people’.

ثم لقيت حذيفة بالمدائن – رحلت إليه من الكوفة – فذكرت له ما قال أبو ذر. فقال: سبحان الله، أبو ذر أصدق وأبر من أن يحدث عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله بغير ما قال.

Then I met Huzayfa at Mada’in – I travelled to him from Al-Kufa – so I mentioned to him what Abu Dharr-ra had said. He said, ‘Glory be to Allah-azwj, Abu Dharr-ra is more truthful and righteous than to narrate something from the Messenger of Allah-saww than anyone else’.

مشاهدات معاوية في السقيفة والدليل على صدق

Views of Mu’awiya’ regarding Al-Saqifa and the evidence on truth

ما أتوني به ورقوه إلي: أنا قد رأيناك بأعيننا، فلا نحتاج أن نسأل من ذلك غيرنا، رأيتك حملت امرأتك فاطمة على حمار وأخذت بيد ابنيك الحسن والحسين – إذ بويع أبو بكر – فلم تدع أحدا من أهل بدر وأهل السابقة إلا دعوتهم واستنصرتهم عليه فلم تجد منهم إنسانا غير أربعة: سلمان وأبو ذر والمقداد والزبير.

What they have come with and presented to me, is what I have seen you-asws with my own eyes, so I do not need to ask about that from others. I saw you-asws make your-asws wife Fatima-asws to ride upon a mule, and took the hands of your-asws sons Al-Hassan-asws and Al-Husayn-asws – when they had paid allegiance to Abu Bakr – so you-asws did not leave out anyone from the people of Badr, and the former ones, except that you called upon them for their help. You-asws did not find among them any humans apart from four – Salman-ra, and Abu Dharr-ra, and Al-Miqdad-ra, and Al-Zubeyr.

لعمري لو كنت محقا لأجابوك وساعدوك ونصروك، ولكن ادعيت باطلا وما لا يقرون به. وسمعتك أذناي وأنت تقول لأبي سفيان – حين قال لك: (غلبت يا بن أبي طالب على سلطان ابن عمك، ومن غلبك عليه أذل أحياء قريش تيم وعدي) ودعاك إلى أن ينصرك – فقلت: (لو وجدت أعوانا أربعين رجلا من المهاجرين والأنصار من أهل السابقة لناهضت هذا الرجل)، فلما لم تجد غير أربعة رهط بايعت مكرها.

By my life, if you-asws were on truth, they would have answered you-asws and supported you-asws and helped you-asws, but your-asws claim was false and they did not accept it. And I heard you-asws with my own ears and you-asws said to Abu Sufyan – when he said to you, ‘They have overcome the kingdom of the son-saww of your-asws uncle-as, O son of Abu Talib-asws, and the ones who have overcome you-asws are the disgraced tribes of Quraysh; Taym and Ady’, and he claimed that he will help you – so you-asws said: ‘If I-asws find as helpers, forty men from the Emigrants and the helpers, from the former ones, I-asws would resist this man’. So, when you‑asws did not find any apart from a group of four, you-asws paid allegiance abhorrently’.

* 7 * كتاب أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام جوابا لمعاوية

7 – Letter of Amir-ul-Momineen-asws in answer to Mu’awiya’

قال: فكتب إليه أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم، أما بعد، فقد قرأت كتابك فكثر تعجبي مما خطت فيه يدك وأطنبت فيه من كلامك، ومن البلاء العظيم والخطب الجليل على هذه الأمة أن يكون مثلك يتكلم أو ينظر في عامة أمرهم أو خاصته، وأنت من تعلم وابن من تعلم وأنا من قد علمت وابن من قد علمت وسأجيبك فيما قد كتبت بجواب

(Sulaym) said, ‘So Amir-ul-Momineen-asws wrote to him: ‘In the Name of Allah-azwj the Beneficent, the Merciful. Having said that, I-asws have read your letter and was very surprised at what was written in it by your hand, and amplifying your words. And from the great afflictions and the grave matter upon this community is that there would be someone like you who would speak or consider public matters or for special ones, and you know who you are whose son you are, and I-asws the one you have known and you know whose son-asws I-asws am, and I-asws am answering you what you have written, with the answer.

لا أظنك تعقله أنت ولا وزيرك ابن النابغة عمرو،الموافق لك كما وافق شن طبقة، فإنه هو الذي أمرك بهذا الكتاب وزينه لك، وحضركما فيه إبليس ومردة أصحابه.

I-asws do not think that you are saying it, nor your Vizier Ibn Naabagat Amro, who is as compatible for you just as the layers are, for he is the one who ordered you to write this letter and has decorated himself to you, and Iblees-la was present with you two along with his-la outcast companions.

والله لقد أخبرني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وعرفني أنه رآى على منبره اثني عشر رجلا، أئمة ضلال من قريش يصعدون منبر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وينزلون على صورة القرود، يردون أمته على أدبارهم عن الصراط المستقيم. قد خبرني بأسمائهم رجلا رجلا وكم يملك كل واحد منهم واحد بعد واحد. عشرة منهم من بني أمية ورجلان من حيين مختلفين من قريش، عليهما مثل أوزار الأمة جميعا إلى يوم القيامة ومثل جميع عذابهم. فليس من دم يهراق في غير حقه ولا فرج يغشى حراما ولا حكم بغير حق إلا كان عليهما وزره.

By Allah-azwj, the Rasool Allah-saww has informed me, and made it known to me that he-saww saw twelve men upon his-saww Pulpit, being imams of misguidance from the Quraysh, ascending the Pulpit of the Rasool Allah-saww and descending from it, who had faces of monkeys. They were reverting the community back upon its heels from the Straight Path. He-saww informed me-asws of their names, man after man, and for how long they will be ruling for, each one of them after the other. Ten of them are from the Clan of Umayya, and two men from different tribes of Quraysh.  Upon these two will be the like of sins of the entire community up to the Day of Judgement, and the like of their Punishments. There is no one whose blood will be shed unjustifiably, nor a woman violated, nor an unlawful command issued but its sin will be upon these two (Abu Bakr and Umar).

وسمعته يقول: (إن بني أبي العاص إذا بلغوا ثلاثين رجلا جعلوا كتاب الله دخلا وعباد الله خولا ومال الله دولا).

And I-asws heard him-saww say that: ‘When the Clan of Abu Al-Aas reaches to thirty men, they will take the Book of Allah-azwj to deceive by, and the servants of Allah-azwj under their authority, and the wealth of Allah-azwj for their own.

وقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: يا أخي، إنك لست كمثلي. إن الله أمرني أن أصدع بالحق وأخبرني أنه يعصمني من الناس وأمرني أن أجاهد ولو بنفسي، فقال: (جاهد في سبيل الله لا تكلف إلا نفسك)، وقال: (حرض المؤمنين على القتال)، فكنت أنا وأنت المجاهدين.

And the Rasool Allah-saww said: ‘O my-saww brother-asws, your-asws situation is not like mine-saww, in that Allah-azwj has Ordered me-asws that I-saww should declare the truth and Informed me-saww that He-azwj will Protect me-saww from the people, and Ordered me-saww that I-saww should struggle even though I-saww may be alone. So He-azwj Said: “[4:84] Fight then in Allah’s way; this is not imposed on you except In relation to yourself”, and Said: “and rouse the believers to fight”, for I-saww and you-asws are the Holy Warriors.

وقد مكثت بمكة ما مكثت لم أؤمر بقتال، ثم أمرني الله بالقتال لأنه لا يعرف الدين إلا بي ولا الشرائع ولا السنن والأحكام والحدود والحلال والحرام. وإن الناس يدعون بعدي ما أمرهم الله به وما أمرتهم فيك من ولايتك وما أظهرت من حجتك، متعمدين غير جاهلين ولا اشتبه عليهم فيه، ولا سيما لما أتوك قبل  مخالفة ما أنزل الله فيك.

