Irfan-ul-Haq and the Maurifat-e-Nooraniya

Introduction:

We start our journery of the ‘Irfan-ul- Haq’ and the Maurifat-e-Nooraniya (recognition of the Noor) by quoting a Hadith of Imam Abu Abd Allah-asws:

الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ أَحْمَدَ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ هِلَالٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عُثْمَانُ بْنُ عِيسَى عَنْ خَالِدِ بْنِ نَجِيحٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ بْنِ أَعْيَنَ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع لَا بُدَّ لِلْغُلَامِ مِنْ غَيْبَةٍ قُلْتُ وَ لِمَ قَالَ يَخَافُ وَ أَوْمَأَ بِيَدِهِ إِلَى بَطْنِهِ وَ هُوَ الْمُنْتَظَرُ وَ هُوَ الَّذِي يَشُكُّ النَّاسُ فِي وِلَادَتِهِ فَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَقُولُ حَمْلٌ وَ مِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَقُولُ مَاتَ أَبُوهُ وَ لَمْ يُخَلِّفْ وَ مِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَقُولُ وُلِدَ قَبْلَ مَوْتِ أَبِيهِ بِسَنَتَيْنِ قَالَ زُرَارَةُ فَقُلْتُ وَ مَا تَأْمُرُنِي لَوْ أَدْرَكْتُ ذَلِكَ الزَّمَانَ قَالَ ادْعُ اللَّهَ بِهَذَا الدُّعَاءِ

Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad has narrated from Ahmad ibn lIila1 who has said that ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa narrated to us from Khalid ibn Najih from Zurara ibn A’yan hom abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, who has said:

‘Abu Abd Allah-azwj has said, ‘It will be necessary for the young boy to disappear from public sight.’ I then asked, ‘Why it will be necessary?’ The Imam-asws replied: ‘Because of fear’ (pointing toward his-asws chest).’ He will be the one whose reappearance will be intensely expected. His coming (to this world) be doubted. Certain people will say, ‘His mother was not blessed by him-ajfj.’ Others will say, ‘His-ajfj father-asws died but left no surviving son-asws.’ Certain others will say, ‘He-ajfj his ‘zahoor’[1] took place two years before the death of his-ajfj father-asws.’

I asked the Imam-asws, ‘What do you command me if I were to live at that time?’ The Imam-asws said, ‘Pray to Allah-azwj in the words.

اللَّهُمَّ عَرِّفْنِي نَفْسَكَ فَإِنَّكَ إِنْ لَمْ تُعَرِّفْنِي نَفْسَكَ لَمْ أَعْرِفْكَ اللَّهُمَّ عَرِّفْنِي نَبِيَّكَ فَإِنَّكَ إِنْ لَمْ تُعَرِّفْنِي نَبِيَّكَ لَمْ أَعْرِفْهُ قَطُّ اللَّهُمَّ عَرِّفْنِي حُجَّتَكَ فَإِنَّكَ إِنْ لَمْ تُعَرِّفْنِي حُجَّتَكَ ضَلَلْتُ عَنْ دِينِي

‘O Lord, Make me recognise You-azwj; if You do not Make me recognise You-azwj, I will not recognise You-azwj. O Lord-azwj, Make me recognise Your Rasool-saww; if You-azwj do not Make me recognise Your Rasool-saww I will never recognise him-saww. O Lord-azwj, Make me recognise the one who possesses Your-azwj Authority over the creatures; if You-azwj do not make me recognise him-ajfj I will stray away from my religion.

قَالَ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ الْهِلَالِ سَمِعْتُ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ مُنْذُ سِتٍّ وَ خَمْسِينَ سَنَةً

Ahmad ibn Hilal has said, ‘I had heard this Hadith fifty-six years ago.’[2]

In the rest of the article, we will learn from the Divine Instructions of Masomeen-asws how one can become a spiritually better person, based on the approach given by the Masomeen-asws in obtaining ‘Irfan and Maurifat’.  The process of meditation through man-made techniques, no doubt would generate some qualities within a person, or even some powers[3], which are enough to impress general public.  However, this would only reap the worldly benefits, as one would not be able to control imbalanced and superficial sense of superiority and will eventually fall into the trap of the Iblis..

There are several well-known examples on exhibiting such powers by, even some of the unbelievers, i.e., Samri putting together a golden calf and enabling it to speak by making use of the dirt underneath the feet of Jibrail-as[4] and a non-believer who used to supplicate for the rain in the time of the Imam Zain-ul-Abadeen-asws and it would always rain because of his supplications, pleading to Allah-azwj through the bones of a deceased Prophet-as[5].  Here we have selected a relatively unknown example from Mullah Mohammed Baqir Majelisi’s book ‘Ainual Hiyat’:

It has been reported by Majelisi, from reliable narrators that once a famous and well renowned fortune-teller visited Amir-ul-Momineen-asws and said: ‘I am an astrologist and I have heard that you-asws too have knowledge about the unforeseen.  I want to ask a few questions from you-asws or you-asws may ask me instead.  Amir-ul-Momineen-asws said: ‘The knowledge of unseen is with Allah-azwj and no one knows about it and I know only that much which He-azwj has Transmitted to me.  However, if you claim to have such knowledge then tell me what I have hidden in my fist?  After wondering for a long time (without being able to answer) and at that Imam-asws asked:  Can you tell or not?  He said: ‘It’s a small thing but I am wondering how did you get an egg of a bird, from the top of a mountain, which is so high and impossible to reach?

Imam-asws opened his fist and it turned out to be an egg.  Imam-asws closed his fist again and asked now tell me what do I have in my fist?  He said: ‘The egg, which was taken out of that nest of the bird, has been placed back there and your fist is empty.  Imam-asws opened his hand and there was nothing in it.

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws: ‘If now I ask a question from you will you give me an honest reply?

Fortune-teller: ‘Yes, I promise you.

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws: How did you get this knowledge?

Fortune-teller: I would not have replied to this question but I will, since I have given you my words.  This excellence is due to my hard work, which is based on the principle that whatever my heart tells me, I always act against it.

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws: What does your heart says about you becoming Muslim?

Fortune-teller: My heart dislikes it.

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws: Why don’t you then act against it?

The fortune-teller was surprised to hear this and embraced Islam.

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws: Tell me now what is in my fist?

After deep thinking and struggling, he admitted he could not guess and said: ‘I have lost my excellence after embracing Islam.

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws: Instead of saying, I have lost my excellence; say I have benefited from Islam.  Your quality of denying desires and acting against attractions which had given you worldly benefits, will now benefit your Hereafter, and raise your Heavenly status, which I guarantee for you’.[6]

One can, after exerting some efforts (performing a ‘Chillah’ (40 days) can attain some charismatic qualities, such as, to earn some fake respect by impressing some simple-minded people, to achieve a large followership and to accumulate enormous wealth but are these of any use for the Hereafter?  Certainly not as per the above Hadith and will end up spoiling one’s Hereafter as well as of all those who have followed him.

We first start with some of those concepts, which are based on the Holy Book, and have fascinated its recitors, some muslims without understanding the meanings of those Verses have gone astray by trying to gain ‘higher spiritual levels’ which were not meant to be reachable by the fallible ones .  For example, in a well-narrated and famous myth about ‘Bu Ali Shah Qalandar’[7] who after standing in water for 36 years asked from Allah-azwj to award him the status of Ali-asws (nouzobillah)…..but he could only get the fragrance of Ali-asws (as a compromise), a total unrealistic and fabricated account, as anyone with even little ‘Maurifat’ of the Divine Status of Ali-asws will never dare to make such a request to Allah-azwj.  Masomeen-asws are the First Noor which Allah-azwj Created from His-azwj Al-Noor whereas we were created from the clay. Let’s review and try to understand the meanings of the ‘Al-Noor’ which has been widely misinterpreted and a wrong message has been conveyed from one generation to the next, in forms of myths.

The Noor[8] and the Hikema:

There are certain phrases and words in Holy Quran; such as ‘Noor’ and ‘Hikema’, which have been misunderstood by many Muslims for centuries and have been the focus of ‘mysticism’ (spirituality). When inferred without the aid of the Ahadith, some of the Quranic Verses become unexplainable and this leads to speculation – the source of mysticism and the mystical elements for centuries. For example, the following Verses have been viewed, by the mystics and philosopher-mystics of Islam as allegorical and esoteric hints, each group, through their own devised methodologies have focused their attention to achieve the ‘high-level status’ through subjecting themselves to various forms of ‘spiritual purification’.

The First Verse:

هُوَ الْأَوَّلُ وَالْآخِرُ وَالظَّاهِرُ وَالْبَاطِنُ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ (57:3)

He is the First and the Last, and the Outward and the Inward; and He is Knower of all things (57:3).

Hadith:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ صَالِحِ بْنِ أَبِي حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ اسْمُهُ وَ تَعَالَى ذِكْرُهُ وَ جَلَّ ثَنَاؤُهُ سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَقَدَّسَ وَ تَفَرَّدَ وَ تَوَحَّدَ وَ لَمْ يَزَلْ وَ لَا يَزَالُ وَ هُوَ الْأَوَّلُ وَ الْآخِرُ وَ الظَّاهِرُ وَ الْبَاطِنُ فَلَا أَوَّلَ لِأَوَّلِيَّتِهِ رَفِيعاً فِي أَعْلَى عُلُوِّهِ شَامِخُ الْأَرْكَانِ رَفِيعُ الْبُنْيَانِ عَظِيمُ السُّلْطَانِ مُنِيفُ الْآلَاءِ سَنِيُّ الْعَلْيَاءِ الَّذِي عَجَزَ الْوَاصِفُونَ عَنْ كُنْهِ صِفَتِهِ وَ لَا يُطِيقُونَ حَمْلَ مَعْرِفَةِ إِلَهِيَّتِهِ وَ لَا يَحُدُّونَ حُدُودَهُ لِأَنَّهُ بِالْكَيْفِيَّةِ لَا يُتَنَاهَى إِلَيْهِ

Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Salih ibn Hammad from al-Hussain ibn Yazid from al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn abu Hamza from Ibrahim who has the narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

Abu Abd Allah-asws said: ‘Allah-azwj, Most Holy is His-azwj Name, the Most High is His-azwj Praise and the Most Glorious are His-azwj Attributes. He-azwj is the Most Sacred, the Most Holy, the only One in oneness.

He is Eternal the First, and the Last, the Manifest and the Hidden. There is no beginning for Him-azwj. He-azwj is the most exalted in His-azwj highness. He-azwj is the Highest in Power, Exalted in Authority, of greatest kingdom, the most bountiful and His highness is the most High. He-azwj is the One-azwj Whom no one can completely Praise or know His-azwj Lordship completely. No one is able to limit Him-azwj; it is not possible to reach His reality with qualities’.[9]

The Second Verse:

يُؤتِي الْحِكْمَةَ مَن يَشَاء وَمَن يُؤْتَ الْحِكْمَةَ فَقَدْ أُوتِيَ خَيْرًا كَثِيرًا وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلاَّ أُوْلُواْ الأَلْبَابِ (2:269)

He grants wisdom to whom He pleases, and whoever is granted wisdom, he indeed is given a great good and none but men of understanding mind.

Ahadith:

َ يَا هِشَامُ ثُمَّ ذَكَرَ أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ بِأَحْسَنِ الذِّكْرِ وَ حَلَّاهُمْ بِأَحْسَنِ الْحِلْيَةِ فَقَالَ يُؤْتِي الْحِكْمَةَ مَنْ يَشاءُ وَ مَنْ يُؤْتَ الْحِكْمَةَ فَقَدْ أُوتِيَ خَيْراً كَثِيراً وَ ما يَذَّكَّرُ إِلَّا أُولُوا الْأَلْبابِ وَ قَالَ وَ الرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ يَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِهِ كُلٌّ مِنْ عِنْدِ رَبِّنا وَ ما يَذَّكَّرُ إِلَّا أُولُوا الْأَلْبابِ وَ قَالَ إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّماواتِ وَ الْأَرْضِ وَ اخْتِلافِ اللَّيْلِ وَ النَّهارِ لَآياتٍ لِأُولِي الْأَلْبابِ وَ قَالَ أَ فَمَنْ يَعْلَمُ أَنَّما

أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ الْحَقُّ كَمَنْ هُوَ أَعْمى‏ إِنَّما يَتَذَكَّرُ أُولُوا الْأَلْبابِ وَ قَالَ أَمَّنْ هُوَ قانِتٌ آناءَ اللَّيْلِ ساجِداً وَ قائِماً يَحْذَرُ الْآخِرَةَ وَ يَرْجُوا رَحْمَةَ رَبِّهِ قُلْ هَلْ يَسْتَوِي الَّذِينَ يَعْلَمُونَ وَ الَّذِينَ لا يَعْلَمُونَ إِنَّما يَتَذَكَّرُ أُولُوا الْأَلْبابِ وَ قَالَ كِتابٌ أَنْزَلْناهُ إِلَيْكَ مُبارَكٌ لِيَدَّبَّرُوا آياتِهِ وَ لِيَتَذَكَّرَ أُولُوا الْأَلْبابِ وَ قَالَ وَ لَقَدْ آتَيْنا مُوسَى الْهُدى‏ وَ أَوْرَثْنا بَنِي إِسْرائِيلَ الْكِتابَ هُدىً وَ ذِكْرى‏ لِأُولِي الْأَلْبابِ وَ قَالَ وَ ذَكِّرْ فَإِنَّ الذِّكْرى‏ تَنْفَعُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَا هِشَامُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى يَقُولُ فِي كِتَابِهِ إِنَّ فِي ذلِكَ لَذِكْرى‏ لِمَنْ كانَ لَهُ قَلْبٌ يَعْنِي عَقْلٌ وَ قَالَ وَ لَقَدْ آتَيْنا لُقْمانَ الْحِكْمَةَ قَالَ الْفَهْمَ وَ الْعَقْلَ يَا هِشَامُ إِنَّ لُقْمَانَ قَالَ لِابْنِهِ تَوَاضَعْ لِلْحَقِّ تَكُنْ أَعْقَلَ النَّاسِ وَ إِنَّ الْكَيِّسَ لَدَى الْحَقِّ يَسِيرٌ يَا بُنَيَّ إِنَّ الدُّنْيَا بَحْرٌ عَمِيقٌ قَدْ غَرِقَ فِيهَا عَالَمٌ كَثِيرٌ فَلْتَكُنْ سَفِينَتُكَ فِيهَا تَقْوَى اللَّهِ وَ حَشْوُهَا الْإِيمَانَ وَ شِرَاعُهَا التَّوَكُّلَ وَ قَيِّمُهَا الْعَقْلَ وَ دَلِيلُهَا الْعِلْمَ وَ سُكَّانُهَا الصَّبْرَ يَا هِشَامُ إِنَّ لِكُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ دَلِيلًا وَ دَلِيلُ الْعَقْلِ التَّفَكُّرُ وَ دَلِيلُ التَّفَكُّرِ الصَّمْتُ وَ لِكُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ مَطِيَّةً وَ مَطِيَّةُ الْعَقْلِ التَّوَاضُعُ وَ كَفَى بِكَ جَهْلًا أَنْ تَرْكَبَ مَا نُهِيْتَ عَنْهُ يَا هِشَامُ مَا بَعَثَ اللَّهُ أَنْبِيَاءَهُ وَ رُسُلَهُ إِلَى عِبَادِهِ إِلَّا لِيَعْقِلُوا عَنِ اللَّهِ فَأَحْسَنُهُمُ اسْتِجَابَةً أَحْسَنُهُمْ مَعْرِفَةً وَ أَعْلَمُهُمْ بِأَمْرِ اللَّهِ أَحْسَنُهُمْ عَقْلًا وَ أَكْمَلُهُمْ عَقْلًا أَرْفَعُهُمْ دَرَجَةً فِي الدُّنْيَا وَ الْآخِرَةِ يَا هِشَامُ إِنَّ لِلَّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حُجَّتَيْنِ حُجَّةً ظَاهِرَةً وَ حُجَّةً بَاطِنَةً فَأَمَّا الظَّاهِرَةُ فَالرُّسُلُ وَ الْأَنْبِيَاءُ وَ الْأَئِمَّةُ ع وَ أَمَّا الْبَاطِنَةُ فَالْعُقُولُ يَا هِشَامُ إِنَّ الْعَاقِلَ الَّذِي لَا يَشْغَلُ الْحَلَالُ شُكْرَهُ وَ لَا يَغْلِبُ الْحَرَامُ صَبْرَهُ

Imam said-asws: ‘O Hisham, Allah-azwj has then Mentioned the people of Intelligence in the best manners with the best of characteristics saying, Allah gives wisdom to whoever He wants. Whoever is given wisdom, has, certainly, received much good. Only people of Intelligence can grasp this.’ (2:269)

‘ … Those who have a firm grounding in knowledge say, ‘We believe in it. All its verses are from our Lord.’ No one can grasp this fact except the people of Intelligence.’ (3:7)

‘The creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the day and the night are evidence (of the existence of Allah) for people of Intelligence.’ (3: 190) Can a person who knows that what is revealed to you from your Lord is the Truth, be considered equal to a blind person? Only those who have understanding take heed.’ (13: 19). ‘Can this one be considered equal to one who worships Allah during the night, prostrating and standing, who has fear of the Day of Judgement and who has hope in the mercy of his Lord?’ Say, ‘Are those who know equal to those who do not know?’ Only the people of lntelligence take heed:’ (39:9) ‘It is a blessed Book which We have revealed for you so that they will reflect upon its verses and the people of understanding will take heed.’ (38:29)….[10]

الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَسْبَاطٍ قَالَ رَأَيْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ ع وَ قَدْ خَرَجَ عَلَيَّ فَأَخَذْتُ النَّظَرَ إِلَيْهِ وَ جَعَلْتُ أَنْظُرُ إِلَى رَأْسِهِ وَ رِجْلَيْهِ لِأَصِفَ قَامَتَهُ لِأَصْحَابِنَا بِمِصْرَ فَبَيْنَا أَنَا كَذَلِكَ حَتَّى قَعَدَ فَقَالَ يَا عَلِيُّ إِنَّ اللَّهَ احْتَجَّ فِي الْإِمَامَةِ بِمِثْلِ مَا احْتَجَّ بِهِ فِي النُّبُوَّةِ فَقَالَ وَ آتَيْناهُ الْحُكْمَ صَبِيًّا وَ لَمَّا بَلَغَ أَشُدَّهُ وَ بَلَغَ أَرْبَعِينَ سَنَةً فَقَدْ يَجُوزُ أَنْ يُؤْتَى الْحِكْمَةَ وَ هُوَ صَبِيٌّ وَ يَجُوزُ أَنْ يُؤْتَاهَا وَ هُوَ ابْنُ أَرْبَعِينَ سَنَةً

Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mualla ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn Asbat who said:

‘Once I saw Abu Ja’far-asws who had come out to me and I began to look at him from head to toe so I could describe him to our people in Egypt. I was looking until he-asws sat down and said, ‘O Ali, Allah-azwj has Supported His-azwj Argument against the people in the case of Imamat[11] just as He-azwj has Done so in the case of the Prophets-as. He-azwj has Said: ‘We gave authority to him (John) over the people during his childhood. (19: 12) When he attained maturity, and was 40 years old,  Allah-azwj Gave him strength, wisdom and knowledge. Thus, do We reward those who do good.’ (12:22) ‘When he grew up to manhood and became forty years old .. .’ (46:15) It may come to pass, ‘الْحِكْمَةَ’ wisdom is given to a Prophet-as when he-as is just a child or when he is forty-year old.’[12]

The Third Verse:

اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ مَثَلُ نُورِهِ كَمِشْكَاةٍ فِيهَا مِصْبَاحٌ الْمِصْبَاحُ فِي زُجَاجَةٍ الزُّجَاجَةُ كَأَنَّهَا كَوْكَبٌ دُرِّيٌّ يُوقَدُ مِن شَجَرَةٍ مُّبَارَكَةٍ زَيْتُونِةٍ لَّا شَرْقِيَّةٍ وَلَا غَرْبِيَّةٍ يَكَادُ زَيْتُهَا يُضِيءُ وَلَوْ لَمْ تَمْسَسْهُ نَارٌ نُّورٌ عَلَى نُورٍ يَهْدِي اللَّهُ لِنُورِهِ مَن يَشَاء وَيَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الْأَمْثَالَ لِلنَّاسِ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ(24:35)

Allah is the Noor of the heavens and the earth; a likeness of His Noor is as a niche in which is a lamp, the lamp is in a glass, (and) the glass is as it were a brightly shining star, lit from a blessed olive-tree, neither eastern nor western, the oil whereof almost gives Noor though fire touch it not– Noor upon Noor– Allah guides to His Noor whom He pleases, and Allah sets forth parables for men, and Allah is Cognizant of all things (24:35).

Ahadith:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ شَمُّونٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الْأَصَمِّ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ عَنْ صَالِحِ بْنِ سَهْلٍ الْهَمْدَانِيِّ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع فِي قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّماواتِ وَ الْأَرْضِ مَثَلُ نُورِهِ كَمِشْكاةٍ فَاطِمَةُ ع فِيها مِصْباحٌ الْحَسَنُ الْمِصْباحُ فِي زُجاجَةٍ الْحُسَيْنُ الزُّجاجَةُ كَأَنَّها كَوْكَبٌ دُرِّيٌّ فَاطِمَةُ كَوْكَبٌ دُرِّيٌّ بَيْنَ نِسَاءِ أَهْلِ الدُّنْيَا يُوقَدُ مِنْ شَجَرَةٍ مُبارَكَةٍ إِبْرَاهِيمُ ع زَيْتُونَةٍ لا شَرْقِيَّةٍ وَ لا غَرْبِيَّةٍ لَا يَهُودِيَّةٍ وَ لَا نَصْرَانِيَّةٍ يَكادُ زَيْتُها يُضِي‏ءُ يَكَادُ الْعِلْمُ يَنْفَجِرُ بِهَا وَ لَوْ لَمْ تَمْسَسْهُ نارٌ نُورٌ عَلى‏ نُورٍ إِمَامٌ مِنْهَا بَعْدَ إِمَامٍ يَهْدِي اللَّهُ لِنُورِهِ مَنْ يَشاءُ يَهْدِي اللَّهُ لِلْأَئِمَّةِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَ يَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الْأَمْثالَ لِلنَّاسِ قُلْتُ أَوْ كَظُلُماتٍ قَالَ الْأَوَّلُ وَ صَاحِبُهُ يَغْشاهُ مَوْجٌ الثَّالِثُ مِنْ فَوْقِهِ مَوْجٌ ظُلُمَاتٌ الثَّانِي بَعْضُها فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ مُعَاوِيَةُ وَ فِتَنُ بَنِي أُمَيَّةَ إِذا أَخْرَجَ يَدَهُ الْمُؤْمِنُ فِي ظُلْمَةِ فِتْنَتِهِمْ لَمْ يَكَدْ يَراها وَ مَنْ لَمْ يَجْعَلِ اللَّهُ لَهُ نُوراً إِمَاماً مِنْ وُلْدِ فَاطِمَةَ ع فَما لَهُ مِنْ نُورٍ إِمَامٍ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَ قَالَ فِي قَوْلِهِ يَسْعى‏ نُورُهُمْ بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَ بِأَيْمانِهِمْ أَئِمَّةُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ تَسْعَى بَيْنَ يَدَيِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ بِأَيْمَانِهِمْ حَتَّى يُنْزِلُوهُمْ مَنَازِلَ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ

Ali ibn Muhammad and Muhammad ibn al-Hassan have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Muhammad ibn al-Hassan ibn Shammun from ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Asamma from ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Qasim from Salih ibn Sahl al-Hamadani who said:

‘Abu Abd Allah-asws has said the following about the statement of Allah-azwj ‘Allah is the Noor of the heavens and the earth. A metaphor for His Noor is a lantern in which there is a lamp placed in a glass. The glass is like a shining star, which is lit from a blessed olive tree that is neither eastern nor western. Its oil almost lights up even though the fire has not touched it. It is Noor upon Noor. Allah guides to His Noor whomever He wants. Allah uses various metaphors. He has the knowledge of all things.’ (24:35)

The Imam-asws said: ‘Lantern’ metaphorically stands for the Holy lady, Fatimah-asws, the ‘Lamp’ stands for Imam al-Hassan-asws, and ‘the glass’ stands for Imam al-Husayn-asws ‘The shining star’ stands for the Holy lady Fatimah-asws who shines among the ladies of the all worlds. ‘The blessed olive tree’ stands for Prophet Abraham-as. ‘Neither eastern nor western’ means neither Jewish nor Christian. The expression: ‘Its oil almost lights up’ means that it almost bursts up with knowledge.

‘Noor upon Noor’ means that there will be one Imam-asws after the other Imam-asws ‘Allah-azwj Guides to His-azwj Noor whoever He wants’ means that Allah-azwj Guides through the ‘A’immah-asws whoever He-azwj Likes.’ About the expression ‘Allah-azwj Uses various metaphors’ I then recited the following verse of the Holy Quran: ‘Or they (the deeds of the unbelievers) are like the darkness of a deep, stormy sea with layers of giant waves, covered by dark clouds. It is darkness upon darkness whereby even if one stretches out his hands he cannot see them. One can have no Noor unless Allah gives him Noor.’ (24:40)

‘The Imam-asws said: ‘The word ‘Darkness’ refers to the first and his friend[13], the expression ‘With layers of giant waves’ refers to the third, and the expression ‘Covered with darkness’ refers to the second. The words ‘It is darkness upon darkness’ refer to Muawiya (may Allah condemn him) and the disasters caused by the Ummavidis. The phrase ‘Even if one stretches out his hands’ means that even if a true believer stretches out his hands in such disastrous condition ‘he cannot see them (cannot find the truth as it has been made so obscure by them).’

The statement ‘One can have no ‘Noor’ unless Allah-azwj Gives him ‘Noor’ stands for the ‘Noor’ from the children of the Holy lady, Fatimah-asws. There will be no ‘Noor’ on the Day of Judgement for him except (for those who are with) an Imam-asws.  The Imam-asws said that, ‘On the Day of Judgement you will see the believers with their Noor shining in front of them and to their right. They will be told, ‘Paradise wherein streams flow is the glad news for you today. You will live therein forever. This is the greatest triumph. ‘ (57: 12) The phrase ‘The shining Noor in front … ‘ is a reference to the Imam-asws who will walk in front and on the right of the true believers until they all enter Paradise’.[14]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ الْبَجَلِيِّ وَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنِ الْعَمْرَكِيِّ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ جَمِيعاً عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ عَنْ أَخِيهِ مُوسَى ع مِثْلَهُ

Ali ibn Muhammad and Muhammad ibn al-Hassan have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Musa ibn al-Qasim al-Bajali and Muhammad ibn Yahya from al-‘Amrakiy ibn Ali altogether from Ali ibn Ja’far-asws from his brother a similar Hadith.

عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ يَعْقُوبَ بْنِ يَزِيدَ عَنِ الْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ هِلَالٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ الرِّضَا ع عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّماواتِ وَ الْأَرْضِ فَقَالَ هَادٍ لِأَهْلِ السَّمَاءِ وَ هَادٍ لِأَهْلِ الْأَرْضِ وَ فِي رِوَايَةِ الْبَرْقِيِّ هُدَى مَنْ فِي السَّمَاءِ وَ هُدَى مَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ

Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ya’qub ibn Yazid from al-Abbass ibn Hilal who said:

‘Once I asked Imam Al-Reza-asws about the meaning of the words of Allah-azwj, ‘Allah is the Noor of the heavens and the earth.’ (24:35). The Imam-asws replied: ‘Allah-azwj is the Guide for all that is in the Heavens and the Guide for all that is on the Earth.’ According to another Hadith that al-Barqi has narrated (the Imam-asws said): ‘Allah has Guided everyone in the heavens and everyone on the earth’.[15]

Masomeen-asws are the ‘Noor’ Allah-azwj:

الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مِرْدَاسٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا صَفْوَانُ بْنُ يَحْيَى وَ الْحَسَنُ بْنُ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ عَنْ أَبِي خَالِدٍ الْكَابُلِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ ع عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَ رَسُولِهِ وَ النُّورِ الَّذِي أَنْزَلْنا فَقَالَ يَا أَبَا خَالِدٍ النُّورُ وَ اللَّهِ الْأَئِمَّةُ مِنْ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ ص إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَ هُمْ وَ اللَّهِ نُورُ اللَّهِ الَّذِي أَنْزَلَ وَ هُمْ وَ اللَّهِ نُورُ اللَّهِ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَ اللَّهِ يَا أَبَا خَالِدٍ لَنُورُ الْإِمَامِ فِي قُلُوبِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنْوَرُ مِنَ الشَّمْسِ الْمُضِيئَةِ بِالنَّهَارِ وَ هُمْ وَ اللَّهِ يُنَوِّرُونَ قُلُوبَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ يَحْجُبُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ نُورَهُمْ عَمَّنْ يَشَاءُ فَتُظْلَمُ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَ اللَّهِ يَا أَبَا خَالِدٍ لَا يُحِبُّنَا عَبْدٌ وَ يَتَوَلَّانَا حَتَّى يُطَهِّرَ اللَّهُ قَلْبَهُ وَ لَا يُطَهِّرُ اللَّهُ قَلْبَ عَبْدٍ حَتَّى يُسَلِّمَ لَنَا وَ يَكُونَ سِلْماً لَنَا فَإِذَا كَانَ سِلْماً لَنَا سَلَّمَهُ اللَّهُ مِنْ شَدِيدِ الْحِسَابِ وَ آمَنَهُ مِنْ فَزَعِ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ الْأَكْبَرِ

Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mualla ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn Mirdas who has said that Safwan ibn Yahya and al-Hassan ibn Mahbub have narrated from abu Ayyub from abu Khalid al-Kabuli who said:

‘I asked (Imam) Abu Ja’far-asws about the meaning of the words of Allah-azwj: ‘Those who believe in Allah and His messenger and follow the Noor which is sent down …. ‘ (64:8) ‘The Imam-asws said: ‘O abu Khalid, I swear by Allah-azwj, it is ‘A’immah-asws from the family of the Holy Prophet-saww up to the Day of Judgement who are called Noor in the above verse. They, I-asws swear by Allah-asws, are the Noor of Allah-azwj whom He-azwj sent down. It is they-asws, I swear by Allah-azwj, who are the Noor of Allah-azwj in the heavens and in the earth. O Abu Khalid, I-asws swear by Allah-azwj, that the Noor of Imam-asws in the hearts of the true believers is brighter than the light of the sun in the midday.

They-asws, I-asws swear by Allah-azwj, give Noor to the hearts of the true believers and Allah-azwj may Block such Noor from reaching the hearts of whomever He-azwj may Will, thus their hearts remain dark. O Abu Khalid, no one believes in our Divine Authority except that unless Allah-azwj Cleanses his heart. Allah-azwj will not Cleanse the heart of a person until he or she will acknowledge our-asws Divine Authority and submits to us-asws. When one submits to us-asws Allah-azwj will Safeguard him against the severity of the Day of Reckoning and Grant him security against the great horror on the Day of Judgement’.[16]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بِإِسْنَادِهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع فِي قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الرَّسُولَ النَّبِيَّ الْأُمِّيَّ الَّذِي يَجِدُونَهُ مَكْتُوباً عِنْدَهُمْ فِي التَّوْراةِ وَ الْإِنْجِيلِ يَأْمُرُهُمْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَ يَنْهاهُمْ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَ يُحِلُّ لَهُمُ الطَّيِّباتِ وَ يُحَرِّمُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْخَبائِثَ إِلَى قَوْلِهِ وَ اتَّبَعُوا النُّورَ الَّذِي أُنْزِلَ مَعَهُ أُولئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ قَالَ النُّورُ فِي هَذَا الْمَوْضِعِ عَلِيٌّ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ الْأَئِمَّةُ ع

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated through his chain of narrators the following:

Abu Abd Allah-asws has said the following about the words of Allah-azwj: ‘There are those who follow the Messenger, the ‘Ummi’[17] Prophet-saww, whose description they find written in the Torah and the Gospel. He-saww enjoins them to do good and forbids them to do all that is unlawful, makes lawful for them all that is pure and makes unlawful all that is filthy, removes their burdens and the entanglements in which they are involved. Those who believe in him, honour and help him, and follow the ‘Noor’ which is sent down to him, will have everlasting happiness.’ (7: 157). The Imam-asws said: ‘It is Ali-asws (Amir-ul-Momineen-asws), and ‘A’immah-asws after him-asws who are called ‘Noor’ in the above Verse of the Holy Quran’.[18]

أَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنْ ثَعْلَبَةَ بْنِ مَيْمُونٍ عَنْ أَبِي الْجَارُودِ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع لَقَدْ آتَى اللَّهُ أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ خَيْراً كَثِيراً قَالَ وَ مَا ذَاكَ قُلْتُ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى الَّذِينَ آتَيْناهُمُ الْكِتابَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ هُمْ بِهِ يُؤْمِنُونَ إِلَى قَوْلِهِ أُولئِكَ يُؤْتَوْنَ أَجْرَهُمْ مَرَّتَيْنِ بِما صَبَرُوا قَالَ فَقَالَ قَدْ آتَاكُمُ اللَّهُ كَمَا آتَاهُمْ ثُمَّ تَلَا يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَ آمِنُوا بِرَسُولِهِ‏ يُؤْتِكُمْ كِفْلَيْنِ مِنْ رَحْمَتِهِ وَ يَجْعَلْ لَكُمْ نُوراً تَمْشُونَ بِهِ يَعْنِي إِمَاماً تَأْتَمُّونَ بِهِ

Ahmad ibn ldris has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from ibn Fadala from Tha’Iaba ibn Maymun from abu al-Jarud who said:

‘Once I said to Abu Ja’far-asws: Allah-azwj has given a great deal of good to the people of the heavenly books.’ The Imam-asws then asked: ‘What is it?’ I then said it is said in the words of Allah: ‘Of those to whom We have given the book before him (Prophet Muhammad) they believe in him … These will receive double reward for their forbearance …. ‘ (28:54) ‘ The Imam-asws said: ‘Allah-azwj has Given you also a great deal of good as He-azwj has Given to them,’ and he-asws recited, ‘Believers, have fear of Allah and believe in His Messenger. Allah will grant you a double share of mercy, a Noor by which you can walk … ‘ (57:28) The ‘Noor’ mentioned in this verse stands for the Imam-asws whom you follow’.[19]

أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مِهْرَانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْعَظِيمِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الْحَسَنِيِّ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَسْبَاطٍ وَ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ عَنْ أَبِي خَالِدٍ الْكَابُلِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ ع عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَ رَسُولِهِ وَ النُّورِ الَّذِي أَنْزَلْنا فَقَالَ يَا أَبَا خَالِدٍ النُّورُ وَ اللَّهِ الْأَئِمَّةُ ع يَا أَبَا خَالِدٍ لَنُورُ الْإِمَامِ فِي قُلُوبِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنْوَرُ مِنَ الشَّمْسِ الْمُضِيئَةِ بِالنَّهَارِ وَ هُمُ الَّذِينَ يُنَوِّرُونَ قُلُوبَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ يَحْجُبُ اللَّهُ نُورَهُمْ عَمَّنْ يَشَاءُ فَتُظْلَمُ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَ يَغْشَاهُمْ بِهَا

Ahmad ibn Mihran has narrated from Abd al-’Azim ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Hassani from Ali ibn Asbat and al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Abu Ayyub from Abu Khalid Al-Kabuli who said:

‘Once I asked Abu Ja’far-asws about the meaning of the words of Allah-azwj in the following Verse of the Holy Quran. ‘Those who believe in Allah and His messenger and follow the Noor which is sent down …. ‘ (64:8) The Imam-asws said: ‘O Abu Khalid, the ‘Noor’ in this Verse, I say by Allah-azwj, stands for ‘A’immah-asws.

O Abu Khalid the Noor of the Imam-asws in the hearts of the true believers is brighter than the Noor of the sun in midday. It is they who brighten the hearts of the true believers, and Allah-azwj withholds their-asws Noor from reaching whomever He-azwj Wills not to reach, thus their hearts become dark and Allah-azwj Covers them with darkness’.[20]

أَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ وَ مُوسَى بْنِ عُمَرَ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْفُضَيْلِ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ ع قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى يُرِيدُونَ لِيُطْفِؤُا نُورَ اللَّهِ بِأَفْواهِهِمْ قَالَ يُرِيدُونَ لِيُطْفِئُوا وَلَايَةَ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ قُلْتُ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى وَ اللَّهُ مُتِمُّ نُورِهِ قَالَ يَقُولُ وَ اللَّهُ مُتِمُّ الْإِمَامَةِ وَ الْإِمَامَةُ هِيَ النُّورُ وَ ذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَ رَسُولِهِ وَ النُّورِ الَّذِي أَنْزَلْنا قَالَ النُّورُ هُوَ الْإِمَامُ

Ahmad ibn ldris has narrated from al-Husayn ibn ‘Ubayd Allah from Muhammad ibn al-Hassan and Musa ibn ‘Umar from aI-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Muhammad ibn al-Fudayl who said:

‘Once I asked Abu Al-Hassan-asws about the meaning of the words of Allah-azwj in the following verse of the Holy Quran. ‘They want to put out the Noor of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will certainly make His Noor shine forever, even though the unbelievers may dislike this.’ (61:8)

The Imam-asws said: ‘They want to put out the Divine Authority of Amir-ul-Momineen-asws with their mouths. However, the expression ‘Allah completes His ‘Noor’ stands for the Imam-azwj as mentioned in the following verse ‘Those who believe in Allah, His messenger and follow the Noor which is sent down (64:8). The ‘Noor’ stands for Imam-azwj’.[21]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْعَبَّاسِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حَمَّادٍ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شِمْرٍ عَنْ جَابِرٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع فِي قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ مَنْ يَقْتَرِفْ حَسَنَةً نَزِدْ لَهُ فِيها حُسْناً قَالَ مَنْ تَوَلَّى الْأَوْصِيَاءَ مِنْ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ اتَّبَعَ آثَارَهُمْ فَذَاكَ يَزِيدُهُ وَلَايَةَ مَنْ مَضَى مِنَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الْأَوَّلِينَ حَتَّى تَصِلَ وَلَايَتُهُمْ إِلَى آدَمَ ع وَ هُوَ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ مَنْ جاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ خَيْرٌ مِنْها يُدْخِلُهُ الْجَنَّةَ وَ هُوَ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ قُلْ ما سَأَلْتُكُمْ مِنْ أَجْرٍ فَهُوَ لَكُمْ يَقُولُ أَجْرُ الْمَوَدَّةِ الَّذِي لَمْ أَسْأَلْكُمْ غَيْرَهُ فَهُوَ لَكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ بِهِ وَ تَنْجُونَ مِنْ عَذَابِ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَ قَالَ لِأَعْدَاءِ اللَّهِ أَوْلِيَاءِ الشَّيْطَانِ أَهْلِ التَّكْذِيبِ وَ الْإِنْكَارِ قُلْ ما أَسْئَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ أَجْرٍ وَ ما أَنَا مِنَ الْمُتَكَلِّفِينَ يَقُولُ مُتَكَلِّفاً أَنْ أَسْأَلَكُمْ مَا لَسْتُمْ بِأَهْلِهِ فَقَالَ الْمُنَافِقُونَ عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ أَ مَا يَكْفِي مُحَمَّداً أَنْ يَكُونَ قَهَرَنَا عِشْرِينَ سَنَةً حَتَّى يُرِيدُ أَنْ يُحَمِّلَ أَهْلَ بَيْتِهِ عَلَى رِقَابِنَا فَقَالُوا مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ هَذَا وَ مَا هُوَ إِلَّا شَيْ‏ءٌ يَتَقَوَّلُهُ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَرْفَعَ أَهْلَ بَيْتِهِ عَلَى رِقَابِنَا وَ لَئِنْ قُتِلَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَوْ مَاتَ لَنَنْزِعَنَّهَا مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ ثُمَّ لَا نُعِيدُهَا فِيهِمْ أَبَداً وَ أَرَادَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ أَنْ يُعْلِمَ نَبِيَّهُ ص الَّذِي أَخْفَوْا فِي صُدُورِهِمْ وَ أَسَرُّوا بِهِ فَقَالَ فِي كِتَابِهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ أَمْ يَقُولُونَ افْتَرى‏ عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِباً فَإِنْ يَشَإِ اللَّهُ يَخْتِمْ عَلى‏ قَلْبِكَ يَقُولُ لَوْ شِئْتُ حَبَسْتُ‏ عَنْكَ الْوَحْيَ فَلَمْ تَكَلَّمْ بِفَضْلِ أَهْلِ بَيْتِكَ وَ لَا بِمَوَدَّتِهِمْ وَ قَدْ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ يَمْحُ اللَّهُ الْباطِلَ وَ يُحِقُّ الْحَقَّ بِكَلِماتِهِ يَقُولُ الْحَقُّ لِأَهْلِ بَيْتِكَ الْوَلَايَةُ إِنَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِذاتِ الصُّدُورِ وَ يَقُولُ بِمَا أَلْقَوْهُ فِي صُدُورِهِمْ مِنَ الْعَدَاوَةِ لِأَهْلِ بَيْتِكَ وَ الظُّلْمِ بَعْدَكَ وَ هُوَ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ أَسَرُّوا النَّجْوَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا هَلْ هذا إِلَّا بَشَرٌ مِثْلُكُمْ أَ فَتَأْتُونَ السِّحْرَ وَ أَنْتُمْ تُبْصِرُونَ وَ فِي قَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ النَّجْمِ إِذا هَوى‏ قَالَ أُقْسِمُ بِقَبْضِ مُحَمَّدٍ إِذَا قُبِضَ ما ضَلَّ صاحِبُكُمْ بِتَفْضِيلِهِ أَهْلَ بَيْتِهِ وَ ما غَوى‏ وَ ما يَنْطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوى‏ يَقُولُ مَا يَتَكَلَّمُ بِفَضْلِ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ بِهَوَاهُ وَ هُوَ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحى‏ وَ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لِمُحَمَّدٍ ص قُلْ لَوْ أَنَّ عِنْدِي ما تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ بِهِ لَقُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ بَيْنِي وَ بَيْنَكُمْ قَالَ لَوْ أَنِّي أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أُعْلِمَكُمُ الَّذِي أَخْفَيْتُمْ فِي صُدُورِكِمْ مِنِ اسْتِعْجَالِكُمْ بِمَوْتِي لِتَظْلِمُوا أَهْلَ بَيْتِي مِنْ بَعْدِي فَكَانَ مَثَلُكُمْ كَمَا قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِي اسْتَوْقَدَ ناراً فَلَمَّا أَضاءَتْ ما حَوْلَهُ يَقُولُ أَضَاءَتِ الْأَرْضُ بِنُورِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا تُضِي‏ءُ الشَّمْسُ فَضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلَ مُحَمَّدٍ ص الشَّمْسَ وَ مَثَلَ الْوَصِيِّ الْقَمَرَ وَ هُوَ قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ جَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ ضِياءً وَ الْقَمَرَ نُوراً وَ قَوْلُهُ وَ آيَةٌ لَهُمُ اللَّيْلُ نَسْلَخُ مِنْهُ النَّهارَ فَإِذا هُمْ مُظْلِمُونَ وَ قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ ذَهَبَ اللَّهُ بِنُورِهِمْ وَ تَرَكَهُمْ فِي ظُلُماتٍ لا يُبْصِرُونَ يَعْنِي قُبِضَ مُحَمَّدٌ ص وَ ظَهَرَتِ الظُّلْمَةُ فَلَمْ يُبْصِرُوا فَضْلَ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ وَ هُوَ قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ إِنْ تَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَى الْهُدى‏ لا يَسْمَعُوا وَ تَراهُمْ يَنْظُرُونَ إِلَيْكَ وَ هُمْ لا يُبْصِرُونَ ثُمَّ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص وَضَعَ الْعِلْمَ الَّذِي كَانَ عِنْدَهُ عِنْدَ الْوَصِيِّ وَ هُوَ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّماواتِ وَ الْأَرْضِ يَقُولُ أَنَا هَادِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَ الْأَرْضِ مَثَلُ الْعِلْمِ الَّذِي أَعْطَيْتُهُ وَ هُوَ نُورِيَ الَّذِي يُهْتَدَى بِهِ مَثَلُ الْمِشْكَاةِ فِيهَا الْمِصْبَاحُ فَالْمِشْكَاةُ قَلْبُ مُحَمَّدٍ ص وَ الْمِصْبَاحُ النُّورُ الَّذِي فِيهِ الْعِلْمُ وَ قَوْلُهُ الْمِصْباحُ فِي زُجاجَةٍ يَقُولُ إِنِّي أُرِيدُ أَنْ أَقْبِضَكَ فَاجْعَلِ الَّذِي عِنْدَكَ عِنْدَ الْوَصِيِّ كَمَا يُجْعَلُ الْمِصْبَاحُ فِي الزُّجَاجَةِ كَأَنَّها كَوْكَبٌ دُرِّيٌّ فَأَعْلَمَهُمْ فَضْلَ الْوَصِيِّ يُوقَدُ مِنْ شَجَرَةٍ مُبارَكَةٍ فَأَصْلُ الشَّجَرَةِ الْمُبَارَكَةِ إِبْرَاهِيمُ ع وَ هُوَ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ رَحْمَتُ اللَّهِ وَ بَرَكاتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ إِنَّهُ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ وَ هُوَ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفى‏ آدَمَ وَ نُوحاً وَ آلَ إِبْراهِيمَ وَ آلَ عِمْرانَ عَلَى الْعالَمِينَ ذُرِّيَّةً بَعْضُها مِنْ بَعْضٍ وَ اللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ لا شَرْقِيَّةٍ وَ لا غَرْبِيَّةٍ يَقُولُ لَسْتُمْ بِيَهُودٍ فَتُصَلُّوا قِبَلَ الْمَغْرِبِ وَ لَا نَصَارَى فَتُصَلُّوا قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَ أَنْتُمْ عَلَى مِلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ع وَ قَدْ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ ما كانَ إِبْراهِيمُ يَهُودِيًّا وَ لا نَصْرانِيًّا وَ لكِنْ كانَ حَنِيفاً مُسْلِماً وَ ما كانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَ قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ يَكادُ زَيْتُها يُضِي‏ءُ وَ لَوْ لَمْ تَمْسَسْهُ نارٌ نُورٌ عَلى‏ نُورٍ يَهْدِي اللَّهُ لِنُورِهِ مَنْ يَشاءُ يَقُولُ مَثَلُ أَوْلَادِكُمُ الَّذِينَ يُولَدُونَ مِنْكُمْ كَمَثَلِ الزَّيْتِ الَّذِي يُعْصَرُ مِنَ الزَّيْتُونِ يَكادُ زَيْتُها يُضِي‏ءُ وَ لَوْ لَمْ تَمْسَسْهُ نارٌ نُورٌ عَلى‏ نُورٍ يَهْدِي اللَّهُ لِنُورِهِ مَنْ يَشاءُ يَقُولُ يَكَادُونَ أَنْ يَتَكَلَّمُوا بِالنُّبُوَّةِ وَ لَوْ لَمْ يُنْزَلْ عَلَيْهِمْ مَلَكٌ

Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Ali ibn al-Abbas from Ali ibn Hammad from Amr ibn Shamir from Jabir who said:

‘This is about the meaning of the words of Allah-azwj. ‘ … one who does a good deed We add to it for him more goodness.’ (42:23) Abu Jafar-asws has said that it is a reference to the one who accepts Wilayah[22] of Aly-e[23]-Muhammad-saww and follows their-asws footprints. The following such guidance adds to the Wilayah of the Prophets-as of the past and the believing people of the earlier generations. Their Wilayah then reaches the Wilayah of Adam-as. It is mentioned in the words of Allah-azwj’ … one who does a good deed for him there is something better than that good deed.’ (27:89) One for this reason will enter the Garden as Allah-azwj has said.    ‘say.. ‘Whatever reward I ask from you is for your own self.’’ (34:47). The Holy Prophet-saww says: ‘The reward that I ask from you in the form of the love besides which I do not ask from you for anything is for you through which you will find guidance and will be saved from suffering on the Day of Judgement.’

