Jumah and Eid Prayers in Congregations*NEW*


Jumah is a Blessed day, we are advised to shorten moustaches, cut nails and take a bath/shower and recite 1000 times Salawat on Friday (see Ahadith in Appendix I).

On Salat-e-Jumah, Allah-azwj Says in Sura-e-Jumah (62:9): O you those who believe! When there is a call for the Salat on the day of Friday, then hasten to the Zikr of Allah and leave the selling. That would be better for you, if you only knew [62:9]

As per the above Holy Verse, Salat-e-Jumah in Masjid (congregation) has to be mandatory – it was indeed[1] but one of its main condition is the presence of a Just Imam-asws, which for us is the 12th Imam-ajfj!  Hence the conditions of Salat-e-Jumah will be similar to those of ‘Hukam and ‘Hadood’, which cannot be implemented during the reins of unjust governments, e.g., as per the following Hadith:

وَ عَنْ عَلِيٍّ ع أَنَّهُ قَالَ: لَا يَصْلُحُ‏ الْحُكْمُ‏ وَ لَا الْحُدُودُ وَ لَا الْجُمُعَةُ إِلَّا بِإِمَامٍ‏ عَدْل‏

‏(Imam) Ali-asws said:  There is no correct judgement, no penalties and no Jumah (Friday Prayer) but with a Just Imam-asws.[2]

The conditions of the presence of Just Imam (إِمَامٍ‏ عَدْلٍ) is also applicable for the Eid Salat (Al-Fitar nor on Al-Azha), we present, as an example, a hadith here;

وَ رَوَى زُرَارَةُ بْنُ أَعْيَنَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ: لَا صَلَاةَ يَوْمَ‏ الْفِطْرِ وَ الْأَضْحَى إِلَّا مَعَ إِمَامٍ عَادِلٍ.

Zrara Bin Ain narrates from Imam Abu Jafar -asws that Imam-asws says:” There are neither Salat on the Day of Al-Fitar nor on Al-Azha except in the presence of a Just Imam-asws.[3]

Additional Ahadith on congregational Eid salat are given in Appendix II.


جَابِرٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ: قُلْتُ لِأَيِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ يُحْتَاجُ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ وَ الْإِمَام؟ فَقَالَ لِبَقَاءِ الْعَالَمِ عَلَى صَلَاحِهِ ،

‘From Abu Ja’far-asws, he (the narrator) said, ‘I said, ‘For which thing (reason) is one needy to the Prophet-saww and the Imam-asws?’ He-asws said: ‘For the remaining of the world upon its correctness.[4] (an extract, complete Hadith is given in Appendix III)

Most Muslims offer congregational Salat (Jumah Salat) as compulsory, as per Sura-e-Jummah (62:9):

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نُودِيَ لِلصَّلَاةِ مِنْ يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَاسْعَوْا إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَذَرُوا الْبَيْعَ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ {962:}

O you those who believe! When there is a call for the Salat on the day of Friday, then hasten to the Zikr of Allah and leave the selling. That would be better for you, if you only knew [62:9]

The above Holy Verse clearly instruct the believers that when they hear the call for the Salat (Azan), they must turn to the Zikr and leave the worldly engagements.

Allah-azwj has Emphasised the importance of Salat, to be safeguarded and regularly offered (e.g., Holy Verses; 2:238-239, 3:193, 4:43, 5:58) and Allah-azwj Asks us to pray at three times during the night and the day (before Fajr, after Midday and after darkness – 24:58).  Allah-azwj Explains in 4:102, how to offer congregational Salat during war. However, one cannot offer Salat properly from Holy Quran as Allah-azwj did not Reveal its explanations and details and left these to Rasool Allah-saww to describe and demonstrate Salat through his-saww traditions (Sunnah).

Similarly, we need to turn to the traditions of Rasool Allah-saww to better understand why there is so much emphasis on the Salat-e-Jummah that an exclusive Chapter (62) was revealed about it.  As a believer, the following questions need some clarifications:

  • Is Salat-e-Jummah in addition to the ‘Mid-day’ Salat or the ‘Mid-day’ salat is to be fully or partially replaced by it on Friday?
  • Who proclaims the ‘Call for the Salat’ (Azan) on Friday?
  • How many cycles (Rak’at) are in the Salat-e-Jummah?
  • Is ‘then hasten to the Zikr of Allah’ in congregations or to offer it, as and where one is?
  • Are there any prerequisites and/or exceptions for Salat-e-Jummah?

One, therefore, is compelled to look into the traditions of Rasool Allah-saww and the Holy Imams-asws – after him-saww, in order to fulfil the Divine Command as revealed in Sura-e-Jummah (62:9).

Prior to addressing the above questions, it will be beneficial to understand the interpretation of the Holy Verse (62:9), as explained by the 5th Imam-asws:

ختص، الإختصاص عَنْ جَابِرٍ الْجُعْفِيِّ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ ع‏ لِمَ سُمِّيَتْ يَوْمُ الْجُمُعَةِ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ قَالَ قُلْتُ تُخْبِرُنِي جَعَلَنِيَ اللَّهُ فِدَاكَ قَالَ أَ فَلَا أُخْبِرُكَ بِتَأْوِيلِهِ الْأَعْظَمِ قَالَ قُلْتُ بَلَى جَعَلَنِيَ اللَّهُ فِدَاكَ

(The book) ‘Al-Ikhtisas’, from Jabir Al Jufy who said,

‘Abu Ja’far-asws said: ‘O Jabir, why was the Jummah named as the day of Jummah?’ I said, ‘You-saww inform me, may Allah-azwj make me to be your-asws sacrifice.’ He-asws said: ‘Shall I-asws tell you it’s magnificent explanation?’ I said, ‘Yes, may Allah-azwj make me to be your-asws sacrifice.’

فَقَالَ يَا جَابِرُ سَمَّى اللَّهُ الْجُمُعَةَ جُمُعَةً لِأَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ جَمَعَ فِي ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ الْأَوَّلِينَ وَ الْآخِرِينَ وَ جَمِيعَ مَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ مِنَ الْجِنِّ وَ الْإِنْسِ وَ كُلَّ شَيْ‏ءٍ خَلَقَ رَبُّنَا وَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَ الْأَرَضِينَ وَ الْبِحَارَ وَ الْجَنَّةَ وَ النَّارَ وَ كُلَّ شَيْ‏ءٍ خَلَقَ اللَّهُ فِي الْمِيثَاقِ

He-asws said: ‘Allah-azwj has Named the Friday as Jummah because Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic Gathered (Jamm’a) in that day the former ones and the later ones, and Gathered what Allah-azwj had Created from the Jinn, and the Humans, and everything our Lord-azwj had Created, and the skies, and the earths, and the oceans, and the Paradise, and the Fire, and everything Allah-azwj had Created, for the Covenant.

