Khums

Summary:

Al-Khums and Al-Anfal are proven from the Holy Quran, i.e., Allah-azwj Says in Chapter 8, Verse 41:

Know that whatever property you may gain, one fifth belongs to God, the Messenger, the kindred, orphans, the needy and those who need money while on a journey. . . .” (8:41)

During the lifetime Rasool-Allah-saww, Al-Anfal was different from that of war-booty. These properties were either gifted to Rasool-Allah-saww or acquired without fight, and they belonged to Rasool-Allah-saww. Of such properties was ‘Fadak’. Other examples of Al-Anfal are properties as the marshes, mines, oceans and the wilderness. They all belong to Rasool-Allah-saww/Imam-asws exclusively.

For the present time, Al-Khums is more relevant to us, however, without forgetting the usurped rights of Ahl Al-Bayt-asws, i.e., Fadak and other properties – we must keep on denouncing all unjust and cruel acts carried out against the Holy Family-asws of Rasool-Allah-saww!

Abu Ja’far-asws has said: ‘The Verse of Al-Khums (8:41) was recited to him-asws, so he-asws said: ‘Whatever was for Allah-azwj, so it is for His-azwj Rasool-saww, so it is for us-asws’. Then he-asws said: ‘Allah-azwj has Made it easy upon the Momineen that He-azwj Provided five Dirhams for them and Made one for their Lord-azwj, and they are eating four as Permissible’.

‘From the total, one-fifth (20%) is distributed as: One portion for Allah-azwj, one for Messenger-saww of Allah-azwj, one for the Imam-asws, and then from the three deserving ones from the descendants of the Rasool-Allah-saww (orphans, the needy and those who need money while on a journey).[1] The portion for Allah-azwj and the Rasool-Allah-saww belong to the Imam-asws after the Messenger-saww of Allah-azwj as the portion of inheritance. Thus, Imam-asws will have three portions. Two portions as inheritance and one is that which Allah-azwj has granted to him-asws.

The other half portion is for the descendants of Rasool-Allah-saww from the orphans, destitute for those of them who become needy while on a journey.  Hence one-fifth of the savings (Al-Khums) will be divided into six portions.

And Rasool-Allah-saww distributed the charities of the people of the valleys among the people of the valleys, and the charities of the people of the towns among the people of the towns and he-saww did not apportion between them with the equal-ness (but it was as per their annual needs).[2] Thus, there does not remain a poor one from the poor of the people, and there does not remain a poor one from the poor relatives of Rasool-Allah-saww but they have been made needless.[3]

The obligation of the Khums, however, have been waived from the Shias (but not from general Muslims), as per several Ahadith, including a ‘Touqi Mubarak’[4], we present a Hadith here:

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ صَبَّاحٍ الْأَزْرَقِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَحَدِهِمَا ( عليهما السلام ) قَالَ إِنَّ أَشَدَّ مَا فِيهِ النَّاسُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَنْ يَقُومَ صَاحِبُ الْخُمُسِ فَيَقُولَ يَا رَبِّ خُمُسِي وَ قَدْ طَيَّبْنَا ذَلِكَ لِشِيعَتِنَا لِتَطِيبَ وِلَادَتُهُمْ وَ لِتَزْكُوَ وِلَادَتُهُمْ .

Muhammad Bin Yahya, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad, from Muhammad Bin Sinan, from Sabbah Al Azraq, from Muhammad Bin Muslim,

(It has been narrated) from one of the two (5th or 6th Imam-asws) having said: ‘The most difficult (of the circumstances) what the people would be in on the Day of Judgment is when the owner of the Khums would be standing (those who were deprived of their Khums share in the world), so he-asws would be saying: ‘O Lord-azwj! My-asws Khums’. And we-asws have waived that for our-asws Shias in order for their births to be cleaned, and for their births to be purified’.[5]

It must be noted here that the Khums obligation for Shias has been waived so it becomes ‘mubah’ for them, that is they can still pay it if they want to but there is no compulsion on them. So, how they distribute Khums, certainly not through a centralised system, but to local deserving ‘Sadaat’, for that purpose one may take the Istikhara[6] for seeking the wish of Allah-azwj as per teachings of Masomeen-asws.

Finally, the minimum amount of savings which are kept over a year on which Khums/Zakāt becomes due is 200 dirhams (£240), as per 22nd April 2020 (see Appendix IV), and an individual should not be given less than 5 dirhams (£6). There is no Khums/Zakāt if a person is in debt or does not have savings of £240 kept over a year (see Appendix IV).

Introduction:

Our main topic is ‘Al-Khums’ but we will also briefly review Al-Anfal, with occasional references to Zakāt.  Zakāt has been separately presented.

In the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad-saww, properties were either acquired as a result of a war or without it and were given to Rasool-Allah-saww as a gift or compromise.

وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً ۖ قَالُوا أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَنْ يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ {302:}

And when your Lord said to the Angels: I am going to Make a Caliph in the earth. They said: Are You going to Make in it one who will make mischief therein and shed the blood, and we Glorify with Your Praise and we extol Your Holiness? He said: I Know what you do not know [2:30]

“Allah-azwj, said to angles, I will create a vicegerent on earth…., ” (2:30).  The whole earth was for Adamas and after himas it belonged to Allah-azwj‘s Prophets. This continued until the time of Prophet Muhammad-saww and it belonged to him-saww and his twelve successors-asws. Whatever their enemies had taken away from them, would came back to them through war or conquest that is called Fay’. It is the property that would come to His wali-asws as war booty. The rules for such properties in the Book are:

وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ آمَنْتُمْ بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَىٰ عَبْدِنَا يَوْمَ الْفُرْقَانِ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ {418:}

“Know that whatever property you may gain, one fifth belongs to God, the Messenger, the kindred, orphans, the needy and those who need money while on a journey. . . .” (8:41)

Such properties belong to Allah-azwj, the Messenger and the relatives of the Messenger-saww. Such properties are called Al-Fay’ (taken back). It is the property taken back from others by force.