For the enemies of Allah-azwj and friends of Satan, people of rejection and denial, He-azwj has said: .. say, ‘I do not ask from you for any reward and I am not a pretending one.’: (38:86) He-saww says: ‘I will be pretending if I ask you what you are not worthy of (l do not ask the hypocrites to love my family; it is useless).’ ‘The hypocrites then said to each other, ‘Is it not enough for Muhammad-saww that he has dominated us for twenty years and now in addition he-saww wants to load his family on our necks?’ Therefore, they said: ‘Allah-azwj has not revealed it. It is nothing more than his-saww own words that he-saww speaks to raise his family over our necks. If Muhammad-saww will be killed or die, we will remove his family from government and then we will never allow it to go back to them forever.’ Allah-azwj Wanted to inform His Holy Prophet-saww of that which they were hiding in their chests secretly. Allah-azwj thus, has said in His book, ‘ … do they say that he has fabricated it against Allah falsely? Had Allah wanted He could have sealed his heart’ (42:24)

He-azwj says: ‘Had I-azwj wanted I-azwj could have held back revelation from you so you could not speak of the excellence of your family, or about loving them. ‘ Allah-azwj has Said: ‘ … Allah deletes falsehood and establishes the truth through His words. [He-azwj Says that truth is on the side of your family. It is the Wilayah]. He has full knowledge of all that is in the hearts.’ (42:24) He-azwj speaks about what He-azwj has Placed in their hearts of animosity towards your-saww family, the injustice to them-asws after your-saww passing away as is mentioned in the Words of Allah-azwj, ‘ … the unjust secretly speak to each other and say, ‘Is it not true that he is only a human being like you? Do you then come to magic when you can see it’!’’ (21 :3) There are the words of Allah-azwj. ‘ … I swear by the star when it descends down.’ [He-azwj has said that He-azwj swears by the passing away of Muhammad-saww from this world). He-azwj swears that your companion is not misled (in giving preference to his family) and has not transgressed. He-saww does not speak out of his-saww own desires (He-azwj says that he does not speak of the excellence of his-saww family out of his-saww own desire but it is the words of Allah-azwj)‘ … it is but revelation that is revealed to him.’ (53: 1-4) ‘Allah-azwj has said this to Muhammad-saww  say to them, ‘If I had with me what you want to happen quickly between you and I, the matter would have been settled.’ (6:58). He-saww has said: ‘If I inform you of what you hide in your chests about my death to happen quicker so you will do injustice to my family after me, your case will then be like what Allah-azwj has said. ‘ … it is like the case of one who kindles a fire. When his surroundings become bright … ,’ (2: 17) is a reference to His-azwj Saying that the earth became bright by the Noor of Muhammad-saww just as the sun brightens it. Allah-azwj has given the example of Muhammad-saww to be like the Sun. The example of the executor of the will like the moon as is mentioned in the words of Allah-azwj. ‘He has made the sun a source of Noor and the moon a brightness.’ It is also in His-azwj words: ‘ … a sign for them is the night from which We extract the day when they were in darkness.’ (36:37) Also it is in the words of Allah-azwj ‘ … Allah removed their Noor and left them in darkness in which they cannot see.’ (2: 18) It is a reference to the passing away of Muhammad from this world. After this darkness appeared, then they did not see the excellence of Ahl al-Bayt-asws. ‘Allah-azwj has said, ‘ … if you call them to guidance they cannot listen and you see them look to you but they cannot see.’ (7:197)

The Rasool Allah-saww left the knowledge, which was with him-saww with the executor of the will as mentioned in the words of Allah-azwj ‘ … Allah is the Noor of the skies and earth.’ (24:35) He-azwj says that He-azwj is the Guide of the skies and earth like the knowledge that I-azwj have given and that is the Noor (My-azwj Noor) by which guidance is found like a niche in which there is a lantern. Niche is the heart of Muhammad-saww lantern is My-azwj Noor in which there is knowledge. ‘In addition, there are His-azwj words. ‘ … the lantern is in a glass’ which He-azwj says I want to make you pass away. Therefore, you must leave that which is with you with the Executor of the Will just as a lantern is placed in a glass ‘as if it is a brilliant star.’

Thus, inform them of the excellence of Executor of the Will, ‘it lights up from a blessed tree’ and the origin of the blessed tree is Ibrahim-as as mentioned in the words of Allah-azwj ‘ … the mercy and the blessings of Allah is upon you Aly-e-Ahl al-Bayt; He is praiseworthy and glorious.’ (11:73) ‘It is in the words of Allah-azwj ‘ … Allah chose Adam-as, Noah-as, Aly-e-Ibrahim-as, and Aly-as of ‘Imran over the worlds. They were offspring of each other and Allah is hearing and knowledgeable.’ (3:33-34) ‘ … it is not from the East or from the West’. He says that you are not Jews who face during Salat to the West. You are not Christians who turn their faces toward the East in Salat. ‘You are followers of the religion of Ibrahim-as, as Allah-azwj, has said, ‘ … Ibrahim was not a Jew or Christian, but he was an upright man, submitted to the will of Allah and he was not a pagan.’ (3:67) ‘Also there is the words of Allah-azwj ‘ … its oil almost lights up even if no fire touches it. It is Noor upon Noor. Allah-azwj Guides to His Noor whomever He-azwj wants.’ He-azwj Says that the example of your children who are born from you is like the oil which is extracted from olive.’ Its oil almost lights up even if no fire touches it. It is Noor upon Noor. Allah-azwj Guides to His-azwj Noor whomever He-azwj wants.’ He-azwj Says that they almost speak like the Prophets-as do, even though no angels come to them’.[24]

The Momin and the Kafir:

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَبْدِيِّ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي يَعْفُورٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع إِنِّي أُخَالِطُ النَّاسَ فَيَكْثُرُ عَجَبِي مِنْ أَقْوَامٍ لَا يَتَوَلَّوْنَكُمْ وَ يَتَوَلَّوْنَ فُلَاناً وَ فُلَاناً لَهُمْ أَمَانَةٌ وَ صِدْقٌ وَ وَفَاءٌ وَ أَقْوَامٌ يَتَوَلَّوْنَكُمْ لَيْسَ لَهُمْ تِلْكَ الْأَمَانَةُ وَ لَا الْوَفَاءُ وَ الصِّدْقُ قَالَ فَاسْتَوَى أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع جَالِساً فَأَقْبَلَ عَلَيَّ كَالْغَضْبَانِ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَا دِينَ لِمَنْ دَانَ اللَّهَ بِوَلَايَةِ إِمَامٍ جَائِرٍ لَيْسَ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَ لَا عَتْبَ عَلَى مَنْ دَانَ بِوَلَايَةِ إِمَامٍ عَادِلٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ قُلْتُ لَا دِينَ لِأُولَئِكَ وَ لَا

عَتْبَ عَلَى هَؤُلَاءِ قَالَ نَعَمْ لَا دِينَ لِأُولَئِكَ وَ لَا عَتْبَ عَلَى هَؤُلَاءِ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَ لَا تَسْمَعُ لِقَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ اللَّهُ وَلِيُّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يُخْرِجُهُمْ مِنَ الظُّلُماتِ إِلَى النُّورِ يَعْنِي مِنْ ظُلُمَاتِ الذُّنُوبِ إِلَى نُورِ التَّوْبَةِ وَ الْمَغْفِرَةِ لِوَلَايَتِهِمْ كُلَّ إِمَامٍ عَادِلٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَ قَالَ وَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَوْلِياؤُهُمُ الطَّاغُوتُ يُخْرِجُونَهُمْ مِنَ النُّورِ إِلَى الظُّلُماتِ إِنَّمَا عَنَى بِهَذَا أَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا عَلَى نُورِ الْإِسْلَامِ فَلَمَّا أَنْ تَوَلَّوْا كُلَّ إِمَامٍ جَائِرٍ لَيْسَ مِنَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ خَرَجُوا بِوَلَايَتِهِمْ إِيَّاهُ مِنْ نُورِ الْإِسْلَامِ إِلَى ظُلُمَاتِ الْكُفْرِ فَأَوْجَبَ اللَّهُ لَهُمُ النَّارَ مَعَ الْكُفَّارِ فَ أُولئِكَ أَصْحابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيها خالِدُونَ‏

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from ibn Mahbub from ‘Abd ‘Aziz al-’Abdi from ‘Abd Allah ibn abu Yafur who said:

‘Once I said to Abu Abd Allah-asws ‘I meet people and it increases my wonder when I find people who do not consider you (Ahl al-Bayt-asws) as their guardians and ‘A’immah (Leaders with Divine Authority) but they consider so and so as their imam. However, they are trustworthy, truthful and loyal. I also find people who consider you-asws as their guardians and ‘A’immah-asws but are not trustworthy, loyal and truthful.’

‘Abu’ Abd Allah-asws then sat in an upright position and turned to me as if upset, and then said, ‘One who follows the religion of Allah-azwj under the guardianship of an unjust imam who does not possesses Divine Authority, has no religion. One who follows the religion of Allah-azwj under the guardianship of an Imam-asws who is just in his dealings and possesses Divine Authority, will suffer no negative effect.’

‘I then asked: ‘Do those, in fact, have no religion, and these face no destruction?’ The Imam-asws said: ‘That is correct. Those have no religion and these face no destruction.’ Then, the Imam-asws said: ‘Have you not heard the words of Allah-azwj: ‘Allah is the Guardian of the believers and it is He who takes them out of darkness into light. … ‘ (2:257). It means that He-azwj Takes them out of the darkness of sins to the light of repentance and forgiveness because of their love for and their being under the guardianship of the just ‘A’immah-asws who possess Divine Authority.

Allah-azwj has also Said: ‘The Devil is the guardian of those who deny the Truth and he leads them from light to darkness …. ‘ (2:257). It means that they were in the light of Islam but when they accepted the guardianship and the leadership of every unjust imam who possessed no authority from Allah-azwj their guardianship took them out of the ‘Noor’ of Islam to the darkness of disbelief. Allah-azwj then Made it necessary for them to suffer in fire along with the unbelievers, ‘ … these are the dwellers of hell wherein they will live forever (2:257)’.[25]

The ‘Noor’ and the Followership:

From the Ahadith presented above we have learnt that Allah-azwj Wants the believers to submit to and follow commands of the Ahl Al-Bayt-asws, who posses His-azwj Noor, which is brighter than the light of the Sun.  Anyone else who trys to guide believers will have no such light and will end-up spoiling the Noor in the heart of believers and lead them to the destruction (the Hell-fire). The following Hadith further explains the above discussion:

The Condemnation of Seeking Leadership:

وعنهم ، عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد ، عن أبيه ، عن عبدالله بن المغيرة ، عن عبدالله بن مسكان ، قال : سمعت أبا عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) يقول : إياكم وهؤلاء الرؤساء الذين يترأسون ، فوالله ما خفقت النعال خلف رجل ، إلا هلك وأهلك

And from him, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Khalid, from his father, from Abd Allah Bin Mugheira, from Abd Allah Bin Muskan who has said:

‘I heard Abu Abd Allah-asws said: ‘Beware of the leader[26] who goes around as leaders, for by Allah-azwj, there is no man behind whom is the sound of shoes, but he is destroyed and leads others to destruction’.[27]

وعن محمد بن يحيى ، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى ، عن الحسن بن أيوب ، عن أبي عقيلة الصيرفي ، عن كرام ، عن أبي حمزة الثمالي ، قال : قال أبو عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) : إياك والرياسة ، وإياك أن تطأ أعقاب الرجال ، قلت : جعلت فداك ، أما الرياسة فقد عرفتها ، وأما أن أطأ أعقاب الرجال فما ثلثا  ما في يدي إلا مما وطئت أعقاب الرجال ، فقال لي : ليس حيث تذهب ، إياك أن تنصب رجلا دون الحجة ، فتصدقه في كل ما قال .

And from Muhammad Bin Yahya, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Isa, from Al Hassan Bin Ayyub, from Abu Aqeela Al Sayrafi, from Karaam, from Abu Hamza Al Thumaly who has said the following:

Abu Abd Allah-asws said: ‘Beware of leading[28], and beware of following the people’. I said: ‘May I be sacrificed for you-asws! As for the leadership, I understand that, and as for the following the people, two thirds of what I have is what is from following the people’.  He-asws said to me: ‘This is not as you think it to be. Beware of establishing a man without the ‘al-Hujjat’ (Divine Proof), ratifying (believing in) everything that he says’.[29]

محمد بن مسعود العياشي في ( تفسيره ) عن أبان ، قال : سمعت أبا عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) يقول : يا معشر الأحداث ! اتقوا الله ، ولا تأتوا الرؤساء وغيرهم  ، حتى يصيروا  أذنابا ، لا تتخذوا الرجال ولائج من دون الله ، انا ـ والله ـ خير لكم منهم ، ثم ضرب بيده إلى صدره.

Muhammad Bin Mas’ud Al Ayyashi in his Tafseer from Aban said:

I heard Abu Abd Allah-asws say: ‘O group of youths! Be afraid of Allah-azwj, and do not obey the influential and others, until they become frustrated. Do not take to the men as confidants apart from Allah-azwj, I – by Allah-azwj – am better for you than them’. Then he-asws hit his-asws chest with his-asws hand’.[30]

Seekers of Leadership are Destroyed:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ أَبِي الرَّبِيعِ الشَّامِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ قَالَ لِي وَيْحَكَ يَا أَبَا الرَّبِيعِ لَا تَطْلُبَنَّ الرِّئَاسَةَ وَ لَا تَكُنْ ذِئْباً وَ لَا تَأْكُلْ بِنَا النَّاسَ فَيُفْقِرَكَ اللَّهُ وَ لَا تَقُلْ فِينَا مَا لَا نَقُولُ فِي أَنْفُسِنَا فَإِنَّكَ مَوْقُوفٌ وَ مَسْئُولٌ لَا مَحَالَةَ فَإِنْ كُنْتَ صَادِقاً صَدَّقْنَاكَ وَ إِنْ كُنْتَ كَاذِباً كَذَّبْنَاكَ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn Isa from Yunus from abu al- Rabi’ al-Shami who said:

‘Once Abu Jafar-asws said to me: ‘Woe upon you, O abu al-Rabi’, do not seek leadership and do not be a wolf, do not eat people (consume their properties) through us-asws so Allah-azwj makes you poor, do not say about us-asws what we do not say about ourselves-asws. One day you will be made to stand up (before the Judge) and will inevitably be questioned. Had you been a truthful person, we-asws, approve you and, had you been lying, we-asws will declare you a liar’.[31]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ مَنْصُورِ بْنِ الْعَبَّاسِ عَنِ ابْنِ مَيَّاحٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع يَقُولُ مَنْ أَرَادَ الرِّئَاسَةَ هَلَكَ

A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Mansur ibn al- Abbas from ibn Mayyah from his father who said:

‘I heard Abu Abd Allah-asws saying, ‘Whoever wants leadership is destroyed’.[32]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنِ الْعَلَاءِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع يَقُولُ أَ تَرَى لَا أَعْرِفُ خِيَارَكُمْ مِنْ شِرَارِكُمْ بَلَى وَ اللَّهِ وَ إِنَّ شِرَارَكُمْ مَنْ أَحَبَّ أَنْ يُوطَأَ عَقِبُهُ إِنَّهُ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ كَذَّابٍ أَوْ عَاجِزِ الرَّأْيِ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus from al-’Ala’ from Muhammad ibn Muslim who said:

‘I heard Abu Abd Allah-asws asking: ‘Do you think I do not distinguish the bad from good among you? Yes, by Allah-azwj, the bad ones among you are those who love people walking behind them. Such a person is inevitably a liar or a helpless one (due to his ignorance) in his opinion’.[33]

عَنْهُ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَسْبَاطٍ عَنِ الْعَلَاءِ بْنِ رَزِينٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ قَالَ كَتَبَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع إِلَى الشِّيعَةِ لَيَعْطِفَنَّ ذَوُو السِّنِّ مِنْكُمْ وَ النُّهَى عَلَى ذَوِي الْجَهْلِ وَ طُلَّابِ الرِّئَاسَةِ أَوْ لَتُصِيبَنَّكُمْ لَعْنَتِي أَجْمَعِينَ

lt is narrated from the narrator of the previous Hadith from Ali ibn Asbat from al -’Ala’ ibn Razin from Muhammad ibn Muslim who said:

‘Abu Abd Allah-asws wrote to Shi’ah as follows: ‘The ones among you with the ability (elders) to speak and reason must show kindness to and prohibit the ignorant ones among you, and those who seek leadership, otherwise, you will all be affected by my condemnation’.[34]

جَعْفَرُ بْنُ بَشِيرٍ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ أَبِي شِبْلٍ قَالَ دَخَلْتُ أَنَا وَ  سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ عَلَى أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع فَقَالَ لَهُ سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ إِنَّ الزَّيْدِيَّةَ قَوْمٌ قَدْ عُرِفُوا وَ جُرِّبُوا وَ شَهَرَهُمُ النَّاسُ وَ مَا فِي الْأَرْضِ مُحَمَّدِيٌّ أَحَبُّ إِلَيْهِمْ مِنْكَ فَإِنْ رَأَيْتَ أَنْ تُدْنِيَهُمْ وَ تُقَرِّبَهُمْ مِنْكَ فَافْعَلْ فَقَالَ يَا سُلَيْمَانَ بْنَ خَالِدٍ إِنْ كَانَ هَؤُلَاءِ السُّفَهَاءُ يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يَصُدُّونَا عَنْ عِلْمِنَا إِلَى جَهْلِهِمْ فَلَا مَرْحَباً بِهِمْ وَ لَا أَهْلًا وَ إِنْ كَانُوا يَسْمَعُونَ قَوْلَنَا وَ يَنْتَظِرُونَ أَمْرَنَا فَلَا بَأْسَ

Ja’far ibn Bashir has narrated from ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman from abu Shabal who said:

‘Once, Sulaiman ibn Khalid and I visited Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws. Sulaiman ibn Khalid said: ‘The Zaidiy sect, has become known, tried and is famous among people and those on earth as followers of Muhammad-saww and they are more beloved to them (public) than you are; in such case if you can bring them closer to you, you should do so.’

The Imam-asws said: ‘O Sulaiman ibn Khalid, if these dim-witted ones want to bar us-asws from our knowledge and lead to their ignorance, then they are not welcome. They are not accepted; but if they listen to what we-asws say and wait for our’ Amr-ajfj[35], then it is not harmful’.[36]

: إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ (5:55)

The Wilayat, of Allah-azwj, Rasool-saww and Mola Ali-asws (who gave Zakat in Rakku) is of the same value and nature and as such be reflected in all our acts of worship. Amir-ul-Momineen-asws says:  My Wilayat is the Wilayat of Allah-azwj and all Prophets-as has to pledge to our Wilayat, as part of the major requirement for their qualification (to be given the Prophet-hood).[37]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ مُعَمَّرِ بْنِ خَلَّادٍ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ ع أَنَّهُ ذَكَرَ رَجُلًا فَقَالَ إِنَّهُ يُحِبُّ الرِّئَاسَةَ فَقَالَ مَا ذِئْبَانِ ضَارِيَانِ فِي غَنَمٍ قَدْ تَفَرَّقَ رِعَاؤُهَا بِأَضَرَّ فِي دِينِ الْمُسْلِمِ مِنَ الرِّئَاسَةِ

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Mu’ammar ibn Khallad narrates the following from Abu Al-Hassan-asws:

‘It was mentioned before the Imam-asws that a certain person loves to have leadership. The Imam-asws said: ‘Two fierce wolves in a flock of sheep, whose shepherd is far away, are not more harmful to the flock than seeking leadership to a Muslim’s religion is’.[38]

عَنْهُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جَنَاحٍ عَنْ أَخِيهِ أَبِي عَامِرٍ عَنْ رَجُلٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ مَنْ طَلَبَ الرِّئَاسَةَ هَلَكَ

It is narrated from him (narrator of the Hadith above) from Ahmad ibn Said ibn Janah from his brother. Abu Amir from a man who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

‘Abu’ Abd Allah-asws has said: ‘Whoever seeks leadership is destroyed’.[39]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مُسْكَانَ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع يَقُولُ إِيَّاكُمْ وَ هَؤُلَاءِ الرُّؤَسَاءَ الَّذِينَ يَتَرَأَّسُونَ فَوَ اللَّهِ مَا خَفَقَتِ النِّعَالُ خَلْفَ رَجُلٍ إِلَّا هَلَكَ وَ أَهْلَكَ

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from his father from’ Abd Allah ibn al-Mughirah from’ Abd Allah ibn Muskan who said:

‘I heard Abu Abd Allah-asws saying: ‘Beware of these leaders who pretend to be leaders. I say it by Allah, shoes (people) have never marched behind a man, but that he destroys (them) and (he) is destroyed’.[40]

عَنْهُ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ بَزِيعٍ وَ غَيْرِهِ رَفَعُوهُ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع مَلْعُونٌ مَنْ تَرَأَّسَ مَلْعُونٌ مَنْ هَمَّ بِهَا مَلْعُونٌ مَنْ حَدَّثَ بِهَا نَفْسَهُ

It is narrated from him (narrator of the Hadith above) from Muhammad ibn Isma’il ibn Bazi’ and others in a marfu’ manner who said:

‘Abu Abd Allah-asws has said: ‘Condemned is one who seeks leadership, condemned is one who intends to become a leader and condemned is one who speaks to himself of leadership’.[41]

The Knowledge and Seeking Knowledge:

One needs to have not only the essential knowledge in order to fulfil the religious obligations but also to understand what is expected of him/her in regard to purifying his ‘Nafs’ (soul) for the ‘Maurifat’ (recognition) of the ‘Al-Noor’ which raises the spiritual status of a believer.  As Amir-ul-Momineen-asws describes the higher status of his-asws Shias as compared with those of the people of Paradise:

إن أهل الجنة لينظرون إلى منازل شيعتنا كما ينظر الإنسان إلى الكواكب التي في السماء

(Amir-ul-Momineen-asws said): The people of Paradise will look at the positions of our adherents –Shia, in the same way you look to the stars in the sky’.[42]

In the following section, we will try to learn about the knowledge, how to acquire it, as explained by the Ahadith of Masomeen-asws.  However, we will, first, present a Hadith of Prophet-saww where those 9 matters are described, which would exempt a ‘Momin’ from accountability (of punishment):

الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ النَّهْدِيِّ رَفَعَهُ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص وُضِعَ عَنْ أُمَّتِي تِسْعُ خِصَالٍ الْخَطَأُ وَ النِّسْيَانِ وَ مَا لَا يَعْلَمُونَ وَ مَا لَا يُطِيقُونَ وَ مَا اضْطُرُّوا إِلَيْهِ وَ مَا اسْتُكْرِهُوا عَلَيْهِ وَ الطِّيَرَةُ وَ الْوَسْوَسَةُ فِي التَّفَكُّرِ فِي الْخَلْقِ وَ الْحَسَدُ مَا لَمْ يُظْهِرْ بِلِسَانٍ أَوْ يَدٍ

Al-Hussanin ibn Mohammed, who from Mohammed ibn Ahmed al-Nahdi Rafa, who has narrated the following from Abi Abd Allah-asws:

The Rasool Allah-saww has said: My followers are exempt from responsibilities in 9 kinds of acts and conditions:

  • Acting by mistake;
  • Out of forgetfulness;
  • Things they have no knowledge of;
  • Things they are not able to do;
  • Thing they could not live without;
  • Thing, which they are compelled to do;
  • Omens;
  • Temptations in thinking about creatures;
  • Feeling envy as long as it is neither expressed by their tongues nor by hands’.[43]

What is Knowledge and How it is Acquired?

عنه عليه السلام قال: جاءَ رَجلٌ إلى رسول الله صلي الله عليه و اله و سلم فقال: يا رسولَ الله، ما العلم؟ قال: الإنصات، قال: ثمّ مَه؟ قال: الاستماع له، قال: ثمّ مَه؟ قال: الحِفظُ له، قال: ثمّ مَه يا رسول الله؟ قال: العملُ به، قال: ثمّ مَه يا رسول الله؟ قال: ثمّ نَشره.

Ali ibn Mohammed from Sahl ibn Ziyad, who form Jafar ibn Mohammed al-Ashari, who from Abd Allah ibn Maymun al-Qaddah, who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

Imam Sadiq-asws narrated that someone came to see God’s Prophet-saww and said: ‘O’ Prophet of Allah-saww! What is knowledge?’ The Prophet-saww replied: ‘Trying to hear.’ He asked: ‘What else?’ The Prophet-saww said: ‘Listening.’ He asked: ‘What else?’ The Prophet-saww said: ‘then it is in memorising it.’ He asked ‘What else?’ The Prophet-saww said: ‘Practicing what is learned.’ He asked: ‘What else?’ The Prophet-saww said: ‘Teaching it to other people.’[44]

The Knowledge Outside the Book and the Sunnah is Useless:

وعن محمد بن الحسن ، وعلي بن محمد ، عن سهل بن زياد ، عن محمد بن عيسى ، عن الدهقان ، عن درست ، عن إبراهيم بن عبد الحميد ، عن أبي الحسن موسى ( عليه السلام ) ـ في حديث ـ قال : إنما العلم ثلاث : آية محكمة ، أو فريضة عادلة ، أو سنة قائمة ، وما خلاهن فهو فضل .

And from Muhammad Bin Al Hassan, and Ali Bin Muhammad, from Sahal Bin Ziyad, from Muhammad Bin Isa, from Al Dahqaan, from Darsat, from Ibrahim Bin Abdul Hameed, who has narrated the following from Abu Al Hassan Musa-asws:

(Imam-asws said) ‘Surely knowledge is of three kinds: A decisive Verse, or a just obligation, or an established Sunnah, and whatever besides these; is a waste (worthless burden)’.[45]

Who takes Religion from others will always be Infirm:

روي عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام: أنه قال: من دخل في هذا الدين بالرجال أخرجه منه الرجال كما أدخلوه فيه، ومن دخل فيه بالكتاب والسنة زالت الجبال قبل أن يزول

It has been narrated from Imam Abi Abd Allah-asws that the one who takes religion from another person (mullah) then his religion remains infirm and is easily destroyed by others (another peer/mullah) but if he takes it from ‘Quran and Sunnah’, then mountains may tremble but not his faith’.[46]

Knowledge only Emanates from the Masomeen-asws:

وعن أبي عبدالله الأشعري ، رفعه عن هشام بن الحكم ، عن أبي الحسن موسى بن جعفر ( عليه السلام ) ـ في حديث طويل ـ قال : لا نجاة إلا بالطاعة ، والطاعة بالعلم ، والعلم بالتعلم ، والتعلم بالعقل يعتقد ، ولاعلم إلا من عالم رباني .

And from Abu Abd Allah Al-Ashary, from Hisham Bin Al Hakam who has narrated the following from Abu Al-Hassan Musa Bin Ja’far-asws in a lengthy Hadith:

Imam Musa Bin Ja’far-asws said: ‘There is no salvation except with obedience, and the obedience with knowledge, and the knowledge by studying it, and studying it by ‘Aql’[47] accompany by the belief, and there is no knowledge except from the knowledgeable one-asws (sent down) from Allah-azwj’.[48]

وعن عدة من أصحابنا ، عن أحمد بن محمد ، عن ابن أبي نصر ، عن مثنى ، عن زرارة قال : كنت عند أبي جعفر (عليه السلام) ، وعنده رجل من أهل الكوفة ، يسأله عن قول أمير المؤمنين ( عليه السلام ) : سلوني عما شئتم ، فلا تسألون عن شيء إلا أنبأتكم به ، فقال : إنه ليس أحد عنده ( علم إلا شيء ) خرج من عند أمير المؤمنين ( عليه السلام ) ، فليذهب الناس حيث شاؤوا ، فوالله ليس الأمر إلا من ههنا ـ وأشار بيده إلى بيته ـ .

And from a number of our companions, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad, from Ibn Abu Nasr, from Mathni, from Zarara who has narrated:

‘I was with Abu Ja’far-asws, and with him-asws was a man from Kufa asking him-asws about the words of the Amir-ul-Momineen-asws: ‘Ask me-asws whatsoever you feel like. You will not ask me for anything, but that I -asws will give you the answer for it’.

Imam-asws replied: ‘There is no one who has any knowledge but it has come from the Amir-ul-Momineen-asws. The people can go wherever they want, by Allah-azwj, there is no (correct) affair except from here’, – He-asws pointed towards his-asws own house’.[49]

وعن محمد بن يحيى ، عن أحمد بن محمد ، عن الحسين بن سعيد ، عن النضر بن سويد ، عن يحيى الحلبي ، عن معلى بن عثمان ، عن أبي بصير ـ في حديث ـ قال : فليشرق الحكم ، وليغرب ، أما والله لا يصيب العلم إلا من أهل بيت نزل عليهم جبرئيل .

And from Muhammad Bin Yahya, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad, from Al Husayn Bin Sa’eed, from Al Nazar Bin Suweyd, from Yahya Al Halby, from Mo’ala Bin Uthman, from Abu Baseer – in a Hadith – said:

‘Easterners issue orders and so do Westerners, but by Allah-azwj, there is no correct knowledge except from the People of the Household-asws on whom Jibraeel-as descends’.[50]

وعن علي بن محمد بن عبدالله ، عن إبراهيم بن إسحاق ، عن عبدالله بن حماد ، عن ابن مسكان ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : نحن أصل كل خير ، ومن فروعنا كل بر ، وعدونا أصل كل شر ، ومن فروعهم كل قبيح وفاحشة . الحديث .

And from Ali Bin Muhammad Bin Abdullah, from Ibrahim Bin Is’haq, from Abdullah hamaad, from Ibn Muskaan who said:

Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘We-asws are the root of all good, and our-asws branches are all good, and our-asws enemies are the root of all evil, and from their branches is all ugliness and promiscuity’.[51]

Knowledge of Ahadith is the Most Valuable Treasure:

أحمد بن محمد بن خالد البرقي في ( المحاسن ) عن أبيه ، عن يونس بن عبد الرحمن ، عن عمرو بن شمر ، عن جابر ، عن أبي جعفر ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : سارعوا في طلب العلم ، فوالذي نفسي بيده لحديث واحد  تأخذه عن صادق ، خير من الدنيا وما حملت من ذهب وفضة . الحديث .

Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Khalid Al Barqi in Al Mahaasin from his father, from Yunus Bin Abdul Rahmaan, from Amro Bin Shimr, from Jabir who says:

Abu Ja’far-asws said: ‘Hasten in the seeking of knowledge. By the One-azwj in Whose-azwj Hand is my-asws soul, a single Hadith that you take from the truthful is better than this world and what in contains of the gold and silver’.[52]

وبإسناده الاتي عن علي ( عليه السلام ) ـ في حديث الأربعمائة ـ قال : علموا صبيانكم (من علمنا ) ما ينفعهم الله به ، لا تغلب عليهم المرجئة برأيها ، ولا تقيسوا الدين ، فان من الدين ما لا يقاس ، وسيأتي أقوام يقيسون ، فهم أعداء الدين ، وأول من قاس إبليس ، إياكم والجدال ، فإنه يورث الشك ، ومن تخلف عنا هلك .

And by its chain from Ali-asws – in the 400 Ahadith – Amir-ul-Momineen-asws said: ‘Teach your children our-asws knowledge, Allah-azwj will Give them benefit by it, and our-asws adversaries will not overcome them with their opinions, and do not use analogy in religion, for religion is that which is not from analogy, and very soon people will come who will indulge in analogies. They are the enemies of Religion, and the first one to use analogy was Iblees-la. Beware of pleading arguments for it will place you in doubt, and the one who opposes us-asws will be destroyed’.[53]

The Correct Knowledge is only in the Ahadith of Ahl Al-Bayt-asws:

وعنهم عن أحمد ، عن الوشاء ، عن ثعلبة بن ميمون ، عن أبي مريم قال : قال أبو جعفر ( عليه السلام ) لسلمة بن كهيل ، والحكم بن عتيبة : شرقا وغربا ، فلا تجدان علما صحيحا إلا شيئا خرج من عندنا أهل البيت .

And from them, from Ahmad, from Al Washaa, from Tha’lbat Bin Maymoun, from Abu Maryam who said that Abu Ja’far-asws said the following to Salmat Bin Kaheel, and Al Hakam Bin Utayba:

Imam Abu Ja’far-asws said: ‘Go to the East or go to the West, you will not find correct knowledge except that which has come out from us-asws (Ahadith) the People of the Household-asws’.[54]

علي بن محمد الخزاز في كتاب ( الكفاية ) في النصوص على عدد الأئمة (عليهم السلام ) عن الحسين بن محمد بن سعيد ، عن محمد بن أحمد الصفواني ، عن مروان بن محمد السنجاري ، عن أبي يحيى التميمي ، عن يحيى البكاء ، عن علي ( عليه السلام ) قال : قال رسول الله ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) : ستفترق امتي على ثلاث وسبعين فرقة ، فرقة منها ناجية ، والباقون هالكون ، والناجون الذين يتمسكون بولايتكم ، ويقتبسون من علمكم ، ولا يعملون برأيهم ، فاولئك ما عليهم من سبيل . الحديث .

Ali Bin Muhammad Al Khazaaz in the book Al Kifaya regarding the number of the Imams-asws, narrates from Al Husayn Bin Muhammad Bin Sa’eed, from Muhammad Bin Ahmad Al Safwani, from Marwaan Bin Muhammad Al Sanjaari, from Abu Yahya Al Tamimi, from Yahya Al Baka’ who has narrated the following from Ali-asws:

‘The Rasool Allah-saww said: ‘My-saww community will be divided into seventy three sects, one of these sects will achieve salvation, and the rest of them will be destroyed, and the one which will achieve salvation is the one which will attach itself to your-asws Wilayah[55], will take from your-asws knowledge, and will not act according to their opinions, those ones (the other 72) will not find a way’.[56]

Quranic Verses should never be Interpreted but by Ahadith:

وحديث الريان بن الصلت ، عن الرضا ، عن آبائه ( عليهم السلام ) ، قال : قال الله عزّ وجلّ : ما آمن بي من فسر برأيه كلامي . الحديث .

And in the Hadeeth of Riyan Bin Al-Salah it is narrated:

Al-Reza-asws from his-asws forefathers-asws said: ‘Allah-azwj has Said: ‘He is not safe from Me-azwj, the one who explains My-azwj Speech by his own opinion’.[57]

محمد بن علي بن الحسين في ( الأمالي ) عن محمد بن عمر الحافظ البغدادي ، عن محمد بن أحمد بن ثابت ، عن محمد بن الحسن بن العباس الخزاعي ، عن حسن بن حسين العرني ، عن عمرو بن ثابت ، عن عطاء بن السائب ، عن أبي يحيى ، عن ابن عباس قال : قال رسول الله ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) ، وذكر خطبة يقول فيها : إن عليا هو أخي ، ووزيري ، وهو خليفتي ، وهو المبلغ عني ، إن استرشدتموه أرشدكم ، وإن اتبعتموه نجوتم ، وإن خالفتموه ضللتم ، إن الله أنزل عليّ القرآن ، وهو الذي من خالفه ضل ، ومن ابتغى علمه عند غير عليّ هلك الحديث

Muhammad Bin Ali Bin Al Husayn in Al Amaali from Muhammad Bin Amr Al Hafiz Al Baghdady, from Muhammad Bin Ahmad Bin Sabit, from Muhammad Bin Al Hassan Bin Al Abbas Al Khazaie, from Hasan Bin Husayn Al-Arny, from Amro Bin Sabit, from Ata’a Bin Al Sa’ib, from Abu Yahya, from Ibn Abbas who said:

The Rasool Allah-saww said to him when he mentioned a sermon of his-saww: ‘Surely, Ali-asws is my-saww brother, and my-saww successor, and he-asws is my-saww Caliph, and he-asws is the speaker from me-saww. If you were to seek guidance from him he-asws will guide you, and if you were to follow him-asws he-asws will give you salvation, and if you were to oppose him-asws you will go astray.

Allah-azwj Sent down the Quran upon me-saww, and it is such that the one who opposes it has gone astray, and one who seeks its knowledge from any one other than Ali-asws will perish/killed’.[58]

وعن الحسن بن محمد بن سعيد الهاشمي ، عن فرات بن إبراهيم بن فرات الكوفي ، عن محمد بن ظهير ، عن ( محمد بن الحسن ) ابن أخي يونس البغدادي ، عن محمد بن يعقوب النهشلي ، عن الرضا ، عن آبائه ، عن النبي ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) ، عن جبرئيل ، عن ميكائيل ، عن إسرافيل ، عن الله جل جلاله ، أنه قال : أنا الله لا إله إلا أنا ، خلقت الخلق بقدرتي ، فاخترت منهم من شئت من أنبيائي ، واخترت من جميعهم محمدا ، فبعثته رسولا إلى خلقي ، واخترت له عليا فجعلته له أخا ووزيرا ومؤديا عنه من بعده إلى خلقي ، وخليفتي على عبادي ، ليبين لهم كتابي ، ويسير فيهم بحكمي ، وجعلته العلم الهادي من الضلالة ، وبابي الذي منه اوتى ، الحديث .

And from Al Hassan Bin Muhammad Bin Saeed Al Hashamy, from Furat Bin Ibrahim Bin Furat Al Kufy, from Muhammad Bin Zaheer, from Muhammad Bin AL Hasan, son of the brother of Yunus Al Baghdady, from Muhammad Bin Yaqoub Al Nahshaly who says:

Al-Reza-asws, from his forefathers, from Prophet Muhammad-saww, from Gabriel (Jibraeel),  from Mikaeel, from Israfeel, from Allah-azwj Mighty is His-azwj Might, Said: ‘I-azwj am Allah-azwj. There is no god except Me-azwj. I-azwj have Created the creation by My-azwj Power. I-azwj Chose from them whosoever I-azwj Wanted as My-azwj Prophets-as, and Chose from all of them Muhammad-saww. I-azwj Sent him-saww as a Messenger to My-azwj creation, and I-azwj have Chosen for him-saww Ali-asws and Made him-asws to be his-saww brother and successor and the caller after him-saww to My-azwj creation, and My-azwj Caliph to My-azwj servants, to explain to them My-azwj Book, and clarify for them My-azwj Orders, and Made him-asws as a guide of knowledge against the ignorance, and My-azwj Door as an entrance to Me-azwj’.[59]

The Verses Should never be Interpreted with Ilmul Adad or Opinion:

وعن أحمد بن زياد بن جعفر الهمداني ، عن علي بن إبراهيم بن هاشم ، عن القاسم بن محمد البرمكي ، عن أبي الصلت الهروي ، عن الرضا ( عليه السلام ) ـ في حديث ـ أنه قال لابن الجهم : اتق الله ، ولا تؤول كتاب الله برأيك ، فان الله يقول : ( وما يعلم تأويله إلا الله والراسخون في العلم  ).

And from Ahmad Bin Ziyad Bin Ja’far Al Hamdany, from Ali Bin Ibrahim Bin Hashim, from Al Qasim Bin Muhammad Al Barmakky, from Abu Al-Salah Al Harwy who narrates:

Al-Reza-asws – in a Hadith – he-asws said to Aban Al-Jahm: ‘Be afraid of Allah-azwj, and do not interpret the Book of Allah-azwj by your opinion, for Allah-azwj has Said but none knows its interpretation except Allah, and those who are firmly rooted in knowledge (3:7).[60]

 وعن محمد بن أحمد السناني ، عن محمد بن جعفر الكوفي الأسدي ، عن محمد بن إسماعيل البرمكي ، عن عبدالله بن أحمد ، عن القاسم بن سليمان ، عن ثابت بن أبي صفية ، عن سعيد بن علاقة ، عن أبي سعيد عقيصا ، عن الحسين (عليه السلام) ، عن أبيه ، قال : قال رسول الله ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) : يا علي ! أنت أخي ، وأنا أخوك ، وأنا المصطفى للنبوة ، وأنت المجتبى للامامة ، وأنا صاحب التنزيل ، وأنت صاحب التأويل . الحديث .