فَأَخَذَ الْمِيثَاقَ مِنْهُمْ لَهُ بِالرُّبُوبِيَّةِ وَ لِمُحَمَّدٍ ص بِالنُّبُوَّةِ وَ لِعَلِيٍّ ع بِالْوَلَايَةِ وَ فِي ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ قَالَ اللَّهُ لِلسَّمَاوَاتِ‏ وَ الْأَرْضِ‏ ائْتِيا طَوْعاً أَوْ كَرْهاً قالَتا أَتَيْنا طائِعِينَ‏ فَسَمَّى اللَّهُ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةَ لِجَمْعِهِ فِيهِ الْأَوَّلِينَ وَ الْآخِرِينَ

He-azwj Took the covenant from them for His-azwj Lordship, and to Muhammad-saww for his-saww Prophet-hood, and to Ali-asws for his-asws Wilayah, and on that Day Allah-azwj Said to the Heavens and the earth: so He Said to it and to the earth: “Come, willingly or unwillingly!” They both said: ‘We come willingly’ [41:11]. Allah-azwj Named that day as ‘Al-Jummah’, because the former ones and the later ones had gathered therein.

ثُمَّ قَالَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَ‏ يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذا نُودِيَ لِلصَّلاةِ مِنْ يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ مِنْ يَوْمِكُمْ هَذَا الَّذِي جَمَعَكُمْ فِيهِ وَ الصَّلَاةُ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع يَعْنِي بِالصَّلَاةِ الْوَلَايَةَ وَ هِيَ الْوَلَايَةُ الْكُبْرَى فَفِي ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ أَتَتِ الرُّسُلُ وَ الْأَنْبِيَاءُ وَ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ خَلَقَ اللَّهُ وَ الثَّقَلَانِ الْجِنُّ وَ الْإِنْسُ وَ السَّمَاوَاتُ وَ الْأَرَضُونَ

Then the Mighty and Majestic Said: O you those who believe! When there is a call for the Salat on the day of Friday [62:9] – from your days in which you have gathered together. And ‘الصَّلَاةُ’ (the Salat) is the Amir Al-Momineen-asws, meaning by the ‘Salat’ as being the Wilayah’, and this is the great Wilayah, for during that day (they) were brought (together) the Rasools-as, and the Prophets-as, and the Angels, and everything Created by Allah-azwj, and the two races of the Jinn and the humans, and the skies and the earths, and the Momineen by their acceptance of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic.

وَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ بِالتَّلْبِيَةِ لِلَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فَامْضُوا إِلَى ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ‏ وَ ذِكْرُ اللَّهِ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ‏ وَ ذَرُوا الْبَيْعَ‏ يَعْنِي الْأَوَّلَ‏ ذلِكُمْ‏ يَعْنِي بَيْعَةَ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع وَ وَلَايَتَهُ‏ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ‏ مِنْ بَيْعَةِ الْأَوَّلِ وَ وَلَايَتِهِ‏ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

And the Momineen, with the Talbiyya of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic: so be determined (for) the Zikr of Allah [62:9], and the Zikr of Allah-azwj (Ali-asws) is better for you than the allegiance of the first one (Abu Bakr) and his wilayah, if you only knew [62:9].

فَإِذا قُضِيَتِ الصَّلاةُ يَعْنِي بَيْعَةَ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع‏ فَانْتَشِرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ‏ يَعْنِي بِالْأَرْضِ الْأَوْصِيَاءَ أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِطَاعَتِهِمْ وَ وَلَايَتِهِمْ كَمَا أَمَرَ بِطَاعَةِ الرَّسُولِ وَ طَاعَةِ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

But when you have accomplished the Salat – meaning the allegiance has been pledged to Amir Al-Momineen-asws, then disperse in the earthmeaning by the ‘earth’, the successors-asws. Allah-azwj Commanded with obeying them-asws, and their-asws Wilayah, just as He-azwj had Commanded with the obedience to the Rasool-saww, and obedience to Amir Al-Momineen-asws.

كَنَّى اللَّهُ فِي ذَلِكَ عَنْ أَسْمَائِهِمْ فَسَمَّاهُمْ بِالْأَرْضِ وَ ابْتَغُوا فَضْلَ اللَّهِ

Allah-azwj (Utilised) teknonyms about their-asws names regarding that, so He-azwj Named them-asws as the ‘earth’, and seek from the Grace of Allah [62:10].

قَالَ جَابِرٌ وَ ابْتَغُوا مِنْ فَضْلِ اللَّهِ‏ قَالَ تَحْرِيفٌ هَكَذَا نَزَلَتْ وَ ابْتَغُوا فَضْلَ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْأَوْصِيَاءِ وَ اذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَثِيراً لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

Jabir said, ‘and seek from the Grace of Allah [62:10]?’ He-asws said: ‘An alteration! This is how it was Revealed: and seek the Grace of Allah to be upon successors and remember Allah much, that you may be successful [62:10]’.

ثُمَّ خَاطَبَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فِي ذَلِكَ الْمَوْقِفِ مُحَمَّداً ص فَقَالَ يَا مُحَمَّدُ إِذا رَأَوْا الشُّكَّاكُ وَ الْجَاحِدُونَ‏ تِجارَةً يَعْنِي الْأَوَّلَ‏ أَوْ لَهْواً يَعْنِي الثَّانِيَ انْصَرَفُوا إِلَيْهَا قَالَ

Then Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic, in that position, Addresses Muhammad-saww, so He-azwj Said: And when they see [62:11] i.e., the doubters and the ungrateful ones, trade – meaning the first one (Abu Bakr) or sport – meaning the second one (Umar), they disperse to go to them’.

قُلْتُ‏ انْفَضُّوا إِلَيْها قَالَ تَحْرِيفٌ هَكَذَا نَزَلَتْ

‘I said, ‘(It is): they break (the Salat) to (go) to it [62:11]’. He-asws said: ‘An alteration. This is how it was Revealed!

وَ تَرَكُوكَ مَعَ عَلِيٍّ قَائِماً قُلْ يَا مُحَمَّدُ ما عِنْدَ اللَّهِ‏ مِنْ وَلَايَةِ عَلِيٍّ وَ الْأَوْصِيَاءِ خَيْرٌ مِنَ اللَّهْوِ وَ مِنَ التِّجارَةِ يَعْنِي بَيْعَةَ الْأَوَّلِ وَ الثَّانِي لِلَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا

And they leave you standing – with Ali-asws. Say: – O Muhammad-saww! ‘Whatever is in the Presence of Allah – from the Wilayah of Ali-asws and the successors-asws, is better than the sport and the trade – meaning the first one (Abu Bakr) and the second one (Umar), for those who are pious [62:11]’.

قَالَ قُلْتُ لَيْسَ فِيهَا لِلَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا

He (the narrator) said, ‘I said, ‘There aren’t (the Words): ‘For those who are pious’ in it?’