Al-Khums and Al-Anfal

Al-Khums literally means one fifth (1/5), unlike other charities, i.e., Zakāt, Sadaka (elms), it is exclusively for the use of Prophet/Imam-asws and their-asws near relatives (orphans, poor and wayfarer).  Issues related to Al-Khums, i.e., who can collect it and distribute it have not been thoroughly explained.  Unfortunately, more emphasis has been placed on its collection, rather than its benefits to the descendants of Ahl Al Bayt-asws.  In this article, we shall make an attempt to explain Al-Khums and Al-Anfal in the light of Masomeen-asws’s traditions, which describe the true essence of Divine command of Allah-azwj, as per the following Verses (8:39-41):

وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ كُلُّهُ لِلَّهِ ۚ فَإِنِ انْتَهَوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ {398:} وَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَوْلَاكُمْ ۚ نِعْمَ الْمَوْلَىٰ وَنِعْمَ النَّصِيرُ {408:}

وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ آمَنْتُمْ بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَىٰ عَبْدِنَا يَوْمَ الْفُرْقَانِ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ {418:}

And fight them until Fitna (strife) does not happen and the Religion, all of it happens to be for Allah. So if they desist, then Allah Sees what they are doing [8:39] And if they turn back, then know that Allah is your Guardian; most excellent is the Guardian and most excellent the Helper [8:40]

And know that whatever booty you gain from anything, so a fifth of it is for Allah, and for the Rasool, and for the near of kin, and the orphans, and the needy and the wayfarer, if you believe in Allah and in what We Revealed unto Our servant, on the Day of Distinction, the day on which the two parties met; and Allah is Able upon all things [8:41]

[ الصفار القمي ] حدثنا أبو محمد، عن عمران بن موسى، عن موسى بن جعفر، عن علي بن اسباط، عن محمد بن الفضيل، عن أبي حمزة الثمالي، عن أبي جعفر (عليه السلام) قال: قرأت عليه آية الخمس، فقال: ما كان لله فهو لرسوله وما كان لرسوله فهو لنا ثم قال: لقد يسر الله على المؤمنين انه رزقهم خمسة دراهم وجعلوا لربهم واحدا وأكلوا أربعة حلالا ثم قال: هذا من حديثنا صعب مستصعب لا يعمل به ولا يصبر عليه إلا ممتحن قلبه للايمان.

Al Saffar Al Qummy – Abu Muhammad narrated to us, from Imran Bin Musa, from Musa Bin Ja’far, from Ali Bin Asbaat, from Muhammad Bin Al Fazeyl, from Abu Hamza Al Sumaly,

Abu Ja’far-asws has said: ‘The Verse of Al-Khums (8:41) was recited to him-asws, so he-asws said: ‘Whatever was for Allah-azwj, so it is for His-azwj Rasool-saww, so it is for us-asws’. Then he-asws said: ‘Allah-azwj has Made it easy upon the Momineen that He-azwj Provided five Dirhams for them and Made one for their Lord-azwj, and they are eating four as Permissible’. Then he-asws said: ‘This is from our-asws Ahadeeth which is difficult and becomes more difficult. None will act in accordance with it, nor be patient over it except for the one whose heart has been Tested for the Eman’.[7]

Also a Hadith with details on rights of Ahl Al-Bayt-asws is given in Appendix I:

Who are the near of kin?

الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أُورَمَةَ وَ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حَسَّانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ كَثِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) فِي قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى وَ اعْلَمُوا أَنَّما غَنِمْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَ لِلرَّسُولِ وَ لِذِي الْقُرْبى قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ الْأَئِمَّةُ ( عليهم السلام ) .

Al Husayn Bin Muhammad, from Moalla Bin Muhammad, from Muhammad Bin Awrama and Muhammad Bin Abdullah, from Ali Bin Hassan, from Abdul Rahman Bin Kaseer,

(It has been narrated) from Abu Abdullah-asws regarding the Words of Allah-azwj the Exalted: And know that whatever booty you gain from anything, so a fifth of it is for Allah, and for the Rasool, and for the near of kin [8:41]. He-asws said: ‘(‘The near of kin means’) Amir Al-Momineen-asws and the Imams-asws’.[8]

الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْوَشَّاءِ عَنْ أَبَانٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ( عليه السلام ) فِي قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى وَ اعْلَمُوا أَنَّما غَنِمْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَ لِلرَّسُولِ وَ لِذِي الْقُرْبى قَالَ هُمْ قَرَابَةُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) وَ الْخُمُسُ لِلَّهِ وَ لِلرَّسُولِ وَ لَنَا .

Al Hassan Bin Muhammad, from Moalla Bin Muhammad, from Al Washha, from Aban, from Muhammad Bin Muslim,

(It has been narrated) from Abu Ja’far-asws regarding the Words of Allah-azwj the Exalted And know that whatever booty you gain from anything, so a fifth of it is for Allah, and for the Rasool, and for the near of kin [8:41]. He-asws said: ‘They are the near of kin of Rasool-Allah-saww, and the fifth is for Allah-azwj and for His-azwj Rasool-saww and for us-asws’.[9]

Giving it (Khums/Zakāt) to the rightful ones

بؤسي لما لقيت من هذه الأمة بعد نبيها من الفرقة وطاعة أئمة الضلال والدعاة إلى النار. ولم أعط سهم ذوي القربى منهم إلا لمن أمر الله بإعطائه الذين قال الله: (إن كنتم آمنتم بالله وما أنزلنا على عبدنا يوم الفرقان يوم التقى الجمعان)، فنحن الذين عنى الله بذي القربى واليتامى والمساكين وابن السبيل، كل هؤلاء منا خاصة لأنه لم يجعل لنا في سهم الصدقة نصيبا وأكرم الله نبيه صلى الله عليه وآله وأكرمنا أن يطعمنا أوساخ أيدي الناس.

(Suleym Bin Qays said, ‘Amir Al-Momineen-asws said): ‘I-asws am at despair (feeling sad) from what had been met by this community after its Prophet-saww from its sects and its obedience to the imams (leaders) of misguidance and the callers to the Fire. And I-asws will not give to those near relatives from among them except for the ones whom Allah-azwj has Ordered to be given for whom He-azwj has Said: if you believe in Allah and in what We Revealed unto Our servant, on the Day of Distinction, the day on which the two parties met; and Allah is Able upon all things [8:41], for we-asws are the ones whom Allah-azwj has Meant by ‘the near relatives and the orphans and the poor and the travellers’, all those are for us-asws exclusively, because He-azwj has not Made for us-asws a share in the charity, and Allah-azwj has Honoured His-azwj Prophet-saww and Honoured us-asws by not Feeding us-asws from the dirt of the hands of the people’.[10]

و عنه: عن أحمد بن الحسن بن علي بن فضال، عن أبيه، عن عبد الله بن بكير، عن بعض أصحابه، عن أحدهما (عليهما السلام)، في قول الله تعالى: وَ اعْلَمُوا أَنَّما غَنِمْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَ لِلرَّسُولِ وَ لِذِي الْقُرْبى وَ الْيَتامى وَ الْمَساكِينِ وَ ابْنِ السَّبِيلِ.