And I-saww have stayed at Mecca (for the duration) I-saww stayed, then Allah-azwj Ordered me-saww for the fighting because the Religion could not be recognised except by me-saww, nor the Law, nor the Sunnah and the Regulations, and the Limits, and the Permissibles and the Prohibition. And that the people, after me-saww, will leave what Allah-azwj has Ordered them for, and what He-azwj Ordered them regarding you-asws from your-asws Wilayah, and what has been made apparent from your-asws arguments, deliberately, not out of ignorance or their doubts with regards to you-asws, in particular their opposition to what Allah-azwj had Sent down regarding you-asws beforehand.

فإن وجدت أعوانا عليهم فجاهدهم وإن لم تجد أعوانا فاكفف يدك واحقن دمك فإنك إن نابذتهم قتلوك، وإن تبعوك وأطاعوك فاحملهم على الحق وإلا فدع، وإن استجابوا لك ونابذوك فنابذهم وجاهدهم، وإن لم تجد أعوانا فكف يدك واحقن دمك

So, if you-asws were to find helpers against them, fight them, and if you-asws do not find helpers, restrain your-asws hand, and save your-asws blood, for if you-asws oppose them, they will kill you-asws. And if they follow you-asws and obey you-asws, carry them towards the truth, otherwise let them be. If they respond to you-asws by opposing you-asws, so oppose them and fight them. And if you-asws do not find helpers, so restrain your-asws hand and save your-asws blood.

واعلم أنك إن دعوتهم لم يستجيبوا لك فلا تدعن أن تجعل الحجة عليهم. إنك يا أخي لست مثلي، إني قد أقمت حجتك وأظهرت لهم ما أنزل الله فيك وإنه لم يعلم أني رسول الله وأن حقي وطاعتي واجبان حتى أظهرت لك، فإني كنت قد أظهرت حجتك وقمت بأمرك، فإن سكت عنهم لم تأثم وإن حكمت ودعوت لم تأثم، غير أني أحب أن تدعوهم وإن لم يستجيبوا لك ولم يقبلوا منك.

And know that if you-asws call them and they do not answer you-asws do not let them be if you-asws have already established the argument against them. You-asws, O my-saww brother, are not (in a situation) like mine-saww. I-saww have established your-asws argument and manifested to them what Allah-azwj has Sent down regarding you-asws, and they do not know that I-saww am the Rasool Allah-saww and that my-saww rights and obedience to me-saww are both Obligatory until I-saww manifested it to you-asws, for I-saww had already manifested your-asws argument, and established it with your-asws command. So if you-asws are silent from them, you-asws will not be sinning, and that if you-asws were to order them and call them you-asws will (still) not be sinning, but I-saww would love it if you-asws call them even though they do not respond to you-asws and do not accept from you-asws.

ويتظاهر عليك ظلمة قريش، فإني أخاف عليك إن ناهضت القوم ونابذتهم وجاهدتم من غير أن يكون معك فئة أعوان تقوي بهم أن يقتلوك فيطفأ نور الله ولا يعبد الله في الأرض، والتقية من دين الله ولا دين لمن لا تقية له.

And the Quraysh will exhibit injustice to you-asws, so I-saww fear for you-asws that the people will reject you and you-asws should only oppose them and fight against them when you-asws find helpers with you-asws by whom you-asws can strengthen by, otherwise they will try to eliminate you-asws. So they would attempt to extinguish the Light of Allah-saww so that there will be no one worshipping Allah-azwj in His-azwj earth, and the dissimulation is from the Religion of Allah-azwj, and there is no Religion to the one who has no dissimulation for him.

وإن الله قد قضى الفرقة والاختلاف بين هذه الأمة، ولو شاء لجمعهم على الهدى ولم يختلف اثنان منهم ولا من خلقه ولم يتنازع في شيء من أمره ولم يجحد المفضول ذا الفضل فضله، ولو شاء عجل منهم النقمة وكان منه التغيير حتى يكذب الظالم ويعلم الحق أين مصيره. والله جعل الدنيا دار الأعمال وجعل الآخرة دار الثواب والعقاب، (ليجزي الذين أساؤوا بما عملوا ويجزي الذين أحسنوا بالحسنى). فقلت: شكرا لله على نعمائه وصبرا على بلائه وتسليما ورضى بقضائه.

And that Allah-azwj has Judged that there be sects and differences in this community, and had He-azwj so Desired, He-azwj would have Gathered them on Guidance and no two from them would have differed, nor would anyone from His-azwj creatures would have disputed with regards to anything from His-azwj Commands, and the lower ones would not have struggled against the preferred ones for their preferences.

And had He-azwj so Desired, He-azwj would Hasten the Revenge, and Change them until the oppressor would be falsified and they would come to know where the truth lies. And Allah-azwj has made the world to be a House of deeds, and made the Hereafter to be the House of Reward and Punishment. “[53:31] Yea, to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth: so that He rewards those who do evil, according to their deeds, and He rewards those who do good, with what is best”. So I-saww said: ‘Thanks be to Allah-azwj for His-azwj Favours, and I-asws observe patience on His-azwj afflictions and submit to them, and I-saww am pleased with His-azwj Judgement’.

ثم قال صلى الله عليه وآله: يا أخي، أبشر فإن حياتك وموتك معي، وأنت أخي وأنت وصيي وأنت وزيري وأنت وارثي، وأنت تقاتل على سنتي، وأنت مني بمنزلة هارون من موسى، ولك بهارون أسوة حسنة إذ استضعفه أهله وتظاهروا عليه وكادوا أن يقتلوه.

Then he-saww said: ‘O my-saww brother-asws, receive good news for your-asws life and your-asws passing away are with me-saww, and you-asws are my-saww successor-asws, and you-asws are my-saww Vizier, and you-asws are my-saww inheritor, and you-asws will fight upon my-saww Sunnah, and you-asws are from me-asws of the status which Haroun-as had from Musa-asws, and for you-asws, with Haroun-as is the best example when his-as people considered him-as to be weak, and overcame him-as and had plotted to kill him-as.

فاصبر لظلم قريش إياك وتظاهرهم عليك فإنها ضغائن في صدور قوم، أحقاد بدر وترات أحد. وإن موسى أمر هارون حين استخلفه في قومه إن ضلوا فوجد أعوانا أن يجاهدهم بهم، وإن لم يجد أعوانا أن يكف يده ويحقن دمه ولا يفرق بينهم. فافعل أنت كذلك، إن وجدت عليهم أعوانا فجاهدهم وإن لم تجد أعوانا فاكفف يدك واحقن دمك، فإنك إن نابذتهم قتلوك، وإن تبعوك وأطاعوك فاحملهم على الحق.

So observe patience to the injustice of the Quraysh towards you-asws and what they will be coming up against you-asws, for there are grudges in the hearts of the people, the malice of Badr and the animosities of Ohad. And that Musa-as had ordered Haroun-as when he-as left him-as behind among his-as people that if they go astray and he-as find helpers he-as should fight against them by these (helpers), but if he-as does not find helpers then he-as should restrain his-as hand and save his-as blood, and not create differences among them. So you-asws should do like that, and if you-asws find helpers against them, so fight against them, and if you-asws do not find helpers, so you-asws should restrain your-asws hand and save your-asws blood, for if you-asws confront them, they will kill you-asws, and if they follow you-asws, and obey you-asws, carry them to the truth.

واعلم أنك إن لم تكف يدك وتحقن دمك إذا لم تجد أعوانا أتخوف عليك أن يرجع الناس إلى عبادة الأصنام والجحود بأني رسول الله، فاستظهر الحجة عليهم وادعهم ليهلك الناصبون لك والباغون عليك ويسلم العامة والخاصة.