قَالَ فَقَالَ بَلَى هَكَذَا نَزَلَتْ وَ أَنْتُمْ هُمُ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا وَ اللَّهُ خَيْرُ الرَّازِقِينَ‏.

He (the narrator) said, ‘So he-asws said: ‘Yes, this is how the Verse was Revealed, and you (Shias), are those who are pious, and Allah is the best of the sustainers [62:11]’’.[5] [6]

Compulsory Salat in a Week are 35 (from one Friday to the next)

This means daily five salat times the seven day (35), so one must replace one of the compulsory Salat (i.e., Zohar Salat) in order to stay within the counting of the 35 compulsory salat – here with the following Hadith (from Al-Kafi), we answer the questions (1) & (4):

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ وَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ جَمِيعاً عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ فَرَضَ اللَّهُ عَلَى النَّاسِ مِنَ الْجُمُعَةِ إِلَى الْجُمُعَةِ خَمْساً وَ ثَلَاثِينَ صَلَاةً مِنْهَا صَلَاةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ فَرَضَهَا اللَّهُ فِي جَمَاعَةٍ وَ هِيَ الْجُمُعَةُ وَ وَضَعَهَا عَنْ تِسْعَةٍ عَنِ الصَّغِيرِ وَ الْكَبِيرِ وَ الْمَجْنُونِ وَ الْمُسَافِرِ وَ الْعَبْدِ وَ الْمَرْأَةِ وَ الْمَرِيضِ وَ الْأَعْمَى وَ مَنْ كَانَ عَلَى رَأْسِ فَرْسَخَيْنِ .

Muhammad Bin Ismail, from Al Fazl Bin Shazaan and Ali Bin Ibrahim, from his father, altogether from Hammad Bin Isa, from Hareyz, from Zurara, from;

Abu Ja’far-asws (5th Imam-asws) has said: ‘Allah-azwj Necessitated upon the people, from the Friday to the Friday, thirty-five (35) Salāts; from it is one Salāt which Allah-azwj Necessitated to be in a Jam’at, and it is the Friday (Salāt) and Dropped it from nine – (i) The young, and (ii) the old, and (iii) the insane, and (iv) the traveller, and (v) the slave, and (vi) the woman, and (vii) the sick, and (viii) the blind, and (iv) the one who was upon more than two Farsakhs (six miles)’.[7]

From the above Hadith, it is clear that the Salat-e-Jumah is compulsory when its conditions  are fulfiled and it will replace the Zohar Salat on Friday.  The nine people as well as those who live outside six miles distance of congregation Salat on Friday are exempt from its mandatory attendance.  Hence Salat-e-Jummah is compulsory for everyone but with some exclusions – the next question arises is: Are there any other exclusions or only the nine (as in above Hadith) plus the 6 miles distance from where is Azan is called, are the only ones?  Let’s review first those conditions in which Salat-e-Jummah, under congregations (Jamat) becomes compulsory.

Mandatory Salat-e-Jummah Conditions:

Below we look at one of the main conditions of the validity of the holding (the Jumah Salat in congregations) – is the presence of the Just Imam-asws – who orders to call people to pray Salat-e-Jumah!  If we consider that it will be an imam who is leading the Friday Prayer and he has to be just, then in some places where just imams are calling and leading the Salat-e-Jumah – it will be valid – whereas at other places it will be invalid!  This addresses our question (2).

The above will make the Salat-e-Jumah’s status similar to other Salat offered in the Masajid (Mosques) – which certainly is not the case!  These points need further clarifications – we will try to understand in the following section.

Presence of the Just Imam-asws is Mandatory:

وَ عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ ص أَنَّهُ قَالَ: لَا جُمُعَةَ إِلَّا مَعَ‏ إِمَامٍ‏ عَدْلٍ‏ تَقِيٍ‏.

Jaffar Bin Muhammad-asws said: There is no Jummah, but with Just and Taqi (pious) Imam-asws.[8]

وَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ ع أَنَّهُ قَالَ: تَجِبُ‏ الْجُمُعَةُ عَلَى‏ مَنْ‏ كَانَ‏ مِنْهَا عَلَى‏ فَرْسَخَيْنِ‏ إِذَا كَانَ‏ الْإِمَامُ‏ عَدْلًا.

Abi Jafar Muhammad-asws Bin Ali-asws said: It is compulsory to offer Jumah for those who are within Two Farsakhs[9] (distance) from the Just Imam-asws.[10] – Here we answer the 5th question.

Who is the Just Imam?

In the Hadith below we see the conditions of the establishing the ‘Hukam’[11], ‘Hadood’ and ‘Jumah’ are the same – the presence of a Just Imam-asws!!

عَنْ عَلِيٍّ ع أَنَّهُ قَالَ: لَا يَصْلُحُ‏ الْحُكْمُ‏ وَ لَا الْحُدُودُ وَ لَا الْجُمُعَةُ إِلَّا بِإِمَامٍ‏ عَدْل‏

Ali-asws said:  There is no correct judgement, no penalties and no Jumah (Friday Prayer) but with a Just Imam-asws.[12]

Therefore, since the ‘Hukam’ (of Divine Justice) cannot be executed neither the ‘Hadood’ (Islamic Punishments) as all the governments in the world are un-Islamic and unjust;  hence the Salat-e-Jumah cannot be held until the establishment of the Justice.  It will prevail, Insha Allah, after the reappearance of the 12th Imam-ajfj.

Further Ahadith on the recognition of the Just Imam-asws are included in the Appendix IV.  Some historical accounts on Salat e Jumah are given in Appendix V.

Salat-e-Jumah has two Rak’at and Sermon of the Imam-asws is equal to two Rak’at:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَقَالَ بِأَذَانٍ وَ إِقَامَةٍ يَخْرُجُ الْإِمَامُ بَعْدَ الْأَذَانِ فَيَصْعَدُ الْمِنْبَرَ وَ يَخْطُبُ لَا يُصَلِّي النَّاسُ مَا دَامَ الْإِمَامُ عَلَى الْمِنْبَرِ ثُمَّ يَقْعُدُ الْإِمَامُ عَلَى الْمِنْبَرِ قَدْرَ مَا يَقْرَأُ قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ ثُمَّ يَقُومُ فَيَفْتَتِحُ خُطْبَتَهُ ثُمَّ يَنْزِلُ فَيُصَلِّي بِالنَّاسِ ثُمَّ يَقْرَأُ بِهِمْ فِي الرَّكْعَةِ الْأُولَى بِالْجُمُعَةِ وَ فِي الثَّانِيَةِ بِالْمُنَافِقِينَ.