And from him (Al-Sadouq), from Ahmad Bin Al Hassan Bin Ali Bin Fazaal, from his father, from Abdullah Bin Bakeyr, from one of his companions,

(It has been narrated) from one of them-asws (5th or 6th Imam-asws), regarding the Words of Allah-azwj [8:41] And know that whatever war booty you gain, a fifth of it is for Allah and for the Rasool and for the near of kin.

قال: «خمس الله عز و جل للإمام، و خمس الرسول للإمام، و خمس ذي القربى لقرابة الرسول و الإمام، و اليتامى يتامى آل الرسول، و المساكين منهم، و أبناء السبيل منهم، فلا يخرج منهم إلى غيرهم».

He-asws said: ‘Khums (part) of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic is for the Imam-asws, and Khums of the Rasool-saww is for the Imam-asws, and Khums of the next of kin of the Rasool-saww is for the Imam-asws, and the orphans are the orphans of the Progeny-asws of Rasool-saww, and the poor among them, and the wayfarer from among them. So do not take from them (to give it) to others’.[11]

أَحْمَدُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنِ الرِّضَا ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ سُئِلَ عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ اعْلَمُوا أَنَّما غَنِمْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَ لِلرَّسُولِ وَ لِذِي الْقُرْبى فَقِيلَ لَهُ فَمَا كَانَ لِلَّهِ فَلِمَنْ هُوَ فَقَالَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) وَ مَا كَانَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ فَهُوَ لِلْإِمَامِ

Ahmad, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Abu Nasr, from Al Reza-asws, said,

‘He-asws was asked about the Words of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic [8:41] And know that whatever war booty you gain, a fifth of it is for Allah and for the Rasool and for the near of kin, and it was said to him-asws, ‘So whatever was for Allah-azwj, who was it for?’ So he-asws said: ‘For Rasool-Allah-saww, and whatever was for Rasool-Allah-saww, so it would be for the Imam-asws’.

فَقِيلَ لَهُ أَ فَرَأَيْتَ إِنْ كَانَ صِنْفٌ مِنَ الْأَصْنَافِ أَكْثَرَ وَ صِنْفٌ أَقَلَّ مَا يُصْنَعُ بِهِ قَالَ ذَاكَ إِلَى الْإِمَامِ أَ رَأَيْتَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) كَيْفَ يَصْنَعُ أَ لَيْسَ إِنَّمَا كَانَ يُعْطِي عَلَى مَا يَرَى كَذَلِكَ الْإِمَامُ .

It was said to him-asws, ‘What is your-asws view if there was more of a category from the categories, and less of a category, what would be done with it?’ He-asws said: ‘That is up to the Imam-asws. Did you not see how Rasool-Allah-azwj dealt (with it)? Wasn’t it so that he-saww gave upon what he-saww saw (as proper)? Like that is the Imam-asws’.[12]

The Legalisation of Khums for the Shias

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الصَّمَدِ بْنِ بَشِيرٍ عَنْ حُكَيْمٍ مُؤَذِّنِ ابْنِ عِيسَى قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى وَ اعْلَمُوا أَنَّما غَنِمْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَ لِلرَّسُولِ وَ لِذِي الْقُرْبى فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) بِمِرْفَقَيْهِ عَلَى رُكْبَتَيْهِ ثُمَّ أَشَارَ بِيَدِهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ هِيَ وَ اللَّهِ الْإِفَادَةُ يَوْماً بِيَوْمٍ إِلَّا أَنَّ أَبِي جَعَلَ شِيعَتَهُ فِي حِلٍّ لِيَزْكُوا .

Muhammad Bin Yahya, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad, from Muhammad Bin Sinan, from Abdul Samad Bin Bashir, from Hukeym Mouwazzin Ibn Isa who said,

‘I asked Abu Abdullah-asws about the Words of Allah-azwj the Exalted [8:41] And know that whatever war booty you gain, a fifth of it is for Allah and for the Rasool and for the near of kin. So Abu Abdullah-asws said by his-asws elbows upon his-asws knees, then gestured by his-asws hand, then said: ‘By Allah-azwj! It is the profit day by day, except that my-asws father-asws made our-asws Shias to be in an ease (not obliged to pay Khums) in order to purify them’.[13]

و عنه: عن علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن محبوب، عن ضريس الكناسي، قال: قال أبو عبد الله (عليه السلام): «من أين دخل على الناس الزنا؟» قلت: لا أدري، جعلت فداك. قال: «من قبل خمسنا أهل البيت، إلا شيعتنا الأطيبين، فإنه محلل لهم بميلادهم».

And from him (Al Kulayni), from Ali Bin Ibrahim, from his father, from Ibn Mahboub, from Zareys Al Kunasy who said,

‘Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘From where does adultery enter upon the people?’ I said, ‘I don’t know, may I be sacrificed for you-asws’. He-asws said: ‘From the direction of our-asws Khums of the People-asws of the Household (devouring it), except for our-asws Shias, for it is Permissible for them in order to cleanse their births’.[14]

و عنه: عن محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن محمد بن سنان، عن صباح الأزرق، عن محمد بن مسلم، عن أحدهما (عليهما السلام)، قال: «إن أشد ما فيه الناس يوم القيامة أن يقوم صاحب الخمس فيقول: يا رب، خمسي. و قد طيبنا ذلك لشيعتنا لتطيب ولادتهم، و لتزكوا ولادتهم».

And from him (Al Kulayni), from Muhammad Bin Yahya, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad, from Muhammad Bin Sinan, from Sabah Al Azraq, from Muhammad Bin Muslim,

from one of them-asws (5th or 6th Imam-asws) having said: ‘The most difficult state in which the people would be on the Day of Judgement is when the owner of Al Khums would stand and say, ‘O Lord-azwj, my-asws Khums’. And we have allowed (gifted) it for our-asws Shias in order to make goodly their births, and purify their births’.[15]

عن فيض بن أبي شيبة، عن رجل، عن أبي عبد الله (عليه السلام)، قال: «إن أشد ما يكون الناس حالا يوم القيامة، إذا قام صاحب الخمس، فقال: يا رب، خمسي، و إن شيعتنا من ذلك لفي حل».