And know that if you-asws do not restrain your-asws hand and save your-asws blood when you-asws do not find helpers for yourself-asws, I-saww fear for you-asws that the people will revert back to worshipping the idols and will dispute that I-saww am the Rasool Allah-saww. So, show the arguments against them and call them, so that those who are Nasibis (hate you-asws) and the rebels against you-asws will be destroyed, whilst the general public and certain people will remain safe.

فإذا وجدت يوما أعوانا على إقامة الكتاب والسنة فقاتل على تأويل القرآن كما قاتلت على تنزيله، فإنما يهلك من الأمة من نصب نفسه لك أو لأحد من أوصيائك بالعداوة، وعادى وجحد ودان بخلاف ما أنتم عليه.

So, the day you-asws find helpers for establishing the Book and the Sunnah, fight them over the explanation of the Quran just as I-saww fought over its Revelation. But, the one from the community who harbours hatred towards you-asws (the Nasibis), or towards any one-asws from your-asws successors-asws by being inimical will perish, for they would have made it to be a Religion all that which opposes you-asws.

ولعمري يا معاوية، لو ترحمت عليك وعلى طلحة والزبير ما كان ترحمي عليكم واستغفاري لكم ليحق باطلا، بل يجعل الله ترحمي عليكم واستغفاري لكم لعنة وعذابا.

And by my-asws life, O Mu’awiya’, if I-asws were to invoke Mercy upon you and upon Talha and Al-Zubeyr, my-asws invocation towards you and my-asws seeking of Forgiveness for you would not make falsehood to be truth, but Allah-azwj would Make my-asws invocation to you and my seeking of Forgiveness for you to be a Curse and a Punishment.

وما أنت وطلحة والزبير بأحقر جرما ولا أصغر ذنبا وأهون بدعة وضلالة ممن استنالك ولصاحبك الذي تطلب بدمه ووطئا لكم ظلمنا أهل البيت وحملاكم على رقابنا، فإن الله يقول: (ألم تر إلى الذين أوتوا نصيبا من الكتاب يؤمنون بالجبت والطاغوت ويقولون للذين كفروا هؤلاء أهدى من الذين آمنوا سبيلا أولئك الذين لعنهم الله ومن يلعن الله فلن تجد له نصيرا أم لهم نصيب من الملك فإذا لا يؤتون الناس نقيرا أم يحسدون الناس على ما آتاهم الله من فضله)، فنحن الناس ونحن المحسودون.

And neither are you, or Talha and Al-Zubeyr any less criminal, nor are your sins any smaller, and any lesser in your heresies (innovations) and straying from the ones who facilitated these for you (Abu Bakr and Umar) and for your companion (Usman) whose blood that you seek, and made it easy for you to oppress us-asws, the People-asws of the Household, and burdened you upon our-asws necks, for Allah-azwj has Said “[4:51] Have you not seen those to whom a portion of the Book has been given? They believe in idols and false deities and say of those who disbelieve: These are better guided in the path than those who believe. [4:52] Those are they whom Allah has cursed, and whomever Allah curses you shall not find any helper for him. [4:53] Or have they a share in the kingdom? But then they would not give to people even the speck in the date stone. [4:54] Or do they envy the people for what Allah has given them of His grace?”, so we-asws are the people and we-asws are the envied ones’.

قال الله عز وجل: (فقد آتينا آل إبراهيم الكتاب والحكمة وآتيناهم ملكا عظيما فمنهم من آمن به ومنهم من صد عنه وكفى بجهنم سعيرا)، فالملك العظيم أن جعل الله فيهم أئمة من أطاعهم أطاع الله ومن عصاهم عصى الله والكتاب والحكمة النبوة. فلم تقرون بذلك في آل إبراهيم وتنكرونه في آل محمد؟

Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic Says “[4:54] But indeed We have given to Ibrahim’s children the Book and the wisdom, and We have given them a grand kingdom. [4:55] So of them is he who believes in him, and of them is he who turns away from him, and Hell is sufficient to burn”, so the Great Kingdom is that Allah-azwj Made Imams-asws to be among them, the one who obeys them-asws has obeyed Allah-azwj, and the one who disobeys them-asws has disobeyed Allah-azwj, and the book, and the Wisdom, and the Prophet-hood. Why do you accept that with regards to the Progeny of Ibrahim-as, and are denying it with regards to the Progeny-asws of Muhammad-saww?

يا معاوية: فإن تكفر بها أنت وصاحبك ومن قبلك من طغاة الشام واليمن والأعراب، أعراب ربيعة ومضر جفاة الأمة، فقد وكل الله بها قوما ليسوا بها بكافرين

O Mu’awiya’, so if you are denying it along with your companions, and the ones before you from the tyrants of Syria, and Yemen, and the Bedouins, the Bedouins of Rabi’a (a tribe) and Muzar (a tribe), the betrayers of the community, so Allah-azwj has Empowered by it a people who will not be denying it.

يا معاوية: إن القرآن حق ونور وهدى ورحمة وشفاء للمؤمنين والذين لا يؤمنون في آذانهم وقر وهو عليهم عمى.

O Mu’awiya’, the Quran is ‘Haq’ (a Truth), and ‘Noor’ (a Light), and a Guidance, and a Mercy, and a Healing for the believers, and the ones who do not believe in their ears and accept, so it is a blindness to them.

يا معاوية، إن الله جل جلاله لم يدع صنفا من أصناف الضلالة والدعاة إلى النار إلا وقد رد عليهم واحتج عليهم في القرآن ونهى فيه عن اتباعهم، وأنزل فيهم قرآنا قاطعا ناطقا عليهم قد علمه من علمه وجهله من جهله.

O Mu’awiya’, Allah-azwj Majestic is His-azwj Majesty, did not Leave any type from the variety of misguidance and the callers to the Fire except that He-azwj has Challenged (Rebutted) it and has Argued against them in the Quran, and has Forbidden it in His-azwj Book to follow them, and has Sent down regarding them a Quran which cut them off and Spoken against them, so the one who knows it knows it, and the one who is ignorant of it is ignorant of it.

وإني سمعت من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يقول: ليس من القرآن آية إلا ولها ظهر وبطن وما منه حرف إلا وإن له تأويل، (وما يعلم تأويله إلا الله والراسخون في العلم)، الراسخون نحن آل محمد.

And I-asws heard from the Rasool Allah-saww say: ‘There is no Verse in the Quran except that it has for it an apparent, and a hidden, and there is no letter from it except that there is an explanation for it, “[3:7] but none knows its interpretation except Allah, and those who are firmly rooted in knowledge”, The ones-asws firmly rooted in knowledge are us-asws, the Progeny-asws of Muhammad-saww.

وأمر الله سائر الأمة أن يقولوا: (آمنا به كل من عند ربنا وما يذكر إلا أولو الألباب)، وأن يسلموا لنا ويردوا علمه إلينا وقد قال الله: (ولو ردوه إلى الرسول وإلى أولي الأمر منهم لعلمه الذين يستنبطونه منهم)، هم الذين يسألون عنه ويطلبونه.

And Allah-azwj Ordered the rest of the community that they should say “[3:7] We believe in it, it is all from our Lord; and none do mind except those having understanding.” And that they should submit to us-asws and refer their knowledge to us-asws, and Allah-azwj has Said “[4:83] and if they had referred it to the Messenger and to those in authority among them, those among them who can search out the knowledge of it would have known it”, they-asws are the ones who should be asked about it and sought.

آيتان نزلتا في معاوية

Two Verses Descended regarding Mu’awiya’

لعمري لو أن الناس – حين قبض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله – سلموا لنا واتبعونا وقلدونا أمورهم لأكلوا من فوقهم ومن تحت أرجلهم، ولما طمعت فيها أنت يا معاوية فما فاتهم منا أكثر مما فاتنا منهم.