Ali Bin Ibrahim, from his father, from Hammad Bin Isa, from Hareyz, from Muhammad Bin Muslim who said,

‘I asked him-asws about the Friday (Salāt). So he-asws said: ‘By an Azan and an Iqamah. The prayer leader would come out after the Azan, so he would ascend the pulpit and address. The people should not pray Salāt for as long as the prayer leader is upon the pulpit. Then the prayer leader should sit upon the pulpit for a measurement of what it takes to recite [112:1] Say He Allah is One (Chapter 112). Then he should be standing, so he should open his sermon, then descend. So he should pray Salāt with the people (leading them), then recite with them in the first Rak’at with the (Surah) Al-Jummah (Chapter 62), and in the second (Rak’at) with the (Surah) Al-Munafiqeen (Chapter 63)’.[13]

APPENDIX I: Jumah (Friday) Recommendations

Cutting nails and moustaches on Friday:

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُصَيْنِ عَنْ عُمَرَ الْجُرْجَانِيِّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْعَلَاءِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ مَنْ أَخَذَ مِنْ شَارِبِهِ وَ قَلَّمَ مِنْ أَظْفَارِهِ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ ثُمَّ قَالَ.

Muhammad Bin Yahya, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad, from Al Husayn Bin Saeed, from Muhammad Bin Al Husayn, from Umar Al Jurjany, from Muhammad Bin Al A’ala,

(It has been narrated) from Abu Abdullah-asws, said, ‘I heard him-asws saying: ‘The one who takes (trims) from his moustache and clips from his nails on the day of Friday, then says,

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ عَلَى سُنَّةِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ

‘In the Name of Allah-azwj, upon the Sunnah of Muhammad-saww and the Progeny-asws of Muhammad-saww’,

كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَهُ بِكُلِّ شَعْرَةٍ وَ كُلِّ قُلَامَةٍ عِتْقَ رَقَبَةٍ وَ لَمْ يَمْرَضْ مَرَضاً يُصِيبُهُ إِلَّا مَرَضَ الْمَوْتِ

Allah-azwj would Write for him, with every hair and every clipping, (the Rewards of) a freeing of a neck, and he would not become sick with a sickness except for the sickness of death’.[14]

Taking Bath/shower is mandatory on Friday:

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ مَنْصُورِ بْنِ حَازِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ الْغُسْلُ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ عَلَى الرِّجَالِ وَ النِّسَاءِ فِي الْحَضَرِ وَ عَلَى الرِّجَالِ فِي السَّفَرِ .

Muhammad Bin Yahya, from Muhammad Bin Al Husayn, from Safwan Bin Yahya, from Mansour Bin Hazim,

(It has been narrated) from Abu Abdullah-asws having said: ‘Both men and women should take a shower/bath on Friday when at home.  If travelling, men should take a shower’.[15]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ ( عليه السلام ) لَا تَدَعِ الْغُسْلَ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ فَإِنَّهُ سُنَّةٌ وَ شَمَّ الطِّيبَ وَ الْبَسْ صَالِحَ ثِيَابِكَ وَ لْيَكُنْ فَرَاغُكَ مِنَ الْغُسْلِ قَبْلَ الزَّوَالِ فَإِذَا زَالَتْ فَقُمْ وَ عَلَيْكَ السَّكِينَةَ وَ الْوَقَارَ وَ قَالَ الْغُسْلُ وَاجِبٌ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ .

Ali Bin Ibrahim, from his father, from Hammad Bin Isa, from Hareyz, from Zurara who said,

‘Abu Ja’far-asws said: ‘Do not neglect the washing (shower) on the day of Friday, for it is a Sunnah, and wear the perfume, and wear the best of your clothes, and let you take the shower before the midday. So when it is midday, stand, and upon you should be the tranquillity and the dignity’. And he-asws said: ‘The shower is Obligatory on the day of Friday’.[16]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ جَمِيعاً عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ وَ الْفُضَيْلِ قَالَا قُلْنَا لَهُ أَ يُجْزِئُ إِذَا اغْتَسَلْتُ بَعْدَ الْفَجْرِ لِلْجُمُعَةِ قَالَ نَعَمْ .

Ali Bin Ibrahim, from his father, and Muhammad Bin Ismail, from Al Fazl Bin Shazaan, altogether from Hammad Bin Isa, from Hareyz, from Zurara and Al Fuzayl who both said,

‘We both said to him-asws, ‘Would it suffice if the washing for the Friday is done after the dawn?’ He-asws said: ‘Yes’.[17]

Reciting Salawat:

وَ قَالَ يَا عُمَرُ إِنَّ مِنَ السُّنَّةِ أَنْ تُصَلِّيَ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ عَلَى أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ فِي كُلِّ يَوْمِ جُمُعَةٍ أَلْفَ مَرَّةٍ وَ فِي سَائِرِ الْأَيَّامِ مِائَةَ مَرَّةٍ .

And Imam--asws said: ‘O Umaro! It is from the Sunnah that you should send Salawat upon Muhammad–saww and upon the People–asws of his--saww Household during every Friday, a thousand times; and in the rest of the days, one hundred times.[18]

APPENDIX II: Congregational Salat on Eidain (الفطر والاضحى)

وَ رَوَى زُرَارَةُ بْنُ أَعْيَنَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ: لَا صَلَاةَ يَوْمَ‏ الْفِطْرِ وَ الْأَضْحَى إِلَّا مَعَ إِمَامٍ عَادِلٍ.

Zrara Bin Ain narrates from Imam Abu Jafar -asws that Imam-asws says:” There are neither Salat on the Day of Al-Fitar nor on Al-Azha except in the presence of a Just Imam-asws.[19]

الصَّدُوقُ فِي الْمُقْنِعِ‏،” اعْلَمْ‏ أَنَ‏ صَلَاةَ الْعِيدَيْنِ‏ رَكْعَتَانِ‏ فِي الْفِطْرِ وَ الْأَضْحَى لَيْسَ قَبْلَهُمَا وَ لَا بَعْدَهُمَا شَيْ‏ءٌ وَ لَا يُصَلَّيَا إِلَّا مَعَ إِمَامٍ فِي جَمَاعَةٍ وَ مَنْ لَمْ يُدْرِكْ مَعَ الْإِمَامِ فِي جَمَاعَةٍ فَلَا صَلَاةَ لَهُ وَ لَا قَضَاءَ عَلَيْهِ.

It is narrated that the feast Salat is two rak’ah, regardless of Eid-ul- Fitr or Eid-ul-Azha, which should not be offered except in the presence of a Just Imam-asws and in a group, however, those who cannot join in, they are under no obligation to offer.[20]

دَعَائِمُ الْإِسْلَامِ، عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ ع‏: أَنَّهُ سُئِلَ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ‏ لَا يَشْهَدُ الْعِيدَ هَلْ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يُصَلِّيَ فِي بَيْتِهِ قَالَ نَعَمْ وَ لَا صَلَاةَ إِلَّا مَعَ‏ إِمَامٍ‏ عَدْلٍ‏.