From Fayz Bin Abu Shayba, from a man,

‘From Abu Abdullah-asws having said: ‘The most difficult state what they people can happen to be on the Day of Judgment, when the owner of the Al Khums would stand and he would say, ‘O Lord-azwj! My-asws Khums’. And our-asws Shias from that, are in an exemption’.[16]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْعَبَّاسِ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ حُمَيْدٍ عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عليه السلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ إِنَّ بَعْضَ أَصْحَابِنَا يَفْتَرُونَ وَ يَقْذِفُونَ مَنْ خَالَفَهُمْ فَقَالَ لِي الْكَفُّ عَنْهُمْ أَجْمَلُ ثُمَّ قَالَ وَ اللَّهِ يَا أَبَا حَمْزَةَ إِنَّ النَّاسَ كُلَّهُمْ أَوْلَادُ بَغَايَا مَا خَلَا شِيعَتَنَا قُلْتُ كَيْفَ لِي بِالْمَخْرَجِ مِنْ هَذَا

Ali Bin Muhammad, from Ali Bin Al-Abbas, from Al-Hassan Bin Abdul Rahmaan, from Aasim Bin Humeyd, from Abu Hamza, who has narrated the following:

I asked Abu Ja’far-asws that, ‘Some of our companions are fabricating (Hadeeth) and throwing them against the ones who oppose them’. So he-asws said to me: ‘Refraining from them is better’. Then said: ‘By Allah-azwj, O Abu Hamza! The people, all of them, are the children of adultery except for our-asws Shias’. I said, ‘How can there be a way out for me, from this?’

فَقَالَ لِي يَا أَبَا حَمْزَةَ كِتَابُ اللَّهِ الْمُنْزَلُ يَدُلُّ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى جَعَلَ لَنَا أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ سِهَاماً ثَلَاثَةً فِي جَمِيعِ الْفَيْ‏ءِ ثُمَّ قَالَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ اعْلَمُوا أَنَّما غَنِمْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَ لِلرَّسُولِ وَ لِذِي الْقُرْبى وَ الْيَتامى وَ الْمَساكِينِ وَ ابْنِ السَّبِيلِ فَنَحْنُ أَصْحَابُ الْخُمُسِ وَ الْفَيْ‏ءِ وَ قَدْ حَرَّمْنَاهُ عَلَى جَمِيعِ النَّاسِ مَا خَلَا شِيعَتَنَا

So he-asws said to me: ‘The Revealed Book of Allah-azwj has Evidences against them. Surely, Allah-azwj Made for us-asws the People-asws of the Household three portions in the whole of the spoils of war (Al-Fey). Then Allah-azwj Said: And know that whatever booty you gain from anything, so a fifth of it is for Allah, and for the Rasool, and for the near of kin, and the orphans, and the needy and the wayfarer [8:41]. So we-asws are the owners of Al-Khums (the fifth), and the spoils of war (Al-Fey), and we-asws have made it Prohibited unto all the people except for our-asws Shias.

وَ اللَّهِ يَا أَبَا حَمْزَةَ مَا مِنْ أَرْضٍ تُفْتَحُ وَ لَا خُمُسٍ يُخْمَسُ فَيُضْرَبُ عَلَى شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْهُ إِلَّا كَانَ حَرَاماً عَلَى مَنْ يُصِيبُهُ فَرْجاً كَانَ أَوْ مَالًا وَ لَوْ قَدْ ظَهَرَ الْحَقُّ لَقَدْ بِيعَ الرَّجُلُ الْكَرِيمَةُ عَلَيْهِ نَفْسُهُ فِيمَنْ لَا يَزِيدُ حَتَّى إِنَّ الرَّجُلَ مِنْهُمْ لَيَفْتَدِي بِجَمِيعِ مَالِهِ وَ يَطْلُبُ النَّجَاةَ لِنَفْسِهِ فَلَا يَصِلُ إِلَى شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَ قَدْ أَخْرَجُونَا وَ شِيعَتَنَا مِنْ حَقِّنَا ذَلِكَ بِلَا عُذْرٍ وَ لَا حَقٍّ وَ لَا حُجَّةٍ

By Allah-azwj, O Abu Hamza! There is no land which has been conquered, and no fifth (Khums) has been applied on anything from it except that it was unlawful for the one who received it for his genitals or assets. And if the truth (Al-Qaim-asws) were to appear the man would be desperate to sell himself cheaply to the extent that the man from among them would be prepare to ransom himself with all of his wealth, and seek the salvation for himself. So he will not achieve anything from that. And they have taken us-asws and our-asws Shias out from those rights of ours without an excuse, or right, or proof’.[17]

Please see the Hadeeth in the appendix II, being a letter from Imam Al Mahdi-asws legalizing the Al-Khums for the Shias up to the time of his-asws appearance.

The withholders of Al-Khums

قال سليم: ثم أقبل عليه السلام على العباس وعلى من حوله، ثم قال: ألا تعجبون من حبسه وحبس صاحبه عنا سهم ذي القربى الذي فرضه الله لنا في القرآن؟ وقد علم الله أنهم سيظلموناه وينتزعونه منا، فقال: (إن كنتم آمنتم بالله وما أنزلنا على عبدنا يوم الفرقان يوم التقى الجمعان).

Suleym (Bin Qays) said, ‘Then he-asws (Amir Al-Momineen-asws) turned towards Al-Abbas and those who were around him, then said: ‘Do you not wonder at the one who withheld it and his companion who withheld it from us, the share for the near relatives which Allah-azwj had Obligated for us-asws in the Quran? And Allah-azwj Knew that they would oppress us by it and seize it from us-asws, so He-azwj Said: [8:41] if you believe in Allah and in that which We revealed to Our servant, on the day of distinction, the day on which the two parties met’.[18]

عن ابن سنان، عن أبي عبد الله (عليه السلام)، قال: سمعته يقول في الغنيمة: «يخرج منها الخمس، و يقسم ما بقي فيمن قاتل عليه و ولي ذلك، و أما الفي‏ء و الأنفال فهو خالص لرسول الله (صلى الله عليه و آله)».

From Ibn Sinan,

‘From Abu Abdullah-asws, he (the narrator) said, ‘I heard him-asws saying regarding the booty: ‘Extract the Khums from it and distribute whatever remains among the ones who fought upon it, and the ruler of that. And as for Al Fey and the Anfaal, so it is in particular for Rasool-Allah-saww’’.[19]

عن سدير، عن أبي جعفر (عليه السلام)، قال: قال: «يا أبا الفضل، لنا حق في كتاب الله في الخمس، فلو محوه فقالوا: ليس من الله، أو لم يعلموا به، لكان سواء».

From Sudeyr,

‘From Abu Ja’far-asws having said: ‘O Abu Al Fazal! For us-asws is a right in the Book of Allah-azwj regarding Al-Khums. So if they were to delete it and say, ‘It isn’t from Allah-azwj, they don’t know of it, it would be the same’’.[20]

Al-Anfal

However, whatever would come to Wali-Allah-asws without the use of force and resources (such as use of war-fares, i.e., horses and solders) is called al-Anfal. These kind of properties belong to Allah-azwj and His-azwj Messenger-saww only and no one else will have any share in it. Others can have shares only in what is acquired through blood shedding and fighting.