By my-asws life, had the people – when the Rasool Allah-saww passed away – submitted to us-asws, and followed us-asws, and emulated us-asws (done our-asws Taqleed) in their affairs, they would have eaten from above them and from underneath their feet, from what you coveted with regards to it. O Mu’awiya’, when you desired for the caliphate, it did not harm us-asws as much as the harm we-asws are going to get from them (referring to what would happen afterwards, shahadat of all Imams-asws).

ولقد أنزل الله في وفيك خاصة آية من القرآن تتلوها أنت ونظراؤك على ظاهرها ولا تعلمون تأويلها وباطنها، وهي في سورة الحاقة: (فأما من أوتي كتابه بيمينه فسوف يحاسب حسابا يسيرا) إلى قوله: (وأما من أوتي كتابه بشماله) إلى آخر الآية، وذلك أنه يدعى بكل إمام ضلالة وإمام هدى ومع كل واحد منهما أصحابه الذين بايعوه فيدعى بي ويدعى بك.

And Allah-azwj has Sent down Verses from the Quran regarding myself-asws and you especially. You and those who have your vision recite it upon its apparent (meaning) and are unaware of its explanation and its hidden (Baatin), and this is in Surah Al-Haqqah “[69:19] Then as to him who is given his book in his right hand, [84:8] He shall be reckoned with by an easy reckoning” (Please note that half of the above Verse is now in Surah Al-Inshiqaaq) up to His‑azwj Words “[69:25] And as for him who is given his book in his left hand” up to the end of the Verse, and that He-azwj will Call every imam of misguidance and every Imam-asws of Guidance, and along with each one of them will be his companions who paid allegiance to him. So He-azwj will Call them (my-asws companions) with me-asws and He-azwj Call them (your companions) with you.

يا معاوية، وأنت صاحب السلسلة الذي يقول: (يا ليتني لم أوت كتابيه ولم أدر ما حسابيه) إلى آخر القصص، والله لقد سمعت ذلك من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يقوله فيك، وكذلك كل إمام ضلالة كان قبلك ويكون بعدك له مثل ذلك من خزي الله وعذابه.

O Mu’awiya’, and you are the companion in the chains (69:32) who will be saying “[69:25] O would that my book had never been given me: [69:26] And I had not known what my account was” up to the end of the story (the Verses following this one). By Allah-azwj, I-asws have heard that from the Rasool Allah-saww speaking about you, and similarly for every imam of misguidance who was before you, and the ones who will be coming after you, similar words of disgrace from Allah-azwj and of His-azwj Punishment.


آية نزلت في بني أمية

Verse Revealed regarding the Clan of Umayya

ونزل فيكم قول الله عز وجل: (وما جعلنا الرؤيا التي أريناك إلا فتنة للناس والشجرة الملعونة في القرآن)، وذلك حين رآى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله اثني عشر إماما من أئمة الضلالة على منبره يردون الناس على أدبارهم القهقرى، رجلان من حيين مختلفين من قريش وعشرة من بني أمية، أول العشرة صاحبك الذي تطلب بدمه وأنت وابنك وسبعة من ولد الحكم بن أبي العاص، أولهم مروان، وقد لعنه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وطرده وما ولد حين استمع لنساء رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله.

And regarding you Descended the Statement of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic “[17:60] and We did not make the vision which We showed you but a trial for men and the cursed tree in the Quran as well”, and that was when the Messenger saw (in a dream) twelve imam from the imams of misguidance upon his-saww Pulpit, reverting the people backwards upon their heels. Two men from two different tribes from Quraysh, and ten from the Clan of Umayya.

The first of the ten is your companion whose blood you are seeking (Usman), and you, and your son, and seven from the sons of Al-Hakam Bin Abu Al-A’as, the first of them being Marwaan. And the Rasool Allah-saww has cursed him, and expelled him along with his son when they were intently listening in to the (conversations) of the wives of the Rasool Allah-saww.

يا معاوية، إنا أهل بيت اختار الله لنا الآخرة على الدنيا ولم يرض لنا الدنيا ثوابا. وقد سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله أنت ووزيرك وصويحبك، يقول: (إذا بلغ بنو أبي العاص ثلاثين رجلا اتخذوا كتاب الله دخلا وعباد الله خولا ومال الله دولا).

O Mu’awiya’, for us-asws, the People-asws of the Household, Allah-azwj has Chosen the Hereafter instead of the world, and Allah-azwj was not Pleased with the world as a Reward for us-asws. And you and your Vizier (Amro Al-A’as) and your companions have heard the Rasool Allah-saww say: ‘When the Clan of Abu Al-A’as reach thirty men, they will take the Book of Allah-azwj to deceive by, and the servants of Allah-azwj as their followers, and the wealth of Allah-azwj for their own’.

يا معاوية، إن نبي الله زكريا نشر بالمنشار ويحيى ذبح وقتله قومه وهو يدعوهم إلى الله عز وجل، وذلك لهوان الدنيا على الله. إن أولياء الشيطان قديما حاربوا أولياء الرحمن، قال الله: (إن الذين يكفرون بآيات الله ويقتلون النبيين بغير حق ويقتلون الذين يأمرون بالقسط من الناس فبشرهم بعذاب أليم).

O Mu’awiya’, the Prophet-as of Allah-azwj Zakariya-as was sawn by a chainsaw, and Yahya-as was slaughtered, and his-as people killed him-as, and he-as was calling them to Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic, and that is how disgraceful the world is to Allah-azwj. The friends of Satan-la have always been at war with the friends of the Beneficent-azwj. Allah-azwj Says “[3:21] Surely (as for) those who disbelieve in the communications of Allah and slay the prophets unjustly and slay those among men who enjoin justice, announce to them a painful chastisement”.

يا معاوية، إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله قد أخبرني أن أمته سيخضبون لحيتي من دم رأسي، وإني مستشهد، وستلي الأمة من بعدي، وأنك ستقتل ابني الحسن غدرا بالسم، وأن ابنك يزيد لعنه الله سيقتل ابني الحسين، يلي ذلك منه ابن الزانية.

O Mu’awiya’, the Rasool Allah-saww has informed me-asws that his-asws community will dye my-asws beard with the blood from my-asws head, and I-asws will be martyred, and after me-asws the community will follow you, and you will kill my-asws son Al-Hassan-asws treacherously by poison, and that your son Yazeed, may Allah-azwj Curse him, will kill my-asws son-asws Al-Husayn-asws, that (deed) will be carried out by the son of a whore.


إخباره عليه السلام عن تسلط بني أمية على الأمة

His-asws news about the domination of the Clan of Umayya over the community

وأن الأمة سيليها من بعدك سبعة من ولد أبي العاص وولد مروان بن الحكم وخمسة من ولده تكملة اثني عشر إماما قد رآهم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يتواثبون على منبره تواثب القردة، يردون أمته عن دين الله على أدبارهم القهقرى، وأنهم أشد الناس عذابا يوم القيامة. وأن الله سيخرج الخلافة منهم برايات سود تقبل من الشرق، يذلهم الله بهم ويقتلهم تحت كل حجر.

And that the community, after you will flow on to seven from the sons of Abu Al-A’as, and five from the sons of Marwan Bin Al-Hakam, thereby completing the twelve Imams that the Rasool Allah-saww had seen jumping upon his-saww Pulpit like the jumping of the monkeys, reverting the community from the Religion of Allah-azwj backwards upon its heels, and upon them will be the severest Punishment on the Day of Judgement. And that Allah-azwj will Take the Caliphate out from them by the black flags coming from the East. Allah-azwj will Humiliate them (Clan of Umayya) by them, and they will kill them under every stone.