Imam Jafar-asws bin Muhammad-asws was asked: What about a person who has not observed the Al-Eid but rather prays in his house? Imam-asws replied:  yes, there is no Salat except with a Just Imam-asws.[21]

وَ عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ ص‏ أَنَّهُ سُئِلَ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ الَّذِي لَا يَشْهَدُ الْعِيدَ هَلْ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يُصَلِّيَ فِي بَيْتِهِ قَالَ نَعَمْ‏ وَ لَا صَلَاةَ إِلَّا مَعَ‏ إِمَامٍ‏ عَدْلٍ‏ وَ مَنْ لَمْ يَشْهَدِ الْعِيدَ مِنْ رَجُلٍ أَوِ امْرَأَةٍ صَلَّى أَرْبَعَ رَكَعَاتٍ فِي بَيْتِهِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ لِلْعِيدِ وَ رَكْعَتَيْنِ لِلْخُطْبَةِ وَ كَذَلِكَ مَنْ لَمْ يَشْهَدِ الْعِيدَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْبَوَادِي يُصَلُّونَ لِأَنْفُسِهِمْ أَرْبَعاً.

Imam Jafar Bin Muhammad-asws was asked about the person who he does not witness the Eid, can he offer Salat at home?  Imam-asws replied: yes but there is no congressional Salat except with a Just Imam-asws.  And who did not witness from a man or a woman he prayed four rak’ah out of which two are for the Eid and two for the Khutbah and (similarly) there are four rak’ah for those people who reside in countryside/desert.[22]

Also, Imam-asws says: Our-asws grief resurfaces on the Eid day when we see our-asws rights have been usurped.

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ دِينَارٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ قَالَ: يَا عَبْدَ اللَّهِ مَا مِنْ عِيدٍ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ- أَضْحًى وَ لَا فِطْرٍ إِلَّا وَ هُوَ يُجَدِّدُ لآِلِ مُحَمَّدٍ فِيهِ حُزْناً قُلْتُ وَ لِمَ ذَاكَ قَالَ لِأَنَّهُمْ‏ يَرَوْنَ‏ حَقَّهُمْ‏ فِي‏ يَدِ غَيْرِهِمْ‏.

Imam Abu Jafar-asws  said: O! Abdullah, either it is Eid-ul-Azha or Eid-ul-Fitr of Muslims, it should refresh the grief and sufferings of Ahlul Bait-asws (Abdullah asked), how it is?  Imam-asws replied: Because it makes one realise that our Divine rights have been usurped by our enemies. [23]


ع، علل الشرائع الطَّالَقَانِيُّ عَنِ الْجَلُودِيِّ عَنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ رَجَاءِ بْنِ سَلَمَةَ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شِمْرٍ عَنْ جَابِرٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ: قُلْتُ لِأَيِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ يُحْتَاجُ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ وَ الْإِمَامِ

(The book) ‘Illal Al Sharaie’ – Al Talaqany, from Al Jaloudy, from Al Mugheira Bin Muhammad, from Raja’a Bin Salama, from Amro Bin Shimr, from Jabir,

‘From Abu Ja’far-asws, he (the narrator) said, ‘I said, ‘For which thing (reason) is one need to the Prophet-saww and the Imam-asws?’

فَقَالَ لِبَقَاءِ الْعَالَمِ عَلَى صَلَاحِهِ وَ ذَلِكَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ يَرْفَعُ الْعَذَابَ عَنْ أَهْلِ الْأَرْضِ إِذَا كَانَ فِيهَا نَبِيٌّ أَوْ إِمَامٌ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَ‏ وَ ما كانَ اللَّهُ لِيُعَذِّبَهُمْ وَ أَنْتَ فِيهِمْ‏

He-asws said: ‘For the remaining of the world upon its correctness, and that is because Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic Raised the Punishment from the people of the earth when there was a Prophet-as or an Imam-asws in it. Allah-saww Mighty and Majestic Said: And Allah was not going to Punish them while you were among them, [8:33].

وَ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ ص النُّجُومُ أَمَانٌ لِأَهْلِ السَّمَاءِ وَ أَهْلُ بَيْتِي أَمَانٌ لِأَهْلِ الْأَرْضِ فَإِذَا ذَهَبَتِ النُّجُومُ أَتَى أَهْلَ السَّمَاءِ مَا يَكْرَهُونَ وَ إِذَا ذَهَبَ أَهْلُ بَيْتِي أَتَى أَهْلَ الْأَرْضِ مَا يَكْرَهُونَ

And the Prophet-saww said: ‘The stars are a security for the inhabitants of the sky, and the People-asws of my-saww Household are a security for the inhabitants of the earth. So, whenever the stars disappears there comes to the inhabitants of the sky what they dislike, and when the People-asws of my-saww Household go away, there comes to the inhabitants of the earth what they dislike.

يَعْنِي بِأَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ الْأَئِمَّةَ الَّذِينَ قَرَنَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ طَاعَتَهُمْ بِطَاعَتِهِ فَقَالَ‏ يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَ أَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ‏ وَ هُمُ الْمَعْصُومُونَ الْمُطَهَّرُونَ الَّذِينَ لَا يُذْنِبُونَ وَ لَا يَعْصُونَ وَ هُمُ الْمُؤَيَّدُونَ الْمُوَفَّقُونَ الْمُسَدَّدُونَ

It means, by the People-asws of his-saww Household, those Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic has Paired their-asws obedience to His-azwj obedience, so He-azwj Said: O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Rasool and those with (Divine) Authority from you. [4:59], and they-asws are the infallibles, the Purified ones, those who are not committing sins and are not disobeying, and they-asws are the Aided, the Harmonised, the Guided.

بِهِمْ يَرْزُقُ اللَّهُ عِبَادَهُ وَ بِهِمْ يَعْمَرُ بِلَادَهُ وَ بِهِمْ يُنْزِلُ الْقَطْرَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَ بِهِمْ تُخْرَجُ بَرَكَاتُ الْأَرْضِ وَ بِهِمْ يُمْهِلُ أَهْلَ الْمَعَاصِي وَ لَا يُعَجِّلُ عَلَيْهِمْ بِالْعُقُوبَةِ وَ الْعَذَابِ لَا يُفَارِقُهُمْ رُوحُ الْقُدُسِ وَ لَا يُفَارِقُونَهُ وَ لَا يُفَارِقُونَ الْقُرْآنَ وَ لَا يُفَارِقُهُمْ صَلَوَاتُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِمْ أَجْمَعِين.