Therefore, the case of Al-Anfal is different from that of war-booty. It belongs to Allah-azwj‘s Wali-asws only. Of such properties was Fadak that belonged exclusively to the Messenger-saww of Allah-azwj.  Fadak was acquired by Rasool-Allah-saww and Amir Al-Momineen-asws without anyone else’s involvement. Similar to Al-Anfal are also properties as the marshes, mines, oceans and the wilderness. They all belong to Imam-asws, exclusively. If people would work in them, with the permission of the Imam-asws, four-fifths will belong to them for labour and one fifth would belong to the Imam-asws. Such one fifth is like Al-Khums. If people would work in such properties without the permission of the Imam-asws, as per Islamic Law, the Imam-asws will have all of it and no one would have anything in them.

Definition of Al-Anfal:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَفْصِ بْنِ الْبَخْتَرِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ الْأَنْفَالُ مَا لَمْ يُوجَفْ عَلَيْهِ بِخَيْلٍ وَ لَا رِكَابٍ أَوْ قَوْمٌ صَالَحُوا أَوْ قَوْمٌ أَعْطَوْا بِأَيْدِيهِمْ وَ كُلُّ أَرْضٍ خَرِبَةٍ وَ بُطُونُ الْأَوْدِيَةِ فَهُوَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) وَ هُوَ لِلْإِمَامِ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ يَضَعُهُ حَيْثُ يَشَاءُ .

Ali Bin Ibrahim, from his father, from Ibn Abu Umeyr, from Hafs Bin Al Bakhtary,

(It has been narrated) from Abu Abdullah-asws having said: ‘The Anfal is what has not been attacked upon by the cavalry horse nor expeditions, or (gained from) a people reconciled (by a peace treaty), or a people who give with their own hands, and every barren land and interior of the valleys, so it would be for Rasool-Allah-saww, and it is for the Imam-asws from after him-saww. He-asws would place it wherever he-asws so desires to’.[21]

In another tradition, it is written, ‘Besides ‘Al-Khums’ for Imam-asws there is Al-Anfal. Al-Anfal is every kind of abandoned land whose owners are no more and all the lands that are acquired without the use of force and fighting but are achieved through settlement and their owners have given them to the Imam-asws without fight. To the Imam-asws belongs the mountains, inside of the valleys, marshes and undeveloped lands that has no owners. In addition, belongs to Imam-asws, the properties of the kings (defeated) if such properties would not be usurped. The usurped properties are all returned to the owner. The Imam-asws is the heir of those who have no heirs. He-asws supports those who have no supporters. The Imam-asws said, “There is no category of the properties that Allah-azwj may not have distributed and has given every rightful person his or her rights of the general of particular nature of the needy and the destitute and all categories of people.’[22] (Hadith is given in Appendix III)

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ شُعَيْبٍ عَنْ أَبِي الصَّبَّاحِ قَالَ قَالَ لِي أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) نَحْنُ قَوْمٌ فَرَضَ اللَّهُ طَاعَتَنَا لَنَا الْأَنْفَالُ وَ لَنَا صَفْوُ الْمَالِ .

Ali Bin Ibrahim, from his father, from Ibn Abu Umeyr, from Shuayb, from Abu Al Sabbah who said,

‘Abu Abdullah-asws said: ‘We-asws are a people, Allah-azwj has Necessitated obedience to us-asws. For us-asws is the Anfal and for us-asws is the clean wealth’.[23]

Property left behind by Someone without inheritor goes to Imam-asws:

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ رِفَاعَةَ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ تَغْلِبَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) فِي الرَّجُلِ يَمُوتُ لَا وَارِثَ لَهُ وَ لَا مَوْلَى قَالَ هُوَ مِنْ أَهْلِ هَذِهِ الْآيَةِ يَسْئَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْأَنْفالِ .

A number of our companions, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad, from Al Husayn Bin Saeed, from Al Qasim Bin Muhammad, from Rifa’at, from Aban Bin Taghlub,

(It has been narrated) from Abu Abdullah-asws regarding the man who is dying and there is no inheritor for him, nor a master. He-asws said: ‘He would be from the rightful ones of this Verse They are asking you about the spoils of war [8:1]’.[24]

Additional Ahadith on Al-Khums

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ عُمَرَ الْيَمَانِيِّ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ أَبِي عَيَّاشٍ عَنْ سُلَيْمِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ( عليه السلام ) يَقُولُ نَحْنُ وَ اللَّهِ الَّذِينَ عَنَى اللَّهُ بِذِي الْقُرْبَى الَّذِينَ قَرَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِنَفْسِهِ وَ نَبِيِّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) فَقَالَ ما أَفاءَ اللَّهُ عَلى رَسُولِهِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْقُرى فَلِلَّهِ وَ لِلرَّسُولِ وَ لِذِي الْقُرْبى وَ الْيَتامى وَ الْمَساكِينِ مِنَّا خَاصَّةً وَ لَمْ يَجْعَلْ لَنَا سَهْماً فِي الصَّدَقَةِ أَكْرَمَ اللَّهُ نَبِيَّهُ وَ أَكْرَمَنَا أَنْ يُطْعِمَنَا أَوْسَاخَ مَا فِي أَيْدِي النَّاسِ .

Ali Bin Ibrahim, from his father, from Hammad Bin Isa, from Ibrahim Bin Umar Al Yamani, from Aban Bin Abu Ayyash, from Suley Bin Qays who said,

‘I heard Amir Al-Momineen-asws saying: ‘By Allah-azwj! We (Imams-asws) are those Allah-azwj Meant by the ‘near of kin’ whom Allah-azwj has Paired with Himself-azwj and His-azwj Prophet-saww, so He-azwj Said [59:7] Whatever Allah has restored to His Rasool from the people of the towns, it is for Allah and for the Rasool, and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy from us-asws in particular, and He-azwj did not Make for us-asws a share in the charities. Allah-azwj is more Honourable with His-azwj Prophet-saww and more Honourable with us-asws than that He-azwj should Feed us-asws the grime what is in the hands of the people’.[25]

 

الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْوَشَّاءِ عَنْ أَبَانٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ( عليه السلام ) فِي قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى وَ اعْلَمُوا أَنَّما غَنِمْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَ لِلرَّسُولِ وَ لِذِي الْقُرْبى قَالَ هُمْ قَرَابَةُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) وَ الْخُمُسُ لِلَّهِ وَ لِلرَّسُولِ وَ لَنَا .