And from Muhammad Bin Ahmad Al Sanany, from Muhammad Bin Ja’far Al Jufy Al Asdy, from Muhammad Bin Ismail Al Barmakky, from Abdullah Bin Ahmad, from Al Qasim Bin Suleyman, from Thabit Bin Abu Safiya, from Saeed Bin Alaqa, from Abu Saeed Aqeya who narrates the following:

Al-Husayn-asws, from his-asws father-asws said: ‘The Rasool Allah-saww said: ‘O Ali-asws! You-asws are my-saww brother, and I-saww am your-asws brother, and I-asws have been Chosen for Prophet-hood, and you-asws have been Chosen for Imamate, and I-saww am the ‘Sahib’ (Source) of the Revelation, and you-asws are the ‘Sahib’ of the interpretation’.[61]

The Withheld Knowledge:

وعن أحمد بن محمد بن يحيى ، عن أبيه ، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى ، عن ابن فضال ، عن داود بن فرقد ، عن أبي الحسن زكريا بن يحيى ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : ما حجب الله علمه عن العباد ، فهو موضوع عنهم .

And from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Yahya, from his father, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Isa, from Ibn Sazaal, from Dawood Bin Farqad, from Abu Al Hassan Zakariya Bin Yahya who says:

Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘The knowledge that Allah-azwj has withheld from the servant is that which is not for them’.[62]

The Salvage and Relieve is in the Ahadith (Books):

وعن عدة من أصحابنا ، عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد البرقي ، عن بعض أصحابنا  ، عن أبي سعيد الخيبري ، عن المفضل بن عمر ، قال : قال لي أبو عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) : اكتب ، وبث علمك في إخوانك ، فإن مت فأورث كتبك بنيك ، فانه يأتي على الناس زمان هرج ، لا يأنسون فيه إلا بكتبهم .

And from a number of our companions, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Khalid Al Barqi, from one of our companions, from Abu Sa’eed Al Khaybari, from Al Mufazzal Bin Umar who said:

‘Abu Abd Allah-asws said to me: ‘Write, and spread your knowledge within your brothers. When you (are about to) die, leave your books as inheritance for your children, for there will come upon the people a time of disorder, they will not find relief in it except by their books’.[63]

The Role of a Divine Phophet-saww and an Imam-asws:

The role of a Prophet-asws and/or a Divine Imam-asws is two-fold; (1) to warn the unbelievers and (2) to cleanse the souls of believers, guide them to the righteous path, enlighten them to ‘Hikmat and Maurifat’[64], as per a number of Verses of the Holy Quran, see for example:

(1)

رَبَّنَا وَابْعَثْ فِيهِمْ رَسُولًا مِنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِكَ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ ۚ إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

Our Lord! and raise up in them a Messenger from among them who shall recite to them Thy communications and teach them the Book and the wisdom, and purify them; surely Thou art the Mighty, the Wise (2:129).

(2)

كَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا فِيكُمْ رَسُولًا مِنْكُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْكُمْ آيَاتِنَا وَيُزَكِّيكُمْ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمْ مَا لَمْ تَكُونُوا تَعْلَمُونَ

Even as We have sent among you a Messenger from among you who recites to you Our communications and purifies you and teaches you the Book and the wisdom and teaches you that which you did not know (2:151).

(3)

إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ بِالْحَقِّ بَشِيرًا وَنَذِيرًا ۖ وَلَا تُسْأَلُ عَنْ أَصْحَابِ الْجَحِيمِ

Surely; We have sent you with the truth as a bearer of good news and as a Warner, and you shall not be called upon to answer for the companions of the flaming fire (2:119).

(4)

قُلْ أَيُّ شَيْءٍ أَكْبَرُ شَهَادَةً ۖ قُلِ اللَّهُ ۖ شَهِيدٌ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ ۚ وَأُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنُ لِأُنْذِرَكُمْ بِهِ وَمَنْ بَلَغَ ۚ أَئِنَّكُمْ لَتَشْهَدُونَ أَنَّ مَعَ اللَّهِ آلِهَةً أُخْرَىٰ ۚ قُلْ لَا أَشْهَدُ ۚ قُلْ إِنَّمَا هُوَ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ وَإِنَّنِي بَرِيءٌ مِمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ

Say: What thing is the weightiest in testimony? Say: Allah is witness between you and me; and this Quran has been revealed to me that with it I may warn you and whomsoever it reaches. Do you really bear witness that there are other gods with Allah? Say: I do not bear witness. Say: He is only one Allah, and surely I am clear of that which you set up (with Him) (6:19).

(5)

أَكَانَ لِلنَّاسِ عَجَبًا أَنْ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ رَجُلٍ مِنْهُمْ أَنْ أَنْذِرِ النَّاسَ وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنَّ لَهُمْ قَدَمَ صِدْقٍ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ ۗ قَالَ الْكَافِرُونَ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَسَاحِرٌ مُبِينٌ

What! is it a wonder to the people that We revealed to a man from among themselves, saying: Warn the people and give good news to those who believe that theirs is a footing of firmness with their Lord. The unbelievers say: This is indeed an evident sorcerer (10:2).

(6)

وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْلَا أُنْزِلَ عَلَيْهِ آيَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِ ۗ إِنَّمَا أَنْتَ مُنْذِرٌ ۖ وَلِكُلِّ قَوْمٍ هَادٍ

And those who disbelieve say: Why has not a sign been sent down upon him from his Lord? You are only a Warner and (there is) a guide for every people (13:7).

Imam-asws and his Powers and Responsibilities:

عن طارق بن شهاب عن أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام انه قال: يا طارق الامام كلمة الله وحجة الله ووجه الله ونور الله وحجاب الله وآية الله يختاره الله ويجعل فيه ما يشاء ويوجب له بذلك الطاعة والولاية على جميع خلقه فهو وليه في سماواته وأرضه، أخذ له بذلك العهد على جميع عباده، فمن تقدم عليه كفر بالله من فوق عرشه، فهو يفعل ما يشاء وإذا شاء الله شاء. ويكتب على عضده: ” وتمت كلمة ربك صدقا وعدلا ” فهو الصدق والعدل وينصب له عمود من نور من الارض إلى السماء يرى فيه أعمال العباد، ويلبس الهيبة وعلم الضمير، ويطلع على الغيب،  ويرى ما بين المشرق والمغرب فلا يخفى

It is narrated by ‘Al-Barisi in Mashariq-ul-Anwar that once Tariq bin Shihab asked: “O Ameer al-Momineen-asws please explain the virtues of an Imam (masoom), Ameer al-Momineen-asws replied:

‘O Tariq, the Imam is the ‘Kalima-tul-Allah’ word of Allah; ‘Hujat-Allah the proof of Allah; Waj-Allah’ the direction to Allah;  ‘Noor-Allah’ the light of Allah; ‘Hijab-Allah’ the veil of Allah and ‘Ayat-Allah’ the sign of Allah[65]. He-asws is chosen by Allah-azwj who bestows onto him whatever (qualities, perfections) He-azwj Chooses, and Makes it compulsory on all His-azwj creatures to Obey him-the Imam-asws.  Thus he is Allah-azwj’s appointed ruler in the heavens and on the earth.  Allah-azwj has taken a covenant regarding this from all His servants. Whosoever precedes the Imam-asws has denied established kingdom of Allah-azwj.  An Imam-asws can act as he finds it appropriate; however his actions only correspond to the will of Allah-azwj.

The Imam-asws is the guide for the seekers of the truth, an inspiration for the rightly guided, an established path for the travellers to Allah-azwj and a radiant sun in the hearts of al-Arifoon- the devotees of Allah-azwj.  His ‘Wilayah’ is the vehicle leading to salvation.  Wilayah is to safeguard followers from danger and disasters and the management of their all affairs, even down to demarcating the days and the months’.[66] (Hadith-e-Tariq, see the complete sermon with Arabic text in Appendix II)

The Maurifat of Masomeen-asws is the Maurifat of Allah-azwj:

يا أمير المؤمنين، قال (عليه السلام): إنه لا يستكمل أحد الايمان حتى يعرفني كنه معرفتي بالنورانية فإذا عرفني بهذه المعرفة فقد امتحن الله قلبه للايمان وشرح صدره للاسلام وصار عارفا مستبصرا، ومن قصر عن معرفة ذلك فهو شاك ومرتاب،

An Extract from a famous sermon of Amir-ul-Momineen on Maurifat-e-Noorania[67]:

The faith –Eman, of a believer will not attain the level of perfection unless and until he would recognise me-asws as a Noor – the Light. When someone knows me-asws as Noor, only then he would truly attained faith; he is the one whose heart has been tested with the true faith, whose chest is dilated in true Islám and whose faith is based on discernment. Thus, he becomes an ‘Arif’ –staunch believer and embraces faith with peace of mind.  But that; He who fell short of this cognition – he will be a doubter, immersed in disbelief.

A Momin is Selected and Tested by Allah-azwj:

امتحن الله قلبه للايمان وشرح صدره للاسلام وصار عارفا مستبصرا، ومن قصر عن معرفة ذلك فهو شاك ومرتاب، قال: نعم يا سلمان تصديق ذلك قوله تعالى في الكتاب العزيز: ” واستعينوا بالصبر والصلاة وإنها لكبيرة إلا على الخاشعين ” فالصبر رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) والصلاة إقامة ولايتي، فمنها قال الله تعالى: ” وإنها لكبيرة ” ولم يقل: وإنهما لكبيرة لان الولاية كبيرة حملها إلا على الخاشعين، والخاشعون هم الشيعة المستبصرون،

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws says to his close disciples: O Salmán! O Jandáb! A ‘Momin’ who has been tested by Allah-azwj is that who instantly accepts our ‘Amr’ -attributes and he does not reject any matter pertaining to ourselves, Allah-azwj helps him through opening up his ‘Chest’. He will not exhibit an element of doubt or suspicion. However, he who quibbles with ‘why and how’ becomes a disbeliever. Thus be submissive to ‘Amr-e-Allah’ we are, verily, the ‘Amr Allah’ – the Cause of Allah-azwj!

O Salmán! Allah-azwj, said: ‘do not seek Allah-azwj ‘s help but through patience and prayer: it is indeed hard except for those who possess a humble spirit.’  ‘Patience’ is Muhammad-saww and ‘Prayer’ is my Wilayah.  Thus, that is why Allah-azwj has declared that it is indeed hard to comprehend these attributes.  In fact, my ‘ Wilayah ‘ is not easy to comprehend but for those who have a humble spirit. Thus Allah-azwj made my Wilayat easier only for those who have the ‘humble spirits’.[68]

A Prayer for Spiritual Purification:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ كَرَّامٍ عَنِ ابْنِ‏ أَبِي يَعْفُورٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَقُولُ اللَّهُمَّ امْلَأْ قَلْبِي حُبّاً لَكَ وَ خَشْيَةً مِنْكَ وَ تَصْدِيقاً وَ إِيمَاناً بِكَ وَ فَرَقاً مِنْكَ وَ شَوْقاً إِلَيْكَ يَا ذَا الْجَلَالِ وَ الْإِكْرَامِ اللَّهُمَّ حَبِّبْ إِلَيَّ لِقَاءَكَ وَ اجْعَلْ لِي فِي لِقَائِكَ خَيْرَ الرَّحْمَةِ وَ الْبَرَكَةِ وَ أَلْحِقْنِي بِالصَّالِحِينَ وَ لَا تُؤَخِّرْنِي مَعَ الْأَشْرَارِ وَ أَلْحِقْنِي بِصَالِحِ مَنْ مَضَى وَ اجْعَلْنِي مَعَ صَالِحِ مَنْ بَقِيَ وَ خُذْ بِي سَبِيلَ الصَّالِحِينَ وَ أَعِنِّي عَلَى نَفْسِي بِمَا تُعِينُ بِهِ الصَّالِحِينَ عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَ لَا تَرُدَّنِي فِي سُوءٍ اسْتَنْقَذْتَنِي مِنْهُ يَا رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ أَسْأَلُكَ إِيمَاناً لَا أَجَلَ لَهُ دُونَ لِقَائِكَ تُحْيِينِي وَ تُمِيتُنِي عَلَيْهِ وَ تَبْعَثُنِي عَلَيْهِ إِذَا بَعَثْتَنِي وَ ابْرَأْ قَلْبِي مِنَ الرِّيَاءِ وَ السُّمْعَةِ وَ الشَّكِّ فِي دِينِكَ اللَّهُمَّ أَعْطِنِي نَصْراً فِي دِينِكَ وَ قُوَّةً فِي عِبَادَتِكَ وَ فَهْماً فِي خَلْقِكَ وَ كِفْلَيْنِ مِنْ رَحْمَتِكَ وَ بَيِّضْ وَجْهِي بِنُورِكَ وَ اجْعَلْ رَغْبَتِي فِيمَا عِنْدَكَ وَ تَوَفَّنِي فِي سَبِيلِكَ عَلَى مِلَّتِكَ وَ مِلَّةِ رَسُولِكَ اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْكَسَلِ وَ الْهَرَمِ وَ الْجُبْنِ وَ الْبُخْلِ وَ الْغَفْلَةِ وَ الْقَسْوَةِ وَ الْفَتْرَةِ وَ الْمَسْكَنَةِ وَ أَعُوذُ بِكَ يَا رَبِّ مِنْ نَفْسٍ لَا تَشْبَعُ وَ مِنْ قَلْبٍ لَا يَخْشَعُ وَ مِنْ دُعَاءٍ لَا يُسْمَعُ وَ مِنْ صَلَاةٍ لَا تَنْفَعُ وَ أُعِيذُ بِكَ نَفْسِي وَ أَهْلِي وَ ذُرِّيَّتِي مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّهُ لَا يُجِيرُنِي مِنْكَ أَحَدٌ وَ لَا أَجِدُ مِنْ دُونِكَ مُلْتَحَداً فَلَا تَخْذُلْنِي وَ لَا تُرْدِنِي فِي هَلَكَةٍ وَ لَا تُرِدْنِي بِعَذَابٍ أَسْأَلُكَ الثَّبَاتَ عَلَى دِينِكَ وَ التَّصْدِيقَ بِكِتَابِكَ وَ اتِّبَاعَ رَسُولِكَ اللَّهُمَّ اذْكُرْنِي بِرَحْمَتِكَ وَ لَا تَذْكُرْنِي بِخَطِيئَتِي وَ تَقَبَّلْ مِنِّي وَ زِدْنِي مِنْ فَضْلِكَ إِنِّي إِلَيْكَ رَاغِبٌ اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْ ثَوَابَ مَنْطِقِي وَ ثَوَابَ مَجْلِسِي رِضَاكَ عَنِّي وَ اجْعَلْ عَمَلِي وَ دُعَائِي خَالِصاً لَكَ وَ اجْعَلْ ثَوَابِيَ الْجَنَّةَ بِرَحْمَتِكَ وَ اجْمَعْ لِي جَمِيعَ مَا سَأَلْتُكَ وَ زِدْنِي مِنْ فَضْلِكَ إِنِّي إِلَيْكَ رَاغِبٌ اللَّهُمَّ غَارَتِ النُّجُومُ وَ نَامَتِ الْعُيُونُ وَ أَنْتَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ لَا يُوَارِي مِنْكَ لَيْلٌ سَاجٍ وَ لَا سَمَاءٌ ذَاتُ أَبْرَاجٍ وَ لَا أَرْضٌ ذَاتُ مِهَادٍ وَ لَا بَحْرٌ لُجِّيٌّ وَ لَا ظُلُمَاتٌ بَعْضُهَا فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ تُدْلِجُ الرَّحْمَةَ عَلَى مَنْ تَشَاءُ مِنْ خَلْقِكَ تَعْلَمُ خَائِنَةَ الْأَعْيُنِ وَ مَا تُخْفِي الصُّدُورُ أَشْهَدُ بِمَا شَهِدْتَ بِهِ عَلَى نَفْسِكَ وَ شَهِدَتْ

مَلَائِكَتُكَ وَ أُولُو الْعِلْمِ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ وَ مَنْ لَمْ يَشْهَدْ بِمَا شَهِدْتَ بِهِ عَلَى نَفْسِكَ وَ شَهِدَتْ مَلَائِكَتُكَ وَ أُولُو الْعِلْمِ فَاكْتُبْ شَهَادَتِي مَكَانَ شَهَادَتِهِمْ اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ السَّلَامُ وَ مِنْكَ السَّلَامُ أَسْأَلُكَ يَا ذَا الْجَلَالِ وَ الْإِكْرَامِ أَنْ تَفُكَّ رَقَبَتِي مِنَ النَّارِ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Hassan ibn Ali from Karram from ibn abu Ya’fur who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

‘Our Allah-azwj, fill my heart with love for You-azwj, concern about You-azwj, affirmation of and belief in Your-azwj existence, fear from You-azwj and longing toward You-azwj, O Glorious, O Magnanimous. Our Allah, make me love meeting You-azwj, and such meeting to be good, merciful, and full of blessings, join me with the virtuous and do not leave me behind with the wicked ones. Join me with the virtuous of the past and those to come, lead me on the path of virtuous ones, assist me against my soul by that with which You-azwj assist the virtuous ones against their souls, do not turn me in the evil from which You-azwj want to rescue me, Our Allah-azwj of the worlds. I plead before You-azwj for a belief free of timing before meeting You-azwj, with which You-azwj will Keep me living, Cause me to die, and raise me up with it when You-azwj will resurrect me.

Free my heart from showing-off, desire for popularity, and doubt in Your-azwj religion. ‘Our Allah-azwj, give me victory in Your-azwj religion, energy to worship, understanding of Your-azwj creatures, support me twice with Your-azwj kindness (in this life and hereafter), brighten my face with Your-azwj light, make me interested in what is with You-azwj, cause me to die in Your-azwj way and in Your-azwj religion, the religion of Your-azwj Messenger-saww.

‘Our Allah-azwj, I seek protection against laziness, old age, cowardice, stinginess, carelessness, hardheartedness, weakness, and destitution.

I seek protection with You-azwj, Our Allah against a soul that does not become satisfied, the heart that does not become humble, the supplication that is not heard, and the prayer that does not yield any benefit. I seek protection with You-azwj for myself, my family, and my children against condemned Satan-la.

‘Our Allah-azwj, no one can protect me against You-azwj, I do not find any place to hide from You-azwj, Do not humiliate me and Do not throw me in perdition and in torment. I plead before You-azwj to keep me to remain steadfast in Your-azwj religion, affirm Your-azwj book, and follow Your-azwj messenger-saww. ‘Our Allah-azwj, speak of me with Your-azwj mercy and do not speak of me with my sins, accept from me (my good deeds), increase for me from Your-azwj generosity; I am keen in worshipping You-azwj. Our Allah-azwj, make my reward for speaking and sitting to be Your-azwj happiness with me, make my deeds and supplication purely for You-azwj, make my reward paradise through Your-azwj mercy, place me together with all I pleaded for before You-azwj and increase for me through Your-azwj favour; I am greatly inclined (to submit myself) to You-azwj.

Our Allah-azwj, the stars have disappeared, eyes have gone to sleep, You-azwj are Watching and Guarding, the dark night cannot disappear from You-azwj nor the starry skies or the well-stretched Earth, neither the choppy ocean, nor the darkness upon darkness.

You-azwj Send mercy upon whomever You-azwj will among Your-azwj creatures; You-azwj know the secret glance of the eyes and what the hearts conceal. I testify to what You-azwj have testified for yourself, to what Your-azwj angels have testified, and people of knowledge have testified that no one deserves to be worshipped except You-azwj the Majestic, the Wise. Whoever does not testify to what You-azwj have testified for yourself-azwj has disbelieved, Your-azwj angels have testified, and people of knowledge have testified, then write my testimony in (the Book) adjacent to their testimony.

Our Allah, You-azwj are the Peace, and from You-azwj is peace. I plead before You-azwj, O the Owner of glory and magnanimity to set my neck free of the Fire’.[69]

The Process of Learning:

وعن علي بن إبراهيم ، عن محمد بن عيسى ، عن يونس ، عن جميل ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : سمعته يقول : يغدو الناس على ثلاثة أصناف : عالم ، ومتعلم ، وغثاء ، فنحن العلماء ، وشيعتنا المتعلمون ، وسائر الناس غثاء

And from Ali Bin Ibrahim from Muhammad Bin Isa from Yunus from Jameel who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

Abu Abd Allah-asws said: ‘People are of three types – scholar, student, and rubbish. We-asws are the scholars, and our-asws Shiites are the students, and the rest of the people are worthless’.[70]

أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَعْقُوبَ قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ هَاشِمٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مَنْصُورٍ قَالَ قَالَ لِي هِشَامُ بْنُ الْحَكَمِ كَانَ بِمِصْرَ زِنْدِيقٌ تَبْلُغُهُ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع أَشْيَاءُ فَخَرَجَ إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ لِيُنَاظِرَهُ فَلَمْ يُصَادِفْهُ بِهَا وَ قِيلَ لَهُ إِنَّهُ خَارِجٌ بِمَكَّةَ فَخَرَجَ إِلَى مَكَّةَ وَ نَحْنُ مَعَ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ فَصَادَفَنَا وَ نَحْنُ مَعَ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع فِي الطَّوَافِ وَ كَانَ اسْمُهُ عَبْدَ الْمَلِكِ وَ كُنْيَتُهُ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ فَضَرَبَ كَتِفَهُ كَتِفَ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع فَقَالَ لَهُ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع مَا اسْمُكَ فَقَالَ اسْمِي عَبْدُ الْمَلِكِ قَالَ فَمَا كُنْيَتُكَ قَالَ كُنْيَتِي أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ فَقَالَ لَهُ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع فَمَنْ هَذَا الْمَلِكُ الَّذِي أَنْتَ عَبْدُهُ أَ مِنْ مُلُوكِ الْأَرْضِ أَمْ مِنْ مُلُوكِ السَّمَاءِ وَ أَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ ابْنِكَ عَبْدُ إِلَهِ السَّمَاءِ أَمْ عَبْدُ إِلَهِ الْأَرْضِ قُلْ مَا شِئْتَ تُخْصَمُ قَالَ هِشَامُ بْنُ الْحَكَمِ فَقُلْتُ لِلزِّنْدِيقِ أَ مَا تَرُدُّ عَلَيْهِ قَالَ فَقَبَّحَ قَوْلِي فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ إِذَا فَرَغْتُ مِنَ الطَّوَافِ فَأْتِنَا فَلَمَّا فَرَغَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ أَتَاهُ الزِّنْدِيقُ فَقَعَدَ بَيْنَ يَدَيْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ وَ نَحْنُ مُجْتَمِعُونَ عِنْدَهُ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع لِلزِّنْدِيقِ أَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّ لِلْأَرْضِ تَحْتاً وَ فَوْقاً قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ فَدَخَلْتَ تَحْتَهَا قَالَ لَا قَالَ فَمَا يُدْرِيكَ مَا تَحْتَهَا قَالَ لَا أَدْرِي إِلَّا أَنِّي أَظُنُّ أَنْ لَيْسَ تَحْتَهَا شَيْ‏ءٌ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع فَالظَّنُّ عَجْزٌ لِمَا لَا تَسْتَيْقِنُ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ أَ فَصَعِدْتَ السَّمَاءَ قَالَ لَا قَالَ أَ فَتَدْرِي مَا فِيهَا قَالَ لَا قَالَ عَجَباً لَكَ لَمْ تَبْلُغِ الْمَشْرِقَ وَ لَمْ تَبْلُغِ الْمَغْرِبَ وَ لَمْ تَنْزِلِ الْأَرْضَ وَ لَمْ تَصْعَدِ السَّمَاءَ وَ لَمْ تَجُزْ هُنَاكَ فَتَعْرِفَ مَا خَلْفَهُنَّ وَ أَنْتَ جَاحِدٌ بِمَا فِيهِنَّ وَ هَلْ يَجْحَدُ الْعَاقِلُ مَا لَا يَعْرِفُ قَالَ الزِّنْدِيقُ مَا كَلَّمَنِي بِهَذَا أَحَدٌ غَيْرُكَ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع فَأَنْتَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فِي شَكٍّ فَلَعَلَّهُ هُوَ وَ لَعَلَّهُ لَيْسَ هُوَ فَقَالَ الزِّنْدِيقُ وَ لَعَلَّ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع أَيُّهَا الرَّجُلُ لَيْسَ لِمَنْ لَا يَعْلَمُ حُجَّةٌ عَلَى مَنْ يَعْلَمُ وَ لَا حُجَّةَ لِلْجَاهِلِ يَا أَخَا أَهْلِ مِصْرَ تَفْهَمُ عَنِّي فَإِنَّا لَا نَشُكُّ فِي اللَّهِ أَبَداً أَ مَا تَرَى الشَّمْسَ وَ الْقَمَرَ وَ اللَّيْلَ وَ النَّهَارَ يَلِجَانِ فَلَا يَشْتَبِهَانِ وَ يَرْجِعَانِ قَدِ اضْطُرَّا لَيْسَ لَهُمَا مَكَانٌ إِلَّا مَكَانُهُمَا فَإِنْ كَانَا يَقْدِرَانِ عَلَى أَنْ يَذْهَبَا فَلِمَ يَرْجِعَانِ وَ إِنْ كَانَا غَيْرَ مُضْطَرَّيْنِ فَلِمَ لَا يَصِيرُ اللَّيْلُ نَهَاراً وَ النَّهَارُ لَيْلًا اضْطُرَّا وَ اللَّهِ يَا أَخَا أَهْلِ مِصْرَ إِلَى دَوَامِهِمَا وَ الَّذِي اضْطَرَّهُمَا أَحْكَمُ مِنْهُمَا وَ أَكْبَرُ فَقَالَ الزِّنْدِيقُ صَدَقْتَ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع يَا أَخَا أَهْلِ مِصْرَ إِنَّ الَّذِي تَذْهَبُونَ إِلَيْهِ وَ تَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُ الدَّهْرُ إِنْ كَانَ الدَّهْرُ يَذْهَبُ بِهِمْ لِمَ لَا يَرُدُّهُمْ وَ إِنْ كَانَ يَرُدُّهُمْ لِمَ لَا يَذْهَبُ بِهِمُ الْقَوْمُ مُضْطَرُّونَ يَا أَخَا أَهْلِ مِصْرَ لِمَ السَّمَاءُ مَرْفُوعَةٌ وَ الْأَرْضُ مَوْضُوعَةٌ لِمَ لَا يَسْقُطُ السَّمَاءُ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ لِمَ لَا تَنْحَدِرُ الْأَرْضُ فَوْقَ طِبَاقِهَا وَ لَا يَتَمَاسَكَانِ وَ لَا يَتَمَاسَكُ مَنْ عَلَيْهَا قَالَ الزِّنْدِيقُ أَمْسَكَهُمَا اللَّهُ رَبُّهُمَا وَ سَيِّدُهُمَا قَالَ فَآمَنَ الزِّنْدِيقُ عَلَى يَدَيْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع فَقَالَ لَهُ حُمْرَانُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِنْ آمَنَتِ الزَّنَادِقَةُ عَلَى يَدِكَ فَقَدْ آمَنَ الْكُفَّارُ عَلَى يَدَيْ أَبِيكَ فَقَالَ الْمُؤْمِنُ الَّذِي آمَنَ عَلَى يَدَيْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع اجْعَلْنِي مِنْ تَلَامِذَتِكَ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ يَا هِشَامَ بْنَ الْحَكَمِ خُذْهُ إِلَيْكَ وَ عَلِّمْهُ فَعَلَّمَهُ هِشَامٌ فَكَانَ مُعَلِّمَ أَهْلِ الشَّامِ وَ أَهْلِ مِصْرَ الْإِيمَانَ وَ حَسُنَتْ طَهَارَتُهُ حَتَّى رَضِيَ بِهَا أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ

Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Ya’qub has narrated from Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashim from his father, who from al-Hassan ibn Ibrahim from Yunus ibn Abd al- Rahman from Ali ibn Mansur who has narrated:

‘Hisham ibn Al-Hakam has reported that in Egypt there lived an atheist who had heard a great deal about (Imam) Abu Abd Allah-asws. He travelled to Madina to debate the Imam-asws but he missed finding the Imam-asws therein. He was told that the Imam-asws had travelled to the city of Mecca. He then left for Mecca and we were with the Imam-asws when we came across him-asws during our performing Tawaf (the seven times walking around the Ka’bah). The man’s name was’ Abd al-Malik, also called abu Abd Allah as his Kunya in Arabic.

He touched Abu Abd Allah-asws’s shoulder with his shoulder as he walked along. The Imam-asws asked him: ‘What is your name?’ ‘It is ‘Abd al-Malik (meaning slave of the King)’, the man replied. ‘What is your Kunya?’ Imam-asws asked. ‘It is Abu Abd Allah he replied’. The Imam-asws then asked, ‘Who is this king whose slave you are? Is he of the earthly kings or of the heavenly ones? Tell us about your son. Is he a slave of the Lord of the Heavens or a slave of the Lord of the Earth? Say whatever you may it will be against you’.

‘Hisham has said that I asked him (the atheist man), ‘Why do you not answer?’ The man seemed to dislike my words. The Imam-asws then told him, ‘Meet us when we finish our Tawaf’. ‘The atheist came to the Imam-asws later and sat in front of the Imam-asws, and we were all gathered around him. ‘The Imam-asws then asked him, ‘Do you know that the earth has an underside and an upper-side’? ‘Yes, I know it: the man replied.

The Imam-asws then asked, ‘Have you gone in the underside of the earth?’ ‘No, I have not gone there’, the man replied. The Imam-asws then asked, ‘Do you know what is there’? ‘I do not know but I guess there is nothing there’, he replied. The Imam-asws then said, ‘Guessing is weakness. Why do you not acquire certainty?’ The Imam-asws then asked, ‘Have you climbed up into the sky?’ ‘No, I have not done so’, the man replied. The Imam then asked, ‘Do you know what is up there’? ‘No, I do not know’, he replied. The Imam-asws said: ‘It is very strange. Without reaching the East or the West, without going under the earth or climbing up the sky and without even having crossed anything to know what is behind there, you deny what is in them. Does any man of reason deny what he does not know’?

‘The atheist man then said, ‘No one has ever come up to me with such statements as you have’. The Imam-asws then said: ‘So, you are uncertain about Him-azwj. Perhaps He-azwj is or maybe He-azwj does not exist’. The atheist man then said, ‘Perhaps He-azwj is.’ The Imam-asws then said: ‘O man, one who does not know has no authority over the one who knows. O Egyptian brethren, listen carefully. We have no doubts about the existence of Allah-azwj. Think about the Sun, the Moon, the day and the nights that follow each other and do not miss their turns or become confused. They each have their place and do not have any choice. If they had any other choice they would not come back again. If they had a choice the day would not always end with night and the night would not always end in the day. They are forced, I-asws say it by Allah-azwj, to continue. O Egyptian brethren, the One-azwj who has forced them is stronger than them and greater.’ The atheist man then said, ‘You have spoken the truth’.

‘The Imam-asws then said: ‘You people speak of and guess that it is dahr (time) that causes people to die and brings changes. If it were so, then, when it took them away why then would it not return them, and if such form of time had returned them then why would it not be taking them away? These things, O Egyptian brethren, are compelled. Why the sky is up high and why the earth is low? Why the sky does not fall down on earth? Why the earth does not flow one layer over the other and the two do not stick to each other, and why do not those on it stick to it?’ The man then said, ‘Allah-azwj their Lord has made them to hold together.’

‘Hisham has said: ‘He professed belief in Allah-azwj in the presence of Abu Abd Allah-asws’.  ‘Humran then said to the Imam-asws: ‘May Allah-azwj keep my soul in service for your cause, if atheists profess belief in Allah-azwj before you it is because the unbelievers converted to faith because of your-asws father-asws.’ The man who had just professed belief in Allah-azwj requested Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws to allow him to become one of his students. The Imam-asws then asked Hisham to teach him. Hisham taught him well and he became a teacher for the people in Syria and Egypt. His purification was very good and the Imam-asws became happy with him’.[71]

The Qualities of a Believer:

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ دَاهِرٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ قُثَمَ أَبِي قَتَادَةَ الْحَرَّانِيِّ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ يُونُسَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَامَ رَجُلٌ يُقَالُ لَهُ هَمَّامٌ وَ كَانَ عَابِداً نَاسِكاً مُجْتَهِداً إِلَى أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع وَ هُوَ يَخْطُبُ فَقَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ صِفْ لَنَا صِفَةَ الْمُؤْمِنِ كَأَنَّنَا نَنْظُرُ إِلَيْهِ فَقَالَ يَا هَمَّامُ الْمُؤْمِنُ هُوَ الْكَيِّسُ الْفَطِنُ بِشْرُهُ فِي وَجْهِهِ وَ حُزْنُهُ فِي قَلْبِهِ أَوْسَعُ شَيْ‏ءٍ صَدْراً وَ أَذَلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ نَفْساً زَاجِرٌ عَنْ كُلِّ فَانٍ حَاضٌّ عَلَى كُلِّ حَسَنٍ لَا حَقُودٌ وَ لَا حَسُودٌ وَ لَا وَثَّابٌ وَ لَا سَبَّابٌ وَ لَا عَيَّابٌ وَ لَا مُغْتَابٌ يَكْرَهُ الرِّفْعَةَ وَ يَشْنَأُ السُّمْعَةَ طَوِيلُ الْغَمِّ بَعِيدُ الْهَمِّ كَثِيرُ الصَّمْتِ وَقُورٌ ذَكُورٌ صَبُورٌ شَكُورٌ مَغْمُومٌ بِفِكْرِهِ مَسْرُورٌ بِفَقْرِهِ سَهْلُ الْخَلِيقَةِ لَيِّنُ الْعَرِيكَةِ رَصِينُ الْوَفَاءِ قَلِيلُ الْأَذَى لَا مُتَأَفِّكٌ وَ لَا مُتَهَتِّكٌ إِنْ ضَحِكَ لَمْ يَخْرَقْ وَ إِنْ غَضِبَ لَمْ يَنْزَقْ ضِحْكُهُ تَبَسُّمٌ وَ اسْتِفْهَامُهُ تَعَلُّمٌ وَ مُرَاجَعَتُهُ تَفَهُّمٌ كَثِيرٌ عِلْمُهُ عَظِيمٌ حِلْمُهُ كَثِيرُ الرَّحْمَةِ لَا يَبْخَلُ وَ لَا يَعْجَلُ وَ لَا يَضْجَرُ وَ لَا يَبْطَرُ وَ لَا يَحِيفُ فِي حُكْمِهِ وَ لَا يَجُورُ فِي عِلْمِهِ نَفْسُهُ أَصْلَبُ مِنَ الصَّلْدِ وَ مُكَادَحَتُهُ أَحْلَى مِنَ الشَّهْدِ لَا جَشِعٌ وَ لَا هَلِعٌ وَ لَا عَنِفٌ وَ لَا صَلِفٌ وَ لَا مُتَكَلِّفٌ وَ لَا مُتَعَمِّقٌ جَمِيلُ الْمُنَازَعَةِ كَرِيمُ الْمُرَاجَعَةِ عَدْلٌ إِنْ غَضِبَ رَفِيقٌ إِنْ طَلَبَ لَا يَتَهَوَّرُ وَ لَا يَتَهَتَّكُ وَ لَا يَتَجَبَّرُ خَالِصُ الْوُدِّ وَثِيقُ الْعَهْدِ وَفِيُّ الْعَقْدِ شَفِيقٌ وَصُولٌ حَلِيمٌ خَمُولٌ قَلِيلُ الْفُضُولِ رَاضٍ عَنِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ مُخَالِفٌ لِهَوَاهُ لَا يَغْلُظُ عَلَى مَنْ دُونَهُ وَ لَا يَخُوضُ فِيمَا لَا يَعْنِيهِ نَاصِرٌ لِلدِّينِ مُحَامٍ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كَهْفٌ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ لَا يَخْرِقُ الثَّنَاءُ سَمْعَهُ وَ لَا يَنْكِي الطَّمَعُ قَلْبَهُ وَ لَا يَصْرِفُ اللَّعِبُ حُكْمَهُ وَ لَا يُطْلِعُ الْجَاهِلَ عِلْمَهُ قَوَّالٌ عَمَّالٌ عَالِمٌ حَازِمٌ لَا بِفَحَّاشٍ وَ لَا بِطَيَّاشٍ وَصُولٌ فِي غَيْرِ عُنْفٍ بَذُولٌ فِي غَيْرِ سَرَفٍ لَا بِخَتَّالٍ وَ لَا بِغَدَّارٍ وَ لَا يَقْتَفِي أَثَراً وَ لَا يَحِيفُ بَشَراً رَفِيقٌ بِالْخَلْقِ سَاعٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ عَوْنٌ لِلضَّعِيفِ غَوْثٌ لِلْمَلْهُوفِ لَا يَهْتِكُ سِتْراً وَ لَا يَكْشِفُ سِرّاً كَثِيرُ الْبَلْوَى قَلِيلُ الشَّكْوَى إِنْ رَأَى خَيْراً ذَكَرَهُ وَ إِنْ عَايَنَ شَرّاً سَتَرَهُ يَسْتُرُ الْعَيْبَ وَ يَحْفَظُ الْغَيْبَ وَ يُقِيلُ الْعَثْرَةَ وَ يَغْفِرُ الزَّلَّةَ لَا يَطَّلِعُ عَلَى نُصْحٍ فَيَذَرَهُ وَ لَا يَدَعُ جِنْحَ حَيْفٍ فَيُصْلِحَهُ أَمِينٌ رَصِينٌ تَقِيٌّ نَقِيٌّ زَكِيٌّ رَضِيٌّ يَقْبَلُ الْعُذْرَ وَ يُجْمِلُ الذِّكْرَ وَ يُحْسِنُ بِالنَّاسِ الظَّنَّ وَ يَتَّهِمُ عَلَى الْعَيْبِ نَفْسَهُ يُحِبُّ فِي اللَّهِ بِفِقْهٍ وَ عِلْمٍ وَ يَقْطَعُ فِي اللَّهِ بِحَزْمٍ وَ عَزْمٍ لَا يَخْرَقُ بِهِ فَرَحٌ وَ لَا يَطِيشُ بِهِ مَرَحٌ مُذَكِّرٌ لِلْعَالِمِ مُعَلِّمٌ لِلْجَاهِلِ لَا يُتَوَقَّعُ لَهُ بَائِقَةٌ وَ لَا يُخَافُ لَهُ غَائِلَةٌ كُلُّ سَعْيٍ أَخْلَصُ عِنْدَهُ مِنْ سَعْيِهِ وَ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ أَصْلَحُ عِنْدَهُ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ عَالِمٌ بِعَيْبِهِ شَاغِلٌ بِغَمِّهِ لَا يَثِقُ بِغَيْرِ رَبِّهِ غَرِيبٌ وَحِيدٌ جَرِيدٌ حَزِينٌ يُحِبُّ فِي اللَّهِ وَ يُجَاهِدُ فِي اللَّهِ لِيَتَّبِعَ رِضَاهُ وَ لَا يَنْتَقِمُ لِنَفْسِهِ بِنَفْسِهِ وَ لَا يُوَالِي فِي سَخَطِ رَبِّهِ مُجَالِسٌ لِأَهْلِ الْفَقْرِ مُصَادِقٌ لِأَهْلِ الصِّدْقِ مُؤَازِرٌ لِأَهْلِ الْحَقِّ عَوْنٌ لِلْقَرِيبِ أَبٌ لِلْيَتِيمِ بَعْلٌ لِلْأَرْمَلَةِ حَفِيٌّ بِأَهْلِ الْمَسْكَنَةِ مَرْجُوٌّ لِكُلِّ كَرِيهَةٍ مَأْمُولٌ لِكُلِّ شِدَّةٍ هَشَّاشٌ بَشَّاشٌ لَا بِعَبَّاسٍ وَ لَا بِجَسَّاسٍ صَلِيبٌ كَظَّامٌ بَسَّامٌ دَقِيقُ النَّظَرِ عَظِيمُ الْحَذَرِ لَا يَجْهَلُ وَ إِنْ جُهِلَ عَلَيْهِ يَحْلُمُ لَا يَبْخَلُ وَ إِنْ بُخِلَ عَلَيْهِ صَبَرَ عَقَلَ فَاسْتَحْيَا

Muhammad ibn Ja’far has narrated from Muhammad ibn lsma’il from ‘Abd Allah ibn Dahir from al-Hassan ibn Yahya from Qathm abu Qatadah al-Harrani from ‘Abd Allah ibn Yunus who has narrated the following from Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws:

‘Once a man called Hammam, a devout worshipper practicing religious rules and a hardworking man came to Amir-ul-Momineen-asws during his speech and said, ‘ Amir-ul-Momineen-asws, describe for us the qualities of the believer as if we see him before our eyes’.

‘Amir-ul-Momineen-asws said: ‘O Hammam, a believer is a smart, intelligent one whose delight is on his face and whose sadness is in his heart, his chest is vastly open, his soul is most humble, he criticizes one’s leaning to every mortal, exhorts to go for everything good. He is not hateful, quarrelsome, scandalous, faultfinding or backbiting. He dislikes high positions (leadership) and is an enemy of fame and publicity.

His sadness remains for a long time, his ambition is far reaching. He very often remains silent, dignified, ever remembering (the Lord-azwj), exercising patience, grateful, sad due to his thoughts, happy with his poverty, easy in his nature, kindhearted, of strong loyalty, of very little trouble, not a liar or insulting, ‘When laughing, he does not burst. When angry he does not rush. His laughing is smiles, his question is to learn, his review is to understand, his knowledge is plentiful, his forbearance is great and his blessing is a great deal.

He is not stingy, he does not hasten, irritate or acts as an extremist, is not unjust in his judgement, or unfair due to his knowledge. His soul is more solid than a rock, his labour is sweeter than honey. He is not greedy, intolerant, violent, conceited, pretending or exaggerating. He is graceful in disputed matters, of honourable visitation, a man of justice when angry, and a friend when asked.

He is not adventurous, or insulting and intimidating. His love is pure, he is of solid promise, of fulfilling commitment, affectionate, a keeper of good relations, and forbearing, calm, of very little that is extraneous, happy with Allah-azwj and opposes his own desires. He is not rough toward his inferiors and does not indulge in what is not his business.

He is a supporter of religion, a defender of believers; a stronghold for Muslims, and admiration does not affect him negatively, greed does not hurt his heart, playfulness does not change his judgement and ignorant ones cannot find the limits of his knowledge. ‘His words are many and he is a determined scholar.

He is not abusive or furious. He reaches out without harshness, is generous not a spendthrift, is not deceitful or treacherous, is not a faultfinder or unjust to a human being. He is a friend of the creatures, effortful on earth, assistant of the weak and a helper of the helpless. He does not violate what is hidden or uncover secrets; his trials are a great deal but his complaints are very little.

He remembers the good that he had seen, covers up the evil that he may observe, hides the defects, safeguards the unseen, corrects slips and forgives mistakes. He does not walk away from an advice that he can give, and he does not give up reforming an unjust instance. He is trustworthy, steadfast, pious, clean, purified and consenting. He accepts excuses, speaks of someone with grace and he is good and expects good from people.

He accuses his soul of defects, loves for the sake of Allah-azwj with understanding and knowledge, cuts-off relations for the sake of Allah-azwj with firmness and determination. Happiness does not trespass upon him and intense happiness does not make him excited. He is a reminder for the scholar and a teacher for the ignorant. He is not expected to cause a calamity. He is not feared for causing a tragedy, every effort to him is more sincere than his own and every soul is more correct than his own.

He knows his defects. He is busy with his own sadness. He does not rely on anyone except his Lord-azwj. He feels a stranger, lonely, dispossessed and sad. He loves for the sake of Allah-azwj, strives for the sake of Allah-azwj to follow His-azwj Happiness. He does not revenge by himself for his ownself. He does not make friends to make his Lord-azwj angry.

He sits with the poor, is a friend of the truthful ones, a supporter of the people of truth and an assistant for those near to him. He is like a father for the orphans, like a guardian for the widows, the first hope for the destitute, expected to remove every resentful matter and to relieve every difficulty.

He is light and happy, is not frowning or sly, and is strong, controlling of anger, smiling, sharp-sighted and greatly cautious. He does not ignore, and if ignored, he is forbearing. He is not stingy and if stinginess, is used against him he exercises patience. He understands, thus he is conscious, is content, independent and is self-sufficient. His abstinent is higher than his lust, his love is higher than his jealousy and his forgiveness is higher than his hate.

He does not speak without correctness and does not dress unless it is economical. He walks humbly, is submissive before his Lord-azwj in obedience and is happy with Him-azwj in all conditions. His intention is pure and sincere. His deeds are free of fraud and deceit. His observations are good lessons, his silence is thoughtful and his words are wisdom. He is advising, charitable and brotherly.