Due to them Allah-azwj Sustains His-azwj servants, and due to them He-azwj Builds His-azwj country, and due to them the drops descend from the sky, and due to them the Blessings of the earth emerge, and due to them-asws the disobedient people are given respite and they are not being hastened with the scourge and the Punishment upon them. The Holy Spirit does not separate from them-asws and they-asws do not separate from it, nor are they separating from the Quran nor does it separated from them-asws, may the Salawat of Allah-azwj be upon them-asws all’’.[24]

APPENDIX IV: Who is the Just-Imam-asws (IMAM-E-AADIL-asws)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَآمِنُوا بِرَسُولِهِ يُؤْتِكُمْ كِفْلَيْنِ مِنْ رَحْمَتِهِ وَيَجْعَلْ لَكُمْ نُورًا تَمْشُونَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {28}

O you who believe! Fear Allah and believe in His Rasool, He will Give you two portions from His Mercy and He would Make a Light to be for you to be walking with, and He would Forgive (your sins) for you, and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful [57:28] 

عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام في قوله عزوجل: ” يؤتكم كفلين من رحمته ” قال: الحسن والحسين عليهما السلام ” ويجعل لكم نورا تمشون به ” قال: إمام عدل تأتمون به، وهو علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام

وَ قَالَ أَيْضاً حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ مَيْمُونٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ عَنْ جَابِرٍ الْجُعْفِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع‏ فِي قَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَ‏ يُؤْتِكُمْ‏ كِفْلَيْنِ‏ مِنْ‏ رَحْمَتِهِ‏ قَالَ الْحَسَنُ وَ الْحُسَيْنُ‏ وَ يَجْعَلْ لَكُمْ نُوراً تَمْشُونَ بِهِ‏ قَالَ إِمَامُ عَدْلٍ تَأْتَمُّونَ بِهِ وَ هُوَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ ع.

And he also said, Ali bin Abdullah, on the authority of Ibrahim bin Muhammad, on the authority of Ibrahim bin Maymun, on the authority of Ibn Jafi Ibn Abi Ali:

Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws said, while explaining the above Verse, Allah-azwj Glorified and Exalted means by saying “He gives you two shares of its mercy” Al-Hassan-asws and Al-Hussain-asws and Says “will appoint for you a light wherein ye shall walk”. He-asws refers to the ‘إِمَامُ عَدْلٍ(Justice Imam) which should be followed, who is Ali-asws Ibn Abi Talib-asws.[25]

لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ خَيْرٌ مِنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ{397:}

The Night of Pre-determination is better than a thousand months [97:3]

أَقُولُ وَ رَوَى الشَّيْخُ شَرَفُ الدِّينِ رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ فِي كِتَابِ تَأْوِيلِ الْآيَاتِ الْبَاهِرَةِ بِإِسْنَادِهِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جُمْهُورٍ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ: قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَ‏ خَيْرٌ مِنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ هُوَ سُلْطَانُ بَنِي أُمَيَّةَ وَ قَالَ لَيْلَةٌ مِنْ‏ إِمَامٍ‏ عَدْلٍ‏ خَيْرٌ مِنْ‏ أَلْفِ‏ شَهْرٍ مِنْ‏ مُلْكِ‏ بَنِي‏ أُمَيَّةَ

I say and narrated that Sheikh Sharf al-Din, may God have mercy on him, in the book of interpretation of the glorious verses with its chain of transmission on the authority of Muhammad Ibn Muhammad

About Abi Abdullah-asws explained the above Verse as: Allah-azwj, Glorified and Exalted, says “Better than one thousand months” Refers to the reign of bani-Umayya, and Implies that a night of Just Imam-asws is certainly better than one thousand months reign of bani-Umayya.[26]

اللَّهُ وَلِيُّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يُخْرِجُهُمْ مِنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ …{2572:}

Allah is the Guardian of those who believe. He Extracts them from the (multitude of) darkness into the Light; ….[2:257]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَبْدِيِّ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي يَعْفُورٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) إِنِّي أُخَالِطُ النَّاسَ فَيَكْثُرُ عَجَبِي مِنْ أَقْوَامٍ لَا يَتَوَلَّوْنَكُمْ وَ يَتَوَلَّوْنَ فُلَاناً وَ فُلَاناً لَهُمْ أَمَانَةٌ وَ صِدْقٌ وَ وَفَاءٌ وَ أَقْوَامٌ يَتَوَلَّوْنَكُمْ لَيْسَ لَهُمْ تِلْكَ الْأَمَانَةُ وَ لَا الْوَفَاءُ وَ الصِّدْقُ

A number of our companions, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Isa, from Ibn Mahboub, from Abdul Aziz Al Abady, from Abdullah Bin Abu Yafour who said,

‘I said to Abu Abdullah-asws, ‘I tend to mingle with the people, and I am frequently astounded from the people who are not in the guardianship (Wilayah) of you-asws all (Imams-asws) and are in the guardianship of so and so, and so and so. For them is trustworthiness, and truthfulness, and loyalty. And there are a people who are in your-asws guardianship (Wilayah), there isn’t that trustworthiness for them, nor the loyalty and the truthfulness’.

قَالَ فَاسْتَوَى أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) جَالِساً فَأَقْبَلَ عَلَيَّ كَالْغَضْبَانِ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَا دِينَ لِمَنْ دَانَ اللَّهَ بِوَلَايَةِ إِمَامٍ جَائِرٍ لَيْسَ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَ لَا عَتْبَ عَلَى مَنْ دَانَ بِوَلَايَةِ إِمَامٍ عَادِلٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ

He (the narrator) said, ‘Abu Abdullah-asws sat upright and turned towards me as if angered, then said: ‘There is no Religion for the one who makes it a Religion by the guardianship of a tyrannous imam (leader) who isn’t from Allah-azwj, nor is there any blame upon the one who makes it a Religion by the Wilayah of a Just Imam-asws from Allah-azwj’.

قُلْتُ لَا دِينَ لِأُولَئِكَ وَ لَا عَتْبَ عَلَى هَؤُلَاءِ قَالَ نَعَمْ لَا دِينَ لِأُولَئِكَ وَ لَا عَتْبَ عَلَى هَؤُلَاءِ

I said, ‘There is no Religion for those ones and there is no blame upon these ones?’ He-asws said: ‘Yes! There is no Religion for those ones and there is no blame upon these ones’.

ثُمَّ قَالَ أَ لَا تَسْمَعُ لِقَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ اللَّهُ وَلِيُّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يُخْرِجُهُمْ مِنَ الظُّلُماتِ إِلَى النُّورِ يَعْنِي مِنْ ظُلُمَاتِ الذُّنُوبِ إِلَى نُورِ التَّوْبَةِ وَ الْمَغْفِرَةِ لِوَلَايَتِهِمْ كُلَّ إِمَامٍ عَادِلٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَ قَالَ وَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَوْلِياؤُهُمُ الطَّاغُوتُ يُخْرِجُونَهُمْ مِنَ النُّورِ إِلَى الظُّلُماتِ إِنَّمَا عَنَى بِهَذَا أَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا عَلَى نُورِ الْإِسْلَامِ فَلَمَّا أَنْ تَوَلَّوْا كُلَّ إِمَامٍ جَائِرٍ لَيْسَ مِنَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ خَرَجُوا بِوَلَايَتِهِمْ إِيَّاهُ مِنْ نُورِ الْإِسْلَامِ إِلَى ظُلُمَاتِ الْكُفْرِ فَأَوْجَبَ اللَّهُ لَهُمُ النَّارَ مَعَ الْكُفَّارِ فَ أُولئِكَ أَصْحابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيها خالِدُونَ .