إخبار أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام عن ظهور الإمام المهدي عليه السلام

News from Amir-ul-Momineen-asws about the appearance of the Imam Al-Mahdi-asws

وأن رجلا من ولدك مشوم ملعون جلف جاف منكوس القلب فظ غليظ قد نزع الله من قلبه الرأفة والرحمة، أخواله من كلب، كأني أنظر إليه ولو شئت لسميته ووصفته وابن كم هو. فيبعث جيشا إلى المدينة فيدخلونها فيسرفون فيها في القتل والفواحش، ويهرب منه رجل من ولدي زكي نقي، الذي يملأ الأرض عدلا وقسطا كما ملئت ظلما وجورا. وإني لأعرف اسمه وابن كم هو يومئذ وعلامته. وهو من ولد ابني الحسين الذي يقتله ابنك يزيد، وهو الثائر بدم أبيه.

And that a man from your sons, and evil, accursed, rude, unpleasant, deficient of the heart, vulgar, harsh, and from whom Allah-azwj has Removed leniency and mercy, whose maternal uncles will be from dogs, it is as if I-asws can see him and had I-asws so wished, I-asws would have named him, and described him, and how old he will be, so he will send an army to Al-Medina.

So they will enter it, and there will be looting and destruction in it, including the reckless killings (of innocents) and stripping the honours of women. (After this) A man from my-asws sons-asws, pure and holy, who will fill the earth with justice and equity just as it was filled with injustice and inequity, they will flee from him. And I-asws know his-asws name, and how old he-asws will be on that day, and his-asws signs. And he-asws will be from the sons-asws of my-asws son-asws Al-Husayn-asws who will be killed by your son Yazeed, and he-asws will avenge the blood of his-asws father-asws.

فيهرب إلى مكة ويقتل صاحب ذلك الجيش رجلا من ولدي زكيا بريا عند أحجار الزيت. ثم يسير ذلك الجيش إلى مكة، وإني لأعلم اسم أميرهم وعدتهم وأسمائهم وسمات خيولهم، فإذا دخلوا البيداء واستوت بهم الأرض خسف الله بهم. قال الله عز وجل: (ولو ترى إذ فزعوا فلا فوت وأخذوا من مكان قريب)

He-asws will go to Mecca, and the commander of the army (opposing him-asws) will kill a pure man from my-asws sons at a place with stones of oil (Ahjaar AL-Zayt). Then that army will travel to Mecca, and I-asws know the name of its Emir (leader), and their number, and their names, and the description of their horses. So when they enter Al-Bayda, the earth will spread out and Allah-azwj will Make it to swallow them up. Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic has Said “[34:51] And could you see when they shall become terrified, but (then) there shall be no escape and they shall be seized upon from a near place”.

– قال: من تحت أقدامكم – فلا يبقى من ذلك الجيش أحد غير رجل واحد يقلب الله وجهه من قبل قفاه.

He-asws said: ‘(The ground will shift) from underneath their feet – so there will not remain from that army anyone apart from one man, whose face will have been turned from the scruff of his neck.

ويبعث الله للمهدي أقواما يجتمعون من أطراف الأرض قزع كقزع الخريف. والله إني لأعرف أسمائهم واسم أميرهم ومناخ ركابهم. فيدخل المهدي الكعبة ويبكي ويتضرع، قال الله عز وجل: (أمن يجيب المضطر إذا دعاه ويكشف السوء ويجعلكم خلفاء الأرض) هذا لنا خاصة أهل البيت.

And Allah-azwj will Send for Al-Mahdi-asws a people. He-azwj will Gather them from the corners of the earth like the gathering of the clouds in autumn. By Allah-azwj, I-asws know their names, and the name of their Emir (leader), and where their rides will stop. So Al-Mahdi-asws will enter the Kabah, and he-asws will be crying and praying. Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic has Said: ‘Amma Ya Jeebo isterra Izajaa “[27:62] Or, Who answers the distressed one when he calls upon Him and removes the evil, and He will make you successors in the earth.” This is exclusively for us-asws, the People-asws of the Household. (This Verse is frequently used for asking for health and recovering from hardships by Muslims)

هدف أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام من مراسلاته لمعاوية

The objective of Amir-ul-Momineen-asws from the correspondence with Mu’awiya’

أما والله يا معاوية، لقد كتبت إليك هذا الكتاب وإني لأعلم أنك لا تنتفع به، وأنك ستفرح إذا أخبرتك أنك ستلي الأمر وابنك بعدك، لأن الآخرة ليست من بالك وأنك بالآخرة لمن الكافرين. وستندم كما ندم من أسس هذا الأمر لك وحملك على رقابنا حين لم تنفعه الندامة.

But, by Allah-azwj, O Mu’awiya’, I-asws have written to you this letter, and I-asws know that you will not benefit by it, and you will be happy when I-asws informed you that you will have the command, and your son after you, because the Hereafter is not in your mind, and without (securing) the Hereafter you are from the deniers (Kafir). And you will regret just like the one who gave you the command regretted it, and burdened you upon our-asws necks, but his regret will not benefit him.

ومما دعاني إلى الكتاب إليك بما كتبت به: إني أمرت كاتبي أن ينسخ ذلك لشيعتي ورؤوس أصحابي لعل الله أن ينفعهم بذلك، أو يقرأه واحد ممن قبلك فيخرجه الله به وبنا من الضلالة إلى الهدى ومن ظلمك وظلم أصحابك وفتنتهم، وأحببت أن أحتج عليك.

And from what I-asws have been invited to write to you with what I-asws have written, I-asws ordered my scribe to make a copy of that for my-asws Shiites, and the chiefs of my-asws friends, and it is for Allah-azwj to Make them to benefit by that, or if anyone from before you were to read it, so Allah-azwj will Take them by it and by us-asws, out from straying and into the Guidance, and from your injustices and the injustices of your companions and their strife, And I-asws preferred to argue against you’.

* 8 * جواب معاوية الأخير إلى أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام

فكتب إليه معاوية: (هنيئا لك يا أبا الحسن تملك الآخرة، وهنيئا لنا نملك الدنيا)

8 – The final-answer of Mu’awiya’ to Amir-ul-Momineen-asws

So Mu’awiya’ wrote to him-asws, ‘Congratulations to you-asws, O Abu Al-Hassan-asws for the Kingdom of the Hereafter, and congratulations to us for our kingdom in the world.[16]


The accursed agreement and the treaty in the Kabah

الصحيفة الملعونة والمعاهدة في الكعبة

فلما بايع علي عليه السلام أخبرنا أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله قال ما قاله، وأخبر أن هؤلاء الخمسة كتبوا بينهم كتابا تعاهدوا فيه وتعاقدوا في ظل الكعبة: (إن مات محمد أو قتل أن يتظاهروا على علي عليه السلام فيزووا عنه هذا الأمر)، واستشهد أربعة: سلمان وأبو ذر والمقداد والزبير، وشهدوا بعد ما وجبت في أعناقنا لأبي بكر بيعته الملعونة الضالة. فعلمنا أن عليا عليه السلام لم يكن ليروي عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله باطلا، وشهد له الأخيار من أصحاب محمد صلى الله عليه وآله.

The accursed agreement and the treaty in the Kabah

When allegiance was taken from Ali-asws (by force) we were informed by Ali-asws that the Messenger of Allah-saww had said what he-asws had said, and we got the news that those five had written an agreement between them and committed themselves to it, and contracted it in the shadow of the Kabah that, if Muhammad-saww were to pass away or be killed they would overpower Ali-asws and keep the matter (Caliphate) away from him-asws, and four of them testified to this (statement of Ali-asws)– Salman-ra, and Abu Dharr-ra, and Al-Miqdad-ra and Al-Zubeyr.

And we realised (the Fitna), afterwards, when Abu Bakr’s accursed and erroneous allegiance was forced onto our necks. So we came to know that Ali-asws would never report from the Messenger of Allah-saww any falsehood, and testified to him-asws as being the best of the companions of Muhammad-saww.