He gives good advice in public and in private. He neither abandons his brother nor backbites and nor plots against him. He does not regret what he has missed, and does not become sad for whatever befalls him. He does not hope for what is not lawful. He does not fail in hardships and does not perpetrate in comfort.

He mixes forbearance with knowledge and reason with patience. He is not lazy but is always active, of very short longing and of very few slips. (Good) is expected through him, his heart is fearful, he always speaks of his Lord-azwj, his soul is content, his ignorance is negative, his affairs are easy, he is sad for his sins, his lust is dead, his anger is controlled and his moral behaviors are lucent.

His neighbours live safely with him, he has suppressed his pride, he is content with whatever is determined for him, his patience is strong, his affair is well established and his remembering (the Lord-azwj) is a great deal. He meets with people to learn and remains silent for safety, he asks questions to understand, and he trades to earn. He does not remain silent for good to be subjected to injustice, and does not speak to be used in doing injustice to others.

His soul is tired of him and people are comfortable with him. He has tired his soul for the gains of the next life and has provided comfort to others by means of his soul. If rebellion is committed against him he exercises patience until Allah-azwj Finds support for him. His distancing when distancing is needed comes in overlooking and in graceful disregard, and his closeness when closeness is needed comes as kindness and blessings. His distancing is not out of boastfulness or greatness and his closeness is not a plot or deceit. It is because he follows the footsteps of those before him, the people of goodness. Thus, he is the leader for those after him.’

‘The narrator has said that Hammam breathed very deeply and fell down unconscious. Amir-ul-Momineen-asws said: ‘By Allah-azwj I was afraid of its effect for him. This is how effective advice works on people deserving such advice. Someone said: ‘Why does it not apply to you, O Amir-ul-Momineen-asws?’ The Imam-asws said: ‘For everything there is an appointed time that is not surpassed and a cause that does not fail. Wait, and do not transgress. It was a blow that Satan-la made to flow through your tongue’.[72]

The Role of Worship and Prayers for Spiritual Purification:

The prayers and the acts of worship, which are prescribed by the Masomeen-asws are essential for ‘Tazqiya-e-Nafs’ (for the purification of one’s soul). We take few examples here, from Ahadith:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ مَنْصُورِ بْنِ يُونُسَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع فَقَالَ قُلِ اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ قَوْلَ التَّوَّابِينَ وَ عَمَلَهُمْ وَ نُورَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ وَ صِدْقَهُمْ وَ نَجَاةَ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ وَ ثَوَابَهُمْ وَ شُكْرَ الْمُصْطَفَيْنَ وَ نَصِيحَتَهُمْ وَ عَمَلَ الذَّاكِرِينَ وَ يَقِينَهُمْ وَ إِيمَانَ الْعُلَمَاءِ وَ فِقْهَهُمْ وَ تَعَبُّدَ الْخَاشِعِينَ وَ تَوَاضُعَهُمْ وَ حُكْمَ الْفُقَهَاءِ وَ سِيرَتَهُمْ وَ خَشْيَةَ الْمُتَّقِينَ وَ رَغْبَتَهُمْ وَ تَصْدِيقَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ تَوَكُّلَهُمْ وَ رَجَاءَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ وَ بِرَّهُمْ اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ ثَوَابَ الشَّاكِرِينَ وَ مَنْزِلَةَ الْمُقَرَّبِينَ وَ مُرَافَقَةَ النَّبِيِّينَ اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ خَوْفَ الْعَامِلِينَ لَكَ وَ عَمَلَ الْخَائِفِينَ مِنْكَ وَ خُشُوعَ الْعَابِدِينَ لَكَ وَ يَقِينَ الْمُتَوَكِّلِينَ عَلَيْكَ وَ تَوَكُّلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ بِكَ اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّكَ بِحَاجَتِي عَالِمٌ غَيْرُ مُعَلَّمٍ وَ أَنْتَ لَهَا وَاسِعٌ غَيْرُ مُتَكَلِّفٍ وَ أَنْتَ الَّذِي لَا يُحْفِيكَ سَائِلٌ وَ لَا يَنْقُصُكَ نَائِلٌ وَ لَا يَبْلُغُ مِدْحَتَكَ قَوْلُ قَائِلٍ أَنْتَ كَمَا تَقُولُ وَ فَوْقَ مَا نَقُولُ اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْ لِي فَرَجاً قَرِيباً وَ أَجْراً عَظِيماً وَ سِتْراً جَمِيلًا اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّكَ تَعْلَمُ أَنِّي عَلَى ظُلْمِي لِنَفْسِي وَ إِسْرَافِي عَلَيْهَا لَمْ أَتَّخِذْ لَكَ ضِدّاً وَ لَا نِدّاً وَ لَا صَاحِبَةً وَ لَا وَلَداً يَا مَنْ لَا تُغَلِّطُهُ الْمَسَائِلُ يَا مَنْ لَا يَشْغَلُهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ عَنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ وَ لَا سَمْعٌ عَنْ سَمْعٍ وَ لَا بَصَرٌ عَنْ بَصَرٍ وَ لَا يُبْرِمُهُ إِلْحَاحُ الْمُلِحِّينَ أَسْأَلُكَ أَنْ تُفَرِّجَ عَنِّي فِي سَاعَتِي هَذِهِ مِنْ حَيْثُ أَحْتَسِبُ وَ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا أَحْتَسِبُ إِنَّكَ تُحْيِي الْعِظَامَ وَ هِيَ رَمِيمٌ وَ إِنَّكَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ قَدِيرٌ يَا مَنْ قَلَّ شُكْرِي لَهُ فَلَمْ يَحْرِمْنِي وَ عَظُمَتْ خَطِيئَتِي فَلَمْ يَفْضَحْنِي وَ رَآنِي عَلَى الْمَعَاصِي فَلَمْ يَجْبَهْنِي وَ خَلَقَنِي لِلَّذِي خَلَقَنِي لَهُ فَصَنَعْتُ غَيْرَ الَّذِي خَلَقَنِي لَهُ فَنِعْمَ الْمَوْلَى أَنْتَ يَا سَيِّدِي وَ بِئْسَ الْعَبْدُ أَنَا وَجَدْتَنِي وَ نِعْمَ الطَّالِبُ أَنْتَ رَبِّي وَ بِئْسَ الْمَطْلُوبُ أَنَا أَلْفَيْتَنِي عَبْدُكَ وَ ابْنُ عَبْدِكَ وَ ابْنُ أَمَتِكَ بَيْنَ يَدَيْكَ مَا شِئْتَ صَنَعْتَ بِيَ اللَّهُمَّ هَدَأَتِ الْأَصْوَاتُ وَ سَكَنَتِ الْحَرَكَاتُ وَ خَلَا كُلُّ حَبِيبٍ بِحَبِيبِهِ وَ خَلَوْتُ بِكَ أَنْتَ الْمَحْبُوبُ إِلَيَّ فَاجْعَلْ خَلْوَتِي مِنْكَ اللَّيْلَةَ الْعِتْقَ مِنَ النَّارِ يَا مَنْ لَيْسَتْ لِعَالِمٍ فَوْقَهُ صِفَةٌ يَا مَنْ لَيْسَ لِمَخْلُوقٍ دُونَهُ مَنَعَةٌ يَا أَوَّلَ قَبْلَ كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ وَ يَا آخِرَ بَعْدَ كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ يَا مَنْ لَيْسَ لَهُ عُنْصُرٌ وَ يَا مَنْ لَيْسَ لآِخِرِهِ فَنَاءٌ وَ يَا أَكْمَلَ مَنْعُوتٍ وَ يَا أَسْمَحَ الْمُعْطِينَ وَ يَا مَنْ يَفْقَهُ بِكُلِّ لُغَةٍ يُدْعَى بِهَا وَ يَا مَنْ عَفْوُهُ قَدِيمٌ وَ بَطْشُهُ شَدِيدٌ وَ مُلْكُهُ مُسْتَقِيمٌ أَسْأَلُكَ بِاسْمِكَ الَّذِي شَافَهْتَ بِهِ مُوسَى يَا اللَّهُ يَا رَحْمَانُ يَا رَحِيمُ يَا لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ الصَّمَدُ أَسْأَلُكَ أَنْ تُصَلِّيَ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ أَنْ تُدْخِلَنِيَ الْجَنَّةَ بِرَحْمَتِكَ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Mansur ibn Yunus from abu Basir who has reported the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

Abu Abd Allah-asws said: ‘Say, ‘Our Allah-azwj, I plead before You-azwj, to Grant me such words as those of repenting people and their deeds, the Noor of the Prophets-as and their truthfulness, salvation of the fighters for Your-azwj cause and their rewards, thankfulness of the chosen ones and their good advice, actions of those who speak of You-azwj and their certainty, belief of the scholars and their deep understanding, worship of the concerned people and their humility, the judgement of the experts in the religion and their discipline, worries of the pious people and their interest (in religion), the affirmation of the believing people and their trusting (Allah-azwj) and the hope of the virtuous people and their good deeds, ‘Our Allah-azwj, I plead before You-azwj Grant me a reward as that granted to those who thank (You-azwj), the position of those very near to (You-azwj) and the friendship of the Prophets-as.  Our Allah-azwj, I plead before You-azwj to Grant me a fear like that of the people who act for Your sake, the acts of those who fear You-azwj, the humility of those who worship You-azwj, the certainty of those who place their trust in You-azwj and the trust of the believing people with You-azwj. Our Allah-azwj, You-azwj know my needs without being informed, and You-azwj are capable of helping without being burdened. You-azwj are the One Whom no pleading person can overcome verbally, or anyone can find faults with or anyone can exhaust His-azwj praise.

Our Allah-azwj, You-azwj are as You-azwj say and above what we say. Our Allah-azwj, Provide me immediate relief, great rewards, and beautiful covering. Our Allah-azwj, You-azwj Know that in doing injustice to myself and transgressing against it I did not take anyone as Your-azwj opposition, partner, companion, or a child.

‘O the One-azwj whom pleading cannot confuse, nothing can preoccupy in listening to one from listening to the other, seeing one from seeing the other and the insistence of insisting people cannot tire Him-azwj. I plead before You-azwj to Provide me relief in this hour from the sources I except or from that which I do not expect;

You-azwj bring to life the bones that have turned to ashes; You-azwj have power over all things. O the One-azwj to whom my thanks had been very little but He-azwj has not Deprived me, my sins were monstrous but He-azwj has not disgraced me, He-azwj found me in sins but did not encounter me. He-azwj Created me for what He-azwj has Created me but I have acted against what He-azwj has Created me for.

What a great owner are You-azwj O my Master! What a despicable slave am I! You-azwj have found me, You-azwj are the best of finders Our Allah-azwj! What a despicable thing am I to look for! I am Your-azwj slave, the son of Your-azwj slave and the son of Your-azwj female slave before You-azwj to deal with as You-azwj Will.

Our Allah-azwj, the voices have silenced, movements have calmed down, every loving one has sought privacy with his beloved, and I have sought privacy with You-azwj. You-azwj are the beloved to me, make the privacy that I have sought with You-azwj my freedom from the fire. O the One-azwj above whom there is no knowledgeable more praiseworthy. O the One-azwj below whom there is no creature barred to reach Him-azwj.

O the First-azwj before all things, O the Last after all things. O the One who has no elements, O the One-azwj for whom there is no end for annihilation, O the One-azwj of perfect attributes, O the most lenient of providers, O the One-azwj who communicates with all languages and is spoken to as well, O the One-azwj whose Forgiveness had been there from long before, whose Hold is stern, whose Kingdom is solid, I plead before You-azwj through Your-azwj name with which You-azwj faced Moses-as, O Allah-azwj, O the Beneficent, O the Merciful, O the One-azwj, no one deserves to be worshipped except You-azwj. Our Allah-azwj, You-azwj are Self-sufficient, I plead before You-azwj to bestow al-Salawat upon Muhammad-saww and his-saww family-asws and admit me in paradise’.[73]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ أَبِي الْعَبَّاسِ الْكُوفِيِّ جَمِيعاً عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ اجْتَمَعَ الْحَوَارِيُّونَ إِلَى عِيسَى ع فَقَالُوا لَهُ يَا مُعَلِّمَ الْخَيْرِ أَرْشِدْنَا فَقَالَ لَهُمْ إِنَّ مُوسَى كَلِيمَ اللَّهِ ع أَمَرَكُمْ أَنْ لَا تَحْلِفُوا بِاللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى كَاذِبِينَ وَ أَنَا آمُرُكُمْ أَنْ لَا تَحْلِفُوا بِاللَّهِ كَاذِبِينَ وَ لَا صَادِقِينَ قَالُوا يَا رُوحَ اللَّهِ زِدْنَا فَقَالَ إِنَّ مُوسَى نَبِيَّ اللَّهِ ع أَمَرَكُمْ أَنْ لَا تَزْنُوا وَ أَنَا آمُرُكُمْ أَنْ لَا تُحَدِّثُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ بِالزِّنَا فَضْلًا عَنْ أَنْ تَزْنُوا فَإِنَّ مَنْ حَدَّثَ نَفْسَهُ بِالزِّنَا كَانَ كَمَنْ أَوْقَدَ فِي بَيْتٍ مُزَوَّقٍ فَأَفْسَدَ التَّزَاوِيقَ الدُّخَانُ وَ إِنْ لَمْ يَحْتَرِقِ الْبَيْتُ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father and a number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from abu al-Abbas al-Kufiy all from ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman from ‘Abd Allah ibn Sinan who said:

‘Abu Abd Allah-asws has said: ‘Once the disciples of Jesus-as gathered around him and said, ‘O teacher of goodness teach us guidance.’ Jesus-as said to them, ‘Moses-as has commanded you not to falsely swear by Allah-azwj and I-as command you not to swear even in a truthful manner.’

They said, ‘O Spirit of Allah-azwj, please give us more guidance.’ He-as then said, ‘Moses-as, the Holy Prophet of Allah-azwj, has commanded you not to commit fornication and I-as command you not to even speak to your souls about fornication, not to speak of committing fornication, because one who speaks to his soul about fornication is like one who decorates a house and smoke destroys the house even though it does not burn down the whole house’.[74]

Teachers are categorised into Three Types:

وعن علي بن محمد ، ( وغيره ) ، عن سهل بن زياد ، وعن محمد بن يحيى ، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى جميعا ، عن ابن محبوب ، عن هشام بن سالم ، عن أبي حمزة ، عن أبي إسحاق السبيعي ، عمن حدثه ممن يوثق به ، قال : قال أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام) إن الناس آلوا بعد رسول الله ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) إلى ثلاثة : آلوا إلى عالم على هدى من الله ، قد أغناه الله بما علم عن غيره ، وجاهل مدع للعلم ، لا علم له ، معجب بما عنده ، قد فتنته الدنيا ، وفتن غيره ، ومتعلم من عالم على سبيل هدى من الله ونجاة ، ثم هلك من ادّعى ، وخاب من افترى .

And from Ali Bin Muhammad and others, from Sahl Bin Ziyad and from Muhammad Bin Yahya from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Isa altogether, from Ibn Mahboub from Hisham Bin Saalim from Abu Hamza from Abu Is’haq Al Sabiyi from a reliable person who has narrated the following from Amir-ul-Momineen-asws:

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws said: ‘People are inclined towards three types of people after the Rasool Allah-saww –they incline towards (1) a knowledgeable one with Guidance from Allah-azwj, Allah-azwj Made him to be needless of others; (2) and inclined towards an ignorant one who claimed to be knowledgeable, and he had no knowledge and was proud of what he had, the world had placed him in trials and he placed others in trials; (3) and inclined towards the student of the knowledgeable one on the way of Guidance from Allah-azwj and salvations, then got destroyed from his claims, and lost himself from his plots’.[75]

وعن علي بن إبراهيم ، عن محمد بن عيسى ، عن يونس ، عن جميل ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : سمعته يقول : يغدو الناس على ثلاثة أصناف : عالم ، ومتعلم ، وغثاء ، فنحن العلماء ، وشيعتنا المتعلمون ، وسائر الناس غثاء

And from Ali Bin Ibrahim from Muhammad Bin Isa from Yunus from Jameel who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

‘People are of three types – scholar, student, and rubbish. We-asws are the scholars, and our-asws Shiites are the students, and the rest of the people are worthless’.[76]

Taking Wages from Teaching:

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ بَزِيعٍ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ كَثِيرٍ عَنْ حَسَّانَ الْمُعَلِّمِ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع عَنِ التَّعْلِيمِ فَقَالَ لَا تَأْخُذْ عَلَى التَّعْلِيمِ أَجْراً قُلْتُ الشِّعْرُ وَ الرَّسَائِلُ وَ مَا أَشْبَهَ ذَلِكَ أُشَارِطُ عَلَيْهِ قَالَ نَعَمْ بَعْدَ أَنْ يَكُونَ الصِّبْيَانُ عِنْدَكَ سَوَاءً فِي التَّعْلِيمِ لَا تُفَضِّلُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn ‘Isma’il ibn Bazi from al-Fadl ibn al-Kathir from Hassan al-Mu’allim who said:

‘This is concerning my question before Abu Abd Allah-asws about earning wages from teaching such as; poetry, letter-writing and similar issues on condition of payment. The Imam-asws said: ‘Yes, it is permissible if children are treated with equality in teaching without any preference for anyone of them over the others’.[77]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ بُنْدَارَ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنْ شَرِيفِ بْنِ سَابِقٍ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ أَبِي قُرَّةَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع هَؤُلَاءِ يَقُولُونَ إِنَّ كَسْبَ الْمُعَلِّمِ سُحْتٌ فَقَالَ كَذَبُوا أَعْدَاءُ اللَّهِ إِنَّمَا أَرَادُوا أَنْ لَا يُعَلِّمُوا الْقُرْآنَ وَ لَوْ أَنَّ الْمُعَلِّمَ أَعْطَاهُ رَجُلٌ دِيَةَ وَلَدِهِ لَكَانَ لِلْمُعَلِّمِ مُبَاحاً

Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Bandar has narrated from Ahmad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah from Sharif ibn Sabiq from al-Fadl ibn abu Qurrah who said:

‘I once said to Abu Abd Allah-asws: ‘They say that receiving payment for teaching is Suht (filthy and unlawful).  He-asws  said: ‘They, the enemies of Allah-azwj, have spoken a lie. They want to stop teaching of al-Quran. If one gives blood money for his child to a teacher it (payment) is lawful for the teacher’.[78]

وعن أبيه ، عمن ذكره ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) في رسالة إلى أصحاب الرأي والقياس : أما بعد ، فإن من دعا غيره إلى دينه بالارتياء والمقاييس لم ينصف ولم يصب حظه ، لأن المدعو إلى ذلك أيضا لا يخلو من الارتياء والمقاييس ، ومتى لم يكن بالداعي قوة في دعائه على المدعو لم يؤمن على الداعي أن يحتاج إلى المدعو بعد قليل ، لأنا قد رأينا المتعلم الطالب ربما كان فائقا لمعلمه ولو بعد حين ، ورأينا المعلم الداعي ربما احتاج في رأيه إلى رأي من يدعو ، وفي ذلك تحير الجاهلون ، وشك المرتابون ، وظن الظانون ، ولو كان ذلك عند الله جائزا لم يبعث الله الرسل بما فيه الفصل ، ولم ينه عن الهزل ، ولم يعب الجهل ، ولكن الناس لما سفهوا الحق ، وغمطوا النعمة ، واستغنوا بجهلهم وتدابيرهم عن علم الله ، واكتفوا بذلك عن رسله والقوام بأمره ، وقالوا : لا شيء إلا ما أدركته عقولنا ، وعرفته ألبابنا ، فولاهم الله ما تولوا ، وأهملهم وخذلهم حتى صاروا عبدة أنفسهم من حيث لا يعلمون ، ولو كان الله رضي منهم اجتهادهم وارتياءهم

فيما ادعوا من ذلك لم يبعث إليهم فاصلا لما بينهم ، ولا زاجرا عن وصفهم ، وإنما استدللنا أن رضا الله غير ذلك ، ببعثه الرسل بالامور القيمة الصحيحة ، والتحذير من الامور المشكلة المفسدة ، ثم جعلهم أبوابه وصراطه والأدلاء عليه بامور محجوبة عن الرأي والقياس ، فمن طلب ما عند الله بقياس ورأي لم يزدد من الله إلا بعدا ، ولم يبعث رسولا قط ـ وإن طال عمره ـ قابلا من الناس خلاف ما جاء به ، حتى يكون متبوعا مرة وتابعا اخرى ، ولم ير أيضا فيما جاء به استعمل رأيا ولا مقياسا ، حتى يكون ذلك واضحا عنده كالوحي من الله ، وفي ذلك دليل لكل ذي لب وحجى ، إن أصحاب الرأي والقياس مخطئون مدحضون . الحديث .

And from his father from a narrator, from Abu Abdullah-asws in a letter to the people of opinions and analogies: ‘After this, the one who calls others to his religion by way of (his own) opinions and analogies has not done justice nor is he on the right way, for the one who is called would also not be free from opinions and analogies.

And when the caller no longer has the strength in his call, the called one no longer believes him, and the caller ends up being in need of the called one after a while, for we have seen that a student sometimes becomes more knowledgeable than the teacher after a while, and we have seen that the teacher who was the caller, falls in need of the opinion of the student who was the called one, and in that is the confusion for the ignorant, and doubt for the doubters and the conjecture for those that conjecture, and if that was permissible with Allah-azwj, He-azwj would not have Sent Messengers in succession, nor Forbidden humour nor Reflected ignorance as a defect.

But, when people started considering truth as being vain and wasted the Grace (bounties), and brushed aside the Knowledge of God-azwj by their ignorance and their plots, and completely turned away from His-azwj Messengers-asws and the Establishers-asws of His-azwj Commands.

And they said: ‘There is nothing except what our minds have realised, and our hearts have understood’. So, Allah-azwj Turned them towards the direction that they desired, and Let them drowned, and Abandoned them, to the extent that they became slaves to their ownselves, and they did not know where they were headed. And had Allah-azwj been Pleased with their Ijtihaad and their opinions, which is what they claim it to be, He-azwj would not have Sent among them one after the other (Messengers), nor Warners among them, and that is the evidence against them that the Pleasure of Allah-azwj is in other than that, by Sending Messengers with valuable and correct Commands, and warned them from going astray in difficult Commands.

Then Sent to them His-azwj Doors and His-azwj Path and Evidenced to Himself-azwj by Commands which were Veiled from opinions and analogies. And the one who seeks that which is with Allah-azwj by way of analogy and opinion it will not increase anything with Allah-azwj except for distance, and did not Send a Messenger at all who-asws would consult the people in that which is against what he-asws had been Sent with, to the extent that he-asws would be followed in one matter and be a follower in the other. And you will never ever see him-asws making use of analogy and opinion in what he-asws had been Sent with until it became clear that what he-asws was saying was indeed from Allah-azwj. And in that is evidence for the (people of) understanding and proof. Surely the people of opinion and analogies are the erroneous straying ones’.[79]

Abuse of Religion for Worldly Matters:

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ جَابِرٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ ظَبْيَانَ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع يَقُولُ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ يَقُولُ وَيْلٌ لِلَّذِينَ يَخْتِلُونَ الدُّنْيَا بِالدِّينِ وَ وَيْلٌ لِلَّذِينَ يَقْتُلُونَ الَّذِينَ يَأْمُرُونَ بِالْقِسْطِ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَ وَيْلٌ لِلَّذِينَ يَسِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنُ فِيهِمْ بِالتَّقِيَّةِ أَ بِي يَغْتَرُّونَ أَمْ عَلَيَّ يَجْتَرِءُونَ فَبِي حَلَفْتُ لَأُتِيحَنَّ لَهُمْ فِتْنَةً تَتْرُكُ الْحَلِيمَ مِنْهُمْ حَيْرَانَ

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Sinan from lsma’il ibn Jabir from Yunus ibn Zabyan who said:

‘I heard Abu Abd Allah-asws saying: ‘The Rasool Allah-saww has said: ‘Allah-azwj has said: ‘Woe upon those who treacherously use religion for their worldly goals and fight those who command people to yield to justice.

Woe upon those among whom the believers live frightened and hide their belief. Are they deceiving Me-azwj or they daring to oppose Me-azwj? I swear by Myself-azwj that I-azwj will Allow them to be afflicted by means of such ‘Fitna’ strife whereby the most forbearing will be astonished.’[80]

Earnings Wages from Religion:

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ جَابِرٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ ظَبْيَانَ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع يَقُولُ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ يَقُولُ وَيْلٌ لِلَّذِينَ يَخْتِلُونَ الدُّنْيَا بِالدِّينِ وَ وَيْلٌ لِلَّذِينَ يَقْتُلُونَ الَّذِينَ يَأْمُرُونَ بِالْقِسْطِ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَ وَيْلٌ لِلَّذِينَ يَسِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنُ فِيهِمْ بِالتَّقِيَّةِ أَ بِي يَغْتَرُّونَ أَمْ عَلَيَّ يَجْتَرِءُونَ فَبِي حَلَفْتُ لَأُتِيحَنَّ لَهُمْ فِتْنَةً تَتْرُكُ الْحَلِيمَ مِنْهُمْ حَيْرَانَ

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Sinan from lsma’il ibn Jabir from Yunus ibn Zabyan who said:

‘I heard Abu Abd Allah-asws saying: ‘The Rasool Allah-saww has said: ‘Allah-azwj[81] has said: ‘Woe upon those who try to earn living using religion and fight those who command people to yield to justice. Woe upon those among whom the believers are forced to observe dissimulation (Taqiyya). Are they deceiving Me-azwj or that they dare to oppose Me-azwj? I-azwj swear by Myself-azwj that I-azwj will punish them so harshly that the people of wisdom will be surprised’.[82]

و بهذا الإسناد عن جعفر عن أبيه ع أن الله أنزل كتابا من كتبه على نبي من الأنبياء و فيه أن يكون من خلقي لمحسنون الدنيا بالدين يلبسون مسوح الضأن على قلوب كقلوب الذئاب أشد مرارة من الصبر و ألسنتهم أحلى من العسل و أعمالهم الباطنة أنتن من الجيف بي تغترون أم إياي تخادعون أم علي تتجبرون فبعزتي حلفت لأبعثن عليهم فتنة تطأهم في خطامها حتى تبلغ أطراف الأرض تترك الحليم منها حيران فيما رأى الرائي و حكمه الحكيم أتركهم شيعا و أذيق بعضهم بأس بعض أنتقم من أعدائي بأعدائي فلا أبالي

And with the same chain of narrators, it is reported from Imam Jafar-asws that his father-asws said: ‘Indeed, Allah-azwj Send down a Book onto one of His-azwj Prophets-as, where Allah-azwj Says: There is a group among people who earn living through the religion, their outfits are of hypocrisy and their hearts are stone cold[83], they are extremely impatient but their tongues are (superficially) very sweet, their hidden affairs are worse than the odour of the dead animals.  Thus, do they intend to deceive Me-azwj? Or are they planning against Me-azwj?  Or are they not afraid of Me-azwj? I-azwj swear by My-azwj Own Self, I-azwj will Punish them with such a Wrath that some of them will stampede and drag some of others from one corner to the other corner of the world. Their punishment will be so harsh that even the wise and people of intellect will be surprised.  I-azwj will disintegrate them so that some of them will execute others.  I-azwj will take Revenge of My-azwj enemies through My-azwj other enemies, without extending any Mercy’.[84]

The One who earns through religions has no Religion:

الآمِدِيُّ فِي الْغُرَرِ، عَنْ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع أَنَّهُ قَالَ صُنْ دِينَكَ بِدُنْيَاكَ تَرْبَحْهُمَا وَ لَا تَصُنْ دُنْيَاكَ بِدِينِكَ فَتَخْسَرَهُمَا

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws said:’ He who holds on to the religion through striving in the world secures his religion but that who earns sustenance through religion loses his religion all together’.[85]

وَ قَالَ ع صُنِ الدِّيْنَ بِالدُّنْيَا يُنْجِكَ وَ لَا تَصُنِ الدُّنْيَا بِالدِّيْنِ فَتُرْدِيَكَ

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws said: ‘Making progress in the religion through worldly means will be rewarded whereas improving worldly affairs through religion will be admonished’.[86]

جَعْفَرُ بْنُ أَحْمَدَ الْقُمِّيُّ فِي كِتَابِ الْغَايَاتِ، عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص قَالَ شِرَارُ النَّاسِ مَنْ بَاعَ آخِرَتَهُ بِدُنْيَاهُ وَ شَرٌّ مِنْ ذَلِكَ مَنْ بَاعَ آخِرَتَهُ بِدُنْيَا غَيْرِه

The Rasool Allah-saww said: ‘An evil person is that who sells his Hereafter for his world but even worse is that who sells his Hereafter for the sake of others’ worldly gains’.[87]

طالب الدنيا بالدين معاقب مذموم

(Amir-ul-Momineen-asws said): The seeker of the ‘World’ by the means of religion is rebuked and disgraced’.[88]

The Ilm and the Maurifat:

و قال ع العلم نقطة كثرها الجاهلون

Imam Ali-asws said:  The Knowledge was concentrated in a ‘Nuqta’ (short circle) but it was expanded by the ignorants’.[89]  Amir-ul-Momineen-asws has also said: ‘Knowledge is in three parts, who acquires the first portion becomes arrogant and starts challenging others, that who reaches to its second level adopts modesty and learns about his shallowness.  That, who ascends to the third level, becomes quiet and the feeling that he knows nothing kills him’.[90]

The Knowledge has no limits:

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الْحَجَّالِ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ‏ عُمَرَ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ دَخَلْتُ عَلَى أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع فَقُلْتُ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ عَنْ مَسْأَلَةٍ هَاهُنَا أَحَدٌ يَسْمَعُ كَلَامِي قَالَ فَرَفَعَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع سِتْراً بَيْنَهُ وَ بَيْنَ بَيْتٍ آخَرَ فَاطَّلَعَ فِيهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ يَا أَبَا مُحَمَّدٍ سَلْ عَمَّا بَدَا لَكَ قَالَ قُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِنَّ شِيعَتَكَ يَتَحَدَّثُونَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص عَلَّمَ عَلِيّاً ع بَاباً يُفْتَحُ لَهُ مِنْهُ أَلْفُ بَابٍ قَالَ فَقَالَ يَا أَبَا مُحَمَّدٍ عَلَّمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص عَلِيّاً ع أَلْفَ بَابٍ يُفْتَحُ مِنْ كُلِّ بَابٍ أَلْفُ بَابٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ هَذَا وَ اللَّهِ الْعِلْمُ قَالَ فَنَكَتَ سَاعَةً فِي الْأَرْضِ ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنَّهُ لَعِلْمٌ وَ مَا هُوَ بِذَاكَ قَالَ ثُمَّ قَالَ يَا أَبَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَ إِنَّ عِنْدَنَا الْجَامِعَةَ وَ مَا يُدْرِيهِمْ مَا الْجَامِعَةُ قَالَ قُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ وَ مَا الْجَامِعَةُ قَالَ صَحِيفَةٌ طُولُهَا سَبْعُونَ ذِرَاعاً بِذِرَاعِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص وَ إِمْلَائِهِ مِنْ فَلْقِ فِيهِ وَ خَطِّ عَلِيٍّ بِيَمِينِهِ فِيهَا كُلُّ حَلَالٍ وَ حَرَامٍ وَ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ يَحْتَاجُ النَّاسُ إِلَيْهِ حَتَّى الْأَرْشُ فِي الْخَدْشِ وَ ضَرَبَ بِيَدِهِ إِلَيَّ فَقَالَ تَأْذَنُ لِي يَا أَبَا مُحَمَّدٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِنَّمَا أَنَا لَكَ فَاصْنَعْ مَا شِئْتَ قَالَ فَغَمَزَنِي بِيَدِهِ وَ قَالَ حَتَّى أَرْشُ هَذَا كَأَنَّهُ مُغْضَبٌ قَالَ قُلْتُ هَذَا وَ اللَّهِ الْعِلْمُ قَالَ إِنَّهُ لَعِلْمٌ وَ لَيْسَ بِذَاكَ ثُمَّ سَكَتَ سَاعَةً ثُمَّ قَالَ وَ إِنَّ عِنْدَنَا الْجَفْرَ وَ مَا يُدْرِيهِمْ مَا الْجَفْرُ قَالَ قُلْتُ وَ مَا الْجَفْرُ قَالَ وِعَاءٌ مِنْ أَدَمٍ فِيهِ عِلْمُ النَّبِيِّينَ وَ الْوَصِيِّينَ وَ عِلْمُ الْعُلَمَاءِ الَّذِينَ مَضَوْا مِنْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ قَالَ قُلْتُ إِنَّ هَذَا هُوَ الْعِلْمُ قَالَ إِنَّهُ لَعِلْمٌ وَ لَيْسَ بِذَاكَ ثُمَّ سَكَتَ سَاعَةً ثُمَّ قَالَ وَ إِنَّ عِنْدَنَا لَمُصْحَفَ فَاطِمَةَ ع وَ مَا يُدْرِيهِمْ مَا مُصْحَفُ فَاطِمَةَ ع قَالَ قُلْتُ وَ مَا مُصْحَفُ فَاطِمَةَ ع قَالَ مُصْحَفٌ فِيهِ مِثْلُ قُرْآنِكُمْ هَذَا ثَلَاثَ مَرَّاتٍ وَ اللَّهِ مَا فِيهِ مِنْ قُرْآنِكُمْ حَرْفٌ وَاحِدٌ قَالَ قُلْتُ هَذَا وَ اللَّهِ الْعِلْمُ قَالَ إِنَّهُ لَعِلْمٌ وَ مَا هُوَ بِذَاكَ‏ ثُمَّ سَكَتَ سَاعَةً ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنَّ عِنْدَنَا عِلْمَ مَا كَانَ وَ عِلْمَ مَا هُوَ كَائِنٌ إِلَى أَنْ تَقُومَ السَّاعَةُ قَالَ قُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ هَذَا وَ اللَّهِ هُوَ الْعِلْمُ قَالَ إِنَّهُ لَعِلْمٌ وَ لَيْسَ بِذَاكَ قَالَ قُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ فَأَيُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ الْعِلْمُ قَالَ مَا يَحْدُثُ بِاللَّيْلِ وَ النَّهَارِ الْأَمْرُ مِنْ بَعْدِ الْأَمْرِ وَ الشَّيْ‏ءُ بَعْدَ الشَّيْ‏ءِ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad, from Abd Allah ibn al-Hajjal, from Ahmad ibn Umar al-Halabi, from abu Basir who said:

Once I went to see Abu Abd Allah-asws and said: May Allah-azwj keep my soul in service for your-asws cause, I would like to ask you a question. Is there anyone else in this house that may hear my words? The Imam-asws then folded the curtain between his room and the next room and looked into it. Then the Imam-asws said: O Abu Muhammad, ask whatever you wish. I said: May Allah-azwj Keep my soul in service for your-asws cause, your followers say that the Rasool Allah-saww taught Ali-asws a chapter of knowledge. From this chapter there opened a thousand chapters. The Imam-asws said: The Rasool Allah-saww taught Imam Ali-asws a thousand chapters from each of which there opened a thousand chapters.

I then said, This, I swear by Allah-azwj, is the knowledge! He would mark the ground with his staff for a while. He-asws then said: ‘That is knowledge but there is more to it. The narrator has said that the Imam-asws then said: O Abu Muhammad, with us-asws there is al-Jamiah. Do they know what al-Jami ah is? I then asked: May Allah-azwj Keep my soul in service for your-asws cause. What is al-Jamiah? The Imam-asws said: ‘It is a parchment seventy yards long by the yards of the Rasool Allah-saww. It contains his-saww dictations from his-saww very own mouth that were recorded onto it in the handwriting of AIi-asws. It contains all the lawful and unlawful, and all matters that people need. Even the law of compensation for a scratch caused to a person. He-asws then stretched his-asws hand toward me and asked, May I-asws, O Abu Muhammad? I then replied, May Allah keep my soul in service for your-asws cause, I am entirely at your-asws disposal. He-asws pinched me with his-asws hand and said: ‘The law of compensation for this much is also included therein. He-asws looked bit annoyed. I then said, this, I swear by Allah-azwj is knowledge. ‘The Imam-asws said: ‘It certainly is knowledge but there is more to it.

The Imam-asws remained silent for a while and then said, With us there is al-Jafr. Do they know what al-Jafr is? I then asked, What is al-Jafr? The Imam-asws said: ‘It is a container made of skin that contains the knowledge of the Prophets-as and the executors of their wills. It is the knowledge of the scholars in the past from the Israelites’. ‘I then said: ‘This certainly, is the knowledge. The Imam-asws said: ‘It certainly is knowledge but not that knowledge.

The Imam-asws remained silent for a while and then said, With us-asws there is the book (Mushaf) of Fatimah-asws. Do they know what Mushaf of Fatimah-asws is? I then asked, What is Mushaf of Fatimah-asws? The Imam-asws said: Mushaf of Fatimah-asws is three times bigger than your Quran. I swear by Allah-azwj, not even a single letter therein is from your Quran’. ‘I then said, This, I swear by Allah-azwj, is the knowledge. The Imam-asws said: ‘This certainly is knowledge, but it is not that knowledge. The Imam-asws remained silent for a while and then said, With us-asws there is the knowledge of whatever has been, and the knowledge of everything that will come into being to the Day of Judgement’. ‘I then said, May Allah-azwj keep my soul in service for your-asws cause, this, I swear by Allah-azwj is certainly the knowledge! The Imam-asws said: ‘It certainly is knowledge but not that knowledge (there is more to it):

I then asked: ‘May Allah-azwj keep my soul in service for your-asws cause, what is the knowledge? The Imam-asws said: ‘It is whatever takes place during the night and during the day, one matter after the other matter, and one thing after the other to the Day of Judgement’.[91]

Rewards of Teaching Knowledge:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الْبَرْقِيِّ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع يَقُولُ مَنْ عَلَّمَ خَيْراً فَلَهُ مِثْلُ أَجْرِ مَنْ عَمِلَ بِهِ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ عَلَّمَهُ غَيْرَهُ يَجْرِي ذَلِكَ لَهُ قَالَ إِنْ عَلَّمَهُ النَّاسَ كُلَّهُمْ جَرَى لَهُ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ مَاتَ قَالَ وَ إِنْ مَاتَ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Barqi from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Ali ibn abu Hamza from abu Basir who narrates the following from abu Abd Allah-asws:

Abu Abd Allah-asws said: ‘Whoever teaches something good will receive a reward each time his student practices such knowledge.’ Abu Basir has said: ‘I asked the Imam-asws, would this apply to the student if he teaches other people’?’ The Imam-asws, said: ‘Yes, it applies to him even if he teaches it to all people.’ I then asked, ‘Will it apply to him if he will already be dead?’ The Imam-asws responded: ‘Yes, even if he will die.’[92]

وَ بِهَذَا الْإِسْنَادِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْحَمِيدِ عَنِ الْعَلَاءِ بْنِ رَزِينٍ عَنْ أَبِي عُبَيْدَةَ الْحَذَّاءِ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ مَنْ عَلَّمَ بَابَ هُدًى فَلَهُ مِثْلُ أَجْرِ مَنْ عَمِلَ بِهِ وَ لَا يُنْقَصُ أُولَئِكَ مِنْ أُجُورِهِمْ شَيْئاً وَ مَنْ عَلَّمَ بَابَ ضَلَالٍ كَانَ عَلَيْهِ مِثْلُ أَوْزَارِ مَنْ عَمِلَ بِهِ وَ لَا يُنْقَصُ أُولَئِكَ مِنْ أَوْزَارِهِمْ شَيْئاً

Through the same chain of narrators it is narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Hamid from al-Ala’ ibn Razin from abu ‘Ubayda al-Hadhdha’ from abu Jafar-asws who said:

Abu Jafar-asws said: ‘Whoever teaches a chapter of guidance will receive a reward equal to the rewards of all of those who practice such guidance without any reduction in the rewards of the later ones. Whoever introduces a chapter of misguidance will suffer for each time others practice it without any reduction in the suffering of whoever may practice such misguidance.’[93]

Orphans of Ahl al-Bayt-asws:

عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله أنه قال: أشد من يتم اليتيم الذي انقطع عن أبيه يتم يتيم انقطع عن إمامه ولا يقدر على الوصول إليه، ولا يدري كيف حكمه فيما يبتلي به من شرائع دينه، ألا فمن كان من شيعتنا عالما بعلومنا وهذا الجاهل بشريعتنا المنقطع عن مشاهدتنا يتيم في حجره ألا فمن هداه وأرشده وعلمه شريعتنا كان معنا في الرفيق الأعلى. بيان: قال الجزري: في حديث الدعاء: ألحقني بالرفيق الأعلى

Rasool Allah-saww said: He is orphan who is unable to receive his parents’ care and is therefore not brought up by them.  However, he is not that miserable as compared with the one who is unable to reach the Imam-asws of his time and is unable to receive and comprehend his Imam-asws’s blessings and guidance.  He does not know what are his Imam-asws’s verdicts on those religious affairs faced by him.  He is the Orphan of Aly-e-Mohammed-asws.  Be aware! He should be looked after by those who have the knowledge of our-asws traditions.  Whoever would teach him our attributes, our-asws Maurifat (recognition) and our-asws traditions will be with us-asws in the Hereafter.[94] Also see two more Ahadtih in Appendix I from Imam Hassan Askari-asws.

قال موسى بن جعفر عليهما السلام: ففيه واحد ينقذ يتيما من أيتامنا المنقطعين عنا وعن مشاهدتنا بتعليم ما هو محتاج إليه أشد على إبليس من ألف عابد لأن العابد همه ذات نفسه فقط، وهذا همه مع ذات نفسه ذات عباد الله وإمائه لينقذهم من يد إبليس ومردته، فذلك هو أفضل عند الله من ألف ألف عابد، وألف ألف عابدة.

In another tradition from Masoom-asws, It is narrated from Imam Musa-e-Kazim-asws that the one who knows our teachings and would guide and teach even one of our orphans, who are unable to reach us, would irritate/subdue Iblis more than that achieved by one thousand devout worshippers.  The devout worshipper would only have the intention to enrich his spiritual level but the one who teaches our traditions would not only gain spiritual benefits but also provide guidance to Allah-azwj’s servants and maids.  He would free these men and women from Iblis’s web.  That’s why he is given preference by Allah-azwj over one thousand men and thousand women worshippers.[95]

وعن محمد بن الحسن ، عن بعض أصحابنا ، عن علي ابن الحكم ، عن الحكم بن مسكين ، عن رجل من قريش قال : قال لي سفيان الثوري: اذهب بنا إلى جعفر بن محمد قال : فذهبت معه إليه ، فقال له سفيان : يا أبا عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) ! حدثنا بحديث خطبة رسول الله ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) في مسجد الخيف ـ إلى أن قال : ـ فقال سفيان : مر لي بدواة وقرطاس حتى اثبته ، فدعا به ، ثم قال : اكتب بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم خطبة رسول الله ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) في مسجد الخيف : نضر الله عبدا سمع مقالتي ، فوعاها ، وبلغها من لم تبلغه ، يا أيها الناس ! ليبلغ الشاهد الغائب ، فرب حامل فقه ليس بفقيه ، ورب حامل فقه إلى من هو أفقه منه . الحديث .

And from Muhammad Bin Al Hassan, from one of our companions, from Ali Bin Al Hakam, from Al Hakam Bin Maskeen, from A man from the Qureysh who said that Sufyan Al Sury told him to accompany him to Ja’far Bin Muhammad-asws.

He said, ‘I went with Sufyan (Surry) to him-asws and he said to him-asws, ‘O Abu Abdullah-asws! Narrate to us the sermon of the Rasool Allah-saww in Masjid Al-Kheef’. Until he said that Sufyan said, ‘Get for me a pen and paper so that I may write it down’. He-asws ordered it for him, then said: ‘Write – In the Name of Allah-azwj the Beneficent the Merciful – Sermon of the Rasool Allah-saww in Masjid Al-Kheef: ‘May Allah-azwj Make happy a servant who hears my-saww speech, accepts it, tells it to the one to whom it has not been told. O you People! Let those who are present tell it to those who are absent. Sometimes a recipient is not an understanding one, and sometimes the one to whom he relates it to is more understanding than him’.[96]

وعن علي بن الحسين ، عن محمد الكناسي ، عمن رفعه إلى أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) في قول الله عزّ وجلّ : ( ومن يتق الله يجعل له مخرجا * ويرزقه من حيث لا يحتسب ) قال : هؤلاء قوم من شيعتنا ضعفاء ، ليس عندهم ما يتحملون به إلينا فيسمعون حديثنا ، ويقتبسون من علمنا ، فيرحل قوم فوقهم ، وينفقون أموالهم ، ويتبعون أبدانهم حتى يدخلوا علينا ، فيسمعون حديثنا فينقلوه إليهم ، فيعيه هؤلاء ، ويضيعه هؤلاء ، فاولئك الذين يجعل الله لهم مخرجا ويرزقهم من حيث لا يحتسبون .