Then he-asws said: ‘Have you not listened to the Words of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic [2:257] Allah is the Guardian of those who believe. He Extracts them from the darkness into the Light? It Means, from the darkness of the sins to the light of the repentance and the Forgiveness, due to their Wilayah for every just Imam-asws from Allah-azwj.

And He-azwj Said [2:257] and (as to) those who disbelieve, their guardians are tyrants who extract them from the Light into the darkness. But rather it Means by this that they were upon the light of Al-Islam. So when they took as guardians every tyrannical imam (leader) who wasn’t from Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic, they exited from the light of Al-Islam due to their befriending them, to the darkness of the disbelief. Thus, Allah-azwj Obligated the Fire for them along with the disbelievers [2:257] these are the inmates of the Fire, in it they shall be abiding’.[27]

وَجَعَلْنَا مِنْهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا لَمَّا صَبَرُوا ۖ وَكَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا يُوقِنُونَ {2432:}

And We Made Imams from them, guiding by Our Command, due to their being patient, and they were certain of Our Signs [32:24]

حَدَّثَنَا حُمَيْدُ بْنُ زِيَادٍ قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ طَلْحَةَ بْنِ زَيْدٍ عَنْ  جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ ع قَالَ‏ الْأَئِمَّةُ فِي‏ كِتَابِ‏ اللَّهِ‏ إِمَامَانِ‏ إِمَامٌ‏ عَدْلٌ‏ وَ إِمَامٌ جَوْرٌ- قَالَ اللَّهُ «وَ جَعَلْنا مِنْهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنا»

Hameed bin Ziyad told us, he said: Muhammad ibn al-Husayn told us about Muhammad ibn Yahya from Talah bin Zaid

Imam Jafar Bin Muhammad-asws refers to his-asws father-asws  that he-asws said Allah-azwj refers to Just-asws and unjust Imams in His-azwj Book and for Just Imam, Allah-azwj Says: “We made of them Imams to guide by Our command”.[28]

وَأَقِيمُوا الْوَزْنَ بِالْقِسْطِ وَلَا تُخْسِرُوا الْمِيزَانَ {9}

And establish the weight with the fairness and do not be deficient regarding the Scale [55:9]

وَ أَقِيمُوا الْوَزْنَ بِالْقِسْطِ قَالَ أَقِيمُوا الْإِمَامَ‏ الْعَدْل‏

On the explanation of the above Verse: And keep up the balance with equity ” Imam-asws says: establish (deeds) with the Imam Al-Aadil-asws (Just Imam). [29]

APPENDIX V: Historical Facts on Jummah Salat:

We brief present finding of independent historian and researches on development of early Shiism.

An Extract from The Divine Guide in Early Shiism.[30]

As far as “applicable branches” are concerned, transactions (mu’amalat) in Imamite law are with very few exceptions identical to those in Sunni schools of law.[31]  Problems become thornier when we get into the field of duties regarding worship (‘ibadat) and precepts (ahkam); here, even in Imamism, scholars have long debated certain points. Let us begin with duties regarding worship, divided into prayer (both individual and collective), fasting, the religious “taxes,” pilgrimage, jihad (in the sense of “holy war”), and ordering what is good and forbidding what is evil.

From what can be gleaned from the notes of Aqa Bozorg al-Tihraru in his al-Dharia, a colossal collection of Shiite works, fierce debates were waged on the practice of two of these, collective prayer and holy war. In essence, what characterizes these two is their need for a “leader” or a “guide” to be practiced appropriately. We know that in Imamism this “leader” can only be the Imam-asws himself, or someone designated by him-asws. According to the early corpus of the imams, the collective prayer of the two feasts of the Sacrifice at the end of the month of Ramazan are specifically declared as impossible to perform in the absence of the Imam-asws or his delegate.[32]

On the other hand, since the leaders of the Imamite collective prayer on Fridays were named by the imams, once the Imam-asws is absent, it appeared as though the Friday prayer could no longer be practised, or that it was at least suspended” (mutawaqqif al-ijra) until the Return of the Mahdi-ajfj and his designating new leaders for prayer.

This situation prevailed throughout the pre-Safavid period, since at the beginning of the Safavid dynasty (circa 927/1520 to 1009/1600) nearly a hundred books or treatises were written to justify the legal status of Friday prayer.[33] The composition of these books was linked to the religious politics of the Safavids, specifically to attempts at setting up another Islamic “pole” in the face of the Ottoman Empire, on the one hand, and the “ideologization” of Imamism, on the other.

We find ourselves facing the same phenomenon when it comes to the holy war. With the arrival of the Safavids, a number of polemical works were composed to prove the legal or illegal status of jihad in the absence of the imam.[34] A solution was finally reached through compromise, and the doctor-theologians distinguished between two different holy wars: the offensive jihad, declared to be “suspended” during the period of Occultation, and the defensive, legal jihad, which may be obligatory in the case of an attack from outside. The polemics and the juridical-theological debates in the Safavid and post-Safavid periods show that the question was still moot until relatively recently, when Iranian leader Agha Khumani went along with offensive Jihad.

An Extract from Roots of North Indian Shiism[35]:

In the Indian sub-continent, Friday prayers were not offered until late 18th Century, as written by historian J.R. Cole. The first establishment of Friday prayers in 1786 helped provoke a crisis in India.  Prior to 1786, shias were only holding informal mourning sessions for the Imams, without any community disagreement on religious aspects.  The first seed of contention was sowed when Friday congregation prayers were held at Hasan Riza Khan’s palace.  This also created tension between Shias and those Sunni Sufis who did not believe in Jummah prayers to be valid under non-Islamic rule.  The appointment of an Usuli prayer leader proved divisive, since to pray behind him implied acceptance of his spiritual leadership. The Sufis held meditation sessions, with dancing and singing, on Fridays in the same hall where some Shi’is were offering Friday prayers in congregation.