ندامة الصحابة لتقصيرهم في حق أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام

Remorse of the companions for neglecting the right of Amir-ul-Momineen-asws (Taqseer of Amir-ul-Momineen-asws)

فقال جل من قال هذه المقالة: إنا تدبرنا الأمر بعد ذلك فذكرنا قول النبي صلى الله عليه وآله – ونحن نسمع -: (إن الله يحب أربعة من أصحابي وأمرني بحبهم وإن الجنة تشتاق إليهم). فقلنا: من هم يا رسول الله؟ فقال صلى الله عليه وآله: (أخي ووزيري ووارثي وخليفتي في أمتي وولي كل مؤمن بعدي علي بن أبي طالب، وسلمان الفارسي وأبو ذر والمقداد بن الأسود). وإنا نستغفر الله ونتوب إليه مما ركبناه ومما أتيناه.

So most of them said these words, ‘we reconsidered the matter after that and we remembered the words of the Prophet-saww – and we heard: ‘Allah-azwj Loves four of my-saww companions and Ordered me-saww for their love and that the Paradise is eagerly awaiting them’. So we said, ‘Who are they, O Messenger of Allah-saww?’ He-saww said: ‘My-saww brother, and my-saww Vizier, and my-saww inheritor, and my-saww Caliph in my-saww community, and the Guardian of every believer after me-saww, Ali-asws bin Abu Talib-asws, and Salman Al-Farsy-ra, and Abu Dharr-ra, and Al-Miqdad Bin Al-Aswad-ra’. And we seek Forgiveness of Allah-azwj and repent to Him-azwj from what we have done and come up with.

وقد سمعنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يقول قولا لم نعلم تأويله ومعناه إلا خيرا. قال صلى الله عليه وآله: ليردن علي الحوض أقوام ممن صحبني ومن أهل المكانة مني والمنزلة عندي، حتى إذا وقفوا على مراتبهم ورأوني اختلسوا دوني وأخذ بهم ذات الشمال. فأقول: يا رب، أصحابي أصحابي فيقال لي: إنك لا تدري ما أحدثوا بعدك، إنهم لم يزالوا مرتدين على أدبارهم القهقرى منذ فارقتهم.

And we have heard from the Messenger of Allah-saww saying certain words that we do not understand its explanation except as good. He-saww said: ‘A group of my-saww companions will come to me-saww at the Fountain, and they will be those who had status with me-saww and a position, until they will pause in accordance with their ranks, and they will see me-saww and come nearer to me-saww. They will be grabbed and sent to the left. I-saww will say: ‘O Lord-azwj, my-saww companions, my-saww companions! It will be said to me-saww: ‘You-saww don’t know what they have done after you-saww. They did not cease to be apostates, turning on their backs, going backwards since you-saww separated from them’.

ولعمرنا، لو أنا – حين قبض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله – سلمنا الأمر إلى علي عليه السلام وأطعناه وتابعناه وبايعناه لرشدنا واهتدينا ووفقنا، ولكن الله قضى الاختلاف والفرقة والبلاء، فلا بد من أن يكون ما علم الله وقضى وقدر.

And as for our affairs, had we – since the passing away of the Messenger of Allah-saww – submitted our affairs to Ali-asws and obeyed him-asws, and followed him-asws, and paid allegiance to him-asws, he-asws would keep us on the right path, and guided us, and made us to be successful,

However, Allah-azwj Ordained it (in order to test the righteous ones) that there should be differentiation, and (due to that people are divided into) the sects and the (subjected to) afflictions. Thus it had to take place, as it was in the Knowledge of Allah-azwj and the fate and the destiny (as per actions of the nation).

أصحاب الصحيفة وأصحاب العقبة

Companions of the agreement and the companions of the Al-Uqba

سليم بن قيس قال: شهدت أبا ذر بالربذة حين سيره عثمان وأوصى إلى علي عليه السلام في أهله وماله، فقال له قائل: لو كنت أوصيت إلى أمير المؤمنين عثمان. فقال: قد أوصيت إلى أمير المؤمنين حقا أمير المؤمنين علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام، سلمنا عليه بإمرة المؤمنين على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله بأمر الله. قال لنا: (سلموا على أخي ووزيري ووارثي وخليفتي في أمتي وولي كل مؤمن بعدي بإمرة المؤمنين، فإنه زر الأرض الذي تسكن إليه ولو فقدتموه أنكرتم الأرض وأهلها).

Sulaym Bin Qays said, ‘I saw Abu Dharr-ra at Al-Rabza when Usman exiled him-ra, and he-ra bequeathed to Ali-asws with regards to his-ra family and his-ra belongings. Someone said to him, ‘If only you had bequeathed to Amir-ul-Momineen Usman’. He-ra said, ‘I-ra have bequeathed to the Amir-ul-Momineen-asws who is the true Amir-ul-Momineen, Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws. We had greeted him-asws as Amir-ul-Momineen in the era of the Messenger of Allah-saww by the Order of Allah-azwj. He-saww said to us: ‘Greet my-saww brother, and my-saww Vizier, and my-saww inheritor, and my-saww Caliph in my-saww community, and my-saww guardian of every believer after me-saww, as Amir-ul-Momineen, for he-asws is reason by which the earth is in a tranquil state, if you were to lose him-asws the earth would refuse to carry its inhabitants.

فرأيت عجل هذه الأمة وسامريها راجعا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله ثم قال: حق من الله ورسوله؟ فغضب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله ثم قال: (حق من الله ورسوله، أمرني الله بذلك). فلما سلمنا عليه أقبلا على أصحابهما معاذ وسالم وأبي عبيدة – حين خرجا من بيت علي عليه السلام من بعد ما سلمنا عليه – فقالا لهم: ما بال هذا الرجل، ما زال يرفع خسيسة ابن عمه وقال أحدهما: إنه ليحسن أمر ابن عمه وقال الجميع: ما لنا عنده خير ما بقي علي

So I saw the calf of this community and its Samiri rebuking the Messenger of Allah-saww saying, ‘Is this truth from Allah-azwj and His-azwj Messenger-saww?’ So the Messenger of Allah-saww got angered by it and said: ‘It is truth from Allah-azwj and His-azwj Messenger-saww. Allah-azwj Ordered me-saww for that’. When we had greeted him-asws, the two of them went to their companions Ma’az, and Saalim, and Abu Ubeyda – when they came out of the House of Ali-asws after having greeted him-asws – so the two of them said to them, ‘What is it with this man-saww, he-saww does not cease to elevate his-asws cousin-asws’. And one of them said, ‘He-saww always makes good the affair of his-saww cousin-asws’. And all of them said, ‘There is no good for us if Ali-asws remains (Amir-ul-Momineen)’.

قال: فقلت: يا أبا ذر، هذا التسليم بعد حجة الوداع أو قبلها؟ فقال: أما التسليمة الأولى فقبل حجة الوداع، وأما التسليمة الأخرى فبعد حجة الوداع. قلت: فمعاقدة هؤلاء الخمسة متى كانت؟ قال: في حجة الوداع.

Sulaym said, ‘I said, ‘O Abu Dharr-ra, was this greeting before or after the Farewell Pilgrimage?’ He-ra said, ‘As for the first greeting, it was before the Farewell Pilgrimage, and as for the other one, it was after the Farewell Pilgrimage’. I said, ‘When was the contract of those five made?’ He-ra said, ‘During the Farewell Pilgrimage’.

قلت: أخبرني – أصلحك الله عن الاثني عشر أصحاب العقبة المتلثمين الذين أرادوا أن ينفروا برسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله الناقة، ومتى كان ذلك؟ قال: بغدير خم مقبل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله من حجة الوداع. قلت: أصلحك الله، تعرفهم؟ قال: أي والله، كلهم. قلت: من أين تعرفهم وقد أسرهم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله إلى حذيفة؟ قال: عمار بن ياسر كان قائدا وحذيفة كان سائقا، فأمر حذيفة بالكتمان ولم يأمر بذلك عمارا. قلت: تسميهم لي؟ قال: خمسة أصحاب الصحيفة، وخمسة أصحاب الشورى وعمرو بن العاص ومعاوية.