And from Ali Bin Al Husayn, from Muhammad Al Kunasy, from his chain up to Abu Abdullah-asws regarding the Words of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic ‘and whoever is careful of (his duty to) Allah, He will make for him an outlet, And give him sustenance from whence he thinks not’ – 65:2-3, said: ‘These are a group of our-asws weak Shiites who do not have the means to come to us-asws. They hear our-asws Ahadith, and quote from our-asws knowledge. A group higher than them makes arrangements, spend money and place their bodies in exertion until they come to us-asws. They hear our-asws Ahadith and relate it to those ones who benefit from them whilst these waste them. Those are the ones about whom Allah-azwj has Found an outlet and has Provided sustenance for them from where they thought not’.[97]

وفي ( عيون الأخبار ) عن عبد الواحد بن محمد بن عبدوس ، عن علي بن محمد بن قتيبة ، عن حمدان بن سليمان ، عن عبد السلام الهروي ، عن الرضا ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : رحم الله عبدا أحيى أمرنا ، قلت : كيف يحيي أمركم ؟ قال : يتعلم علومنا ، ويعلمها الناس ، فان الناس لو علموا محاسن كلامنا لاتّبعونا . الحديث .

And in Uyoon Al Akhbaar from Abdul Wahid Bin Muhammad Bin Abdous, from Ali Bin Muhammad Bin Quteyba, from Hamad bin Suleyman, from Abdul Salaam Al Harwy, from Al Ridha-asws, said:

Imam Ali Reza-asws said: ‘May Allah-azwj have Mercy on the one who keep alive our-asws affairs’. I said, ‘How does one keep alive your-asws affairs?’ He-asws said: ‘He learns our-asws knowledge, and teaches it to the people, for if the people were to come to know the good in our-asws speech, they will follow us-asws’.[98]

وبهذا الاسناد قال : قال رسول الله ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) : من حفظ من امتي أربعين حديثا ، ينتفعون بها ، بعثه الله يوم القيامة فقيها عالما .

And by this chain, said: ‘The Rasool Allah-saww said: ‘One who from my-saww community memorises forty-Ahadith, benefits the people by them, Allah-azwj will Send him on the Day of Judgement as a Faqih (man of understanding), a knowledgeable one’.[99]

The Knowledge of Ahadith Should be Learned and Passed-on:

وفي ( عيون الأخبار ) و ( العلل ) بأسانيد تأتي عن الفضل بن شاذان ، عن الرضا ( عليه السلام ) ـ في حديث ـ قال : إنما امروا بالحج لعلة الوفادة إلى الله عزّ وجلّ ، وطلب الزيادة ، والخروج من كل ما اقترف العبد ـ إلى أن قال : ـ مع ما فيه من التفقه ، ونقل أخبار الأئمة ( عليهم السلام ) إلى كل صقع وناحية ، كما قال الله عزّ وجلّ : ( فلولا نفر من كل فرقة منهم طائفة ليتفقهوا في الدين ولينذروا قومهم إذا رجعوا إليهم لعلهم يحذرون ) ، و ( ليشهدوا منافع لهم )

And in Uyoon Al Akhbaar and Al Illal by their chains from Al Fazl Bin Shazaan, from Al Reza-asws – in a Hadith – said: ‘Allah-azwj only Ordered the Pilgrimage so that they would all come as a group, and seek the increase, and exit from all their errors committed by the servants’ – until he-asws said: ‘And let among them be those that ponder, and copy the Hadith of the Imams-asws to every corner of the world, as Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic has Said ‘why should not then a company from every party from among them go forth that they may apply themselves to obtain understanding in religion, and that they may warn their people when they come back to them that they may be cautious?’ – 9:122 and ‘That they may witness advantages for them’ – 22:28.[100]

محمد بن مكي الشهيد في كتاب ( الأربعين ) عن السيد عميد الدين محمد بن عليّ بن الأعرج ، عن العلامة الحسن بن يوسف بن المطهر ، عن أبيه ، عن عز الدين محمد بن الحسن الحسيني ، عن أبي المكارم حمزة بن علي بن زهرة الحسيني ، عن الحسن بن طارق الحلي ، عن السيد أبي الرضا الراوندي ، عن السكري ، عن سعيد بن أبي سعيد العيار ، عن أبي الحسن الحافظ ، عن علي بن محمد بن مهرويه ، عن داود ابن سليمان ، عن الرضا ، عن آبائه ( عليهم السلام ) ، عن النبي ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) ، قال : من حفظ على امتي أربعين حديثاً ، ينتفعون بها ، بعثه الله يوم القيامة فقيها عالما .

Muhammad Bin Makky Al Shaheed in the book Al Arbaeen from Al Syed Umeyd Al Deen Muhammad Bin Ali Bin Al A’raj, from Al Alaamat Al Hassan Bin Yusuf Bin Al Mutahar, from his father, from Az Al Deen Muhammad Bin Al Hassan Al Husayni, from Abu Al Makraam Hamza Bin Ali Bin Zahra Al Husayni, from Al Hassan Bin Taariq Al Hilli, from Al Syed Abu Al Ridha Al Rawandy, from Al Sakry, from Saeed Bin Abu Saeed Al Ayaar, from Abu Al Hassan Al Hafiz, from Ali Bin Muhammad Bin Mahrawiya, from Dawood Ibn Suleyman, from Al Reza-asws, from his-asws forefathers-asws from the Prophet-saww said:

Rasool Allah-saww said: ‘One from my-saww community who memorises forty-Ahadith and benefits others by these, Allah-azwj will Send him on the Day of Judgement as a knowledgeable man of understanding’.[101]

The Role of a Teacher:

وَ قَالَ ع مَنْ نَصَبَ نَفْسَهُ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَاماً فَلْيَبْدَأْ بِتَعْلِيمِ نَفْسِهِ قَبْلَ تَعْلِيمِ غَيْرِهِ وَ لْيَكُنْ تَأْدِيبُهُ بِسِيرَتِهِ قَبْلَ تَأْدِيبِهِ بِلِسَانِهِ وَ مُعَلِّمُ نَفْسِهِ وَ مُؤَدِّبُهَا أَحَقُّ بِالْإِجْلَالِ مِنْ مُعَلِّمِ النَّاسِ وَ مُؤَدِّبِهِمْ

Whoever wants to be a leader should educate himself before educating others. Before preaching to others he should first practice himself. Whoever educates himself and improves his own morals is superior to the man who tries to teach and train others’.[102]

The Difference between a Teacher and a peer/murshid:

A teacher’s role is to remove ambiguities in regard to various issues and concepts in the religion and give those references which one can verify if needed, for example, quoting Ahadith and Verses rather telling someone to ‘act’ or to ‘abstain’ on his responsibility, which would be ‘Shirk bil Zaat’ and against the principles of ‘Tawwaqil’, as we will learn later on.

The ‘Maurifat’ and Irfan:

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ بَزِيعٍ عَنْ عَمِّهِ حَمْزَةَ بْنِ بَزِيعٍ وَ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الْأَشْعَرِيِّ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَمَّنْ حَدَّثَهُ قَالَ كَتَبَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ ( عليه السلام ) إِلَى سَعْدٍ الْخَيْرِ

Muhammad Bin Yahya, from Muhammad Bin Al-Husayn, from Muhammad Bin Ismail Bin Yazi’e, from his uncle Hamza Bin Yazi’e and Al-Husayn Bin Muhammad Bin Al-Ashary, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Abdullah, from Yazeed Bin Abdullah, from the one who narrated to him said:

‘Abu Ja’far-asws wrote to Sa’ad Al-Khayr: –

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ أَمَّا بَعْدُ فَإِنِّي أُوصِيكَ بِتَقْوَى اللَّهِ فَإِنَّ فِيهَا السَّلَامَةَ مِنَ التَّلَفِ وَ الْغَنِيمَةَ فِي الْمُنْقَلَبِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ يَقِي بِالتَّقْوَى عَنِ الْعَبْدِ مَا عَزَبَ عَنْهُ عَقْلُهُ وَ يُجْلِي بِالتَّقْوَى عَنْهُ عَمَاهُ وَ جَهْلَهُ وَ بِالتَّقْوَى نَجَا نُوحٌ وَ مَنْ مَعَهُ فِي السَّفِينَةِ وَ صَالِحٌ وَ مَنْ مَعَهُ مِنَ الصَّاعِقَةِ

In the Name of Allah-azwj, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Having said that, I-asws hereby bequeath to you to fear Allah-azwj for therein is safety from destruction and a gain during the returning (to Allah-azwj). Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic Protects the servant by means of his piety from whatever his intellect was remote from; and by means of piety he gets clarity from his blindness and his ignorance. And it was by piety that Noah-as got salvation and those who were with him-as in the ark got safety from the storm.

وَ بِالتَّقْوَى فَازَ الصَّابِرُونَ وَ نَجَتْ تِلْكَ الْعُصَبُ مِنَ الْمَهَالِكِ وَ لَهُمْ إِخْوَانٌ عَلَى تِلْكَ الطَّرِيقَةِ يَلْتَمِسُونَ تِلْكَ الْفَضِيلَةَ نَبَذُوا طُغْيَانَهُمْ مِنَ الْإِيرَادِ بِالشَّهَوَاتِ لِمَا بَلَغَهُمْ فِي الْكِتَابِ مِنَ الْمَثُلَاتِ حَمِدُوا رَبَّهُمْ عَلَى مَا رَزَقَهُمْ وَ هُوَ أَهْلُ الْحَمْدِ وَ ذَمُّوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ عَلَى مَا فَرَّطُوا وَ هُمْ أَهْلُ الذَّمِّ وَ عَلِمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى الْحَلِيمَ الْعَلِيمَ إِنَّمَا غَضَبُهُ عَلَى مَنْ لَمْ يَقْبَلْ مِنْهُ رِضَاهُ وَ إِنَّمَا يَمْنَعُ مَنْ لَمْ يَقْبَلْ مِنْهُ عَطَاهُ وَ إِنَّمَا يُضِلُّ مَنْ لَمْ يَقْبَلْ مِنْهُ هُدَاهُ

And it was by piety that the patient ones succeeded and survived from the calamities, and they have brethren upon that path seeking those preferences, having renounced their insolence and their intentions by the desires when the examples from the Book reached them. They praised their Lord-azwj on what He-azwj has Sustained them with and that He-azwj was the One-azwj Deserving of the Praise, and they blamed their own selves upon what they had wasted and that they themselves were deserving of the condemnation.

And they knew that Allah-azwj Blessed and High, is the Forbearing, the Knowledgeable, however, He-azwj is Angry on the one who does not care about His-azwj Pleasure and (as a result) He-azwj Withholds from the one who does not accept His-azwj Favours, and but rather the one does not accept guidance from Him-azwj goes astray.

ثُمَّ أَمْكَنَ أَهْلَ السَّيِّئَاتِ مِنَ التَّوْبَةِ بِتَبْدِيلِ الْحَسَنَاتِ دَعَا عِبَادَهُ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِلَى ذَلِكَ بِصَوْتٍ رَفِيعٍ لَمْ يَنْقَطِعْ وَ لَمْ يَمْنَعْ دُعَاءَ عِبَادِهِ فَلَعَنَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ يَكْتُمُونَ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ وَ كَتَبَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ الرَّحْمَةَ فَسَبَقَتْ قَبْلَ الْغَضَبِ فَتَمَّتْ صِدْقاً وَ عَدْلًا فَلَيْسَ يَبْتَدِئُ الْعِبَادَ بِالْغَضَبِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُغْضِبُوهُ وَ ذَلِكَ مِنْ عِلْمِ الْيَقِينِ وَ عِلْمِ التَّقْوَى وَ كُلُّ أُمَّةٍ قَدْ رَفَعَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ عِلْمَ الْكِتَابِ حِينَ نَبَذُوهُ وَ وَلَّاهُمْ عَدُوَّهُمْ حِينَ تَوَلَّوْهُ

Then it is possible for the sinful people to turn to the repentance and change to the doing of good deeds. He-azwj has Called His-azwj servants in the Book to that with a Loud Voice. He-azwj Never Cut-off nor Prevented the calling of His-azwj servants. So Allah-azwj has Cursed the ones who conceal what Allah-azwj has Revealed, and Obligated upon Himself-azwj, the Mercy to be before the Wrath. So He-azwj Completed the Truth and the Mercy, so there is no beginning for the servant with the Wrath before he arouses His-azwj Anger, and that is from the knowledge of certainty and the knowledge of piety. And every community from whom Allah-azwj has Raised the Knowledge from them (Taken away), the Knowledge of the Book is when they rejected it, and befriended His-azwj enemies when they made them to be the rulers.

وَ كَانَ مِنْ نَبْذِهِمُ الْكِتَابَ أَنْ أَقَامُوا حُرُوفَهُ وَ حَرَّفُوا حُدُودَهُ فَهُمْ يَرْوُونَهُ وَ لَا يَرْعَوْنَهُ وَ الْجُهَّالُ يُعْجِبُهُمْ حِفْظُهُمْ لِلرِّوَايَةِ وَ الْعُلَمَاءُ يَحْزُنُهُمْ تَرْكُهُمْ لِلرِّعَايَةِ

And from their rejection of the Book was that they established its letters and distorted its Limits. So they were narrating it but were not acting upon it. And the ignorant ones were pleased with the preservation of the narrations, whereas the scholars became aggrieved at their abandonment of the correct aspects of the narrations.

وَ كَانَ مِنْ نَبْذِهِمُ الْكِتَابَ أَنْ وَلَّوْهُ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ فَأَوْرَدُوهُمُ الْهَوَى وَ أَصْدَرُوهُمْ إِلَى الرَّدَى وَ غَيَّرُوا عُرَى الدِّينِ ثُمَّ وَرَّثُوهُ فِي السَّفَهِ وَ الصِّبَا

And from their rejection of the Book was that they made such people as rulers who did not know, so they took them (in a direction) of wherever their own desires led them, and released them to the death (ruination). They amended the ties of the Religion, and then they left it as a legacy among the foolish and the childish (people).

فَالْأُمَّةُ يَصْدُرُونَ عَنْ أَمْرِ النَّاسِ بَعْدَ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى وَ عَلَيْهِ يُرَدُّونَ فَبِئْسَ لِلظَّالِمِينَ بَدَلًا وَلَايَةُ النَّاسِ بَعْدَ وَلَايَةِ اللَّهِ وَ ثَوَابُ النَّاسِ بَعْدَ ثَوَابِ اللَّهِ وَ رِضَا النَّاسِ بَعْدَ رِضَا اللَّهِ

So the community was issued with the commands devised by the people instead of the Commands of Allah-azwj Blessed and High, and it is to them that they referred to. So evil it was what the unjust took in exchange, the governance of the people instead of the Governance of Allah-azwj, and took the reward of the people instead of the Reward of Allah-azwj, and the pleasure of the people instead of the Pleasure of Allah-azwj.

فَأَصْبَحَتِ الْأُمَّةُ كَذَلِكَ وَ فِيهِمُ الْمُجْتَهِدُونَ فِي الْعِبَادَةِ عَلَى تِلْكَ الضَّلَالَةِ مُعْجَبُونَ مَفْتُونُونَ فَعِبَادَتُهُمْ فِتْنَةٌ لَهُمْ وَ لِمَنِ اقْتَدَى بِهِمْ وَ قَدْ كَانَ فِي الرُّسُلِ ذِكْرَى لِلْعَابِدِينَ إِنَّ نَبِيّاً مِنَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ كَانَ يَسْتَكْمِلُ الطَّاعَةَ ثُمَّ يَعْصِي اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى فِي الْبَابِ الْوَاحِدِ فَخَرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ وَ يُنْبَذُ بِهِ فِي بَطْنِ الْحُوتِ ثُمَّ لَا يُنَجِّيهِ إِلَّا الِاعْتِرَافُ وَ التَّوْبَةُ

So this is how the community has become, and among them were those who strived (The Mujtahids) in the worship upon that misguidance. They (the people) were fascinated by them, and admired them, and their worship became a strife (Fitna) for them as well as those who followed them, whereas in the Messengers-as there was a Reminder for the worshippers. Of these Prophets-as was a Prophet-as who was complete in his-as worship, but then he-as disobeyed Allah-azwj Blessed and High in one aspect, so he-as was exited from the Paradise, and he-as was thrown into the belly of the whale. Then he-as was not rescued until he-as recognised (Al-Wilayah[103]) and repented.

فَاعْرِفْ أَشْبَاهَ الْأَحْبَارِ وَ الرُّهْبَانِ الَّذِينَ سَارُوا بِكِتْمَانِ الْكِتَابِ وَ تَحْرِيفِهِ فَما رَبِحَتْ تِجارَتُهُمْ وَ ما كانُوا مُهْتَدِينَ ثُمَّ اعْرِفْ أَشْبَاهَهُمْ مِنْ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ الَّذِينَ أَقَامُوا حُرُوفَ الْكِتَابِ وَ حَرَّفُوا حُدُودَهُ فَهُمْ مَعَ السَّادَةِ وَ الْكُبُرَّةِ فَإِذَا تَفَرَّقَتْ قَادَةُ الْأَهْوَاءِ كَانُوا مَعَ أَكْثَرِهِمْ دُنْيَا وَ ذَلِكَ مَبْلَغُهُمْ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ لَا يَزَالُونَ كَذَلِكَ فِي طَبَعٍ وَ طَمَعٍ لَا يَزَالُ يُسْمَعُ صَوْتُ إِبْلِيسَ عَلَى أَلْسِنَتِهِمْ بِبَاطِلٍ كَثِيرٍ يَصْبِرُ مِنْهُمُ الْعُلَمَاءُ عَلَى الْأَذَى وَ التَّعْنِيفِ وَ يَعِيبُونَ عَلَى الْعُلَمَاءِ بِالتَّكْلِيفِ وَ الْعُلَمَاءُ فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ خَانَةٌ إِنْ كَتَمُوا النَّصِيحَةَ إِنْ رَأَوْا تَائِهاً ضَالًّا لَا يَهْدُونَهُ أَوْ مَيِّتاً لَا يُحْيُونَهُ

So understand that there are similar ones to ‘Al-Ahbaar and Al-Rahbaan’ who go around concealing the Book, and alter it. So their business did not give them any gain and they were not of the guided ones. Then understand those that are similar to them in this community who establish the letters of the Book and alter its Limits. So they are with the chiefs and the notables, and when they disperse there are guided by the desires and they are with those who have a lot of the world (wealth), and that is what has reached to them from the knowledge. They do not cease to be like that in the copying (emulating) and the greed. The voice of Iblees-la does not cease to be heard from their tongues with the falsehood, a great deal. The scholars observe patience from them from the harm that they-asws suffer and their bullying, whereas they themselves blame the scholars for having burdened them. And the scholars in themselves are disloyal for having concealed the advice when they see a lost and strayed one with no guidance to him, or for not having revived a dead one.

فَبِئْسَ مَا يَصْنَعُونَ لِأَنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى أَخَذَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْمِيثَاقَ فِي الْكِتَابِ أَنْ يَأْمُرُوا بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَ بِمَا أُمِرُوا بِهِ وَ أَنْ يَنْهَوْا عَمَّا نُهُوا عَنْهُ وَ أَنْ يَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَ التَّقْوَى وَ لَا يَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْإِثْمِ وَ الْعُدْوَانِ

So evil it is what they do because Allah-azwj Blessed and High has Taken a Covenant to them in the Book that they would enjoin the doing of good and by what He-azwj has Ordered for, and forbid them from what He-azwj has Forbidden them from, and that they would help each other upon the goodness, and the piety, and will not co-operate upon the sins and the animosity.

فَالْعُلَمَاءُ مِنَ الْجُهَّالِ فِي جَهْدٍ وَ جِهَادٍ إِنْ وَعَظَتْ قَالُوا طَغَتْ وَ إِنْ عَلَّمُوا الْحَقَّ الَّذِي تَرَكُوا قَالُوا خَالَفَتْ وَ إِنِ اعْتَزَلُوهُمْ قَالُوا فَارَقَتْ وَ إِنْ قَالُوا هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ عَلَى مَا تُحَدِّثُونَ قَالُوا نَافَقَتْ وَ إِنْ أَطَاعُوهُمْ قَالُوا عَصَتِ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ

So the scholars are in a struggle in their efforts from the ignorant ones, that if they give good advice, the people would say that they have transgressed. And if they come to know the truth which they had avoided, they would say that they have opposed. And if they quit they would say that they have separated, and they say, ‘Give us your proof on what you are narrating’, they would say that they have become hypocrites, and if they obey them, they would say that Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic has been disobeyed.

فَهَلَكَ جُهَّالٌ فِيمَا لَا يَعْلَمُونَ أُمِّيُّونَ فِيمَا يَتْلُونَ يُصَدِّقُونَ بِالْكِتَابِ عِنْدَ التَّعْرِيفِ وَ يُكَذِّبُونَ بِهِ عِنْدَ التَّحْرِيفِ فَلَا يُنْكِرُونَ أُولَئِكَ أَشْبَاهُ الْأَحْبَارِ وَ الرُّهْبَانِ قَادَةٌ فِي الْهَوَى سَادَةٌ فِي الرَّدَى وَ آخَرُونَ مِنْهُمْ جُلُوسٌ بَيْنَ الضَّلَالَةِ وَ الْهُدَى لَا يَعْرِفُونَ إِحْدَى الطَّائِفَتَيْنِ مِنَ الْأُخْرَى يَقُولُونَ مَا كَانَ النَّاسُ يَعْرِفُونَ هَذَا وَ لَا يَدْرُونَ مَا هُوَ

So the ignorant ones are destroyed in what they do not know, unlettered in what they recite. They ratify the Book when it is defined and deny it in its altered state (Meaning they accept the present altered one and reject the original one which they consider to be the altered one), and so they are not deniers as such. They are similar to Al-Ahbaar and Al-Rahbaan, leaders in matters of desires and chiefs in matters of ruination, and others from among them are seated in between the misguidance and the guidance, not understanding one community from the other. They are saying that the people do not know this, not will they return to what it used to be.

وَ صَدَّقُوا تَرْكَهُمْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) عَلَى الْبَيْضَاءِ لَيْلُهَا مِنْ نَهَارِهَا لَمْ يَظْهَرْ فِيهِمْ بِدْعَةٌ وَ لَمْ يُبَدَّلْ فِيهِمْ سُنَّةٌ لَا خِلَافَ عِنْدَهُمْ وَ لَا اخْتِلَافَ فَلَمَّا غَشِيَ النَّاسَ ظُلْمَةُ خَطَايَاهُمْ صَارُوا إِمَامَيْنِ دَاعٍ إِلَى اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى وَ دَاعٍ إِلَى النَّارِ

And they are right. The Messenger-saww of Allah-azwj left them upon the clarity, its night from its day. No innovations appeared among them, nor was the Sunnah changed among them.

There was no opposition from them or differences among them. So what made the people to be covered in darkness of their errors (sins) is when two imams appeared, one-asws calling to Allah-azwj Blessed and High, and one calling to the Fire.

فَعِنْدَ ذَلِكَ نَطَقَ الشَّيْطَانُ فَعَلَا صَوْتُهُ عَلَى لِسَانِ أَوْلِيَائِهِ وَ كَثُرَ خَيْلُهُ وَ رَجْلُهُ وَ شَارَكَ فِي الْمَالِ وَ الْوَلَدِ مَنْ أَشْرَكَهُ فَعُمِلَ بِالْبِدْعَةِ وَ تُرِكَ الْكِتَابُ وَ السُّنَّةُ وَ نَطَقَ أَوْلِيَاءُ اللَّهِ بِالْحُجَّةِ وَ أَخَذُوا بِالْكِتَابِ وَ الْحِكْمَةِ

At that time Satan-la spoke in a loud voice by the tongues of his-la friends and numerous were his horsemen, and infantry, and he included them in the wealth and the sons, the ones who associated with him-la. So they acted by the innovations, and avoided the Book and the Sunnah, whereas the Guardians-asws of Allah-azwj spoke by the Proof and took to the Book and the Wisdom.

فَتَفَرَّقَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ أَهْلُ الْحَقِّ وَ أَهْلُ الْبَاطِلِ وَ تَخَاذَلَ وَ تَهَادَنَ أَهْلُ الْهُدَى وَ تَعَاوَنَ أَهْلُ الضَّلَالَةِ حَتَّى كَانَتِ الْجَمَاعَةُ مَعَ فُلَانٍ وَ أَشْبَاهِهِ فَاعْرِفْ هَذَا الصِّنْفَ وَ صِنْفٌ آخَرُ فَأَبْصِرْهُمْ رَأْيَ الْعَيْنِ نُجَبَاءُ وَ الْزَمْهُمْ حَتَّى تَرِدَ أَهْلَكَ فَ إِنَّ الْخاسِرِينَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ وَ أَهْلِيهِمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيامَةِ أَلا ذلِكَ هُوَ الْخُسْرانُ الْمُبِينُ

So from that day on, the people of the truth separated from the people of the falsehood. The people of guidance were abandoned and insulted, whilst the people of the misguidance helped each other until they became a group with so and so, and the like of him. So, understand this type, and the other type and look at them by the eyes of the excellent ones, and be firm with them until you come to your family, for the losers are the one who have lost themselves and their families on the Day of Judgement. Indeed! That is the clear loss’.

[إِلَى هَاهُنَا رِوَايَةُ الْحُسَيْنِ وَ فِي رِوَايَةِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى زِيَادَةٌ]

(Up to here is the report of Al-Husayn, and in the report of Muhammad Bin Yahya this is the extra bit).

لَهُمْ عِلْمٌ بِالطَّرِيقِ فَإِنْ كَانَ دُونَهُمْ بَلَاءٌ فَلَا تَنْظُرْ إِلَيْهِمْ فَإِنْ كَانَ دُونَهُمْ عَسْفٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعَسْفِ وَ خَسْفٌ وَ دُونَهُمْ بَلَايَا تَنْقَضِي ثُمَّ تَصِيرُ إِلَى رَخَاءٍ

‘They (people of the truth) know the path, if without them-asws there are afflictions do not hold it against them-asws. If without them-asws there is tyranny from the tyrannous people, and sinking of the earth and other afflictions, it will soon pass, then you will travel to the prosperity (through them-asws).

ثُمَّ اعْلَمْ أَنَّ إِخْوَانَ الثِّقَةِ ذَخَائِرُ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ وَ لَوْ لَا أَنْ تَذْهَبَ بِكَ الظُّنُونُ عَنِّي لَجَلَيْتُ لَكَ عَنْ أَشْيَاءَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ غَطَّيْتُهَا وَ لَنَشَرْتُ لَكَ أَشْيَاءَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ كَتَمْتُهَا وَ لَكِنِّي أَتَّقِيكَ وَ أَسْتَبْقِيكَ وَ لَيْسَ الْحَلِيمُ الَّذِي لَا يَتَّقِي أَحَداً فِي مَكَانِ التَّقْوَى وَ الْحِلْمُ لِبَاسُ الْعَالِمِ فَلَا تَعْرَيَنَّ مِنْهُ وَ السَّلَامُ

Then know that the reliable brothers are an ammunition, some of them for the other. Had it not been that you would leave from me-asws due to your conjectures, I-asws would have clarified for you certain things from the truth which I-asws have kept covered, and would make public certain things from the truth which I-asws have kept concealed, but I-asws fear for you, and want you to remain (alive), and it is not for the forbearing person that he would not fear for anyone in the place of the piety, and the forbearance is the robe of the scholar, so do not be without it.

‘With Salam’ (peace be with you)’.[104]

Also an additional Hadith on Maurifat is given in Appendix III.

The Process of Learning and Maurifat:

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَمَّنْ ذَكَرَهُ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ إِنَّكُمْ لَا تَكُونُونَ صَالِحِينَ حَتَّى تَعْرِفُوا وَ لَا تَعْرِفُونَ حَتَّى تُصَدِّقُوا وَ لَا تُصَدِّقُونَ حَتَّى تُسَلِّمُوا أَبْوَاباً أَرْبَعَةً لَا يَصْلُحُ أَوَّلُهَا إِلَّا بِآخِرِهَا ضَلَّ أَصْحَابُ الثَّلَاثَةِ وَ تَاهُوا تَيْهاً بَعِيداً إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى لَا يَقْبَلُ إِلَّا الْعَمَلَ الصَّالِحَ وَ لَا يَتَقَبَّلُ اللَّهُ إِلَّا بِالْوَفَاءِ بِالشُّرُوطِ وَ الْعُهُودِ وَ مَنْ وَفَى اللَّهَ بِشُرُوطِهِ وَ اسْتَكْمَلَ مَا وَصَفَ فِي عَهْدِهِ نَالَ مَا عِنْدَهُ وَ اسْتَكْمَلَ وَعْدَهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ أَخْبَرَ الْعِبَادَ بِطَرِيقِ الْهُدَى وَ شَرَعَ لَهُمْ فِيهَا الْمَنَارَ وَ أَخْبَرَهُمْ كَيْفَ يَسْلُكُونَ فَقَالَ وَ إِنِّي لَغَفَّارٌ لِمَنْ تابَ وَ آمَنَ وَ عَمِلَ صالِحاً ثُمَّ اهْتَدى‏ وَ قَالَ إِنَّما يَتَقَبَّلُ اللَّهُ مِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ فَمَنِ اتَّقَى اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فِيمَا أَمَرَهُ لَقِيَ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ مُؤْمِناً بِمَا جَاءَ بِهِ مُحَمَّدٌ ص هَيْهَاتَ هَيْهَاتَ فَاتَ قَوْمٌ وَ مَاتُوا قَبْلَ أَنْ يَهْتَدُوا وَ ظَنُّوا أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا وَ أَشْرَكُوا مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ إِنَّهُ مَنْ أَتَى الْبُيُوتَ مِنْ أَبْوَابِهَا اهْتَدَى وَ مَنْ أَخَذَ فِي غَيْرِهَا سَلَكَ طَرِيقَ الرَّدَى وَصَلَ اللَّهُ‏ طَاعَةَ وَلِيِّ أَمْرِهِ بِطَاعَةِ رَسُولِهِ ص وَ طَاعَةَ رَسُولِهِ بِطَاعَتِهِ فَمَنْ تَرَكَ طَاعَةَ وُلَاةِ الْأَمْرِ لَمْ يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَ لَا رَسُولَهُ وَ هُوَ الْإِقْرَارُ بِمَا نَزَلَ مِنْ عِنْدِ اللَّهِ خُذُوا

زِينَتَكُمْ عِنْدَ كُلِّ مَسْجِدٍ وَ الْتَمِسُوا الْبُيُوتَ الَّتِي أَذِنَ اللَّهُ أَنْ تُرْفَعَ وَ يُذْكَرَ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ فَإِنَّهُ قَدْ خَبَّرَكُمْ أَنَّهُمْ رِجَالٌ لَا تُلْهِيهِمْ تِجَارَةٌ وَ لَا بَيْعٌ عَنْ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ إِقَامِ الصَّلَاةِ وَ إِيتَاءِ الزَّكَاةِ يَخَافُونَ يَوْماً تَتَقَلَّبُ فِيهِ الْقُلُوبُ وَ الْأَبْصَارُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدِ اسْتَخْلَصَ الرُّسُلَ لِأَمْرِهِ ثُمَّ اسْتَخْلَصَهُمْ مُصَدِّقِينَ لِذَلِكَ فِي نُذُرِهِ فَقَالَ وَ إِنْ مِنْ أُمَّةٍ إِلَّا خَلا فِيها نَذِيرٌ تَاهَ مَنْ جَهِلَ وَ اهْتَدَى مَنْ أَبْصَرَ وَ عَقَلَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ يَقُولُ فَإِنَّها لا تَعْمَى الْأَبْصارُ وَ لكِنْ تَعْمَى الْقُلُوبُ الَّتِي فِي الصُّدُورِ وَ كَيْفَ يَهْتَدِي مَنْ

لَمْ يُبْصِرْ وَ كَيْفَ يُبْصِرُ مَنْ لَمْ يُنْذَرْ اتَّبِعُوا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص وَ أَقِرُّوا بِمَا نَزَلَ مِنْ عِنْدِ اللَّهِ وَ اتَّبِعُوا آثَارَ الْهُدَى فَإِنَّهُمْ عَلَامَاتُ الْأَمَانَةِ وَ التُّقَى وَ اعْلَمُوا أَنَّهُ لَوْ أَنْكَرَ رَجُلٌ عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ ع وَ أَقَرَّ بِمَنْ سِوَاهُ مِنَ الرُّسُلِ لَمْ يُؤْمِنْ اقْتَصُّوا الطَّرِيقَ بِالْتِمَاسِ الْمَنَارِ وَ الْتَمِسُوا مِنْ وَرَاءِ الْحُجُبِ الْآثَارَ تَسْتَكْمِلُوا أَمْرَ دِينِكُمْ وَ تُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ رَبِّكُمْ

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from his father from those whom he has mentioned from Muhammad ibn Abd al-Rahman ibn abu Layla from his father who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

‘You will not become virtuous until you ‘تَعْرِفُوا’ (gain Maurifat[105]), you will not become ‘Arif’[106] until you affirm and you will not affirm until you accept four Chapters, the first of which will be of no benefit without the last one.

People of three Chapters have strayed far away. Allah-azwj does not Accept anything but virtuous deeds and Allah-azwj does not Accept (anything) without loyalty in keeping up with ones stipulations and covenants. Whoever fulfils his stipulations toward Allah-azwj and completes whatever is in ones covenant, he will find (the reward that is) with Him-azwj and He-azwj will fulfil His-azwj promise.

Allah-azwj has Informed the people of the ways of guidance and has established for it the ‘الْمَنَارَ’ Lighthouse-asws. He-azwj has informed them how to behave, saying, I am All-forgiving to the righteously striving believers who repent and follow the right guidance. (20:82) Allah-azwj has also said, Allah accepts only the offerings of the pious ones. (5:27)

‘Whoever maintains piety before Allah-azwj in the matter of His-azwj Commands he will come in the presence of Allah-azwj as a believer in whatever Muhammad-saww has brought from Him-azwj. How remote, far away and lost are the people who have died before achieving guidance, and had thought that they were among the believers. They had considered things as partners of Allah without knowing what they had done. Whoever comes to a house through its door finds proper guidance, and whoever looks for a way other than the door has chosen a condemned path.

Allah-azwj has Joined (His-azwj) obedience to that of His Messenger-saww along with obedience to those who possess Divine Authority-asws.  And the obedience to His Messenger-saww with obedience to His-azwj own Commands. Therefore, whoever does not obey the people-asws who possess Divine Authority, they have not obeyed Allah-azwj and His Rasool-saww and it (obedience to people who possess Divine Authority) is the affirmation of what has come from Allah-azwj.

Dress up (in piety) before every Masjid. Find the houses through the doors to them, the houses for which Allah-azwj has Granted permission to be raised high, wherein people speak of Him-azwj. He-azwj has Informed you that in these houses there are men who do not become distracted because of trade and business from speaking of Allah-azwj from prayer and paying al-Zakat (charity).

These men fear the Day wherein the hearts and eyes undergo turbulent conditions. Allah-azwj Chose and purified the messengers for His-azwj Command, then He-azwj purified and chose them-asws who are confirmed in His warnings. Allah-azwj Says: No nation who lived before was left without a Warner …. (35:25). ‘Lost are those who remained ignorant and guided are those who thought and understood. Allah-azwj has said: It is not their seeing ability that is blind but it is their hearts which are in their chests. (22:46)

‘How can one who does not think find guidance? How can one who has not received warnings think? Follow the Rasool Allah-saww, affirm whatever has come from Allah-azwj, follow the marks-asws of guidance; they-asws are the signs of trust and piety. You must know that if a man rejects Prophet Isa-as and acknowledges all the other messengers of Allah-as, he is not a believer. Find the way through finding the lighthouse and look for the marks from behind the curtains. Strive to perfect the affairs of your religion and believe in Allah-azwj your Lord.[107]

Worship Ibada:

After attaining the ‘Maurifat’ one has to apply one’s knowledge, as Eman is to believe, utter it and practice it through limbs (Hadith)[108].  Also Imam-asws says: ‘Its essential to have Eman in both the exoteric (Zahir) as well as in the esoteric (Batin):

أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ آدَمَ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ عَنْ هِشَامٍ عَنِ الْهَيْثَمِ التَّمِيمِيِّ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع يَا مِيثَمُ التَّمِيمِيُّ إِنَّ قَوْماً آمَنُوا بِالظَّاهِرِ وَ كَفَرُوا بِالْبَاطِنِ فَلَمْ يَنْفَعْهُمْ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَ جَاءَ قَوْمٌ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ فَآمَنُوا بِالْبَاطِنِ وَ كَفَرُوا بِالظَّاهِرِ فَلَمْ يَنْفَعْهُمْ ذَلِكَ شَيْئاً وَ لَا إِيمَانَ بِظَاهِرٍ إِلَّا بِبَاطِنٍ وَ لَا بِبَاطِنٍ إِلَّا بِظَاهِرٍ

Al-Haitham Al-Tamimi says that Abu Abdullah-asws said:

‘O Mithm Al-Tamimi! Those people who superficially believe but disbelieve from their hearts will not get any benefits (from their faith). However, those who believe from hearts but do not practice it will not get any benefit either. Therefore, one has no belief if it’s only exoteric (Zahir) unless he also has it esoterically (Batin) and similarly one has no faith if its only esoteric (Batin) without having it exoterically executed (demonstrating it)’.[109]

In addition and in the light of Commands of Allah-azwj, one has to fulfil some of the essential acts of worship and should try to go beyond those for gaining further spiritual benefits.  We have selected few of those Ahadith where there is repetitive recitation of the supplications, i.e., in the form of ‘Wird’.

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ الْفَضْلِ [عَنْ‏] أَبِي عَمْرٍو الْحَذَّاءِ قَالَ سَاءَتْ حَالِي فَكَتَبْتُ إِلَى أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع فَكَتَبَ إِلَيَّ أَدِمْ قِرَاءَةَ إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنا نُوحاً إِلى‏ قَوْمِهِ قَالَ فَقَرَأْتُهَا حَوْلًا فَلَمْ أَرَ شَيْئاً فَكَتَبْتُ إِلَيْهِ أُخْبِرُهُ بِسُوءِ حَالِي وَ أَنِّي قَدْ قَرَأْتُ إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنا نُوحاً إِلى‏ قَوْمِهِ حَوْلًا كَمَا أَمَرْتَنِي وَ لَمْ أَرَ شَيْئاً قَالَ فَكَتَبَ إِلَيَّ قَدْ وَفَى لَكَ الْحَوْلُ فَانْتَقِلْ مِنْهَا إِلَى قِرَاءَةِ إِنَّا أَنْزَلْنَاهُ قَالَ فَفَعَلْتُ فَمَا كَانَ إِلَّا يَسِيراً حَتَّى بَعَثَ إِلَيَّ ابْنُ أَبِي دَاوُدَ فَقَضَى عَنِّي دَيْنِي وَ أَجْرَى عَلَيَّ وَ عَلَى عِيَالِي وَ وَجَّهَنِي إِلَى الْبَصْرَةِ فِي وَكَالَتِهِ بِبَابِ كَلَّاءَ وَ أَجْرَى عَلَيَّ خَمْسَمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ وَ كَتَبْتُ مِنَ الْبَصْرَةِ عَلَى يَدَيْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مَهْزِيَارَ إِلَى أَبِي الْحَسَنِ ع إِنِّي كُنْتُ سَأَلْتُ أَبَاكَ عَنْ كَذَا وَ كَذَا وَ شَكَوْتُ إِلَيْهِ كَذَا وَ كَذَا وَ إِنِّي قَدْ نِلْتُ الَّذِي أَحْبَبْتُ

فَأَحْبَبْتُ أَنْ تُخْبِرَنِي يَا مَوْلَايَ كَيْفَ أَصْنَعُ فِي قِرَاءَةِ إِنَّا أَنْزَلْنَاهُ أَقْتَصِرُ عَلَيْهَا وَحْدَهَا فِي فَرَائِضِي وَ غَيْرِهَا أَمْ أَقْرَأُ مَعَهَا غَيْرَهَا أَمْ لَهَا حَدٌّ أَعْمَلُ بِهِ فَوَقَّعَ ع وَ قَرَأْتُ التَّوْقِيعَ لَا تَدَعْ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ قَصِيرَهُ وَ طَوِيلَهُ وَ يُجْزِئُكَ مِنْ قِرَاءَةِ إِنَّا أَنْزَلْنَاهُ يَوْمَكَ وَ لَيْلَتَكَ مِائَةَ مَرَّةٍ

A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad, who from Ali ibn Sulayman, who from Ahmad ibn al-Fadl, who from Amr al-Hadhdha, who has said:

I faced a difficult condition and wrote to Abu Jafar-asws about it and he-asws wrote to me: continue reading: We sent Noah to his people to the end (71:1-28).  I read it for one year but did not see any change.  I wrote to him-asws again to inform him-asws of my difficult condition and that I have been reading the Verse for one year as the Imam-asws had instructed and that I did not experience any change.  The Imam-asws then wrote to me saying: One year is passed, now read Verse 97 (97:1-5).  I then read it for a very short time that ibn abu Dawud sent me something and paid off my debts and sent me and my family to al-Basrah as an agent to Bab Kala[110] with a salary of five hundred dirham; and from al-Basrah I wrote through Ali ibn Mahziyar to Abu al-Hassan-asws explaining: I had written to your-asws father about so and so issues and had complained against so and so matters, I have found what I liked.  I would like to ask you-asws about what I should do about reading the Verse 97, if I must continue reading it in my obligatory Salat and others or there is a limit of time for it.  The Imam-asws signed the answer and I read the signature that said: you must not leave from Quran, short or long passages. Of Verse 97, it is enough to read one hundred times in one night.[111]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنْ أَبِيهِ رَفَعَهُ إِلَى أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّمَا هُوَ اللَّهُ وَ الشَّيْطَانُ وَ الْحَقُّ وَ الْبَاطِلُ وَ الْهُدَى وَ الضَّلَالَةُ وَ الرُّشْدُ وَ الْغَيُّ وَ الْعَاجِلَةُ وَ الْآجِلَةُ وَ الْعَاقِبَةُ وَ الْحَسَنَاتُ وَ السَّيِّئَاتُ فَمَا كَانَ مِنْ حَسَنَاتٍ فَلِلَّهِ وَ مَا كَانَ مِنْ سَيِّئَاتٍ فَلِلشَّيْطَانِ لَعَنَهُ اللَّهُ

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad Ibn Abu Abd Allah from his father in a Marfu manner has narrated the following from Abu Jafar-asws:

‘The Rasool Allah-saww has said, O people! there is always (people who have to choose between) the Allah-azwj or the Satan-la, Truth and falsehood, guidance and straying, wisdom and error, present and future, the consequences, the good deeds and evil deeds. Good deeds are for Allah-azwj and evil deeds are for Satan-la, may Allah-azwj condemn him-la’.[112]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَسْبَاطٍ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا ع أَنَّ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ص كَانَ يَقُولُ طُوبَى لِمَنْ أَخْلَصَ لِلَّهِ الْعِبَادَةَ وَ الدُّعَاءَ وَ لَمْ يَشْغَلْ قَلْبَهُ بِمَا تَرَى عَيْنَاهُ وَ لَمْ يَنْسَ ذِكْرَ اللَّهِ بِمَا تَسْمَعُ أُذُنَاهُ وَ لَمْ يَحْزُنْ صَدْرَهُ بِمَا أُعْطِيَ غَيْرُهُ

A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ali ibn Asbat who has narrated the following from Abu Al-Hassan Al-Reza-asws:

‘Amir-ul-Momineen-asws has said: ‘Paradise is for those who maintain sincerity in worshipping Allah-azwj and in prayer to Him-azwj. Whatever they see does not occupy their heart. Whatever they hear does not make them forget to speak of Allah-azwj and they do not feel depressed because of what is given to others’.[113]

The Importance of the Continuity in Ibada:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْمِنْقَرِيِّ عَنْ سُفْيَانَ بْنِ عُيَيْنَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع فِي قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ أَيُّكُمْ أَحْسَنُ عَمَلًا قَالَ لَيْسَ يَعْنِي أَكْثَرَ عَمَلًا وَ لَكِنْ أَصْوَبَكُمْ عَمَلًا وَ إِنَّمَا الْإِصَابَةُ خَشْيَةُ اللَّهِ وَ النِّيَّةُ الصَّادِقَةُ وَ الْحَسَنَةُ ثُمَّ قَالَ الْإِبْقَاءُ عَلَى الْعَمَلِ حَتَّى يَخْلُصَ أَشَدُّ مِنَ الْعَمَلِ وَ الْعَمَلُ الْخَالِصُ الَّذِي لَا تُرِيدُ أَنْ يَحْمَدَكَ عَلَيْهِ أَحَدٌ إِلَّا اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ النِّيَّةُ أَفْضَلُ مِنَ الْعَمَلِ أَلَا وَ إِنَّ النِّيَّةَ هِيَ الْعَمَلُ ثُمَّ تَلَا قَوْلَهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ قُلْ كُلٌّ يَعْمَلُ عَلى‏ شاكِلَتِهِ يَعْنِي عَلَى نِيَّتِهِ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad from al-Minqari from Sufyan ibn Uyayna who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

Abu Abd Allah-asws said: About the words of Allah-azwj So that He may try you to see who among you is best in good deeds. (67:2), the Imam-asws said, He-azwj has not meant thereby the quantity of deeds. He-azwj thereby has meant the most correct ones in deeds. Correctness comes only from overwhelming respect for Allah-azwj, true intention and goodness.