An Extract from Newman,[36]:

Thus at least by early in the second Safawid century (d. 1040/1634), rationalist scholars were employing the term al-jimi’ li’l-sharct’ir al-iftct-used, for all practical purposes, virtually interchangeably with such terms as na’ih ‘Imam, fuqih, and ul-hakim al-shar’i explicitly to refer not only to the individual who had attained expertise in the rationalist religious sciences to practise ijtihad and who consequently possessed jurisprudential authority within the community, but also to the individual who possessed authority in such other areas of affairs of import to the daily life of the community in the occultation as the implementation of Al-hudid, the performance of Friday prayer and the collection and distribution of al-zakat and al-khums. Indeed, certainly by this time, the two were seen as one and the same. Expertise in the jurisprudential went hand-in-hand with authority in the practical.

[1] During the life of Rasool Allahsaww, and during the Caliphat of Aliasws Ibn Abi Talibasws

[2] دعائم الإسلام، ج‏1، ص: 182, بحار الأنوار (ط – بيروت)، ج‏86، ص: 256, مستدرك الوسائل و مستنبط المسائل، ج‏6، ص: 13,

[3] Manlayazahoor ul Faqi Vol-1 H. 1456

[4] Bihar-ul-Anwar, vol. 7, pp. 7 (Haqaiq-ul-wasait, pp. 245).

[5] Bihar Al Anwaar – V 23, The book of Imamate, P 1 Ch 67 H 126

[6]  Bihar Vol-24.Page-399, Vol-86.Page-277, Vol-89 Page-63,Aliqtasas Page-128,Fiq-e-Alquran V0l-1.Page-131,Gayat Almaarm(syed hashim bahrani)Vol-4.Page-231,Markaz Al-Mustafah.Page-128

(Sunni Ref:)- Al-Mauta(imam-e-malik)Vol-1.Page-106,Tanveer ul Alhawalak(jalaluddin suyuti) Page-127,Alistaskar(ibne AbdulBar)Vol-2.Page-35,Tafseer Alquran(abdul raziq alsinani)Vol-3.Page-291,Jame ul bayan(ibne jarir al-tbri)Vol-28.Page-127/129,fahrist ibne bagdadi(ibne nadeem bagdadi)Page-34,Al waif bilwafiyath(al safdi)Vol-2 Page-29,Al-bukari.vol-6.Page-63,kitab ul masnad(imam shafai) page 50, Tafseer e Qummi Vol-2.page-367,Tafseer e Safi v-5.p-174,AlBurhan v-5.p-334,Majmaul bayan v-5.p-525

[7] Al Kafi V 3 – The Book of Salāt CH 68 H 6

[8] مستدرك الوسائل و مستنبط المسائل، ج‏6، ص: 13, دعائم الإسلام، ج‏1، ص: 182, بحار الأنوار (ط – بيروت)، ج‏86، ص: 256

[9] One Farsakh is equal to 3 miles.

[10] دعائم الإسلام، ج‏1، ص: 181, بحار الأنوار (ط – بيروت)، ج‏86، ص: 255

[11] Divine Law and Punishment which can only be valid under the leadership of a Divine Messenger.

[12] دعائم الإسلام، ج‏1، ص: 182, بحار الأنوار (ط – بيروت)، ج‏86، ص: 256, مستدرك الوسائل و مستنبط المسائل، ج‏6، ص: 13,

[13] Al Kafi V 3 – The Book of Salāt CH 70 H 7

[14] Al Kafi V 3 – The Book of Salāt CH 67 H 2

[15] Al Kafi V 3 – The Book of Salāt CH 67 H 3

[16] Al Kafi V 3 – The Book of Salāt CH 67 H 4

[17] Al Kafi V 3 – The Book of Salāt CH 67 H 8

[18] Al Kafi V 3 – The Book of Salāt CH 66 H 13

[19] Manlayazahoor ul Faqi Vol-1 H. 1456

[20] مستدرك الوسائل و مستنبط المسائل، ج‏6، ص: 122, H. 6590, Mustadrak ul Wasail     Vol-6 Page-122

[21] مستدرك الوسائل و مستنبط المسائل، ج‏6، ص: 122, H. 6589- , Mustadrak ul Wasail  Vol-6 Page-122

[22] دعائم الإسلام، ج‏1، ص: 186 Mustadrak ul Wasail  Vol-6 Page-144. 5) Bihar Vol-87 Page-375. 6) Daimul Islam Vol-1 Page-186

[23] الكافي (ط – الإسلامية)، ج‏4، ص: 170, Al-Kafi                          Vol-4 Page-170

[24] Bihar Al Anwaar – V 23, The book of Imamate, P 1 Ch 1 H 14

[25] Taveel ul Ayath Page-643, تأويل الآيات الظاهرة في فضائل العترة الطاهرة، ص: 643

[26] بحار الأنوار (ط – بيروت)، ج‏25، ص:  96 , Taveel ul Ayath Page-791

[27] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 86 H 3

[28] Tafseer e Qummi Vol-2.Page-171, تفسير القمي، ج‏2، ص: 171

[29] Tafseer e Qummi Vol-2.Page-343, بحار الأنوار (ط – بيروت)، ج‏16، ص: 88

[30] The Sources of Esotericism in Islam, by Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi, translated by David Streight

[31] 701. On these points of divergence (e.g., temporary marriage, conditions of inheritance, repudiation) see Y. Linant de Bellefonds, “Le droit imamite,” Le shf’isme imilmite, especially pp. 192-99

[32] 702. Cf. .Ibn Babfiye, Kitab aljaqfh, vol. 1, chap. 79, p. 332. AI-Ash’ari (d. 324/935) emphasizes the existence of this for Imamites, cf. Maqdlat al-islamiyyin, ed.              ‘Abd al-l:Iamid, p. 130.

[33] 703. See Aq1i Bozorg aI-Tihr1ini, a/-Dharf’a, vol. 15, pp. 62-82.

[34] 704. Aq1i Bozorg aI-Tihriini, al-Dharf’a, vol. 5, pp. 296-98; on this subject, see

  1. Kohlberg, “The Development of the Im1imi-Shi’i Doctrine of jihad,” ZDMG, 126, 1976. In the same regard, the treatise entitled a/-Risdlat al-jihadiyya by Md Karim Khan Kinniini (the great master of the Shaykhiyya school, d. 1288/1870), written during the invasion of southern Iranian port of Bushahr by the British troops in 1273/1856, is quite enlightening. The author looks at the question from all sides (ms. num. 2534 of the Madrasa Sepahsalar in Tehran). A mention of aI-Ash’ari shows that for the early Imamites, holy war could only be waged under the direction of the imam, or someone specifically named by him; cf. a-Ash’ari, Maqdlat al-islamiyyin, p. 129.

[35] By Preferred Citation: Cole, J. R. I. Roots of North Indian Shi’ism in Iran and Iraq: Religion and State in Awadh, 1722-1859. Berkeley:  University of California Press,  c1988 1988. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft0f59n6r9/

[36] Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 55, No. 2. (1992), pp. 250-261. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0041-977X%281992%2955%3A2%3C250%3ATNOTAD%3E2.0.CO%3B2-1, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London is currently published by School of Oriental and African Studies.