I said, ‘May Allah-azwj Keep you well, inform me about the twelve (12) companions of Al-Uqba, who had covered their faces and intended to frighten the camel of the Messenger of Allah-saww, when did that happen?’ He-ra said, ‘At Ghadeer Khum, when the Messenger of Allah-saww was returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage’. I said, ‘May Allah-azwj Keep you well, do you know them?’ He-ra, said, ‘Yes, by Allah-azwj, all of them’. I said, ‘From where did you-ra come to know them and the Messenger of Allah-saww had told Huzayfa to keep it a secret?’ He-ra said, ‘Ammar Bin Yaasar was the guide and Huzayfa was the usher, so Huzayfa was ordered for concealment, but that was not the order to Ammar’. I said, ‘Can you name them for me?’ He-ra said, ‘Five (5) companions of the agreement, and five (5) companions of the consultative council, and Amr Bin Al-Aas and Mu’awiya’’.

عمار وحذيفة في فتنة السقيفة

Ammar and Huzayfa during the ‘Fitna’ of Al-Saqifa

قلت: أصلحك الله، كيف تردد عمار وحذيفة في أمرهم بعد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله حين رأياهم؟ قال: إنهم أظهروا التوبة والندامة بعد ذلك، وادعى عجلهم منزلة وشهد لهم سامريهم والثلاثة معهم بأنهم سمعوا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يقول ذلك، فقالوا: لعل هذا أمر حدث بعد الأول، فشكا فيمن شك منهم إلا أنهما تابا وعرفا وسلما.

I said, ‘May Allah-azwj Keep you well, how come Ammar and Huzayfa hesitated in their affairs after the Messenger of Allah-saww, when they had both seen them (companions of Al-Uqba)?’ He-ra said, ‘They had both apparently repented, and were remorseful after that. Their calf had made a claim for status and their Samiri had testified to them, and three (people) were with them, that they had heard the Messenger of Allah-saww saying that. So they said, ‘Perhaps this matter happened after the first one. So they doubted with the doubters, except that these two repented and understood, and were safe’.

قال سليم بن قيس: فلقيت عمارا في خلافة عثمان بعد ما مات أبو ذر، فأخبرته بما قال أبو ذر. فقال: صدق أخي أبو ذر، إنه لأبر وأصدق من أن يحدث عن عمار بما لا يسمع منه. فقلت: أصلحك الله، بما تصدق أبا ذر؟ قال: أشهد لقد سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يقول: (ما أظلت الخضراء ولا أقلت الغبراء على ذي لهجة أصدق من أبي ذر ولا أبر). قلت: يا نبي الله، ولا أهل بيتك؟ قال: إنما أعني غيرهم من الناس.

Sulaym Bin Qays said, ‘I met Ammar during the Caliphate of Usman after Abu Dharr-ra had passed away and informed him of what Abu Dharr-ra had said. He said, ‘My brother Abu Dharr-ra spoke the truth. He-ra is more righteous and truthful than to narrate from Ammar what he-ra had not heard from him’. I said, ‘May Allah-azwj Keep you well, you are ratifying Abu Dharr-ra?’ He said, ‘I hereby testify that I have heard the Messenger of Allah-saww say: ‘The sky has not cast a shadow, nor has the dust (ground) carried anyone who is more truthful in his words than Abu Dharr-ra, nor anyone more righteous’. So I (Ammar) said, ‘O Prophet-saww of Allah-azwj, not even the People-asws of your-saww Household?’ He-saww said: ‘What I-saww mean is apart from them-asws, from the (other) people’.

ثم لقيت حذيفة بالمدائن – رحلت إليه من الكوفة – فذكرت له ما قال أبو ذر. فقال: سبحان الله، أبو ذر أصدق وأبر من أن يحدث عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله بغير ما قال.

Then I met Huzayfa at Mada’in – I travelled to him from Al-Kufa – so I mentioned to him what Abu Dharr-ra had said. He said, ‘Glory be to Allah-azwj, Abu Dharr-ra is more truthful and righteous than to narrate something from the Messenger of Allah-saww than anyone else’.[17]

كلام معاذ بن جبل وما رآه عند الموت

Speech of Ma’az bin Jabal-and what he saw at the time of death

عن أبان قال: سمعت سليم بن قيس يقول: سمعت عبد الرحمن بن غنم الأزدي ثم الثمالي ختن معاذ بن جبل – وكانت ابنته تحت معاذ بن جبل – وكان أفقه أهل الشام وأشدهم اجتهادا. قال: مات معاذ بن جبل بالطاعون، فشهدته يوم مات – وكان الناس متشاغلين بالطاعون –

From Abaan who said, ‘I heard Sulaym say, ‘I heard Abdul Rahmaan Bin Ghanam Al-Azdy Al-Thumaly, father-in-law of Ma’az Bin Jabal– and his daughter was under (wife of) Ma’az Bin Jabal – and he was the most learned of the Syrians and the most intense of them in jurisprudence. He said, ‘Ma’az Bin Jabal died by the plague. I was present on the day he died’ – and the people were busy with (protecting themselves from) the plague.

قال: فسمعته حين احتضر وليس في البيت معه غيري – وذلك في خلافة عمر بن الخطاب – يقول: ويل لي ويل لي ويل لي ويل لي فقلت في نفسي: أصحاب الطاعون يهذون ويتكلمون ويقولون الأعاجيب. فقلت له: تهذي رحمك الله؟ فقال: لا. فقلت: فلم تدعو بالويل؟ قال: لموالاتي عدو الله على ولي الله فقلت له: من هو؟ قال: لموالاتي عدو الله عتيقا وعمر على خليفة رسول الله ووصيه علي بن أبي طالب.

He said, ‘I heard him when he was in the agony of death, and there was no one in his house apart from myself – and that was during the Caliphate of Umar Bin Al-Khattab – he said, ‘Woe be unto me, woe be unto me, woe be unto me, woe be unto me’. So I said to myself, ‘Those who are stuck by plague, they rave and speak and say strange things’. I said to him, ‘May Allah‑azwj have Mercy on you, are you delirious?’ He said, ‘No’. I said, ‘So why are you calling for woe?’ He said, ‘Due to my befriending the enemies of Allah-azwj against the friend-asws of Allah-azwj’.

So I said to him, ‘Who is he-asws?’ He said, ‘I befriended the enemies of Allah-azwj Ateeq (Abu Bakr) and Umar against the Caliph of the Rasool Allah-saww, and his-saww successor-asws Ali-asws bin Abu Talib-asws’.

فقلت: إنك لتهجر؟ فقال: يا بن غنم، والله ما أهجر هذا رسول الله وعلي بن أبي طالب يقولان: يا معاذ بن جبل، أبشر بالنار أنت وأصحابك الذين قلتم: (إن مات رسول الله أو قتل زوينا الخلافة عن علي فلن يصل إليها)، أنت وعتيق وعمر وأبو عبيدة وسالم. فقلت: يا معاذ، متى هذا؟ فقال: في حجة الوداع، قلنا: (نتظاهر على علي فلا ينال الخلافة ما حيينا).

I said, ‘Are you out of your mind?’ He said, ‘O Ibn Ghanam, By Allah-azwj, I am not out of my mind, here are the Rasool Allah-saww and Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws both saying: ‘O Ma’az Bin Jabal, receive news of the Fire, you and your companions who said, ‘If the Rasool Allah-saww passes away or is killed, we will keep away the Caliphate from Ali-asws, so we will never let it reach him-asws’, you and Ateeq (Abu Bakr), and Umar, and Abu Ubeyda, and Saalim’. So I said, ‘O Ma’az, when was this?’ He said, ‘During the Farewell Pilgrimage, we said, ‘We will overcome Ali-asws and will not let him-asws take the Caliphate during our lifetime’.