He-asws then said: It comes from continuity of the good deeds. In fact, maintaining continuity until deeds reach purity is more difficult than performing the deed itself. It is the intention that forms the deed. The Imam-asws then recited the words of Allah-azwj, Say (O Muhammad), ‘Everyone acts according to his way,’ (17:84) it (way) means according to his intentions’.[114]

وَ بِهَذَا الْإِسْنَادِ قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ إِلَّا مَنْ أَتَى اللَّهَ بِقَلْبٍ سَلِيمٍ قَالَ الْقَلْبُ السَّلِيمُ الَّذِي يَلْقَى رَبَّهُ وَ لَيْسَ فِيهِ أَحَدٌ سِوَاهُ قَالَ وَ كُلُّ قَلْبٍ فِيهِ شِرْكٌ أَوْ شَكٌّ فَهُوَ سَاقِطٌ وَ إِنَّمَا أَرَادُوا الزُّهْدَ فِي الدُّنْيَا لِتَفْرُغَ قُلُوبُهُمْ لِلْآخِرَةِ

It is reported through the same chain of narrators that he said:

‘Once I asked Abu Abd Allah-asws about the words of Allah-azwj Except those who would come to Allah with safe and protected hearts …. (26:89).  The Imam-asws said: ‘A safe and protected heart is such a heart that goes in the presence of his Lord while there is nothing in it besides his Lord-azwj.  He-asws then said that every heart in which there is ‘Shirk’ (polytheism) or ‘Shak’ (doubt), such a heart is a failing heart. They (Pious people) have chosen to restrict themselves from worldly matters so that their hearts are reserved for the matters of the life hereafter only’.[115]

Worshipping for 40 Days:

بِهَذَا الْإِسْنَادِ عَنْ سُفْيَانَ بْنِ عُيَيْنَةَ عَنِ السِّنْدِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ مَا أَخْلَصَ الْعَبْدُ الْإِيمَانَ بِاللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْماً أَوْ قَالَ مَا أَجْمَلَ عَبْدٌ ذِكْرَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْماً إِلَّا زَهَّدَهُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَ بَصَّرَهُ دَاءَهَا وَ دَوَاءَهَا فَأَثْبَتَ الْحِكْمَةَ فِي قَلْبِهِ وَ أَنْطَقَ بِهَا لِسَانَهُ ثُمَّ تَلَا إِنَّ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا الْعِجْلَ سَيَنالُهُمْ غَضَبٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَ ذِلَّةٌ فِي الْحَياةِ الدُّنْيا وَ كَذلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُفْتَرِينَ فَلَا تَرَى صَاحِبَ بِدْعَةٍ إِلَّا ذَلِيلًا وَ مُفْتَرِياً عَلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ ص وَ عَلَى أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ ص إِلَّا ذَلِيلًا

Abu Jafar-asws has said: If a person maintains pure ‘Eman’ (belief) in Allah-azwj for forty days, Allah-azwj, Purifies his heart in this world and shows him his illnesses and the cure for them (illnesses).  Also he-asws said:  whenever a servant of Allah-azwj speaks of Him-azwj in a beautiful way for 40 days Allah-azwj purifies his heart in this world and shows him his illness and the cure for such illnesses.  He-azwj then establishes wisdom in his heart and will make his tongue to speak wisdom.  The Imam-asws then recited this verse of the Holy Quran: Those who took the calf as their Lord will face anger and humiliation from their Lord in the worldly life and thus We recompense those who forge lies (7:157).  The Imam-asws said:  You should note that all those who forge lies are but despicable persons.  So also is one who forges lies against Allah-azwj, His Messenger-saww and his Ahl al-Bayt-asws.  Such person is nothing but a despicable one’.[116]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْمُكَارِي عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ مَا عَنَى بِقَوْلِهِ وَ إِبْراهِيمَ الَّذِي وَفَّى قَالَ كَلِمَاتٍ بَالَغَ فِيهِنَّ قُلْتُ وَ مَا هُنَّ قَالَ كَانَ إِذَا أَصْبَحَ قَالَ أَصْبَحْتُ وَ رَبِّي مَحْمُودٌ أَصْبَحْتُ لَا أُشْرِكُ بِاللَّهِ شَيْئاً وَ لَا أَدْعُو مَعَهُ إِلَهاً وَ لَا أَتَّخِذُ مِنْ دُونِهِ وَلِيّاً ثَلَاثاً وَ إِذَا أَمْسَى قَالَهَا ثَلَاثاً قَالَ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فِي كِتَابِهِ وَ إِبْراهِيمَ الَّذِي وَفَّى قُلْتُ فَمَا عَنَى بِقَوْلِهِ فِي نُوحٍ إِنَّهُ كانَ عَبْداً شَكُوراً قَالَ كَلِمَاتٍ بَالَغَ فِيهِنَّ قُلْتُ وَ مَا هُنَّ قَالَ كَانَ إِذَا أَصْبَحَ قَالَ أَصْبَحْتُ أُشْهِدُكَ مَا أَصْبَحَتْ بِي مِنْ نِعْمَةٍ أَوْ عَافِيَةٍ فِي دِينٍ أَوْ دُنْيَا فَإِنَّهَا مِنْكَ وَحْدَكَ لَا شَرِيكَ لَكَ فَلَكَ الْحَمْدُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ وَ لَكَ الشُّكْرُ كَثِيراً كَانَ يَقُولُهَا إِذَا أَصْبَحَ ثَلَاثاً وَ إِذَا أَمْسَى ثَلَاثاً قُلْتُ فَمَا عَنَى بِقَوْلِهِ فِي يَحْيَى وَ حَناناً مِنْ لَدُنَّا وَ زَكاةً قَالَ تَحَنُّنَ اللَّهِ قَالَ قُلْتُ فَمَا بَلَغَ مِنْ تَحَنُّنِ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ قَالَ كَانَ إِذَا قَالَ يَا رَبِّ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لَبَّيْكَ يَا يَحْيَى

Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from certain individuals of his people from Muhammad ibn Sinan from Abu Said al-Mukari from Abu Hamza who said:

‘Once I asked Abu Jafar-asws What is the meaning of: … and about Abraham who fulfilled his duty (to Allah)? (53:37) The Imam-asws said: ‘There were certain words that he would say very often. I then asked: ‘What were they’? The Imam-asws said: ‘In the morning he-as would say, ‘إِذَا أَصْبَحَ قَالَ أَصْبَحْتُ وَ رَبِّي مَحْمُودٌ أَصْبَحْتُ لَا أُشْرِكُ بِاللَّهِ شَيْئاً وَ لَا أَدْعُو مَعَهُ إِلَهاً وَ لَا أَتَّخِذُ مِنْ دُونِهِ وَلِيّاً’ ‘I-as live in this morning. To my Lord-azwj belongs all praise. This morning I-as do not accept anything as partner of Allah-azwj. I-as do not worship anything besides Allah-azwj and I-as do not accept anything as my guardians besides Allah-azwj,’ three times. In the evening he would say these three times. The Imam-asws said: ‘Thus, Allah-azwj Revealed in His-azwj book, ‘.. and about Abraham who fulfilled his duty (to Allah).’ (53:37).   I (the narrator) then asked, What is the meaning of: ‘ … (Noah) was a thankful servant (of Allah)?’ (17:3). The Imam-asws said: ‘It was certain words that he-as would say very often. I then asked: What were they? The Imam-asws said: ‘In the morning he would say,

‘عَبْداً شَكُوراً قَالَ كَلِمَاتٍ بَالَغَ فِيهِنَّ قُلْتُ وَ مَا هُنَّ قَالَ كَانَ إِذَا أَصْبَحَ قَالَ أَصْبَحْتُ أُشْهِدُكَ مَا أَصْبَحَتْ بِي مِنْ نِعْمَةٍ أَوْ عَافِيَةٍ فِي دِينٍ أَوْ دُنْيَا فَإِنَّهَا مِنْكَ وَحْدَكَ لَا شَرِيكَ لَكَ فَلَكَ الْحَمْدُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ وَ لَكَ الشُّكْرُ كَثِيراً كَانَ يَقُولُهَا’

‘This morning I ask You-azwj, to be my witness that all the bounties with me or good fortune in religion or worldly, all are from You-azwj alone. You-azwj have no partner; all praise belongs to You-azwj and for this You-azwj Deserve abundant thanks. He-as would say in the morning three times and in the evening three times. I (the narrator) then asked about His words concerning Yahya (John):  … We gave him compassion and purity. He was a pious human being. (19:13).  The Imam-asws said: ‘Allah-azwj showed compassion. I then asked, What was the degree of Allah-azwjs compassion? The Imam-asws said: It was as such that whenever John would say: Our Allah-azwj, ‘يَا رَبِّ’ Allah-azwj would Say: ‘لَبَّيْكَ يَا يَحْيَى’ ‘You are well heard and noticed, O John’.[117]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ يَعْقُوبَ بْنِ يَزِيدَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ يَسَارٍ قَالَ قَالَ رَجُلٌ لِأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع لَا يُولَدُ لِي فَقَالَ اسْتَغْفِرْ رَبَّكَ فِي السَّحَرِ مِائَةَ مَرَّةٍ فَإِنْ نَسِيتَهُ فَاقْضِهِ

A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Yaqub ibn Yazid from Muhammad Shuayb from al-Nadr ibn Shuayb from Said ibn Yasar who said:

A man once said to Abu Abd Allah-asws We wish to have a child but the birth of a child has not happened for us. The Imam-asws instructed him to say, I ask forgiveness from Allah-azwj, my Lord-azwj and return to Him-azwj in repentance one hundred times just before it is (Fajr time) dawn. If you forget; do its Qada (compensatory prayer for it).[118]

A Respite from Punishment for 40-Days:

عَنْهُ وَ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ جَرِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ إِذَا أُغِيرَ الرَّجُلُ فِي أَهْلِهِ أَوْ بَعْضِ مَنَاكِحِهِ مِنْ مَمْلُوكِهِ فَلَمْ يَغَرْ وَ لَمْ يُغَيِّرْ بَعَثَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ إِلَيْهِ طَائِراً يُقَالُ لَهُ الْقَفَنْدَرُ حَتَّى يَسْقُطَ عَلَى عَارِضَةِ بَابِهِ ثُمَّ يُمْهِلَهُ أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْماً ثُمَّ يَهْتِفَ بِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَيُورٌ يُحِبُّ كُلَّ غَيُورٍ فَإِنْ هُوَ غَارَ وَ غَيَّرَ وَ أَنْكَرَ ذَلِكَ فَأَنْكَرَهُ وَ إِلَّا طَارَ حَتَّى يَسْقُطَ عَلَى رَأْسِهِ فَيَخْفِقَ بِجَنَاحَيْهِ عَلَى عَيْنَيْهِ ثُمَّ يَطِيرَ عَنْهُ فَيَنْزِعُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ مِنْهُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ رُوحَ الْإِيمَانِ وَ تُسَمِّيهِ الْمَلَائِكَةُ الدَّيُّوثَ

It is narrated from the narrator of the previous Hadith Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa all from ibn Mahbub from Ishaq ibn Jarir who said:

‘Abu Abd Allah-asws has said: ‘When a man’s vigilance is shaken in matters of protection for his family and wife or those married to him, like his slave-girl, but does not act vigilantly, Allah-azwj Sends a bird called al-Qafandar which sits on the upper portion of his door jamb, gives him forty days and calls him saying, ‘Allah-azwj is Vigilant and loves vigilant people.’ If he then acts vigilantly, changes and dislikes what has shaken his sense of protectionism, otherwise, the bird flies, sits on his head and hangs its wings on his eyes; then Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, removes the spirit of belief and faith from him and the angels call him a pimp’.[119]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شِمْرٍ عَنْ جَابِرٍ قَالَ قَالَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ ع مَا نَدْرِي كَيْفَ نَصْنَعُ بِالنَّاسِ إِنْ حَدَّثْنَاهُمْ بِمَا سَمِعْنَا مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص ضَحِكُوا وَ إِنْ سَكَتْنَا لَمْ يَسَعْنَا قَالَ فَقَالَ ضَمْرَةُ بْنُ مَعْبَدٍ حَدِّثْنَا فَقَالَ هَلْ تَدْرُونَ مَا يَقُولُ عَدُوُّ اللَّهِ إِذَا حُمِلَ عَلَى سَرِيرِهِ قَالَ فَقُلْنَا لَا قَالَ فَإِنَّهُ يَقُولُ لِحَمَلَتِهِ أَ لَا تَسْمَعُونَ أَنِّي أَشْكُو إِلَيْكُمْ عَدُوَّ اللَّهِ خَدَعَنِي وَ أَوْرَدَنِي ثُمَّ لَمْ يُصْدِرْنِي وَ أَشْكُو إِلَيْكُمْ إِخْوَاناً وَاخَيْتُهُمْ فَخَذَلُونِي وَ أَشْكُو إِلَيْكُمْ أَوْلَاداً حَامَيْتُ عَنْهُمْ فَخَذَلُونِي وَ أَشْكُو إِلَيْكُمْ دَاراً أَنْفَقْتُ فِيهَا حَرِيبَتِي فَصَارَ سُكَّانُهَا غَيْرِي فَارْفُقُوا بِي وَ لَا تَسْتَعْجِلُوا قَالَ فَقَالَ ضَمْرَةُ يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ إِنْ كَانَ هَذَا يَتَكَلَّمُ بِهَذَا الْكَلَامِ يُوشِكُ أَنْ يَثِبَ عَلَى أَعْنَاقِ الَّذِينَ يَحْمِلُونَهُ قَالَ فَقَالَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ ع اللَّهُمَّ إِنْ كَانَ ضَمْرَةُ هَزِئَ مِنْ حَدِيثِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص فَخُذْهُ أَخْذَةَ أَسَفٍ قَالَ فَمَكَثَ أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْماً ثُمَّ مَاتَ فَحَضَرَهُ مَوْلًى لَهُ قَالَ فَلَمَّا دُفِنَ أَتَى عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ ع فَجَلَسَ إِلَيْهِ فَقَالَ لَهُ مِنْ أَيْنَ جِئْتَ يَا فُلَانُ قَالَ مِنْ جِنَازَةِ ضَمْرَةَ فَوَضَعْتُ وَجْهِي عَلَيْهِ حِينَ سُوِّيَ عَلَيْهِ فَسَمِعْتُ صَوْتَهُ وَ اللَّهِ أَعْرِفُهُ كَمَا كُنْتُ أَعْرِفُهُ وَ هُوَ حَيٌّ يَقُولُ وَيْلَكَ يَا ضَمْرَةَ بْنَ مَعْبَدٍ الْيَوْمَ خَذَلَكَ كُلُّ خَلِيلٍ وَ صَارَ مَصِيرُكَ إِلَى الْجَحِيمِ فِيهَا مَسْكَنُكَ وَ مَبِيتُكَ وَ الْمَقِيلُ قَالَ فَقَالَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ ع أَسْأَلُ اللَّهَ الْعَافِيَةَ هَذَا جَزَاءُ مَنْ يَهْزَأُ مِنْ حَدِيثِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus from ‘Amr ibn Shimr from Jabir who said:

‘Ali Ibn Al-Hussain-asws has said: ‘We are annoyed with dealing with people, as if we tell them that we-asws have heard (such and such Hadith) from the Rasool Allah-saww, they laugh, and (in response) to remain silent (to neglect our mission) is not possible for us-asws.’ The narrator has said that Damrah ibn Ma’bad then said, ‘You-asws then should narrate to us (of such) Ahadith.’

The Imam-asws then said, ‘Do you know what an enemy of Allah-azwj Says when his body is placed on the stretcher?’ We replied, ‘No, we do not know.’ The Imam-asws then said, ‘He says to those who carry his coffin, ‘Why is it that you do not listen to my complaints against Allah-azwj’s enemy who deceived me in taking me to wickedness and then did not help me to escape there from? I complain before you against those with whom I established brotherly relations but they all betrayed me.

I complain before you against the children whom I protected all the time but they also abandoned me. I complain before you against the house upon which I spent all my earnings but other people began to dwell therein. Please be kind and gentle to me and do not rush me up to my grave.’ Damrah then said, ‘O Abu al-Hassan-asws, if this man can say such things, he then may almost stand up on the shoulders of those who carry him.’

The narrator has said that Ali-asws Ibn Al-Hussain-asws then said, ‘O Allah-azwj, if Damrah has made fun of Hadith of the Rasool Allah-saww, then hold him like an angry person does.’ The narrator has said that after forty days he died. He had a servant who after his burial came to Ali Ibn Al-Hussain-asws. He sat next to the Imam-asws who asked. ‘Where are you coming from so and so’?’ He replied, ‘I have come from the burial of Damrah. I placed my face over him (his grave) when he was buried and I heard his voice, which I recognized. It was just as I knew it was in his lifetime. I heard him saying, ‘Woe is upon you, O Damrah ibn Ma’bad. Today all friends have abandoned you and your destination has become Hell, wherein is your dwelling, a place of rest at night and in the morning:’

The narrator has said that Ali-asws Ibn al-Hussain-asws then said, ‘I plead before Allah-azwj for safety, Such is the recompense for those who make fun of the Ahadith of the Rasool Allah-saww’.[120]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ بُنْدَارَ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنْ أَبِي سُلَيْمَانَ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ الْجَبَلِيِّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ جَمِيلِ بْنِ دَرَّاجٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع يَقُولُ مَنْ تَرَكَ الْعَشَاءَ لَيْلَةَ السَّبْتِ وَ لَيْلَةَ الْأَحَدِ مُتَوَالِيَتَيْنِ ذَهَبَتْ عَنْهُ قُوَّتُهُ فَلَمْ تَرْجِعْ إِلَيْهِ أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْماً

Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Bandar has narrated from Ahmad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah, from abu Sulayman, from Ahmad ibn al-Hassan al-Jabaliy, from his father, from Jamil ibn Darraj who said:

‘I once heard Abu Abd Allah-asws saying, ‘If one does not take dinner one Saturday and Sunday nights consecutively, his strength will go away and will not come back until forty days later’.[121]

One Should not Abandon Eating Meat for more than 40 Days:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ اللَّحْمُ يُنْبِتُ اللَّحْمَ وَ مَنْ تَرَكَ اللَّحْمَ أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْماً سَاءَ خُلُقُهُ وَ مَنْ سَاءَ خُلُقُهُ فَأَذِّنُوا فِي أُذُنِهِ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hisham ibn Salim who said:

‘Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws has said, ‘Meat grows meat and one who does not eat meat for forty days his manners change to worse, you must say ‘Adhan’ in the ears of one whose manners change to worse’.[122]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا ع إِنَّ النَّاسَ يَقُولُونَ إِنَّ مَنْ لَمْ يَأْكُلِ اللَّحْمَ ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ سَاءَ خُلُقُهُ فَقَالَ كَذَبُوا وَ لَكِنْ مَنْ لَمْ يَأْكُلِ اللَّحْمَ أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْماً تَغَيَّرَ خُلُقُهُ وَ بَدَنُهُ وَ ذَلِكَ لِانْتِقَالِ النُّطْفَةِ فِي مِقْدَارِ أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْماً

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn abu Nasr from al-Hussain ibn Khalid who said:

‘I once said to Abu al-Hassan, al-Reza-asws: ‘People say that if one does not eat meat for three days his manners change to worse.’ The Imam-asws said, ‘They have spoken lies. However, one who does not eat meat for forty days his manners change and it is because the seed (sperm) transfers (from one stage of development to another) within the duration of forty days’.[123]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ بُنْدَارَ وَ غَيْرُهُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنِ ابْنِ بَقَّاحٍ عَنِ الْحَكَمِ بْنِ أَيْمَنَ عَنْ أَبِي أُسَامَةَ زَيْدٍ الشَّحَّامِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص مَنْ أَتَى عَلَيْهِ أَرْبَعُونَ يَوْماً وَ لَمْ يَأْكُلِ اللَّحْمَ فَلْيَسْتَقْرِضْ عَلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ لْيَأْكُلْهُ

Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Bandar and others from Ahmad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah from Muhammad ibn Ali from ibn Baqqah from al-Hakam ibn Ayman from abu ‘Usamah Zayd al-Shahham who said:

‘Abu’ Abd Allah-asws has said that the Rasool Allah-saww has said, ‘One with whom forty days pass and has not eaten meat should borrow, relying on Allah-azwj (that He-azwj will help in paying it back) to buy meat to eat’.[124]

الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ بِسْطَامَ بْنِ مُرَّةَ الْفَارِسِيِّ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ يَزِيدَ الْفَارِسِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مَعْرُوفٍ عَنْ صَالِحِ بْنِ رَزِينٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع عَلَيْكُمْ بِالْهَرِيسَةِ فَإِنَّهَا تُنْشِطُ لِلْعِبَادَةِ أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْماً وَ هِيَ مِنَ الْمَائِدَةِ الَّتِي أُنْزِلَتْ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص

Al-Hussain from Muhammad has narrated from Mualla ‘ ibn Muhammad from Bistam ibn Murrah al-Farsiy who has said that narrated to us ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Yazid al-Farsiy from Muhammad ibn Maruf from Salih ibn Razin who said:

‘Abu Abd Allah-asws has said that Amir-ul-Monineen-asws has said, ‘You must eat al-Harisah (mashed grains and meat) because it energises you for worshipping for forty days. It was of the items in the table-spread with food that was revealed to the Rasool Allah-saww’.[125]

أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الْأَشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ مَنْصُورِ بْنِ حَازِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ مَنْ أَكَلَ حَبَّةً مِنْ رُمَّانٍ أَمْرَضَتْ شَيْطَانَ الْوَسْوَسَةِ أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْماً

Abu Ali al-Ashariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan ibn Yahya from Mansur ibn Hazim who said:

‘Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws has said: ‘If one eats a grain of pomegranate it makes the Satan-la of temptation sick for forty days’.[126]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ مَنْ أَكَلَ رُمَّانَةً عَلَى الرِّيقِ أَنَارَتْ قَلْبَهُ أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْماً

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hisham ibn Salim who said:

‘I once heard Abu Abd Allah-asws saying: ‘If one eats a pomegranate before breakfast his heart remains bright for forty days’.[127]

الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْوَشَّاءِ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ مَنْ شَرِبَ مُسْكِراً انْحَبَسَتْ صَلَاتُهُ أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْماً وَ إِنْ مَاتَ فِي الْأَرْبَعِينَ مَاتَ مِيتَةً جَاهِلِيَّةً فَإِنْ تَابَ تَابَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ عَلَيْهِ

AI-Hussain ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu’alla’ ibn Muhammad from al-Washsha’ from Aban ibn ‘Uthman from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn abu ‘Abd Allah who said:

‘Abu Abd Allah-asws has said, ‘If one drinks intoxicating liquor his Salat is withheld for forty days, and if he dies within the forty days he dies like the people of the time of ignorance, but if he repents (turns to) Allah-azwj, He-azwj also Turns to him’.[128]

Repentance in 40 Days:

عَنْهُ عَنْ صَالِحٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ عَبْدِ الصَّمَدِ بْنِ بَشِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ إِنَّ الْحُوتَ الَّذِي يَحْمِلُ الْأَرْضَ أَسَرَّ فِي نَفْسِهِ أَنَّهُ إِنَّمَا يَحْمِلُ الْأَرْضَ بِقُوَّتِهِ فَأَرْسَلَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى إِلَيْهِ حُوتاً أَصْغَرَ مِنْ شِبْرٍ وَ أَكْبَرَ مِنْ فِتْرٍ فَدَخَلَتْ فِي خَيَاشِيمِهِ فَصَعِقَ فَمَكَثَ بِذَلِكَ أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْماً ثُمَّ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ رَءُوفَ بِهِ وَ رَحِمَهُ وَ خَرَجَ فَإِذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ جَلَّ وَ عَزَّ بِأَرْضٍ زَلْزَلَةً بَعَثَ ذَلِكَ الْحُوتَ إِلَى ذَلِكَ الْحُوتِ فَإِذَا رَآهُ اضْطَرَبَ فَتَزَلْزَلَتِ الْأَرْضُ

It is narrated from the narrator of the previous Hadith from Salih from certain persons of his people from’ Abd al-Samad ibn Bashir who said:

‘Abu Abd Allah-asws has said: ‘The fish that carries the Earth once whispered to itself that it is carrying the Earth by its (own) power. Allah-azwj Sent a fish, smaller than the length of the distance between the tips of the thumb to the tip of small finger and bigger than the distance between the tips of the thumb to the tip of the index finger when stretched open, which entered in its gills. It fainted and remained in that condition for forty mornings. Allah-azwj due to His-azwj Compassion and Mercy took it out.

When Allah-azwj Wants an earthquake to take place, He-azwj Sends the small fish to that fish and when it sees, it trembles and an earthquake takes place’.[129]

Repetitive Recitation ‘Wird’:

عَنْهُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَخِي غَرَامٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ تَضَعُ يَدَكَ عَلَى مَوْضِعِ الْوَجَعِ ثُمَّ تَقُولُ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ وَ بِاللَّهِ وَ مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص وَ لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ اللَّهُمَّ امْسَحْ عَنِّي مَا أَجِدُ وَ تَمْسَحُ الْوَجَعَ ثَلَاثَ مَرَّاتٍ

It is narrated from him (narrator of the Hadith above) from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn abu Nasr from Muhammad son of brother of Gharam from ‘Abd Allah ibn Sinan who has narrated the following from Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws:

Abu Abd Allah-asws said: ‘Place your hand over the painful area then say, ‘In the name of Allah-azwj, with (the help of) Allah-azwj, and through Muhammad-saww the Rasool Allah-saww, there are no means and no power without Allah-azwj, Our Allah-azwj, wipe away from me that which I feel,’ and wipe the area three times’.’[130]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ بَزِيعٍ عَنْ أَبِي إِسْمَاعِيلَ السَّرَّاجِ عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ قَالَ قَالَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ ع يَا أَبَا حَمْزَةَ مَا لَكَ إِذَا أَتَى بِكَ أَمْرٌ تَخَافُهُ أَنْ لَا تَتَوَجَّهَ إِلَى بَعْضِ زَوَايَا بَيْتِكَ يَعْنِي الْقِبْلَةَ فَتُصَلِّيَ رَكْعَتَيْنِ ثُمَّ تَقُولَ يَا أَبْصَرَ النَّاظِرِينَ وَ يَا أَسْمَعَ السَّامِعِينَ وَ يَا أَسْرَعَ الْحَاسِبِينَ وَ يَا أَرْحَمَ الرَّاحِمِينَ سَبْعِينَ مَرَّةً كُلَّمَا دَعَوْتَ بِهَذِهِ الْكَلِمَاتِ مَرَّةً سَأَلْتَ حَاجَةً

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Isma’il ibn Bazi’ from abu Isma’il al-Sarraj from ibn Muskan from Abu Hamza who said:

Imam Mohammed-asws ibn Ali-asws said: ‘O Abu Hamza, if you will face something that frightens you, go to a corner of your home, face the Qiblah and perform two Rak’at Salat then say, ‘O the most sharp-sighted of the on-lookers, O the most kind of hearing of the hearers, O the quickest to Judge and O the most Beneficent of the benefactors’, seventy times, each time ask for your wish’.[131]

Supplication Against Being Choked:

أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الْأَشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ النَّضْرِ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شِمْرٍ عَنْ جَابِرٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص مَنْ قَالَ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْعَظِيمِ ثَلَاثَ مَرَّاتٍ كَفَاهُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ تِسْعَةً وَ تِسْعِينَ نَوْعاً مِنْ أَنْوَاعِ الْبَلَاءِ أَيْسَرُهُنَّ الْخَنْقُ

Abu Ali al-Ash’ariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn Salim from Ahmad ibn al-Nadr from’ Amr ibn Shamir from Jabir who said:

‘Abu’ Abd Allah-asws has said that the Rasool Allah-saww has said: ‘If one says,

‘بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْعَظِيمِ’’

(In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. There is no means and no power except the means and power of Allah-azwj), three times, Allah-azwj will Make it a protection for him against ninety-nine kinds of misfortune of which the least serious is death because of suffocation’.[132]

قرأ قل هو الله أحد إلى أن تطلع الشمس عشر مرات و مثلها إنا أنزلناه في ليلة القدر و مثلها آية الكرسي منع ماله مما يخاف عليه

(Amir-ul-Momineen-asws said): He who recites Surahs of Tawhid and Qadr and the Verse of Kursi ten times before sunrise will guard his wealth against any threatening matter’.[133]

Repetitive Wird (Chanting) without any Specified number of Times:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أَخِي سَعِيدٍ عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ يَسَارٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع يَدْخُلُنِيَ الْغَمُّ فَقَالَ أَكْثِرْ مِنْ أَنْ تَقُولَ اللَّهُ اللَّهُ رَبِّي لَا أُشْرِكُ بِهِ شَيْئاً فَإِذَا خِفْتَ وَسْوَسَةً أَوْ حَدِيثَ نَفْسٍ فَقُلِ اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي عَبْدُكَ وَ ابْنُ عَبْدِكَ وَ ابْنُ أَمَتِكَ نَاصِيَتِي بِيَدِكَ عَدْلٌ فِيَّ حُكْمُكَ مَاضٍ فِيَّ قَضَاؤُكَ اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ بِكُلِّ اسْمٍ هُوَ لَكَ أَنْزَلْتَهُ فِي كِتَابِكَ أَوْ عَلَّمْتَهُ أَحَداً مِنْ خَلْقِكَ أَوِ اسْتَأْثَرْتَ بِهِ فِي عِلْمِ الْغَيْبِ عِنْدَكَ أَنْ تُصَلِّيَ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ أَنْ تَجْعَلَ الْقُرْآنَ نُورَ بَصَرِي وَ رَبِيعَ قَلْبِي وَ جِلَاءَ حُزْنِي وَ ذَهَابَ هَمِّي اللَّهُ اللَّهُ رَبِّي لَا أُشْرِكُ بِهِ شَيْئاً

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from son of brother of Sa’id from Sa’id ibn Yasar who said:

‘Once, I said to Abu Abd Allah-asws that I suffer from sadness. The Imam-asws instructed me to say very often, ‘اللَّهُ اللَّهُ رَبِّي لَا أُشْرِكُ’ ‘Allah-azwj, Allah-azwj, my Lord-azwj, I do not believe in anything as His-azwj partner’, if the insinuation and evil thoughts reduce then say: ‘Our Allah-azwj, I am Your-azwj servant, son of Your-azwj servant and the son of Your-azwj female servant, my forehead is in Your-azwj control, Your-azwj Judgement about me is just, Your-azwj determination about me is effective. Our Allah-azwj, I plead before You-azwj through every name that is Your-azwj name that You-azwj have revealed in Your-azwj book, or have taught it to any of Your-azwj creatures, or has kept in the unseen knowledge with You-azwj, to bestow al-Salawat upon Muhammad-asws and his-asws family-asws, make the Holy Quran the light for my eyes, the spring for my heart, removal of my sadness, and banishment of my anxiety. Allah-azwj, Allah-azwj, my Lord-azwj, I do not believe in anything as His-azwj partner’.[134]

The Taffakur (Deep Thinking):

It’s an extremely important and rare quality, which very few of us use, Allah-azwj has emphasized it in the Holy Quran, e.g.[135],

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ أَنْ خَلَقَ لَكُمْ مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا لِتَسْكُنُوا إِلَيْهَا وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَكُمْ مَوَدَّةً وَرَحْمَةً ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ (30:21)

And one of His signs is that He created mates for you from yourselves that you may find rest in them, and He put between you love and compassion; most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect. (30:21).

في كتاب الخصال عن أبى حمزة الثمالى عن أبى جعفر عليه السلام قال: قال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: جمع الخير كله في ثلاث خصال: النظر والسكوت والكلام، و كل نظر ليس فيه اعتبار فهو سهو، وكل سكوت ليس فيه فكر فهو غفلة، وكل كلام ليس فيه ذكر فهو لغو، فطوبى لمن كان نظره عبرا، وسكوته فكرا، وكلامه ذكرا، وبكى على خطيئته وأمن الناس شره.

In the Book Al-Khisaal, from Abu Hamza Al-Sumaly, who has said:

‘Abu Ja’far-asws has said that ‘Amir-ul-Momineen-asws said: ‘All good has been gathered in three characteristics – The consideration, and the silence, and the speech. And every view in which there is no consideration, so it is an oversight. And every silence, in which there is no pondering, so it is negligence. And every speech in which there is no Remembrance, so it is vain talk’.[136]

Amir-ul-Momineen-aswss Advise on Taffakur:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّوْفَلِيِّ عَنِ السَّكُونِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ كَانَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع يَقُولُ نَبِّهْ بِالتَّفَكُّرِ قَلْبَكَ وَ جَافِ عَنِ اللَّيْلِ جَنْبَكَ وَ اتَّقِ اللَّهَ رَبَّكَ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Nawfali from al-Sakuni who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws has said, Awaken your heart by ‘Taffarkur’ deep thinking. Keep your side off the bed at night (meaning stand up for nightly prayers) and be pious before your Lord, Allah-azwj.[137]

The Meanings of Taffarkur:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ أَبَانٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ الصَّيْقَلِ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع عَمَّا يَرْوِي النَّاسُ أَنَّ تَفَكُّرَ سَاعَةٍ خَيْرٌ مِنْ قِيَامِ لَيْلَةٍ قُلْتُ كَيْفَ يَتَفَكَّرُ قَالَ يَمُرُّ بِالْخَرِبَةِ أَوْ بِالدَّارِ فَيَقُولُ أَيْنَ سَاكِنُوكِ أَيْنَ‏ بَانُوكِ مَا بَالُكِ لَا تَتَكَلَّمِينَ

Once I asked Abu Abd Allah-asws about what peoples narration, Taffikar (thinking) for one hour is better than worshipping a whole night, How should they think?  The Imam-asws said:  They pass by the ruins of dwellings or a building and ask: ‘Where are your inhabitants?  Where are your builders? Why do you not speak?[138]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ رِجَالِهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ أَفْضَلُ الْعِبَادَةِ إِدْمَانُ التَّفَكُّرِ فِي اللَّهِ وَ فِي قُدْرَتِهِ

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn abu Nasr from certain individuals of his people who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

Abu Abd Allah-asws has said: The most virtuous form of worship is thinking about Allah-azwj very often and about His-azwj Power.[139]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ مُعَمَّرِ بْنِ خَلَّادٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا ع يَقُولُ لَيْسَ الْعِبَادَةُ كَثْرَةَ الصَّلَاةِ وَ الصَّوْمِ إِنَّمَا الْعِبَادَةُ التَّفَكُّرُ فِي أَمْرِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa from Muammar ibn Khallad who said:

I heard Abu AI-Hassan Al-Reza-asws saying: ‘A great deal of prayer and fasting only are not (everything in) worship. Worship is only in thinking about the affairs of Allah-azwj.[140]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ سَهْلٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنْ رِبْعِيٍّ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ص إِنَّ التَّفَكُّرَ يَدْعُو إِلَى الْبِرِّ وَ الْعَمَلِ بِهِ

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from lsmail ibn Sahl from Hammad from Ribi who ha said the following:

Abu Abd Allah-asws has said that Amir-ul-Momineen-asws has said: ‘Thinking leads to virtue and to acting virtuously.[141]

لا تذكر الله سبحانه ساهيا و لا تنسه لاهيا و اذكره [ذكرا] كاملا يوافق فيه قلبك لسانك و يطابق إضمارك إعلانك و لن تذكره حقيقة الذكر حتى تنسى نفسك في ذكرك و تفقدها في أمرك

Neither do ‘Zikr’[142] of Allah-azwj in drowsiness nor forget to mention Him when involved in ‘Lahu Lahab’ (un-Islamic pleasures), but mention Him-azwj with full concentration so that your heart supports what you utter from your tongue, your internal feelings are reflected by your gestures.  You can never do justice to His-azwj ‘Zikr’ until you forget about yourself and loose yourself in His-azwj Remembrance’.[143]

The Zuhd (Abstinent):

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّوْفَلِيِّ عَنِ السَّكُونِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ مَا الزُّهْدُ فِي الدُّنْيَا قَالَ وَيْحَكَ حَرَامَهَا فَتَنَكَّبْهُ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Nawfaliy from al-Sakuniy who said:

This is concerning my question before Abu Abd Allah-asws about the meaning of restraint from worldly matters. He-asws said, Fie upon you! It is (not difficult to understand) knowing what is unlawful so that you can avoid it.[144]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنِ الْجَهْمِ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع لَيْسَ الزُّهْدُ فِي الدُّنْيَا بِإِضَاعَةِ الْمَالِ وَ لَا تَحْرِيمِ الْحَلَالِ‏ بَلِ الزُّهْدُ فِي الدُّنْيَا أَنْ لَا تَكُونَ بِمَا فِي يَدِكَ أَوْثَقَ مِنْكَ بِمَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn abu Abd Allah from al- Jahm ibn al-Hakam from Ismail ibn Muslim who said:

Abu Abd Allah-asws has said: ‘Zuhd (restraint from worldly matters) is not in wasting ones belongings or in making lawful things unlawful (staying away from permissible pleasures, i.e., practices of Sufis).[145]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ مَالِكِ بْنِ عَطِيَّةَ عَنْ مَعْرُوفِ بْنِ خَرَّبُوذَ عَنْ أَبِي الطُّفَيْلِ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع يَقُولُ الزُّهْدُ فِي الدُّنْيَا قَصْرُ الْأَمَلِ وَ شُكْرُ كُلِّ نِعْمَةٍ وَ الْوَرَعُ عَنْ كُلِّ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Isa from Muhammad ibn Sinan from Malik ibn Atiyyah from Maruf ibn Kharbudh from abu al-Tufayl who said:

I heard Amir-ul-Momineen-asws saying: ‘Zuhd (restraint from worldly matters) in the world is to shorten ones hopes, give thanks for every bounty and restrain from everything that Allah-azwj has made Unlawful.[146]

The Tawakkal:

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَإِذَا تُلِيَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُهُ زَادَتْهُمْ إِيمَانًا وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ

Those only are believers whose hearts become full of fear when Allah is mentioned, and when His communications are recited to them they increase them in faith, and in their Lord do they trust. (8:2)

The meanings of ‘Tawakkal’ as defined by Imam-asws are ‘the total dependence, reliance’ and it’s opposite is defined as ‘the greed’, as per the following words of a Hadith[147]:

وَ التَّوَكُّلُ وَ ضِدَّهُ الْحِرْصَ (The reliance and its opposite is the greed)

وسأل النبي (صلى الله عليه وآله) جبرئيل عن تفسير التوكل، فقال: (اليأس من المخلوقين، وأن يعلم أن المخلوق لا يضر ولا ينفع، ولا يعطي ولا يمنع).

And the Holy Prophet-saww ask the angel Gabriel-as what (Allah-azwj) means by the word ‘Al-Tawwakal’, he replied (Allah-azwj Says): Believers should believe that other than Him-azwj no one can be relied, neither one can hurt nor give help or withholds anything which is prescribed by Him-azwj’.[148]

يَا هِشَامُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى يَقُولُ فِي كِتَابِهِ إِنَّ فِي ذلِكَ لَذِكْرى‏ لِمَنْ كانَ لَهُ قَلْبٌ يَعْنِي عَقْلٌ وَ قَالَ وَ لَقَدْ آتَيْنا لُقْمانَ الْحِكْمَةَ قَالَ الْفَهْمَ وَ الْعَقْلَ يَا هِشَامُ إِنَّ لُقْمَانَ قَالَ لِابْنِهِ تَوَاضَعْ لِلْحَقِّ تَكُنْ أَعْقَلَ النَّاسِ وَ إِنَّ الْكَيِّسَ لَدَى الْحَقِّ يَسِيرٌ يَا بُنَيَّ إِنَّ الدُّنْيَا بَحْرٌ عَمِيقٌ قَدْ غَرِقَ فِيهَا عَالَمٌ كَثِيرٌ فَلْتَكُنْ سَفِينَتُكَ فِيهَا تَقْوَى اللَّهِ وَ حَشْوُهَا الْإِيمَانَ وَ شِرَاعُهَا التَّوَكُّلَ وَ قَيِّمُهَا الْعَقْلَ وَ دَلِيلُهَا الْعِلْمَ وَ سُكَّانُهَا الصَّبْرَ يَا هِشَامُ إِنَّ لِكُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ دَلِيلًا وَ دَلِيلُ الْعَقْلِ التَّفَكُّرُ وَ دَلِيلُ التَّفَكُّرِ الصَّمْتُ وَ لِكُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ مَطِيَّةً وَ مَطِيَّةُ الْعَقْلِ التَّوَاضُعُ وَ كَفَى بِكَ جَهْلًا أَنْ تَرْكَبَ مَا نُهِيْتَ عَنْهُ

‘O Hisham, Allah-azwj says in His book, ‘This is a reminder for the ones who understand, listen, and see.’ (50:37) it means ‘Aql’[149]. ‘‘‘We gave wisdom to Luqman (31:12),’ means: Allah-azwj gave Luqman Intelligence and understanding.

‘O Hisham, Luqman said to his son: ‘Revere the Truth; you will be the most intelligent among men. Cleverness in the presence of Intelligence has a very small value. My son, the world is a very deep ocean in which many people have drowned. You must take piety before Allah-azwj as a ship, faith as supplies therein, ‘التَّوَكُّلَ’ (‘Tawakkal’-trust) in Allah-azwj as the sails, intelligence as captain, knowledge as guide and patience as passengers’.