Al Hassan Bin Muhammad, from Moalla Bin Muhammad, from Al Washha, from Aban, from Muhammad Bin Muslim,

(It has been narrated) from Abu Ja’far-asws regarding the Words of Allah-azwj the Exalted [8:41] And know that whatever war booty you gain, a fifth of it is for Allah and for the Rasool and for the near of kin. He-asws said: ‘They are the near of kin of Rasool-Allah-saww, and the fifth is for Allah-azwj and for His-azwj Rasool-saww and for us-asws’.[26]

There is no Zakāt on Al-Khums Property:

Imam-asws say, in a tradition,

‘There is no Zakāt on Al-Khums property. It is because the shares of the needy from the masses are placed in the properties of the people in eight categories. No one of the needy in the masses is left out. The needy from the relatives of the Messenger of Allah have their share in the fifty percent of Al-Khums. This suffices them and they do not need the charities of the masses. In this way the system neither leaves needy among the masses nor of the relatives of the Messenger-saww of Allah-azwj without proper coverage and welfare. Hence, all the basic requirements are met (respectfully). For this reason there is no tax on the properties of the Holy Prophet-saww or Wali-asws (Leadership with Divine Authority). It is because for all kinds of needs there are resources in the system to facilitate them. There are responsibilities as well as the rights.’[27] (see the Hadith in Appendix III).

What is Al-Khums Payable on?

There are several traditions of Masomeen-asws on what should be considered under Al-Khums, we present below these traditions:

Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashim has narrated from his father, who from Hammad ibn ‘Isa, who from certain persons of our people, who from the virtuous servant of Allah-azwj who has said the following.

“Al-Khums (one fifth) is due on five categories of properties. (1) Cattle; (2) Properties acquired from diving into deep waters; (3) The treasures; (4) The mines; and (5) Salts. On each of these categories Al-Khums is due; one fifth is distributed just as Allah-azwj has asked for. The remaining four portions are to be distributed among those who have taken part in the actual fighting or those lending support behind the front. (See the complete Hadith in Appendix III)

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ هَاشِمٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ جَمِيلِ بْنِ دَرَّاجٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ( عليه السلام ) أَنَّهُ سُئِلَ عَنْ مَعَادِنِ الذَّهَبِ وَ الْفِضَّةِ وَ الْحَدِيدِ وَ الرَّصَاصِ وَ الصُّفْرِ فَقَالَ عَلَيْهَا الْخُمُسُ .

Ali Bin Ibrahim Bin Hashim, from his father, from Ibn Abu Umeyr, from Jameel Bin Darraj, from Muhammad Bin Muslim,

(It has been narrated) from Abu Ja’far-asws having been asked about the mines of gold, and the silver, and the iron, and the brass, and the zinc. So he-asws said: ‘Upon it is the Khums (the fifth)’.[28]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ ( عليه السلام ) عَنِ الْخُمُسِ فَقَالَ فِي كُلِّ مَا أَفَادَ النَّاسُ مِنْ قَلِيلٍ أَوْ كَثِيرٍ .

Ali Bin Ibrahim, from his father, from Ibn Abu Umeyr, from Al Husayn Bin Usman, from Sama’at who said,

‘I asked Abu Al-Hassan-asws about the Khums, so he-asws said: ‘In everything what the people profit from a little or a lot’.[29]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى بْنِ يَزِيدَ قَالَ كَتَبْتُ جُعِلْتُ لَكَ الْفِدَاءَ تُعَلِّمُنِي مَا الْفَائِدَةُ وَ مَا حَدُّهَا رَأْيَكَ أَبْقَاكَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى أَنْ تَمُنَّ عَلَيَّ بِبَيَانِ ذَلِكَ لِكَيْلَا أَكُونَ مُقِيماً عَلَى حَرَامٍ لَا صَلَاةَ لِي وَ لَا صَوْمَ فَكَتَبَ الْفَائِدَةُ مِمَّا يُفِيدُ إِلَيْكَ فِي تِجَارَةٍ مِنْ رِبْحِهَا وَ حَرْثٍ بَعْدَ الْغَرَامِ أَوْ جَائِزَةٍ .

A number of our companions, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Isa Bin Yazeed who said,

‘I wrote, ‘May I be sacrificed for you-asws! Teach me what is a profit and what are its limits in your-asws view. May Allah-azwj Exalted Keep you-asws remaining, if you-asws could favour upon me with an explanation of that, perhaps I might be staying upon a Prohibition, there neither being a Salat for me nor a Soam (Accepted)’. So he-asws wrote: ‘The profit is what is gained to you during a trade, from its profits and farming, after the (payment of) the taxes or allowances’.[30]

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ قَالَ كَتَبْتُ إِلَى أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ( عليه السلام ) الْخُمُسُ أُخْرِجُهُ قَبْلَ الْمَئُونَةِ أَوْ بَعْدَ الْمَئُونَةِ فَكَتَبَ بَعْدَ الْمَئُونَةِ .

A number of our companions, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad, from Ibn Abu Nasr who said,

‘I wrote to Abu Ja’far-asws, ‘The Khums, shall I extract it before the provisions or after the provisions?’ So he-asws wrote: ‘After the provisions’.[31]

أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ قُوتِلَ عَلَيْهِ عَلَى شَهَادَةِ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللَّهِ فَإِنَّ لَنَا خُمُسَهُ وَ لَا يَحِلُّ لِأَحَدٍ أَنْ يَشْتَرِيَ مِنَ الْخُمُسِ شَيْئاً حَتَّى يَصِلَ إِلَيْنَا حَقَّنَا .

Ahmad Bin Muhammad, from Ali Bin Al Hakam, from Ali Bin Abu Hamza, from Abu Baseer,

(It has been narrated) from Abu Ja’far-asws having said: ‘Everything fought over upon the testimony that there is no god except for Allah-azwj and that Muhammad-saww is Rasool-Allah-saww, so it’s fifth would be for us-asws, and it is not Permissible for anyone that he buys anything from the fifth (Khums) until he sends across our-asws rights to us-asws’.[32]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) عَنِ الْكَنْزِ كَمْ فِيهِ قَالَ الْخُمُسُ وَ عَنِ الْمَعَادِنِ كَمْ فِيهَا قَالَ الْخُمُسُ وَ كَذَلِكَ الرَّصَاصُ وَ الصُّفْرُ وَ الْحَدِيدُ وَ كُلُّ مَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمَعَادِنِ يُؤْخَذُ مِنْهَا مَا يُؤْخَذُ مِنَ الذَّهَبِ وَ الْفِضَّةِ .