فلما قبض رسول الله قلت لهم: (أنا أكفيكم قومي الأنصار، فاكفوني قريشا). ثم دعوت على عهد رسول الله إلى الذي تعاهدنا عليه بشير بن سعيد وأسيد بن حضير، فبايعاني على ذلك. فقلت: يا معاذ، إنك لتهجر؟ قال: (ضع خدي بالأرض). فما زال يدعو بالويل والثبور حتى قضى.

When the Rasool Allah-saww passed away, I said to them, ‘I am sufficient for my community, the Helpers, so suffice me for the Quraysh’. Then I invited Basheer Bin Saeed, and Aseed Bin Hazeyr during the era of the Rasool Allah-saww to that which we had taken an oath upon against him-asws. So they paid allegiance to me over that’. I said, ‘O Ma’az, are you out of your mind?’ He said, ‘Place my cheek on the ground’. He did not cease calling for woe and the destruction (upon himself) until he died’.

كلام أبي عبيدة بن الجراح وسالم مولى أبي حذيفة عند الموت

Speech of Ubeyda Bin Al-Jarrah and Saalim Mowla Abu Huzayfa at the time of death

قال سليم: قال لي ابن غنم: ما حدثت به أحدا قبلك قط – لا والله غير رجلين، فإني فزعت مما سمعت من معاذ. فحججت فلقيت الذي ولى موت أبي عبيدة بن الجراح وسالم مولى أبي حذيفة، فقلت: أو لم يقتل سالم يوم اليمامة؟ قال: بلى، ولكن احتملناه وبه رمق. قال: فحدثني كل واحد منهما بمثله سواء، لم يزد ولم ينقص أنهما قالا كما قال معاذ.

Sulaym said, ‘Ibn Ghanam said to me, ‘I have not narrated it to anyone before you, at all – by Allah-azwj, not apart from two men, for I was dismayed at what I heard from Ma’az. I went to Pilgrimage, where I met the one who arranged for the funeral of Abu Ubeyda Bin Al-Jarrah and Saalim Mowla Abu Huzayfa. I said, ‘Was not Saalim killed on the Day of Al-Yamama (a battle)?’ He said, ‘Yes, but we carried him and he still had breath left in him’. He narrated to me that each one of them said similar to it, neither more nor less, but rather, just like what Ma’az had said’.

كلام أبي بكر عند الموت

 Speech of Abu Bakr at the time of death

قال أبان: قال سليم: فحدثت بحديث ابن غنم هذا كله محمد بن أبي بكر. فقال: اكتم علي، وأشهد أن أبي عند موته قال مثل مقالتهم، فقالت عائشة: إن أبي ليهجر

Abaan said that Sulaym said, ‘I narrated this narration of Ibn Ghanam, all of it to Muhammad Bin Abu Bakr. He said, ‘Conceal it, and I testify that my father, at the time of his death said similar to what they said. So Ayesha said, ‘Surely my father is out of his mind’.

كلام عمر عند الموت

 Speech of Umar at the time of death

قال محمد: فلقيت عبد الله بن عمر في خلافة عثمان فحدثته بما قال أبي عند موته وأخذت عليه العهد والميثاق ليكتمن علي. فقال لي ابن عمر: اكتم علي، فوالله لقد قال أبي مثل مقالة أبيك ما زاد ولا نقص. ثم تداركها عبد الله بن عمر وتخوف أن أخبر بذلك علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام، لما قد علم من حبي له وانقطاعي إليه، فقال: إنما كان أبي يهجر

Muhammad (Bin Abu Bakr) said, ‘I met Abdullah Bin Umar during the Caliphate of Usman, so I narrated to him what my father had said at the time of his death, and I had taken an oath and a covenant that I would keep it concealed. Ibn Umar said to me, ‘Keep it concealed, for, by Allah-azwj my father had also said similar to what your father said, neither more nor less’. Then Abdullah Ibn Umar rectified it and was fearful that I would inform that to Ali-asws Bin Abu Talib-asws as he knew that I was one of those who loved him-asws and that I cut myself off (from others) to him, so he (abdullah bin Umar) said, ‘My father was out of his mind’.

  توثيق أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام لهذا الحديث

Confirmation of Amir-ul-Momineen-asws of this Hadith

فأتيت أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام فحدثته بما سمعت من أبي وبما حدثنيه ابن عمر عن أبيه، فقال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: قد حدثني بذلك عن أبيه وعن أبيك وعن أبي عبيدة وعن سالم وعن معاذ من هو أصدق منك ومن ابن عمر. فقلت: من هو ذاك يا أمير المؤمنين؟ فقال: بعض من يحدثني. قال: فعلمت من عنى. فقلت: صدقت يا أمير المؤمنين، إنما حسبت إنسانا حدثك، وما شهد أبي – وهو يقول هذا – غيري.

I (Muhammad Bin Abu Bakr) came to Amir-ul-Momineen-asws. So I narrated to him-asws what I had heard from my father and also what Ibn Umar had quoted to me from his father. So Amir-ul-Momineen-asws said: ‘I-asws have been informed by the one who is more truthful than his father, and your father, and Abu Ubeyda, and Saalim, and Ma’az, and you and Ibn Umar’.

I asked, ‘Who is that one, O Amir-ul-Momineen-asws?’ So he-asws said: ‘Someone who narrated it to me-asws (all that which is happening). I understood who he-asws meant by that, so I said, ‘You-asws have spoken the truth, O Amir-ul-Momineen-asws, but I thought that a human being had narrated it to you-asws, and there was no one present with my father – when he was saying this – apart from myself’.

قال سليم: فقلت لعبد الرحمن بن غنم: مات معاذ بالطاعون، فبم مات أبو عبيدة بن الجراح؟ قال: بالدبيلة.

Sulaym said, ‘I said to Abdul Rahmaan Ibn Ghanam, ‘Ma’az died by the plague, so what did Abu Ubeyda die of?’ He said, ‘By empyema (collection of pus in the lungs). (an extract)[18]

[1] Helpers (who offered help to Immigrants of Mecca and embraced them as brothers for the sake of Islam)

[2] See for example, Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 28, The book of Fitna (Strife) And Ordeals, Ch 4 H 13 a (Introduction ref. 7)

[3] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 29, The book of Fitna (Strife) And Ordeals, Ch 15 H 26

[4] Bihar Al Anwaar – V 29, The book of Fitna (Strife) And Ordeals, Ch 9 H 3

[5] See for example: Ghadeer-e-Khum (

[6] See for example, Kitab Sulaym bin Qays Al-Hilali, H 4, Bihar Al Anwaar – V 28, The book of Fitna (Strife) And Ordeals, Ch 3 H 3

[7] Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 28, The book of Fitna (Strife) And Ordeals, Ch 4 H 1

[8] Kitab Sulaym bin Qays Al-Hilali, H 3

[9] The helpers, the inhabitants of Al-Medina were called ‘the Al-Ansaar’ the helpers.

[10] The emigrants, those who took refuge in Medina after embracing Islam.

[11] He was freed by the Messenger of Allah-saww after the conquest of Mecca.

[12] The one who incited children of Israel to worship the calf which he created by his own hands

[13] Nomination

[14] War which took place at the place of Siffeen

[15] War at the place of Nahrwaan

[16] Kitab Sulaym Ibn Qais Al-Hilali, H 25

[17] Kitab Sulaym Ibn Qais Al-Hilali, H. 20

[18] Kitab Sulaym Ibn Qais Al-Hilali, H. 37