‘O Hisham, for everything there is a guide. The guide for Intelligence is the ‘Taffakur’ deep thinking. The guide for thinking is silence. For everything there is a means of mobility. The means of mobility for Intelligence is humble attitude. To disobey a prohibition (of Allah-azwj) is enough proof of one’s ignorance’.[150]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّوْفَلِيِّ عَنِ السَّكُونِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنْ أَبِيهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ صَلَوَاتُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ الْإِيمَانُ لَهُ أَرْكَانٌ أَرْبَعَةٌ التَّوَكُّلُ عَلَى اللَّهِ وَ تَفْوِيضُ الْأَمْرِ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَ الرِّضَا بِقَضَاءِ اللَّهِ وَ التَّسْلِيمُ لِأَمْرِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Nawfali form al-Sakuni from Abu Abd Allah-asws from his father-asws who said:

‘Amir-ul-Momineen-asws has said: ‘Eman (belief) has four dimensions: They are ‘Tawakkal’ trust in Allah-azwj, having Allah-azwj in-Charge of one’s affairs, to agree with the decision of Allah-azwj (in every respect) and to submit to the Commands of Allah-azwj’.[151]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا ع عَنِ الْإِيمَانِ وَ الْإِسْلَامِ فَقَالَ قَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ ع إِنَّمَا هُوَ الْإِسْلَامُ وَ الْإِيمَانُ فَوْقَهُ بِدَرَجَةٍ وَ التَّقْوَى فَوْقَ الْإِيمَانِ بِدَرَجَةٍ وَ الْيَقِينُ فَوْقَ التَّقْوَى بِدَرَجَةٍ وَ لَمْ يُقْسَمْ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ شَيْ‏ءٌ أَقَلُّ مِنَ الْيَقِينِ قَالَ قُلْتُ فَأَيُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ الْيَقِينُ قَالَ التَّوَكُّلُ عَلَى اللَّهِ وَ التَّسْلِيمُ لِلَّهِ وَ الرِّضَا بِقَضَاءِ اللَّهِ وَ التَّفْوِيضُ إِلَى اللَّهِ قُلْتُ فَمَا تَفْسِيرُ ذَلِكَ قَالَ هَكَذَا قَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ ع

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus who said:

‘I asked Abu Al-Hassan Al-Reza-asws about ‘the Eman and the Islam’ (belief and Islam) and he-asws said, Abu Jafar-asws has said the following: ‘There is Islam but Eman is one degree higher above Islam, and ‘Taqwa’ (abstain/piety) is one degree higher above Eman. ‘الْيَقِينَُ’ (Certainty) is by one degree higher above ‘Taqwa’ and nothing is distributed among people so little as ‘الْيَقِينُ’ (certainty) is.’ I then said, ‘What then is ‘الْيَقِينُ’ (certainty)?’

The Imam-asws replied: ‘It is the ‘التَّوَكُّلَ trust in Allah-azwj submission to Allah-azwj, accepting the decision of Allah-azwj and allowing Allah-azwj to be the in-charge of one’s affairs.’ I then said, ‘What then is the interpretation of that?’ The Imam-asws said, ‘This is how Abu Jafar-asws said it is’.[152]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّوْفَلِيِّ عَنِ السَّكُونِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ص الْإِيمَانُ أَرْبَعَةُ أَرْكَانٍ الرِّضَا بِقَضَاءِ اللَّهِ وَ التَّوَكُّلُ عَلَى اللَّهِ وَ تَفْوِيضُ الْأَمْرِ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَ التَّسْلِيمُ لِأَمْرِ اللَّهِ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Nawfali from al-Sakuni who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

‘Amir-ul-Momineen-asws has said, ‘Eman (belief) is established on four pillars. They consist of agreeing with the decision of Allah-azwj, ‘التَّوَكُّلَ’ trusting Allah-azwj, choosing Allah-azwj to be the in-charge of all affairs and submission to the Commands of Allah-azwj’.[153]

الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْوَشَّاءِ عَنِ الْمُثَنَّى بْنِ الْوَلِيدِ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ لَيْسَ شَيْ‏ءٌ إِلَّا وَ لَهُ حَدٌّ قَالَ قُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ فَمَا حَدُّ التَّوَكُّلِ قَالَ الْيَقِينُ قُلْتُ فَمَا حَدُّ الْيَقِينِ قَالَ أَلَّا تَخَافَ مَعَ اللَّهِ شَيْئاً

Al-Hussain ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu’alla ibn Muhammad from al- Hassan ibn Ali al-Washsha’ from al-Muthanna ibn al-Walid from Abu Basir who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

‘Abu Abd Allah-asws once said: ‘There is nothing without a limit’.’ I (the narrator) then asked, ‘May Allah-azwj keep my soul in service for your-asws cause, what is the limit of ‘التَّوَكُّلَ trust?’ The Imam-asws said, ‘It is the ‘الْيَقِينُ’ certainty.’ I then asked, ‘What is the limit of ‘الْيَقِينُ’ certainty?’ The Imam-asws said, ‘It is when, with having Allah-azwj on your side, you do not fear anything’.[154]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ غَيْرِ وَاحِدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَسْبَاطٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ عُمَرَ الْحَلَّالِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ سُوَيْدٍ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الْأَوَّلِ ع قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ مَنْ يَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ فَهُوَ حَسْبُهُ فَقَالَ التَّوَكُّلُ عَلَى اللَّهِ دَرَجَاتٌ مِنْهَا أَنْ تَتَوَكَّلَ عَلَى اللَّهِ فِي أُمُورِكَ كُلِّهَا فَمَا فَعَلَ بِكَ كُنْتَ عَنْهُ رَاضِياً تَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ لَا يَأْلُوكَ خَيْراً وَ فَضْلًا وَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّ الْحُكْمَ فِي ذَلِكَ لَهُ فَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ بِتَفْوِيضِ ذَلِكَ إِلَيْهِ وَ ثِقْ بِهِ فِيهَا وَ فِي غَيْرِهَا

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from more than one narrator from Ali ibn Asbat from Ahmad ibn Umar al-Hallal from Ali ibn Suwayd who said:

‘I asked Abu Al-Hassan-asws about the words of Allah-azwj: ‘Whoever trusts Allah, He is enough protection against all (harms),’ (65:3) ‘The Imam-asws said, ‘التَّوَكُّلَ’ Trust in Allah-azwj is of several degrees, One level of such trust is to trust Him-azwj in all matters, Whatever He-azwj does, you must remain happy and agree with His-azwj decision, knowing that He-azwj does not keep anything good and excellent from you and that the decision in the matter is in His-azwj hands, You then must leave all the affairs to Allah-azwj to be the in charge (of all affairs) and have confidence in Him-azwj in this and other issues’.[155]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ جَمِيعاً عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ الْمُبَارَكِ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ جَبَلَةَ عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ وَهْبٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ مَنْ أُعْطِيَ ثَلَاثاً لَمْ يُمْنَعْ ثَلَاثاً مَنْ أُعْطِيَ الدُّعَاءَ أُعْطِيَ الْإِجَابَةَ وَ مَنْ أُعْطِيَ الشُّكْرَ أُعْطِيَ الزِّيَادَةَ وَ مَنْ أُعْطِيَ التَّوَكُّلَ أُعْطِيَ الْكِفَايَةَ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَ تَلَوْتَ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ مَنْ يَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ فَهُوَ حَسْبُهُ وَ قَالَ لَئِنْ شَكَرْتُمْ لَأَزِيدَنَّكُمْ وَ قَالَ ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ‏

A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Ali ibn Ibrahim from his father all from Yahya ibn al-Mubarak from ‘Abd Allah ibn Jabalah from Mu’awiyah ibn Wahab who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

‘Abu Abd Allah-asws has said, ‘To whoever three things are given he is not denied three things, To whoever prayer is given he is given acceptance to his prayer. To whoever thankfulness is given he is given increased favours, To whoever ‘التَّوَكُّلَ’ trust is given he is given protection,’ Then Imam-asws said, ‘Have you read in the book of Allah-azwj ‘Whoever places his trust in Allah, He provides him sufficient protection’.’ (14:7) ‘If you be thankful We will increase the favour. Pray to Me, I will accept your prayer.’:’ (25:60).[156]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّوْفَلِيِّ عَنِ السَّكُونِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص كَفَّارَةُ الطِّيَرَةِ التَّوَكُّلُ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Nawfaliy from al-Sakuniy who said:

‘Abu Abd Allah-asws has said that the Rasool Allah-saww has said, ‘The explanation (remedy) for omen is placing one’s trust with Allah-azwj’.[157]

Only An Imam-asws can give Guarantees for the Hereafter:

It is frequently observed that sometime ‘mullah/Peer’ try to convince their followers, in the absence of proofs from the Book and the Sunnah, and say to their followers, you must act/do like this and if there is any harm in it then I will be responsible for yourself in the Hereafter, See for example Appendix IV.  The guarantee about the Hereafter can only be of validity when it is from a Hadith of a Masoom-asws, see for example the following Hadith:

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ أَوْ غَيْرِهِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ‏ بْنِ عُمَرَ بْنِ يَزِيدَ قَالَ دَخَلْتُ عَلَى الرِّضَا ع وَ أَنَا يَوْمَئِذٍ وَاقِفٌ وَ قَدْ كَانَ أَبِي سَأَلَ أَبَاهُ عَنْ سَبْعِ مَسَائِلَ فَأَجَابَهُ فِي سِتٍّ وَ أَمْسَكَ عَنِ السَّابِعَةِ فَقُلْتُ وَ اللَّهِ لَأَسْأَلَنَّهُ عَمَّا سَأَلَ أَبِي أَبَاهُ فَإِنْ أَجَابَ بِمِثْلِ جَوَابِ أَبِيهِ كَانَتْ دَلَالَةً فَسَأَلْتُهُ فَأَجَابَ بِمِثْلِ جَوَابِ أَبِيهِ أَبِي فِي الْمَسَائِلِ السِّتِّ فَلَمْ يَزِدْ فِي الْجَوَابِ وَاواً وَ لَا يَاءً وَ أَمْسَكَ عَنِ السَّابِعَةِ وَ قَدْ كَانَ أَبِي قَالَ لِأَبِيهِ إِنِّي أَحْتَجُّ عَلَيْكَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَنَّكَ زَعَمْتَ أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ لَمْ يَكُنْ إِمَاماً فَوَضَعَ يَدَهُ عَلَى عُنُقِهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ نَعَمْ احْتَجَّ عَلَيَّ بِذَلِكَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فَمَا كَانَ فِيهِ مِنْ إِثْمٍ فَهُوَ فِي رَقَبَتِي فَلَمَّا وَدَّعْتُهُ قَالَ إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ أَحَدٌ مِنْ شِيعَتِنَا يُبْتَلَى بِبَلِيَّةٍ أَوْ يَشْتَكِي فَيَصْبِرُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ إِلَّا كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَهُ أَجْرَ أَلْفِ شَهِيدٍ فَقُلْتُ فِي نَفْسِي وَ اللَّهِ مَا كَانَ لِهَذَا ذِكْرٌ فَلَمَّا مَضَيْتُ وَ كُنْتُ فِي بَعْضِ الطَّرِيقِ خَرَجَ بِي عِرْقُ الْمَدِينِيِّ فَلَقِيتُ مِنْهُ شِدَّةً فَلَمَّا كَانَ مِنْ قَابِلٍ حَجَجْتُ فَدَخَلْتُ عَلَيْهِ وَ قَدْ بَقِيَ مِنْ وَجَعِي بَقِيَّةٌ فَشَكَوْتُ إِلَيْهِ وَ قُلْتُ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ عَوِّذْ رِجْلِي وَ بَسَطْتُهَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ فَقَالَ لِي لَيْسَ عَلَى رِجْلِكَ هَذِهِ بَأْسٌ وَ لَكِنْ أَرِنِي رِجْلَكَ الصَّحِيحَةَ فَبَسَطْتُهَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ فَعَوَّذَهَا فَلَمَّا خَرَجْتُ لَمْ أَلْبَثْ إِلَّا يَسِيراً حَتَّى خَرَجَ بِيَ الْعِرْقُ وَ كَانَ وَجَعُهُ يَسِيراً

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad, or a person other than him from Ali ibn al-Hakam from al-Husayn ibn Umar ibn Yazid who said:

Once, I went to see Ali al-Reza-asws. At that time I was a member of Waqifi sect. My father had asked his (al-Reza-asws’s) father-asws seven questions. He-asws had replied to six of them and had refrained from answering the seventh. I said to myself, By Allah-azwj, I will ask him-asws what my father had asked his-asws father-asws, if his-asws answers are going to be like those of his-asws father-asws, it will serve as a good proof (to his-asws Divine Status). I asked him-asws those questions and his-asws answers were just like the answers of his-asws father-asws to my father in the six questions. He-asws did not add anything in the answer to six questions, not even a letter ‘w’ or letter ‘Y’ and refrained from answering the seventh question.

‘My father had said to his father-asws, I will debate you before Allah-azwj on the Day of Judgment for your belief that Abd Allah is not an lmam-asws. He then had placed his hand over my father’s neck and said, Yes, you may debate me about it before Allah-azwj.  If there will be any sin in it, it will be on my neck’.

‘When I said farewell to him-asws he-asws said, Whoever of our Shias suffers from any kind of afflictions or complaints and he bears it patiently, Allah-azwj will record for him an entitlement to a reward equal to the rewards of a thousand martyrs’. ‘l then said to myself, By Allah-azwj, there was no mention of this (in our conversations). I then left and on the way a vein in my leg began to feel very sore and the pain intensified. Next year, when I went for Hajj I went to see him-asws. My leg was still slightly painful. I complained before him-asws of the pain and requested him-asws to say a prayer on it and I stretched it before him-asws. He-asws said: ‘There is nothing wrong with this leg, but show me your healthy leg. I then stretched it before him-asws and he-asws said a protective prayer. When I left, a little later on, my leg began to feel the pain in a vein, but it was very little.[158]

The Essential Noble Qualities for Maurifat:

There are several myths about the qualities of a ‘momin’ from ‘Peeri/Mureedi’ point of view, as a ‘peer’ would fly, go to skies, bring in the news of the future, etc.  However, we do not find any of these treats in the noble qualities of a ‘Momin’ as described by the Mosomeen-asws.

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْهَيْثَمِ بْنِ أَبِي مَسْرُوقٍ عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ شَعِرٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَطِيَّةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ الْمَكَارِمُ عَشْرٌ فَإِنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ أَنْ تَكُونَ فِيكَ فَلْتَكُنْ فَإِنَّهَا تَكُونُ فِي الرَّجُلِ وَ لَا تَكُونُ فِي وَلَدِهِ وَ تَكُونُ فِي الْوَلَدِ وَ لَا تَكُونُ فِي أَبِيهِ وَ تَكُونُ فِي الْعَبْدِ وَ لَا تَكُونُ فِي الْحُرِّ قِيلَ وَ مَا هُنَّ قَالَ صِدْقُ الْبَأْسِ وَ صِدْقُ اللِّسَانِ وَ أَدَاءُ الْأَمَانَةِ وَ صِلَةُ الرَّحِمِ وَ إِقْرَاءُ الضَّيْف ‏ وَ إِطْعَامُ السَّائِلِ وَ الْمُكَافَأَةُ عَلَى الصَّنَائِعِ وَ التَّذَمُّمُ لِلْجَارِ وَ التَّذَمُّمُ لِلصَّاحِبِ وَ رَأْسُهُنَّ الْحَيَاءُ

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘lsa from al-Hatham ibn abu Masruq from Yazid ibn Ishaq Sha ‘ar from al-Hussain ibn al-Atiyab who has narrated the following from Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws:

‘Abu Abd Allah-asws has said, ‘Noble (human) qualities are ten. If you can establish all of them, then strive for it. Such qualities may be found in a man but may not be found in his children. They may be found in the children but not in the father. At times they are found in a slave person but not in a free one.’ It was asked, ‘What are these noble qualities?’ The Imam-asws said they are:

‘(1) Losing all hope in the true sense for receiving help from anyone other than Allah-azwj,

(2) Truthfulness of tongue,

(3) Returning the trust (safely),

(4) Maintaining good relations with relatives,

(5) Entertaining guests (with what is Halal-permissible),

(6) Feeding the needy,

(7) Making up for favours in a proper corresponding manner,

(8) Keeping up with one’s responsibilities toward the neighbours and

(9) With one’s companion, and

(10) The head of such qualities is self-consciousness’.[159]

عَنْهُ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع إِنَّ لِأَهْلِ الدِّينِ عَلَامَاتٍ يُعْرَفُونَ بِهَا صِدْقَ الْحَدِيثِ وَ أَدَاءَ الْأَمَانَةِ وَ وَفَاءً بِالْعَهْدِ وَ صِلَةَ الْأَرْحَامِ وَ رَحْمَةَ الضُّعَفَاءِ وَ قِلَّةَ الْمُرَاقَبَةِ لِلنِّسَاءِ أَوْ قَالَ قِلَّةَ الْمُوَاتَاةِ لِلنِّسَاءِ وَ بَذْلَ الْمَعْرُوفِ وَ حُسْنَ الْخُلُقِ وَ سَعَةَ الْخُلُقِ وَ اتِّبَاعَ الْعِلْمِ وَ مَا يُقَرِّبُ إِلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ زُلْفَى طُوبَى لَهُمْ وَ حُسْنُ مَآبٍ وَ طُوبَى شَجَرَةٌ فِي الْجَنَّةِ أَصْلُهَا فِي دَارِ النَّبِيِّ مُحَمَّدٍ ص وَ لَيْسَ مِنْ مُؤْمِنٍ إِلَّا وَ فِي دَارِهِ غُصْنٌ مِنْهَا لَا يَخْطُرُ عَلَى قَلْبِهِ شَهْوَةُ شَيْ‏ءٍ إِلَّا أَتَاهُ بِهِ ذَلِكَ وَ لَوْ أَنَّ رَاكِباً مُجِدّاً سَارَ فِي ظِلِّهَا مِائَةَ عَامٍ مَا خَرَجَ مِنْهُ وَ لَوْ طَارَ مِنْ أَسْفَلِهَا

غُرَابٌ مَا بَلَغَ أَعْلَاهَا حَتَّى يَسْقُطَ هَرِماً أَلَا فَفِي هَذَا فَارْغَبُوا إِنَّ الْمُؤْمِنَ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ فِي شُغُلٍ وَ النَّاسُ مِنْهُ فِي رَاحَةٍ إِذَا جَنَّ عَلَيْهِ اللَّيْلُ افْتَرَشَ وَجْهَهُ وَ سَجَدَ لِلَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ بِمَكَارِمِ بَدَنِهِ يُنَاجِي الَّذِي خَلَقَهُ فِي فَكَاكِ رَقَبَتِهِ أَلَا فَهَكَذَا كُونُوا

It is narrated from him (narrator of the Hadith above) from his father from’ Abd Allah ibn al-Qasim from Abu Basir who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

‘Amir-ul-Momineen-asws has said: ‘Religious people have certain signs by means of which they are recognised, of such signs are truthfulness in their words, safekeeping of trust, steadfastness in their promise, maintaining good relations with relatives, kindness to weak ones, yielding smaller degrees to women, excellence in moral behavior, vastness of moral discipline, following knowledge and that which leads one closer to Allah-azwj with distinction.

Tuba’ is for them and the good ending, ‘Tuba’ is a tree in paradise that has its roots in the house of the Holy Prophet, Muhammad-saww. ‘Which quality is more graceful for a man’?’ The Imam-asws said: ‘There will be no believer with a home without a branch of that tree. No desire will emerge in their heart but that the branch will provide. A horseman may run under its shadow for a hundred years and the shadow will not end. A crow (with the longest life span in birds) may fly from its trunk upward but before reaching the top of the tree will drop death due to old age. Therefore, you must develop an interest in this.

Believers are busy with themselves and people are comfortable with them. When the night grows dark they fix their faces on earth in prostration before Allah-azwj with the noblest parts of their body. They whisper to the One Who has created them, about setting free of their necks from fire and as such you must also become’.[160]

One should Test Himself for Noble Qualities:

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ خَصَّ رُسُلَهُ بِمَكَارِمِ الْأَخْلَاقِ فَامْتَحِنُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ فَإِنْ كَانَتْ فِيكُمْ فَاحْمَدُوا اللَّهَ وَ اعْلَمُوا أَنَّ ذَلِكَ مِنْ خَيْرٍ وَ إِنْ لَا تَكُنْ فِيكُمْ فَاسْأَلُوا اللَّهَ وَ ارْغَبُوا إِلَيْهِ فِيهَا قَالَ فَذَكَرَهَا عَشَرَةً الْيَقِينَ وَ الْقَنَاعَةَ وَ الصَّبْرَ وَ الشُّكْرَ وَ الْحِلْمَ وَ حُسْنَ الْخُلُقِ وَ السَّخَاءَ وَ الْغَيْرَةَ وَ الشَّجَاعَةَ وَ الْمُرُوءَةَ قَالَ وَ رَوَى بَعْضُهُمْ بَعْدَ هَذِهِ الْخِصَالِ الْعَشَرَةِ وَ زَادَ فِيهَا الصِّدْقَ وَ أَدَاءَ الْأَمَانَةِ

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from ‘Abd Allah ibn Muskan who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

Abu Abd Allah-asws said: ‘Allah-azwj Chose His messengers-as for noble moral (human) qualities. You must test yourselves. If you find the noble qualities in you then be thankful to Allah-azwj and understand that it is of goodness. If you do not find them in you, then pray to Allah-azwj to grant them to you and show Him-azwj that you are interested in having them. The narrator has said that the Imam-asws counted the noble qualities up to ten: They consist of Certainty, Contentment, Patience, Thankfulness, Forbearance, Good Moral Behaviour, Generosity, Dignity, Bravery and Kindness. ‘Certain narrators have listed other qualities after the above mentioned ones and have added to them Truthfulness and Keeping Trust’.[161]

One Must Work Hard for Living:

أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ النُّعْمَانِ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شِمْرٍ عَنْ جَابِرٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي لَمْ أَدَعْ شَيْئاً يُقَرِّبُكُمْ إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَ يُبَاعِدُكُمْ مِنَ النَّارِ إِلَّا وَ قَدْ نَبَّأْتُكُمْ بِهِ أَلَا وَ إِنَّ رُوحَ الْقُدُسِ [قَدْ] نَفَثَ فِي رُوعِي وَ أَخْبَرَنِي أَنْ لَا تَمُوتُ نَفْسٌ حَتَّى تَسْتَكْمِلَ رِزْقَهَا فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ أَجْمِلُوا فِي الطَّلَبِ وَ لَا يَحْمِلَنَّكُمُ اسْتِبْطَاءُ شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنَ الرِّزْقِ أَنْ تَطْلُبُوهُ بِمَعْصِيَةِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فَإِنَّهُ لَا يُنَالُ مَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ جَلَّ اسْمُهُ إِلَّا بِطَاعَتِهِ

Ahmad ibn Muhammad from has narrated from Ali ibn al-Nu’man from ‘Amr ibn Shamir from Jabir who has narrated the following from Abu Ja’far-asws:

‘Abu Ja’far-asws has said that the Rasool Allah-saww has said: ‘I have not left anything that can take you closer to Paradise or keep you away from Hellfire but that I-saww have informed you of all such matters. You must take notice that the Holy Spirit-as has inspired my-saww understanding and has told me that a soul does not die until it completes (depleting) its sustenance. You must maintain piety before Allah-azwj and work for your living painstakingly. Certain delays in reaching of sustenance must not take you to find sustenance by means of disobedience to Allah-azwj, what is with Allah-azwj can be achieved only by means of obedience to Him-azwj’.[162]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ مَنْ قَتَلَ نَفْساً بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ فَكَأَنَّما قَتَلَ النَّاسَ جَمِيعاً وَ مَنْ أَحْياها فَكَأَنَّما أَحْيَا النَّاسَ جَمِيعاً قَالَ مَنْ أَخْرَجَهَا مِنْ ضَلَالٍ إِلَى هُدًى فَكَأَنَّمَا أَحْيَاهَا وَ مَنْ أَخْرَجَهَا مِنْ هُدًى إِلَى ضَلَالٍ فَقَدْ قَتَلَهَا

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Sama’a who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

The narrator says: ‘I asked Abu Abd Allah-asws about the words of Allah-azwj ‘ … We made it a law for the children of lsrael that the killing of a person for reasons other than legal retaliation or for stopping corruption in the land is as great a sin as murdering all of mankind. However, to save a life would be as great a virtue as to save all of mankind .. .’ (5:32) ‘The Imam-asws said: ‘Whoever takes people from straying to guidance, has given them life. Whoever takes people from guidance to straying, it is as if he has murdered all of them’.[163]

الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى جَمِيعاً عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سَعِيدِ بْنِ غَزْوَانَ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أَبَانٍ عَنْ عِيسَى بْنِ أَبِي مَنْصُورٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع يَقُولُ نَفَسُ الْمَهْمُومِ لَنَا الْمُغْتَمِّ لِظُلْمِنَا تَسْبِيحٌ وَ هَمُّهُ لِأَمْرِنَا عِبَادَةٌ وَ كِتْمَانُهُ لِسِرِّنَا جِهَادٌ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ قَالَ لِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ اكْتُبْ هَذَا بِالذَّهَبِ فَمَا كَتَبْتَ شَيْئاً أَحْسَنَ مِنْهُ

Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad and Muhammad ibn Yahya all have narrated from Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Sa’d from Muhammad ibn Muslim from Muhammad ibn Said ibn Ghazwan from Ali ibn al-Hakam from ‘Umar ibn Aban from ‘Isa ibn abu Mansur who said:

‘I heard Abu Abd Allah-asws saying: ‘A breath with a sigh of concern and sadness due to injustice done to us-asws is ‘Tasbih’[164] and one’s concern about our-asws cause is worship, his concealing our secret is the Jihad[165]’.

‘Muhammad ibn Said told me to write it down with gold. I then did not write anything better than that’.[166]

Importance of ‘Self-Assessment’:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ جَمِيعاً عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ رِئَابٍ عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ ع قَالَ كَانَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع يَقُولُ إِنَّمَا الدَّهْرُ ثَلَاثَةُ أَيَّامٍ أَنْتَ فِيمَا بَيْنَهُنَّ مَضَى أَمْسِ بِمَا فِيهِ فَلَا يَرْجِعُ أَبَداً فَإِنْ كُنْتَ عَمِلْتَ فِيهِ خَيْراً لَمْ تَحْزَنْ لِذَهَابِهِ وَ فَرِحْتَ بِمَا اسْتَقْبَلْتَهُ مِنْهُ وَ إِنْ كُنْتَ قَدْ فَرَّطْتَ فِيهِ فَحَسْرَتُكَ شَدِيدَةٌ لِذَهَابِهِ وَ تَفْرِيطِكَ فِيهِ وَ أَنْتَ فِي يَوْمِكَ الَّذِي أَصْبَحْتَ فِيهِ مِنْ غَدٍ فِي غِرَّةٍ وَ لَا تَدْرِي لَعَلَّكَ لَا تَبْلُغُهُ وَ إِنْ بَلَغْتَهُ لَعَلَّ حَظَّكَ فِيهِ فِي التَّفْرِيطِ مِثْلُ حَظِّكَ فِي الْأَمْسِ الْمَاضِي عَنْكَ فَيَوْمٌ مِنَ الثَّلَاثَةِ قَدْ مَضَى أَنْتَ فِيهِ مُفَرِّطٌ وَ يَوْمٌ تَنْتَظِرُهُ لَسْتَ أَنْتَ مِنْهُ عَلَى يَقِينٍ مِنْ تَرْكِ التَّفْرِيطِ وَ إِنَّمَا هُوَ يَوْمُكَ الَّذِي أَصْبَحْتَ فِيهِ وَ قَدْ يَنْبَغِي لَكَ أَنْ عَقَلْتَ وَ فَكَّرْتَ فِيمَا فَرَّطْتَ فِي الْأَمْسِ الْمَاضِي مِمَّا فَاتَكَ فِيهِ مِنْ حَسَنَاتٍ أَلَّا تَكُونَ اكْتَسَبْتَهَا وَ مِنْ سَيِّئَاتٍ أَلَّا تَكُونَ أَقْصَرْتَ عَنْهَا وَ أَنْتَ مَعَ هَذَا مَعَ اسْتِقْبَالِ غَدٍ عَلَى غَيْرِ ثِقَةٍ مِنْ أَنْ تَبْلُغَهُ وَ عَلَى غَيْرِ يَقِينٍ مِنِ اكْتِسَابِ حَسَنَةٍ أَوْ مُرْتَدَعٍ عَنْ سَيِّئَةٍ مُحْبِطَةٍ فَأَنْتَ مِنْ يَوْمِكَ الَّذِي تَسْتَقْبِلُ عَلَى مِثْلِ يَوْمِكَ الَّذِي اسْتَدْبَرْتَ فَاعْمَلْ عَمَلَ رَجُلٍ لَيْسَ يَأْمُلُ مِنَ الْأَيَّامِ إِلَّا يَوْمَهُ الَّذِي أَصْبَحَ فِيهِ وَ لَيْلَتَهُ فَاعْمَلْ أَوْ دَعْ وَ اللَّهُ الْمُعِينُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father and a number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad all from al-Hassan Ibn Mahbub from Ali ibn Ri’ab from abu Hamza who has narrated the following from Ali ibn al-Hussain-asws:

‘Amir-ul-Momineen-asws would say: ‘Time consists of three days in the middle of which you live. Yesterday that has passed in history with all that was in it and it will never return. If you had done good deeds in it you do not feel sad about it’s passing into history and you feel happy about everything that you experienced in it.

If, however, you had acted extremely (bad) in it; your regret is severe, for it’s passing into history, due to your acting extremely (bad). While you are in the day that you live, about tomorrow you are unaware, you do not know if you will ever reach it. Perhaps your share of acting extremely (bad) in it will be just as yesterday that has passed into history.

‘One of the three days has passed and in it you had acted extremely (bad). There is the day that you are waiting for and you are not sure if you will avoid acting extremely (bad) in it. What is left is the day in which you live and it is very proper for you to use your power of reason and think about your acting extremely (bad) yesterday that passed and of the good deeds that you missed to perform when you should have performed them and the evil deeds that you should have avoided. Despite this, about tomorrow you are not certain of reaching it and whether you will perform any good deeds in it or avoid committing evil deeds that deletes the good deeds.

Thus, your position toward tomorrow is like your position toward yesterday. Therefore, you must act like one who has no hope in any of the days except the day and night in which you live. Do good deeds and save and Allah-azwj is the supporter for such task’.[167]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ عُمَرَ الْيَمَانِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الْمَاضِي ص قَالَ لَيْسَ مِنَّا مَنْ لَمْ يُحَاسِبْ نَفْسَهُ فِي كُلِّ يَوْمٍ فَإِنْ عَمِلَ حَسَناً اسْتَزَادَ اللَّهَ وَ إِنْ عَمِلَ سَيِّئاً اسْتَغْفَرَ اللَّهَ مِنْهُ وَ تَابَ إِلَيْهِ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hamrnad ibn ‘Isa from Ibrahim ibn ‘Umar al-Yamani who has narrated the following from Abu Al-Hassan-asws:

Abu Abd Allah-asws said: ‘One who does not evaluate his deeds every day is not one of us-asws. One must evaluate his deeds and pray to Allah-azwj to Increase his good deeds, plead for forgiveness to Allah-azwj due to one’s committing evil deeds and turn to Him-azwj in repentance’.[168]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ النُّعْمَانِ عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ عَنْ أَبِي النُّعْمَانِ الْعِجْلِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ يَا أَبَا النُّعْمَانِ لَا يَغُرَّنَّكَ النَّاسُ مِنْ نَفْسِكَ فَإِنَّ الْأَمْرَ يَصِلُ إِلَيْكَ دُونَهُمْ وَ لَا تَقْطَعْ نَهَارَكَ بِكَذَا وَ كَذَا فَإِنَّ مَعَكَ مَنْ يَحْفَظُ عَلَيْكَ عَمَلَكَ وَ أَحْسِنْ فَإِنِّي لَمْ أَرَ شَيْئاً أَحْسَنَ دَرَكاً وَ لَا أَسْرَعَ طَلَباً مِنْ حَسَنَةٍ مُحْدَثَةٍ لِذَنْبٍ قَدِيمٍ  عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَبِي النُّعْمَانِ مِثْلَهُ

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Ali ibn al-Nu’rnan from Ishaq ibn ‘Amar from abu al-Nu’rnan al-Ajli who has narrated the following from Abu Ja’far-asws:

‘O Abu Al-Nu’man, do not allow people to deceive you about yourself; the matter will come to you and not to them. Do not spend your day in this and that; with you there is one who preserves your deeds for you. Do good deeds; I do not see anything of better result and remedy for the old sins then new good deeds’.

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from certain individuals of our people from abu al-Nu’man a similar Hadith.[169]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ اصْبِرُوا عَلَى الدُّنْيَا فَإِنَّمَا هِيَ سَاعَةٌ فَمَا مَضَى مِنْهُ فَلَا تَجِدُ لَهُ أَلَماً وَ لَا سُرُوراً وَ مَا لَمْ يَجِئْ فَلَا تَدْرِي مَا هُوَ وَ إِنَّمَا هِيَ سَاعَتُكَ الَّتِي أَنْتَ فِيهَا فَاصْبِرْ فِيهَا عَلَى طَاعَةِ اللَّهِ وَ اصْبِرْ فِيهَا عَنْ مَعْصِيَةِ اللَّهِ

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from certain individuals of our people who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

‘Exercise patience in worldly matters; it is only an hour. You do not find any pain or happiness in whatever has passed. The hour that has not yet arrived is unknown to you in matters of its contents. The only time is the hour in which you live. Exercise patience in it to obey Allah-azwj and exercise patience in such time in the matters of disobedience to Allah-azwj’.[170]

عَنْهُ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا رَفَعَهُ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع احْمِلْ نَفْسَكَ لِنَفْسِكَ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ لَمْ يَحْمِلْكَ غَيْرُكَ

It is narrated from him (narrator of the Hadith above) from certain individuals of our people in a marfu’ manner who said:

Self-Purification:

‘Abu Abd Allah-asws has said: ‘Hold your soul responsible for yourself.  If you did not do so, others will not do for you’.[171]

عَنْهُ رَفَعَهُ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع لِرَجُلٍ إِنَّكَ قَدْ جُعِلْتَ طَبِيبَ نَفْسِكَ وَ بُيِّنَ لَكَ الدَّاءُ وَ عُرِّفْتَ آيَةَ الصِّحَّةِ وَ دُلِلْتَ عَلَى الدَّوَاءِ فَانْظُرْ كَيْفَ قِيَامُكَ عَلَى نَفْسِكَ

It is narrated from him (narrator of the Hadith above) in a marfu’ manner, the following from Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws that Imam-asws said to a man:

Abu Abd Allah-asws has said: ‘You have been made the physician for your own self. Medicine is prescribed for you; signs of good health are shown to you, and the direction for medicine is given to you. It is all up to you how you treat yourself’.[172]

عَنْهُ رَفَعَهُ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع لِرَجُلٍ اجْعَلْ قَلْبَكَ قَرِيناً بَرّاً أَوْ وَلَداً وَاصِلًا وَ اجْعَلْ عَمَلَكَ وَالِداً تَتَّبِعُهُ وَ اجْعَلْ نَفْسَكَ عَدُوّاً تُجَاهِدُهَا وَ اجْعَلْ مَالَكَ عَارِيَّةً تَرُدُّهَا

It is narrated from him (narrator of the Hadith above) in a marfu’ manner from Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws who has said the following to a man:

Abu Abd Allah-asws has said: ‘Make your heart a virtuous companion for yourself or like a child who does not fail to maintain good relations with parents. Consider your deeds as your father whom you follow, consider your soul as your enemy against whom you strive and consider your properties as borrowed for the safe return of which you are responsible’.[173]

وَ عَنْهُ رَفَعَهُ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع اقْصُرْ نَفْسَكَ عَمَّا يَضُرُّهَا مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ تُفَارِقَكَ وَ اسْعَ فِي فَكَاكِهَا كَمَا تَسْعَى فِي طَلَبِ مَعِيشَتِكَ فَإِنَّ نَفْسَكَ رَهِينَةٌ بِعَمَلِكَ

It is narrated from him (narrator of the Hadith above) in a marfu’ manner the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

Abu Abd Allah-asws has said: ‘Hold back your soul from that which harms it before it departs you, strive to set it free just as you strive to make a living; your soul’s well being depends upon your good deeds’.[174]

عَنْهُ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ رَفَعَهُ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع كَمْ مِنْ طَالِبٍ لِلدُّنْيَا لَمْ يُدْرِكْهَا وَ مُدْرِكٍ لَهَا قَدْ فَارَقَهَا فَلَا يَشْغَلَنَّكَ طَلَبُهَا عَنْ عَمَلِكَ وَ الْتَمِسْهَا مِنْ مُعْطِيهَا وَ مَالِكِهَا فَكَمْ مِنْ حَرِيصٍ عَلَى الدُّنْيَا قَدْ صَرَعَتْهُ وَ اشْتَغَلَ بِمَا أَدْرَكَ مِنْهَا عَنْ طَلَبِ آخِرَتِهِ حَتَّى فَنِيَ عُمُرُهُ وَ أَدْرَكَهُ أَجَلُهُ  وَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع الْمَسْجُونُ مَنْ سَجَنَتْهُ دُنْيَاهُ عَنْ آخِرَتِهِ

It is narrated from him (narrator of the Hadith above) from certain individuals of his people in a marfu’ manner the following from Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws:

Abu Abd Allah-asws has said: ‘How many are those who seek worldly gains but cannot achieve them and how many are those who had achieved worldly gains but have already departed from them! Do not allow your (craving for) seeking of the worldly gains prevent you from good deeds. You must request worldly needs from the One-azwj Who Grants those and Who is the Owner of everything. How many were those who were greedy of the worldly gains that have been destroyed and whose preoccupation in them prevented them from seeking the bounties of the next life until their lives finished and the appointed time approached them!

‘Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws has said, ‘A prisoner is one whose worldly affairs imprison him so he cannot do anything for his next life’.[175]

The Importance of the Age of 40 and Beyond:

وَ عَنْهُ رَفَعَهُ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ قَالَ إِذَا أَتَتْ عَلَى الرَّجُلِ أَرْبَعُونَ سَنَةً قِيلَ لَهُ خُذْ حِذْرَكَ فَإِنَّكَ غَيْرُ مَعْذُورٍ وَ لَيْسَ ابْنُ الْأَرْبَعِينَ بِأَحَقَّ بِالْحِذْرِ مِنِ ابْنِ الْعِشْرِينَ فَإِنَّ الَّذِي يَطْلُبُهُمَا وَاحِدٌ وَ لَيْسَ بِرَاقِدٍ فَاعْمَلْ لِمَا أَمَامَكَ مِنَ الْهَوْلِ وَ دَعْ عَنْكَ فُضُولَ الْقَوْلِ

It is narrated from him (narrator of the above Hadith) in a marfu’ manner the following from Abu Ja’far-asws:

‘When a man reaches the age of forty it is said to him, ‘Beware, you have no excuses!’ In fact, a person at the age of forty is not obliged to exercise caution against sins more than the person at the age of twenty. What is after both of them is the same (that is death) and it is not sleeping. Perform good deeds for what lies ahead of frightening conditions and stop the unnecessary words’.[176]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نَجْرَانَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ إِذَا بَلَغَ الْمُؤْمِنُ أَرْبَعِينَ سَنَةً آمَنَهُ اللَّهُ مِنَ الْأَدْوَاءِ الثَّلَاثَةِ الْبَرَصِ وَ الْجُذَامِ وَ الْجُنُونِ فَإِذَا بَلَغَ الْخَمْسِينَ خَفَّفَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ حِسَابَهُ فَإِذَا بَلَغَ سِتِّينَ سَنَةً رَزَقَهُ اللَّهُ الْإِنَابَةَ فَإِذَا بَلَغَ السَّبْعِينَ أَحَبَّهُ أَهْلُ السَّمَاءِ فَإِذَا بَلَغَ الثَّمَانِينَ أَمَرَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ بِإِثْبَاتِ حَسَنَاتِهِ وَ إِلْقَاءِ سَيِّئَاتِهِ فَإِذَا بَلَغَ التِّسْعِينَ غَفَرَ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ وَ مَا تَأَخَّرَ وَ كُتِبَ أَسِيرَ اللَّهِ فِي أَرْضِهِ وَ فِي رِوَايَةٍ أُخْرَى فَإِذَا بَلَغَ الْمِائَةَ فَذَلِكَ أَرْذَلُ الْعُمُرِ.

A number of our companions, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad, from Ibn Abu Najran, from Muhammad Bin Al-Qasim, from Ali Bin Al-Mugheira, who has said the following:

Abu Abdullah-asws said, ‘I heard him-asws saying: ‘When the ‘Momin’ (believer) reaches forty years, Allah-azwj Secures him from three illnesses – the leprosy, and the albinism and the madness. So when he reaches fifty, Allah-azwj Makes his Accounting to be light. When he reaches sixty years, Allah-azwj Grants him the repentance. So when he reaches seventy, the inhabitants of the sky love him.

So when he reaches eighty, Allah-azwj Commands to Write down his good deeds and Deletes his bad deeds. So when he reaches ninety, Allah-azwj Forgives him what has preceded from his Religion and what has been delayed and Writes him down as a prisoner of Allah-azwj in His-azwj earth’. And in another report – ‘So when he reaches a hundred, so that is the very (feeble) end of life’.[177]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ دَاوُدَ عَنْ سَيْفٍ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) إِنَّ الْعَبْدَ لَفِي فُسْحَةٍ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ مَا بَيْنَهُ وَ بَيْنَ أَرْبَعِينَ سَنَةً فَإِذَا بَلَغَ أَرْبَعِينَ سَنَةً أَوْحَى اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ إِلَى مَلَكَيْهِ قَدْ عَمَّرْتُ عَبْدِي هَذَا عُمُراً فَغَلِّظَا وَ شَدِّدَا وَ تَحَفَّظَا وَ اكْتُبَا عَلَيْهِ قَلِيلَ عَمَلِهِ وَ كَثِيرَهُ وَ صَغِيرَهُ وَ كَبِيرَهُ.

Muhammad Bin Yahya, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Isa, from Ali Bin Al-Hakam, from Dawood, from Sayf, from Abu Baseer who said:

Abu Abdullah-asws said that: ‘The servant has the opportunity (to seek forgiveness) until he reaches at the age of forty (40) years. So when he reaches at the age of forty years, Allah-azwj Reveals to His-azwj two Angels: “I-azwj have Let My-azwj servant to get to this age, so stringent and be more strict with him and write down all from little, big, less, more from his deeds.[178]

One Should Prepare for the Hereafter Before it’s too Late:

عَنْهُ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ حَسَّانَ عَنْ زَيْدٍ الشَّحَّامِ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع خُذْ لِنَفْسِكَ مِنْ نَفْسِكَ خُذْ مِنْهَا فِي الصِّحَّةِ قَبْلَ السُّقْمِ وَ فِي الْقُوَّةِ قَبْلَ الضَّعْفِ وَ فِي الْحَيَاةِ قَبْلَ الْمَمَاتِ

It is narrated from him (narrator of the Hadith above) from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Hassan from Zayd al-Shahham who said:

‘Abu Abd Allah-asws has said: ‘Take from your soul for your soul. Take from it in good health before illness, during its strength before weakness and in its lifetime before death’.[179]

عَنْهُ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ إِنَّ النَّهَارَ إِذَا جَاءَ قَالَ يَا ابْنَ آدَمَ اعْمَلْ فِي يَوْمِكَ هَذَا خَيْراً أَشْهَدْ لَكَ بِهِ عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فَإِنِّي لَمْ آتِكَ فِيمَا مَضَى وَ لَا آتِيكَ فِيمَا بَقِيَ وَ إِذَا جَاءَ اللَّيْلُ قَالَ مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ

It is narrated from him (narrator of the Hadith above) from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Hisham ibn Salim from certain individuals of his people who have narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

Abu Abd Allah-asws has said: ‘When the day comes it says: ‘O son of Adam do good deeds this day so I may bear witness to it to testify (in your support) before your Lord-azwj on the Day of Judgement. I had not come to you before and will not come to you in future.’ When the night comes it speaks likewise’.[180]

الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ شُعَيْبِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ‏ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ رَفَعَهُ قَالَ جَاءَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع فَقَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَوْصِنِي بِوَجْهٍ مِنْ وُجُوهِ الْبِرِّ أَنْجُو بِهِ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع أَيُّهَا السَّائِلُ اسْتَمِعْ ثُمَّ اسْتَفْهِمْ ثُمَّ اسْتَيْقِنْ ثُمَّ اسْتَعْمِلْ وَ اعْلَمْ أَنَّ النَّاسَ ثَلَاثَةٌ زَاهِدٌ وَ صَابِرٌ وَ رَاغِبٌ فَأَمَّا الزَّاهِدُ فَقَدْ خَرَجَتِ الْأَحْزَانُ وَ الْأَفْرَاحُ مِنْ قَلْبِهِ فَلَا يَفْرَحُ بِشَيْ‏ءٍ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا وَ لَا يَأْسَى عَلَى شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْهَا فَاتَهُ فَهُوَ مُسْتَرِيحٌ وَ أَمَّا الصَّابِرُ فَإِنَّهُ يَتَمَنَّاهَا بِقَلْبِهِ فَإِذَا نَالَ مِنْهَا أَلْجَمَ نَفْسَهُ عَنْهَا لِسُوءِ عَاقِبَتِهَا وَ شَنَآنِهَا لَوِ اطَّلَعْتَ عَلَى قَلْبِهِ عَجِبْتَ مِنْ عِفَّتِهِ وَ تَوَاضُعِهِ وَ حَزْمِهِ وَ أَمَّا الرَّاغِبُ فَلَا يُبَالِي

مِنْ أَيْنَ جَاءَتْهُ الدُّنْيَا مِنْ حِلِّهَا أَوْ مِنْ حَرَامِهَا وَ لَا يُبَالِي مَا دَنَّسَ فِيهَا عِرْضَهُ وَ أَهْلَكَ نَفْسَهُ وَ أَذْهَبَ مُرُوءَتَهُ فَهُمْ فِي غَمْرَةٍ يَضْطَرِبُونَ

Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu’alla ibn Muhammad from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Shu’ayb ibn ‘Abd Allah from certain individuals of his people in a marfu’ manner the following:

‘Once a man came to Amir-ul-Momineen-asws and said, ‘O Amir-ul-Momineen-asws, grant me good advice in the aspects of virtue so I may attain salvation’.