Ali Bin Ibrahim, from his father, from Ibn Abu Umeyr, from Hammad, from Al Halby,

(It has been narrated) from Abu Abdullah-asws about the treasure, ‘How much (is due) regarding it?’ He-asws said: ‘The one-fifth’. And (I asked) about the mines, ‘How much (is due) regarding it?’ He-asws said: ‘The one-fifth; and similar to that are the lead, and the zinc, and the iron, and everything what was in the mine there would be taken from it what would be taken from the gold and the silver’.[33]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَمَّا يُخْرَجُ مِنَ الْبَحْرِ مِنَ اللُّؤْلُؤِ وَ الْيَاقُوتِ وَ الزَّبَرْجَدِ وَ عَنْ مَعَادِنِ الذَّهَبِ وَ الْفِضَّةِ مَا فِيهِ قَالَ إِذَا بَلَغَ ثَمَنُهُ دِينَاراً فَفِيهِ الْخُمُسُ .

Muhammad Bin Yahya, from Muhammad Bin Al Husayn, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Abu Nasr, from Muhammad Bin Ali,

(It has been narrated) from Abu Al-Hassan-asws, said, ‘I asked about what comes out from the sea, from the pearls and the sapphire and the aquamarine, and from the mines, the gold and the silver, what (is due) regarding it?’ He-asws said: ‘When its prices reach a Dinar, so regarding it is the Khums (fifth)’.[34]

عَلِيٌّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) عَنِ الْعَنْبَرِ وَ غَوْصِ اللُّؤْلُؤِ فَقَالَ ( عليه السلام ) عَلَيْهِ الْخُمُسُ .

Ali, from his father, from Ibn Abu Umeyr, from Hammad, from Al Halby who said,

‘I asked Abu Abdullah-asws about the ambergris (corral) and diving for pearls, so he-asws said: ‘Upon it is the Khums (fifth)’.[35]

How to Calculate Al-Khums:

سَهْلٌ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الْهَمَذَانِيِّ قَالَ كَتَبْتُ إِلَى أَبِي الْحَسَنِ ( عليه السلام ) أَقْرَأَنِي عَلِيُّ بْنُ مَهْزِيَارَ كِتَابَ أَبِيكَ ( عليه السلام ) فِيمَا أَوْجَبَهُ عَلَى أَصْحَابِ الضِّيَاعِ نِصْفُ السُّدُسِ بَعْدَ الْمَئُونَةِ وَ أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ عَلَى مَنْ لَمْ تَقُمْ ضَيْعَتُهُ بِمَئُونَتِهِ نِصْفُ السُّدُسِ وَ لَا غَيْرُ ذَلِكَ فَاخْتَلَفَ مَنْ قِبَلَنَا فِي ذَلِكَ فَقَالُوا يَجِبُ عَلَى الضِّيَاعِ الْخُمُسُ بَعْدَ الْمَئُونَةِ مَئُونَةِ الضَّيْعَةِ وَ خَرَاجِهَا لَا مَئُونَةِ الرَّجُلِ وَ عِيَالِهِ فَكَتَبَ ( عليه السلام ) بَعْدَ مَئُونَتِهِ وَ مَئُونَةِ عِيَالِهِ وَ بَعْدَ خَرَاجِ السُّلْطَانِ .

Sahl, from Ibrahim Bin Muhammad Al Hamdany who said,

‘I wrote to Abu Al-Hassan-asws, ‘Ali Bin Mahziyar read out a letter of your-asws father-asws to me regarding what is Obligated upon the owner of the estate as being half of the sixth, and that there isn’t upon the one who oversees his estate with his expenses, neither half of the sixth nor other than that. So the ones before us differed in regards to that and they said, ‘The Khums is Obligated upon the estate after the expenditure, the expenses of the estate and its yield, not the expenses of the man and his dependants’. So he-asws wrote to him, ‘After its expenditure and his expenditure and of his dependants, and after the taxation of the ruling authorities’.[36]

Al-Khums is not Payable on Money Dedicated for Hajj or on the Recipient of Al-Khums:

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ وَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مَهْزِيَارَ قَالَ كَتَبْتُ إِلَيْهِ يَا سَيِّدِي رَجُلٌ دُفِعَ إِلَيْهِ مَالٌ يَحُجُّ بِهِ هَلْ عَلَيْهِ فِي ذَلِكَ الْمَالِ حِينَ يَصِيرُ إِلَيْهِ الْخُمُسُ أَوْ عَلَى مَا فَضَلَ فِي يَدِهِ بَعْدَ الْحَجِّ فَكَتَبَ ( عليه السلام ) لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ الْخُمُسُ .

Muhammad Bin Al Husayn, and Ali Bin Muhammad, from Sahl Bin Ziyad, from Ali Bin Mahziyar who said,

‘I wrote to him-asws, ‘O my Master-asws! A man is handed over some wealth to a man to perform Hajj with. Would there be the Khums (fifth) upon him in that wealth when it comes to him, or would it be upon what is excess after the performance of the Hajj?’ So he-asws wrote: ‘There isn’t the Khums upon it’.[37]

سَهْلُ بْنُ زِيَادٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَبْدِ رَبِّهِ قَالَ سَرَّحَ الرِّضَا ( عليه السلام ) بِصِلَةٍ إِلَى أَبِي فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ أَبِي هَلْ عَلَيَّ فِيمَا سَرَّحْتَ إِلَيَّ خُمُسٌ فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ لَا خُمُسَ عَلَيْكَ فِيمَا سَرَّحَ بِهِ صَاحِبُ الْخُمُسِ .

Sahl Bin Ziyad, from Muhammad Bin Isa, from Ali Bin Al Husayn Bin Abdul Rabbih who said,

‘Al-Reza-asws sent a monetary gift to my father, so my father wrote to him-asws, ‘Is there any Khums (payable) regarding what you-asws sent to me?’ He-asws wrote to him: ‘There is no Khums upon you regarding what owner of the Khums sends to you’.[38]

The Rights of Wasi-asws to Take the Best Portion from Al-Khums

The properties of the best quality of such properties should go to Imam-asws, as his-asws portion, including the female slave, the best horse, the best cloths and other items that are liked and desired for. Such items go to him-asws before the distribution and before the subtraction of Al-Khums.[39] (See complete Hadith Appendix III)

Imam-asws will pay for and maintain properties (from Khums), the causes where he-asws would need to pay such as grants to people who are inclined to the system of faith. If anything would be left extra then Al-Khums is taken out there from and is distributed to the causes for which it is. If anything is left extra then it is to be given to the Wali-asws (Leadership with Divine Authority). If nothing is left after the expenses then there is nothing for the Wali-asws. Nothing from the land goes to the fighters. So also is the properties that are acquire by overwhelming except for what the army has physically captured.