Amir-ul-Momineen-asws said, ‘O seeker of advice, listen carefully, understand, ascertain and practice. You must know that people are of three kinds: (1) restraining themselves from worldly matters, (2) exercising patience and (3) those who are inclined toward worldly gains.

‘From the hearts of restraining people sadness and happiness have moved out. He neither becomes happy for any of the worldly things, nor he grieves over anything of the world that he may have missed, thus, he is comfortable.

‘The person who exercises patience has hopes to have worldly gains in his heart and when he gains anything he holds his soul back from it due to such gains’ bad consequences and disgrace. Were you to see his heart you would be astonished by its chastity, humility and determination.

‘To those who are inclined to worldly gains it does not matter wherefrom worldly gains come to them, lawful or unlawful as well as whether it throws filth over their honour or destroys their souls, or takes away their kindness. They are restless to achieve them’.[181]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ حَكِيمٍ عَمَّنْ حَدَّثَهُ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ص لَا يَصْغَرُ مَا يَنْفَعُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَ لَا يَصْغَرُ مَا يَضُرُّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فَكُونُوا فِيمَا أَخْبَرَكُمُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ كَمَنْ عَايَنَ

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Sinan from Muhammad ibn Hakim from those whom has mentioned (in his book) the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

‘Amir-ul-Momineen-asws has said: ‘On the Day of Judgement neither a little good is beneficial nor a little bad is harmful, rather its about whatever Allah-azwj has informed, you must be like the one who has eye-witnessed them (your deeds)’.[182]

Preferably One should Remain Unknown:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الْقَاسَانِيِّ جَمِيعاً عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ الْمِنْقَرِيِّ عَنْ حَفْصِ بْنِ غِيَاثٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ يَقُولُ إِنْ قَدَرْتَ أَنْ لَا تُعْرَفَ فَافْعَلْ وَ مَا عَلَيْكَ أَلَّا يُثْنِيَ عَلَيْكَ النَّاسُ وَ مَا عَلَيْكَ أَنْ تَكُونَ مَذْمُوماً عِنْدَ النَّاسِ إِذَا كُنْتَ مَحْمُوداً عِنْدَ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ قَالَ أَبِي عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ ع لَا خَيْرَ فِي الْعَيْشِ إِلَّا لِرَجُلَيْنِ رَجُلٍ يَزْدَادُ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ خَيْراً وَ رَجُلٍ يَتَدَارَكُ مَنِيَّتَهُ بِالتَّوْبَةِ وَ أَنَّى لَهُ بِالتَّوْبَةِ وَ اللَّهِ لَوْ سَجَدَ حَتَّى يَنْقَطِعَ عُنُقُهُ مَا قَبِلَ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى مِنْهُ إِلَّا بِوَلَايَتِنَا أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ أَلَا وَ مَنْ عَرَفَ حَقَّنَا وَ رَجَا الثَّوَابَ فِينَا وَ رَضِيَ بِقُوتِهِ نِصْفِ مُدٍّ فِي كُلِّ يَوْمٍ وَ مَا سَتَرَ عَوْرَتَهُ وَ مَا أَكَنَّ رَأْسَهُ وَ هُمْ وَ اللَّهِ فِي ذَلِكَ خَائِفُونَ وَجِلُونَ وَدُّوا أَنَّهُ حَظُّهُمْ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا وَ كَذَلِكَ وَصَفَهُمُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فَقَالَ وَ الَّذِينَ يُؤْتُونَ ما آتَوْا وَ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَجِلَةٌ أَنَّهُمْ إِلى‏ رَبِّهِمْ راجِعُونَ ثُمَّ قَالَ مَا الَّذِي آتَوْا آتَوْا وَ اللَّهِ مَعَ الطَّاعَةِ الْمَحَبَّةَ وَ الْوَلَايَةَ وَ هُمْ فِي ذَلِكَ خَائِفُونَ لَيْسَ خَوْفُهُمْ خَوْفَ شَكٍّ وَ لَكِنَّهُمْ خَافُوا أَنْ يَكُونُوا مُقَصِّرِينَ فِي مَحَبَّتِنَا وَ طَاعَتِنَا

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father and Ali ibn Muhammad al-Qasani have all narrated from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad from Sulayman al-Minqari from Hafs ibn Ghiyath who said:

‘Once I heard Abu Abd Allah-asws saying: ‘If you can remain unknown, then do so. There will be nothing wrong if people will not praise you. There is nothing wrong for you if people censure you if you are praiseworthy before Allah’.

The Imam-asws said: ‘My father Amir-ul-Momineen-aswshas said: ‘There is nothing good in life except for two kinds of people: a man who every day increases his good deeds and a man who every day remedies a destructive deed with repentance.

How can repentance be of any benefit for him? By Allah-azwj, if he would perform a Sajdah prostration for such a length of time that his neck severs-off of his body still, Allah-azwj will not Accept his repentance without his acknowledgement of the Wilayah (Divine Authority) of our Ahl Al-Bayt-asws.

You must know that whoever recognises our-asws rights can have hope for rewards because of us-asws. He agrees, for his survival, to half of a one time meal every day, and with that which provides him covering for his privacy, his or her head, and with it, by Allah-azwj, they live in fear and apprehension and love to agree with this much as their share from the world and this is how Allah-azwj has Described them: ‘ … who bring what is brought to them and whose hearts are afraid of their return to their Lord.’ (23:60) What do they bring? They, by Allah-azwj, will bring along with obedience, love and (acknowledgement of) the guardianship (of Allah and Ahl Al-Bayt-asws and they still will be afraid. Such fear is not due to doubts, but it is due to their fear of falling short in our-asws love and obedience’.[183]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ ع يَقُولُ لَا تَسْتَكْثِرُوا كَثِيرَ الْخَيْرِ وَ تَسْتَقِلُّوا قَلِيلَ الذُّنُوبِ فَإِنَّ قَلِيلَ الذُّنُوبِ يَجْتَمِعُ حَتَّى يَصِيرَ كَثِيراً وَ خَافُوا اللَّهَ فِي السِّرِّ حَتَّى تُعْطُوا مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمُ النَّصَفَ وَ سَارِعُوا إِلَى طَاعَةِ اللَّهِ وَ اصْدُقُوا الْحَدِيثَ وَ أَدُّوا الْأَمَانَةَ فَإِنَّمَا ذَلِكَ لَكُمْ وَ لَا تَدْخُلُوا فِيمَا لَا يَحِلُّ لَكُمْ فَإِنَّمَا ذَلِكَ عَلَيْكُمْ

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from’ Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Sama’a who said:

‘I heard Abu Al-Hassan-asws saying: ‘Do not consider a great deal of good deeds a great deal. Do not consider a little sin little; the little sins accumulate to become a great deal. Have fear of Allah-azwj in private so you can yield to justice against yourselves. Hurry up in obedience to Allah-azwj, be truthful in your words, keep the trust; it is for you. Do not be involved in what is not lawful to you; it is against you’.[184]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ مَا أَحْسَنَ الْحَسَنَاتِ بَعْدَ السَّيِّئَاتِ وَ مَا أَقْبَحَ السَّيِّئَاتِ بَعْدَ الْحَسَنَاتِ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn Mahbub from abu Ayyub from Muhammad ibn Muslim who said:

‘I heard Abu Ja’far-asws saying: ‘How excellent are good deeds after evil deeds and how disgraceful are evil deeds after the good deeds![185]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَمَّنْ ذَكَرَهُ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ إِنَّكُمْ فِي آجَالٍ مَقْبُوضَةٍ وَ أَيَّامٍ مَعْدُودَةٍ وَ الْمَوْتُ يَأْتِي بَغْتَةً مَنْ يَزْرَعْ خَيْراً يَحْصُدْ غِبْطَةً وَ مَنْ يَزْرَعْ شَرّاً يَحْصِدْ نَدَامَةً وَ لِكُلِّ زَارِعٍ مَا زَرَعَ وَ لَا يَسْبِقُ الْبَطِي‏ءَ مِنْكُمْ حَظُّهُ وَ لَا يُدْرِكُ حَرِيصٌ مَا لَمْ يُقَدَّرْ لَهُ مَنْ أُعْطِيَ خَيْراً فَاللَّهُ أَعْطَاهُ وَ مَنْ وُقِيَ شَرّاً فَاللَّهُ وَقَاهُ

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Abu Abd Allah from ibn Faddal from those whom has mentioned (in his book) the following from Abu’ Abd Allah-asws:

Abu Abd Allah-asws has said: ‘You live in a period of time that is depleting continuously and (was made available to you) in calculated days. Death comes suddenly. Whoever sows goodness will harvest what is very much sought after. Whoever sows evil will harvest regret. Every farmer finds what he has planted. The sustenance of the slow moving ones among you will not move ahead of him and the greedy will not achieve what is not assigned for him. Whoever does good, Allah-azwj Grants him good and whoever safeguards against evil, Allah-azwj Protects him’.[186]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي عُثْمَانَ عَنْ وَاصِلٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ جَاءَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى أَبِي ذَرٍّ فَقَالَ يَا أَبَا ذَرٍّ مَا لَنَا نَكْرَهُ الْمَوْتَ فَقَالَ لِأَنَّكُمْ عَمَرْتُمُ الدُّنْيَا وَ أَخْرَبْتُمُ الْآخِرَةَ فَتَكْرَهُونَ أَنْ تُنْقَلُوا مِنْ عُمْرَانٍ إِلَى خَرَابٍ فَقَالَ لَهُ فَكَيْفَ تَرَى قُدُومَنَا عَلَى اللَّهِ فَقَالَ أَمَّا الْمُحْسِنُ مِنْكُمْ فَكَالْغَائِبِ يَقْدَمُ عَلَى أَهْلِهِ وَ أَمَّا الْمُسِي‏ءُ مِنْكُمْ فَكَالْآبِقِ يُرَدُّ عَلَى مَوْلَاهُ قَالَ فَكَيْفَ تَرَى حَالَنَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ قَالَ اعْرِضُوا أَعْمَالَكُمْ عَلَى الْكِتَابِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَقُولُ إِنَّ الْأَبْرارَ لَفِي نَعِيمٍ وَ إِنَّ الْفُجَّارَ لَفِي جَحِيمٍ قَالَ فَقَالَ الرَّجُلُ فَأَيْنَ رَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ قَالَ رَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ قَرِيبٌ مِنَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع وَ كَتَبَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى أَبِي ذَرٍّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ يَا أَبَا ذَرٍّ أَطْرِفْنِي بِشَيْ‏ءٍ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ أَنَّ الْعِلْمَ كَثِيرٌ وَ لَكِنْ إِنْ قَدَرْتَ أَنْ لَا تُسِي‏ءَ إِلَى مَنْ تُحِبُّهُ فَافْعَلْ قَالَ فَقَالَ لَهُ الرَّجُلُ وَ هَلْ رَأَيْتَ أَحَداً يُسِي‏ءُ إِلَى مَنْ يُحِبُّهُ فَقَالَ لَهُ نَعَمْ نَفْسُكَ أَحَبُّ الْأَنْفُسِ إِلَيْكَ فَإِذَا أَنْتَ عَصَيْتَ اللَّهَ فَقَدْ أَسَأْتَ إِلَيْهَا

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from certain individuals of his people from al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn abu ‘Uthman from Wasil from’ Abd Allah ibn Sinan who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

Abu Abd Allah-asws has said: ‘A man came to Abu Dhar and asked: ‘O Abu Dhar, why do we dislike death?’ He said: ‘It is because you have developed the world and destroyed the next life and you dislike moving from developed to that which is ruined’.  The man asked: ‘How do you see our moving in the presence of Allah-azwj?’ He replied: ‘The people of good deeds among you will be like one coming home from a journey. The evil doers among you, however, will be like a runaway slave returned to his master’.

The man then asked: ‘How do you see our condition before Allah-azwj?’ He said: ‘Present your deeds before the Book of Allah-azwj. Allah-azwj has said: ‘The virtuous ones will live in bounties and the evil doers will live in fire.’ (82: 14, 15).  The man then asked: ‘Where then is the mercy of Allah-azwj?’ He replied: ‘The mercy of Allah-azwj is very close to the people who do good deeds’.

‘Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws then said: ‘A man wrote to Abu Dhar-ra ‘O Abu Dhar instruct me with a few things of knowledge.’ He wrote back to him. ‘Knowledge is of many kinds, however, if you are able not to disappoint those whom you love, then do so. Yes, your soul is the most beloved to you. When you disobey Allah-azwj, you are doing bad and disappointing things to your own soul’.’[187]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ اصْبِرُوا عَلَى طَاعَةِ اللَّهِ وَ تَصَبَّرُوا عَنْ مَعْصِيَةِ اللَّهِ فَإِنَّمَا الدُّنْيَا سَاعَةٌ فَمَا مَضَى فَلَيْسَ تَجِدُ لَهُ سُرُوراً وَ لَا حُزْناً وَ مَا لَمْ يَأْتِ فَلَيْسَ تَعْرِفُهُ فَاصْبِرْ عَلَى تِلْكَ السَّاعَةِ الَّتِي أَنْتَ فِيهَا فَكَأَنَّكَ قَدِ اغْتَبَطْتَ

A number or our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa Sama’a who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

‘I heard Abu Abd Allah-asws saying: ‘Exercise patience in the act of obedience to Allah-azwj and dictate yourselves with patience in the matters of disobeying Allah-azwj. The world is one hour. What is passed its joys and sadness do not renew. What has not yet arrived, you do not know it. Bear patience in the hour in which you live, your condition will be the one very much sought after’.[188]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ رَجُلٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ الْخَضِرُ لِمُوسَى ع يَا مُوسَى إِنَّ أَصْلَحَ يَوْمَيْكَ الَّذِي هُوَ أَمَامَكَ فَانْظُرْ أَيُّ يَوْمٍ هُوَ وَ أَعِدَّ لَهُ الْجَوَابَ فَإِنَّكَ مَوْقُوفٌ وَ مَسْئُولٌ وَ خُذْ مَوْعِظَتَكَ مِنَ الدَّهْرِ فَإِنَّ الدَّهْرَ طَوِيلٌ قَصِيرٌ فَاعْمَلْ كَأَنَّكَ تَرَى ثَوَابَ عَمَلِكَ لِيَكُونَ أَطْمَعَ لَكَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ فَإِنَّ مَا هُوَ آتٍ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا كَمَا هُوَ قَدْ وَلَّى مِنْهَا

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus from a man who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

‘Al-Khidr-as said to Moses-as: ‘O Moses-as, the best of your two days is the one in front of you. Consider which one it is. Then prepare the answer for it. You will be stopped for questioning. Learn your lessons from time. Time is long and also (in certain cases) short. Act as if you see the reward for your deeds so it may seem attractive due to its rewards. Anything that comes from the world is like going away from one’.[189]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ يَعْقُوبَ بْنِ يَزِيدَ عَمَّنْ ذَكَرَهُ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قِيلَ لِأَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع عِظْنَا وَ أَوْجِزْ فَقَالَ الدُّنْيَا حَلَالُهَا حِسَابٌ وَ حَرَامُهَا عِقَابٌ وَ أَنَّى لَكُمْ بِالرَّوْحِ وَ لَمَّا تَأَسَّوْا بِسُنَّةِ نَبِيِّكُمْ تَطْلُبُونَ مَا يُطْغِيكُمْ وَ لَا تَرْضَوْنَ مَا يَكْفِيكُمْ

A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Yaqub ibn Yazid from those whom he has mentioned (in his book) the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

‘It was said to Amir-ul-Momineen-asws: ‘Instruct us briefly with good advice’.  He-asws then said: ‘For the lawful things of the world there is accountability and for the unlawful things of the world there is punishment. How can you have comfort without following the traditions of your Prophet-saww? You seek what takes you to transgression and you do not agree with what is sufficient for you’.[190]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نَجْرَانَ عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ حُمَيْدٍ عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ الثُّمَالِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ إِنَّ أَسْرَعَ الْخَيْرِ ثَوَاباً الْبِرُّ وَ إِنَّ أَسْرَعَ الشَّرِّ عُقُوبَةً الْبَغْيُ وَ كَفَى بِالْمَرْءِ عَيْباً أَنْ يُبْصِرَ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَا يَعْمَى عَنْهُ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ أَوْ يُعَيِّرَ النَّاسَ بِمَا لَا يَسْتَطِيعُ تَرْكَهُ أَوْ يُؤْذِيَ جَلِيسَهُ بِمَا لَا يَعْنِيهِ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father and A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad all from ibn abu Najran from ‘Asim ibn Humayd from Abu Hamza al-Thumali who has narrated the following from Abu Ja’far-asws:

Abu Jafar-asws said: ‘Of good deeds the quickest to bring rewards is the kindness. Of evil deeds the quickest to bring misfortune is transgression. It is enough defect for a man to find fault with others and turn a blind eye toward himself or blame people for what he himself is not able to avoid or cause suffering to one’s associates for no good reason’.[191]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَحَدِهِمَا ع قَالَ لَا يَكْتُبُ الْمَلَكُ إِلَّا مَا سَمِعَ وَ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ اذْكُرْ رَبَّكَ فِي نَفْسِكَ تَضَرُّعاً وَ خِيفَةً فَلَا يَعْلَمُ ثَوَابَ ذَلِكَ الذِّكْرِ فِي نَفْسِ الرَّجُلِ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لِعَظَمَتِهِ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad from Hariz from Zurara from one of the Imams-asws who said:

‘The angel-as writes down only what he hears and Allah-azwj has Said: ‘Speak of your Lord deep within yourselves, humbly and privately …. ‘ (7:205) Thus, no one knows the reward for that act (of speaking deep within oneself) of Allah-azwj except Allah-azwj, the Most Majestic due to His-azwj Greatness’.[192]

The One who is Adored by Masomeen-asws:

عَنْهُ عَنْ بَكْرِ بْنِ صَالِحٍ عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الْهَاشِمِيِّ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ عَبَّادٍ قَالَ بَكْرٌ وَ أَظُنُّنِي قَدْ سَمِعْتُهُ مِنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ بُكَيْرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ إِنَّا لَنُحِبُّ مَنْ كَانَ عَاقِلًا فَهِماً فَقِيهاً حَلِيماً مُدَارِياً صَبُوراً صَدُوقاً وَفِيّاً إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ خَصَّ الْأَنْبِيَاءَ بِمَكَارِمِ الْأَخْلَاقِ فَمَنْ كَانَتْ فِيهِ فَلْيَحْمَدِ اللَّهَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ وَ مَنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ فِيهِ فَلْيَتَضَرَّعْ إِلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ لْيَسْأَلْهُ إِيَّاهَا قَالَ قُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ وَ مَا هُنَّ قَالَ هُنَّ الْوَرَعُ وَ الْقَنَاعَةُ وَ الصَّبْرُ وَ الشُّكْرُ وَ الْحِلْمُ وَ الْحَيَاءُ وَ السَّخَاءُ وَ الشَّجَاعَةُ وَ الْغَيْرَةُ وَ الْبِرُّ وَ صِدْقُ الْحَدِيثِ وَ أَدَاءُ الْأَمَانَةِ

It is narrated from him from Bakr ibn Salih from Ja’far ibn Muhammad al- Hashimi from Isma’il ‘Abbad who has said that perhaps he has heard it from Isma’il from ‘Abd Allah ibn Bukayr who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

Abu Abd Allah-asws said: ‘We certainly love a person of good ‘Aql’ (recognition of just) who understands our-asws Ahadith, who has good knowledge and understanding of the religion, who is forbearing, who is kind, who bears patience, who is truthful and who is loyal.

Allah-azwj has Chosen the Prophets-as for noble moral (human) qualities. Whoever has them (noble qualities) should be thankful to Allah-azwj. Whoever does not have them he must pray humbly to Allah-azwj and request Him-azwj to Grant those to him.

‘I (the narrator) then said, ‘May Allah-azwj keep my soul in service for your-asws cause, what are the noble qualities?’ ‘The Imam-asws said, ‘They consist of restraint from indulging in worldly matters, to be content, to bear patience, to be thankful, to be forbearing, to be self-conscious, to be generous, to have dignity, to be virtuous, to be truthful in one’s words and to be trustworthy’.[193]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ ارْتَضَى لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِيناً فَأَحْسِنُوا صُحْبَتَهُ بِالسَّخَاءِ وَ حُسْنِ الْخُلُقِ

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from certain individuals of his people who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

‘Allah-azwj has chosen Islam to be your religion. Keep good company with your religion by means of exercising generosity and good moral behavior’.’[194]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّوْفَلِيِّ عَنِ السَّكُونِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ص الْإِيمَانُ أَرْبَعَةُ أَرْكَانٍ الرِّضَا بِقَضَاءِ اللَّهِ وَ التَّوَكُّلُ عَلَى اللَّهِ وَ تَفْوِيضُ الْأَمْرِ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَ التَّسْلِيمُ لِأَمْرِ اللَّهِ

Ali ibn Ibrahim bas narrated from his father from al-Nawfali from al-Sakuni who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

‘Amir-ul-Momineen-asws has said: ‘Eman has four pillars. They consist of agreeing with the decision of Allah-azwj, trusting Allah-azwj, choosing Allah-azwj to be the in-charge of all affairs and submission to the command of Allah-azwj’.[195]

الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ ‏سِنَانٍ عَنْ رَجُلٍ مِنْ بَنِي هَاشِمٍ قَالَ أَرْبَعٌ مَنْ كُنَّ فِيهِ كَمَلَ إِسْلَامُهُ وَ لَوْ كَانَ مِنْ قَرْنِهِ إِلَى قَدَمِهِ خَطَايَا لَمْ تَنْقُصْهُ الصِّدْقُ وَ الْحَيَاءُ وَ حُسْنُ الْخُلُقِ وَ الشُّكْرُ

Al-Hussain ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu’alla ibn Muhammad from al- Hassan ibn Ali from ‘Abd Allah ibn Sinan from a man from Banu Hashim who said:

‘If four things are found in a person his Islam is perfect, even though he may be filled with sins from his top to his toes it will not harm him. They consist of Truthfulness, self-conscious, Good Moral Behavior and Thankfulness’.[196]

The Best ‘Momin’ among Believers:

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنِ ابْنِ رِئَابٍ عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص أَ لَا أُخْبِرُكُمْ بِخَيْرِ رِجَالِكُمْ قُلْنَا بَلَى يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ إِنَّ مِنْ خَيْرِ رِجَالِكُمُ التَّقِيَّ النَّقِيَّ السَّمْحَ الْكَفَّيْنِ النَّقِيَّ الطَّرَفَيْنِ الْبَرَّ بِوَالِدَيْهِ وَ لَا يُلْجِئُ عِيَالَهُ إِلَى غَيْرِهِ

A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father all from ibn Mahbub from ibn Ri’ab from Abu Hamza from Jabir ibn ‘Abd Allah who said:

‘The Rasool Allah-saww once said: ‘Do you want me to tell you about the best men among you?’ We said: ‘Yes, O, Rasool Allah-saww, do so.’ He-saww said, ‘The best men among you are the pious, clean, of forgiving hands, clean on both ends (tongue and genitals) who is kind to his parents and does not leave out his dependents to (trouble) others’.[197]

A Momin Cares Less after Losing Worldly Valuables:

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ فِي الْمَجَالِسِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ‏الْحَسَنِ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ أَبَانٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْخَزَّازِ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا ع يَقُولُ قَالَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ ع لِلْحَوَارِيِّينَ يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ لَا تَأْسَوْا عَلَى مَا فَاتَكُمْ مِنْ دُنْيَاكُمْ إِذَا سَلِمَ دِينُكُمْ كَمَا لَا يَأْسَى أَهْلُ الدُّنْيَا عَلَى مَا فَاتَهُمْ مِنْ دِينِهِمْ إِذَا سَلِمَتْ دُنْيَاهُمْ

Mohammed bin Ali bin Hussain narrates through a chain of narrators that he heard the following from Abul Hassan-asws:

Abu Hassan-asws said: Hazrat-as Issa Ibn Mariam-as advised his-as disciples:  ‘O Children of Israel! You should not grieve upon losing livelihood as long as your ‘Eman’ is intact as those who are indulged in the World care less upon losing ‘Eman’ as long as their livelihood is secure’.[198]

أوحَى اللّه‏ُ تعالى إلى داوودَ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ): تُرِيدُ واُرِيدُ، وإنّما يَكونُ ما اُرِيدُ ، فإن سَلَّمتَ لِما اُريدُ كَفَيتُكَ ما تُرِيدُ ، وإن لَم تُسَلِّم لِما اُرِيدُ أتعَبتُكَ فيما تُرِيدُ ، ثُمّ لا يَكونُ إلّا ما اُرِيدُ.

It is narrated in Bihar al-Anwar that Allah-azwj revealed to Prophet David-as saying, ‘I want [something] and you want [something else], and verily only My will is done. Therefore, if you submit to what I-azwj Want, I-azwj will suffice you in what you want. If you do not submit to My-azwj will, however, I-azwj will exhaust you in your quest for what you want, until only what I-azwj want will be fulfiled.’[199]

الإمامُ الصّادقُ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) ـ لَمّا سُئلَ: بِأيِّ شَيء عُلِمُ المؤمنُ أ نّهُ مُؤمِنٌ ؟ ـ: بِالتَّسليمِ للّه‏ِِ ، والرِّضا بما وَرَدَ علَيهِ مِن سُرورٍ وسَخَطٍ.

Imam al-Sadiq-asws was once asked how a believer may ascertain that he is indeed a believer, to which he-asws replied: ‘Through submission to Allah-azwj and satisfaction with whatever source of happiness or discontent that comes his way’.’[200]

Act for the Hereafter before It’s Too Late:

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ النُّعْمَانِ عَنْ حَمْزَةَ بْنِ حُمْرَانَ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع يَقُولُ إِنَّ مِمَّا حُفِظَ مِنْ خُطَبِ النَّبِيِّ ص أَنَّهُ قَالَ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّ لَكُمْ مَعَالِمَ فَانْتَهُوا إِلَى مَعَالِمِكُمْ وَ إِنَّ لَكُمْ نِهَايَةً فَانْتَهُوا إِلَى نِهَايَتِكُمْ أَلَا إِنَّ الْمُؤْمِنَ يَعْمَلُ بَيْنَ مَخَافَتَيْنِ بَيْنَ أَجَلٍ قَدْ مَضَى لَا يَدْرِي مَا اللَّهُ صَانِعٌ فِيهِ وَ بَيْنَ أَجَلٍ قَدْ بَقِيَ لَا يَدْرِي مَا اللَّهُ قَاضٍ فِيهِ فَلْيَأْخُذِ الْعَبْدُ الْمُؤْمِنُ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ لِنَفْسِهِ وَ مِنْ دُنْيَاهُ لآِخِرَتِهِ وَ فِي الشَّبِيبَةِ قَبْلَ الْكِبَرِ وَ فِي الْحَيَاةِ قَبْلَ الْمَمَاتِ فَوَ الَّذِي نَفْسُ مُحَمَّدٍ بِيَدِهِ مَا بَعْدَ الدُّنْيَا مِنْ مُسْتَعْتَبٍ وَ مَا بَعْدَهَا مِنْ دَارٍ إِلَّا الْجَنَّةُ أَوِ النَّارُ

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Nu’man from Hamza ibn Humran who said:

‘I heard Abu Abd Allah-asws saying: ‘Of the preserved speeches of the Holy Prophet-saww one is his words as follows:

‘O people, for you there are the sources of knowledge. You must reach out to them. For you there are the end goals and you must reach them. You must know that a believer works between two frightening facts. On one side is the time that has passed and he does not know what Allah-azwj has Done about it, and on the other is the time to come that he does not know how Allah-azwj will Decide about. The believing servant (of Allah-azwj) must take from his own soul for his own soul and from his worldly life for his hereafter, during his youth before his getting old and in his lifetime before his death. I swear by the One-azwj in whose hand is the soul of Muhammad-saww that after the worldly life there will be no chance to please anyone and there will be no other home except Paradise or Hell’.[201]

عَنْهُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ دَاوُدَ الرَّقِّيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع فِي قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ لِمَنْ خافَ مَقامَ رَبِّهِ جَنَّتانِ قَالَ مَنْ عَلِمَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَرَاهُ وَ يَسْمَعُ مَا يَقُولُ وَ يَعْلَمُ مَا يَعْمَلُهُ مِنْ خَيْرٍ أَوْ شَرٍّ فَيَحْجُزُهُ ذَلِكَ عَنِ الْقَبِيحِ مِنَ الْأَعْمَالِ‏ فَذَلِكَ الَّذِي خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّهِ وَ نَهَى النَّفْسَ عَنِ الْهَوَى

It is narrated from him (narrator of the Hadith above) from Ahmad from ibn Mahbub from Dawud al-Raqqiy from Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws, who said:

Abu ‘Abd Allah-asws said: ‘About the words of Allah-azwj: ‘And for him who fears to stand before his Lord there are two gardens.’(55:46). The Imam-asws said: ‘One who knows that Allah-azwj Sees him, Hears what he says and Knows what he does, good or evil, and it keeps him off wicked deeds, such person is the one who fears to stand before his Lord-azwj and stops his soul from following its (negative) desires’.[202]

عَنْهُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ أَبِي سَارَةَ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع يَقُولُ لَا يَكُونُ الْمُؤْمِنُ مُؤْمِناً حَتَّى يَكُونَ خَائِفاً رَاجِياً وَ لَا يَكُونُ خَائِفاً رَاجِياً حَتَّى يَكُونَ عَامِلًا لِمَا يَخَافُ وَ يَرْجُو

It is narrated from him (narrator or the Hadith above) from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Sinan from ibn Muskan from al-Hassan ibn abu Sarah who said:

‘I heard Abu Abd Allah-asws saying: ‘A ‘Momin’[203] is not a ‘Momin’ until he is fearful and hopeful. He cannot be fearful and hopeful until he comes to know what to fear from and in whom to have the hope’.[204]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ فُضَيْلِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ أَبِي عُبَيْدَةَ الْحَذَّاءِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ الْمُؤْمِنُ بَيْنَ مَخَافَتَيْنِ ذَنْبٍ قَدْ مَضَى لَا يَدْرِي مَا صَنَعَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ وَ عُمُرٍ قَدْ بَقِيَ لَا يَدْرِي مَا يَكْتَسِبُ فِيهِ مِنَ الْمَهَالِكِ فَهُوَ لَا يُصْبِحُ إِلَّا خَائِفاً وَ لَا يُصْلِحُهُ إِلَّا الْخَوْفُ

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus from Fudayl ibn ‘Uthman from abu ‘Ubaydah al-Hadhdha’ who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

‘A believer lives in two frightening conditions. In his life he is concerned about his sins of the past about which he does not know how Allah-azwj has Decided. He is also worried about his future, for not knowing what kind of destructive sins he may get involved in. Therefore, he is always fearful and nothing serves his best interest except fear’.[205]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ كَانَ أَبِي ع يَقُولُ إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ مِنْ عَبْدٍ مُؤْمِنٍ إِلَّا وَ فِي قَلْبِهِ نُورَانِ نُورُ خِيفَةٍ وَ نُورُ رَجَاءٍ لَوْ وُزِنَ هَذَا لَمْ يَزِدْ عَلَى هَذَا وَ لَوْ وُزِنَ هَذَا لَمْ يَزِدْ عَلَى هَذَا

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from certain individuals or his people who has narrated the following from Abu Abd Allah-asws:

‘My father would say: ‘In the heart of every believing servant (of Allah-azwj) there are two lights. There is the light of fear and the light of hope. On being weighed no one of these lights weighs differently from the other’.[206]

The Importance of ‘Taqqiya’ (Dissimulation):

أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الْأَشْعَرِيُّ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْكُوفِيِّ عَنِ الْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ عَامِرٍ عَنْ جَابِرٍ الْمَكْفُوفِ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي يَعْفُورٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ اتَّقُوا عَلَى دِينِكُمْ فَاحْجُبُوهُ بِالتَّقِيَّةِ فَإِنَّهُ لَا إِيمَانَ لِمَنْ لَا تَقِيَّةَ لَهُ إِنَّمَا أَنْتُمْ فِي النَّاسِ كَالنَّحْلِ فِي الطَّيْرِ لَوْ أَنَّ الطَّيْرَ تَعْلَمُ مَا فِي أَجْوَافِ النَّحْلِ مَا بَقِيَ مِنْهَا شَيْ‏ءٌ إِلَّا أَكَلَتْهُ وَ لَوْ أَنَّ النَّاسَ عَلِمُوا مَا فِي أَجْوَافِكُمْ أَنَّكُمْ تُحِبُّونَّا أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ لَأَكَلُوكُمْ بِأَلْسِنَتِهِمْ وَ لَنَحَلُوكُمْ فِي السِّرِّ وَ الْعَلَانِيَةِ رَحِمَ اللَّهُ عَبْداً مِنْكُمْ كَانَ عَلَى وَلَايَتِنَا

Imam Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘Protect your beliefs from the rivals and hide it through practicing Taqqiya.  He is without ‘Eman’ (faith) who does not observe Taqqiya. You are surrounded by your rivals like a honeybee would live among other birds. If the other birds come to know what is in the stomach of a honeybee they would just eat it. Similarly, if your opponents would realise that you love us-asws (the Ahl al-Bayt-asws) from your heart and soul, then they would subject you to verbal abuse, (to rebuke you) and use filthy language against you in front, as well as behind your back.  May Allah-azwj Bless those who are adhered to our-asws Wilayat.[207]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَمَّنْ أَخْبَرَهُ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع فِي قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ لا تَسْتَوِي الْحَسَنَةُ وَ لَا السَّيِّئَةُ قَالَ الْحَسَنَةُ التَّقِيَّةُ وَ السَّيِّئَةُ الْإِذَاعَةُ وَ قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ ادْفَعْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ السَّيِّئَةَ قَالَ الَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ التَّقِيَّةُ فَإِذَا الَّذِي بَيْنَكَ وَ بَيْنَهُ عَداوَةٌ كَأَنَّهُ وَلِيٌّ حَمِيمٌ

Imam Abu Abdullah-asws explained the meanings of the Verse[208] (41:34)[209] in which Allah-azwj Says: وَلَا تَسْتَوِي الْحَسَنَةُ وَلَا السَّيِّئَةُ   ‘good and evil cannot be equal’, here ‘good’ refers to observing Taqqiya and ‘evil’ refers to declaration of faith when Taqqiya becomes obligatory. And in regard to ادْفَعْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ  , ‘Repel (evil) with the best way’ in the Verse, Imam-asws said that best way is the Taqqiya, treat that person who holds grudges against you with best possible way.[210]

عَنْهُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ جَمِيلِ بْنِ صَالِحٍ عَنْ أَبِي عُبَيْدَةَ الْحَذَّاءِ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ ع يَقُولُ وَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ أَحَبَّ أَصْحَابِي إِلَيَّ أَوْرَعُهُمْ وَ أَفْقَهُهُمْ وَ أَكْتَمُهُمْ لِحَدِيثِنَا وَ إِنَّ أَسْوَأَهُمْ عِنْدِي حَالًا وَ أَمْقَتَهُمْ لَلَّذِي إِذَا سَمِعَ الْحَدِيثَ يُنْسَبُ إِلَيْنَا وَ يُرْوَى عَنَّا فَلَمْ يَقْبَلْهُ اشْمَأَزَّ مِنْهُ وَ جَحَدَهُ وَ كَفَّرَ مَنْ دَانَ بِهِ وَ هُوَ لَا يَدْرِي لَعَلَّ الْحَدِيثَ مِنْ عِنْدِنَا خَرَجَ وَ إِلَيْنَا أُسْنِدَ فَيَكُونَ بِذَلِكَ خَارِجاً عَنْ وَلَايَتِنَا

Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws says:  ‘My favourite among my companions is the one who refrains from indulging in the forbidden, has more recognition of our ‘Amr’, and who hides our traditions from our adversaries.  But the worst among our-asws followers is that who hears a tradition ascribed from us-asws but then does not accepts it and acts arrogantly and also rejects what he has already heard, without allowing for any allowance that the tradition may belong to us-asws and a reference to that tradition originates from us-asws.  This person is thrown out of our Wilayat[211].[212]

The Submission is the Most Important Approach:

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ ابْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ سَدِيرٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع إِنِّي تَرَكْتُ مَوَالِيَكَ مُخْتَلِفِينَ يَتَبَرَّأُ بَعْضُهُمْ مِنْ بَعْضٍ قَالَ فَقَالَ وَ مَا أَنْتَ وَ ذَاكَ إِنَّمَا كُلِّفَ النَّاسُ ثَلَاثَةً مَعْرِفَةَ الْأَئِمَّةِ وَ التَّسْلِيمَ لَهُمْ فِيمَا وَرَدَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ الرَّدَّ إِلَيْهِمْ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmed ibn Mohammed ibn Isa, who from ibn Sinan, who from ibn Muskan, who from Sadir, who said:

Once I asked Abu Jafar-asws: I just left your supporters and followers who were opposing and denouncing each other. The narrator has said that Imam-asws then asked: ‘What do you have to do with their conditions? People have three obligations; they must achieve ‘Maurifat’ of Aimmah-asws; submit to their-asws instructions and refer to them-asws in their disputes and differences’.[213]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الْبَرْقِيِّ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الْكَاهِلِيِّ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع لَوْ أَنَّ قَوْماً عَبَدُوا اللَّهَ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَ أَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَ آتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ وَ حَجُّوا الْبَيْتَ وَ صَامُوا شَهْرَ رَمَضَانَ ثُمَّ قَالُوا لِشَيْ‏ءٍ صَنَعَهُ اللَّهُ أَوْ صَنَعَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص أَلَّا صَنَعَ خِلَافَ الَّذِي صَنَعَ أَوْ وَجَدُوا ذَلِكَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ لَكَانُوا بِذَلِكَ مُشْرِكِينَ ثُمَّ تَلَا هَذِهِ الْآيَةَ فَلا وَ رَبِّكَ لا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّى يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيما شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لا يَجِدُوا فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ حَرَجاً مِمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَ يُسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيماً ثُمَّ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع عَلَيْكُمْ بِالتَّسْلِيمِ

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Barqi from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn abu Nasr from Hammad ibn ‘Uthman from. Abd Allah al-Kahili who said:

‘Abu Abd Allah-asws has said: ‘If people worship only Allah-azwj, Who has no partner, maintain the prayers, pay Zakat, perform Hajj of the House and fast in the month of Ramadan but speak of something either about Allah-azwj or about that the Rasool Allah-saww has done, that it would had been done differently, or find such feelings in their hearts, in this they will be considered as ‘Mushrik’ polytheists.’

He-asws then recited this verse of the Holy Quran: ‘I swear by your Lord that they will not be considered believers until they let you judge their disputes and then they will find nothing in their souls to prevent them from accepting your judgement, thus, submit themselves to the will of Allah.’ (4:65) Abu Abd Allah-asws then said: ‘You have to be submissive (before Allah)’.[214]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى‏ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ الْمُخْتَارِ عَنْ زَيْدٍ الشَّحَّامِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ إِنَّ عِنْدَنَا رَجُلًا يُقَالُ لَهُ كُلَيْبٌ فَلَا يَجِي‏ءُ عَنْكُمْ شَيْ‏ءٌ إِلَّا قَالَ أَنَا أُسَلِّمُ فَسَمَّيْنَاهُ كُلَيْبَ تَسْلِيمٍ قَالَ فَتَرَحَّمَ عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَ تَدْرُونَ مَا التَّسْلِيمُ فَسَكَتْنَا فَقَالَ هُوَ وَ اللَّهِ الْإِخْبَاتُ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَ عَمِلُوا الصَّالِحاتِ وَ أَخْبَتُوا إِلى‏ رَبِّهِمْ‏

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Said from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Husayn ibn al-Mukhtar from Zayd al-Shahham who said:

‘Once I said to Abu Abd Allah-asws: ‘Among us there is a man called Kulayb. Nothing comes from you but that he says, ‘I submit to it.’ Thus, we call him, ‘Kulayb, the submissive.’ The narrator has said that the Imam-asws expressed kindness toward him and prayed and then asked: ‘Do you know what submission is?’ We remained silent. The Imam-asws said: ‘That, by Allah-azwj, is ‘al-Ikhbat’ in the words of Allah-azwj: ‘The righteously striving believers who are submissive before their Lord, will be the dwellers of paradise wherein they will live forever.’’ (11 :23).[215]

الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْوَشَّاءِ عَنْ أَبَانٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع فِي قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى وَ مَنْ يَقْتَرِفْ حَسَنَةً نَزِدْ لَهُ فِيها حُسْناً قَالَ الِاقْتِرَافُ التَّسْلِيمُ لَنَا وَ الصِّدْقُ عَلَيْنَا وَ أَلَّا يَكْذِبَ عَلَيْنَا

AI-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu’alla ibn Muhammad from al- Washsha ‘ from Aban from Muhammad ibn Muslim who said:

‘About the words of Allah-azwj ‘Whoever achieves virtue We will increase for him its merit. …’ (42:23) Abu Ja’far-asws has said: ‘Achievement refers to one’s submission to us-asws, his speaking the truth from us-asws and not to ascribe any lies to us-asws’.[216]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الْبَرْقِيِّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْحَمِيدِ عَنْ مَنْصُورِ بْنِ يُونُسَ عَنْ بَشِيرٍ الدَّهَّانِ عَنْ كَامِلٍ التَّمَّارِ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ ع قَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ أَ تَدْرِي مَنْ هُمْ قُلْتُ أَنْتَ أَعْلَمُ قَالَ قَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الْمُسَلِّمُونَ إِنَّ الْمُسَلِّمِينَ هُمُ النُّجَبَاءُ فَالْمُؤْمِنُ غَرِيبٌ فَطُوبَى لِلْغُرَبَاءِ

Ali bin Muhammad bin Abd Ullah from Ahmed bin Muhammad Al Baraqi from his father from Muhammad bin Abdul Hameed from Mansoor bin Younus from Basheer Al Dahhan from Kamil Al Tammar who said:

‘Abu Jafr-asws has said about the words of Allah-azwj: ‘Triumphant indeed are the believers (23:1).  Do you know who the ‘Triumphants’ are? I said: You-asws know the best.’ Imam-asws said: The Triumphants are those ‘Momin’ who follow our-asws teachings (Ahadith) and those who submit to our-asws teachings are called ‘Najbah’ (the salvaged ones).  Thus, a Momin is ‘al-gharib’ (an immigrant-away from his home town, they are very few and lead their lives under foreign conditions and for them is the ‘Tubbah’ (a tree in Paradise) in the Hereafter’.[217]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنِ الْخَشَّابِ عَنِ الْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ عَامِرٍ عَنْ رَبِيعٍ الْمُسْلِيِّ عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ زَكَرِيَّا الْأَنْصَارِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ مَنْ سَرَّهُ أَنْ يَسْتَكْمِلَ الْإِيمَانَ كُلَّهُ فَلْيَقُلِ الْقَوْلُ مِنِّي فِي جَمِ