The Bedouins have no share in the distribution even if they would take part in fighting with the Wali-asws (Leadership with Divine Authority). It is because the Messenger-saww of Allah-azwj reached a settlement with them. It is written in the document, “They will not be exiled and that if the Messenger-saww of Allah-azwj will be attacked by his enemies they will come to help to fight the enemy but will have no share in the properties of the enemies confiscated.” This practice has been continuous ever since about them and others.

The lands that were captured by the forces of the army will remain in the public domain. The developers may keep them and reach a settlement with the Wali-asws who would use his discretion in the matter. And may find a fair and proportionate agreement on the basis of proper protection of all parties’ rights and interests. The apportionment may take shape in the form of a third, two thirds (or as agreed). The tax on whatever is harvested will be ten percent if the plantation is irrigated by rain. It is five percent if irrigation is from mechanical means. Wali-asws collects this tax and spends on the causes that Allah-azwj has described which are eight categories. 1) The needy, 2) the destitute, 3) the employees of the taxation office, 4) the people who sympathise with the faith, 5) to set free the slaves, 6) to help the bankrupt, 7) for the cause of Allah and 8) to help those who become needy on a journey.[40] (see the complete Hadith Appendix III).

How are the Six Portions of Al-Khums divided?

The distribution of Al-Khums is explained in the following tradition from Masoom Imam-asws:

‘The one-fifth is distributed as: One portion for Allah-azwj, one for Messenger-saww of Allah-azwj, one for Prophet-saww’s relatives, (the rest) is further divided as one for the orphans, one for the destitute and one portion for those who become needy during a journey. Thus, the portion for Allah-azwj and the Messenger-saww of Allah-azwj belong to Leadership with Divine Authority after the Messenger of Allah as the portion of inheritance. Thus, the wali-asws (Leadership with Divine Authority) will have three portions. Two portions as inheritance and one is that which Allah-azwj has granted to him.

Fifty percent of Al-Khums belongs to Wali-asws, the Imam-asws (Leader with Divine Authority). The other fifty percent of Al-Khums belongs to his-asws family members (orphans, poor and wayfarer). One portion is for the orphans thereof, one portion for the destitute thereof, one portion for those of them who become needy while on a journey. It is distributed among them according to the rules in the book and the Sunnah. The limit on it is an amount that would suffice their expenses for a whole year. If anything is left extra it will go to the Wali-asws, (Leadership with Divine Authority). In the case of deficit, the Wali-asws (Leadership with Divine Authority) is responsible to provide and pay the deficit and as much as it would fulfil their needs. Wali-asws is responsible to pay the deficit because the extra is given to him. Allah-azwj has given this one fifth exclusively to them and not the destitute from the masses and those of them who become needy on a journey as a replacement for the charities which may be given to other people. It is a sign of honour for them (Ahl Al Bayt-asws) because of their being the relatives of the Messenger of Allah and an honour from Allah-azwj to keep them secure from the filth off the hands of people. Thus, (Khums) is for them only as sustenance and save them from humiliation and destitution. They may receive other forms of charities from each other.’[41] (see the complete Hadith Appendix III).

Who are Eligible for Al-Khums?

The eligible for ‘Al-Khums’ are the relatives of the Holy Prophet-saww whom Allah-azwj has mentioned in His words. “Warn your close relatives.” (26:214) They are the sons of ‘Abd al-Muttalib-asws themselves, the males and the females. No one, belonging to the families of Quraysh or the Arabs (has the privilege) to be considered among them. Among them or from them also is none of their slave, to have a portion in Al-Khums. The charities of the masses of people have been made lawful for their-asws slaves to consume. Their slaves and the masses of people are of the same status.  Such charities are, lawful to the family of that whose mother is from the family of Hashim and his father comes from the masses of people. Such person is not entitled to receive from Al-Khums because Allah-azwj, the Most High has said, “Call them sons of their own fathers.” (33:5).[42] (see the complete Hadith Appendix III).

Only Masomeen-asws can Collect and Distribute Al-Khums:

عَلِيٌّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ جَمِيلٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ الْإِمَامُ يُجْرِي وَ يُنَفِّلُ وَ يُعْطِي مَا شَاءَ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَقَعَ السِّهَامُ وَ قَدْ قَاتَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) بِقَوْمٍ لَمْ يَجْعَلْ لَهُمْ فِي الْفَيْ‏ءِ نَصِيباً وَ إِنْ شَاءَ قَسَمَ ذَلِكَ بَيْنَهُمْ .

Ali, from his father, from Ibn Abu Umeyr, from Jameel, from Zurara who said,

“The Imam has the right before the distribution, to spend from (booties of war), give as gift, grants and other causes. The Messenger-saww of Allah-azwj had been confronted by some people but Prophet-saww did not leave anything for them from Al-Fay’. Prophet-saww may have given them a share if he-saww would have wanted to.”[43]

The Imam-asws said, “If people are fairly treated then they would not require any external help and become self-sufficient.” The Imam-asws then said, “Justice is sweeter than the honey. No one practices it properly except only those who were created to establish justice (The Divine Authority).” The Imam-asws continued, “The Messenger-saww of Allah-azwj would distribute the charities of the rural areas in the rural areas and the charities of the towns to the people of the towns. He-saww would not divide every amount of charity received into eight portions. He-saww would divide it proportionate to the categories of the causes present before him-saww and to the degree that for each cause that would suffice it for one year. There was no limit of time or a certain date or the combination of the both. He-saww would base it on what was available and who was present and how much of need of each category could have been fulfilled. He-saww would offer the remaining to other people.[44] (see the complete Hadith Appendix III).

أَحْمَدُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنِ الرِّضَا ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ سُئِلَ عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ اعْلَمُوا أَنَّما غَنِمْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَ لِلرَّسُولِ وَ لِذِي الْقُرْبى فَقِيلَ لَهُ فَمَا كَانَ لِلَّهِ فَلِمَنْ هُوَ فَقَالَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) وَ مَا كَانَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ فَهُوَ لِلْإِمَامِ

Ahmad, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad Bin Abu Nasr, from Al Reza-asws, said,

‘He-asws was asked about the Words of Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic [8:41] And know that whatever war booty you gain, a fifth of it is for Allah and for the Rasool and for the near of kin, and it was said to him-asws, ‘So whatever was for Allah-azwj, who was it for?’ So he-asws said: ‘For Rasool-Allah-saww, and whatever was for Rasool-Allah-saww, so it would be for the Imam-asws’.

فَقِيلَ لَهُ أَ فَرَأَيْتَ إِنْ كَانَ صِنْفٌ مِنَ الْأَصْنَافِ أَكْثَرَ وَ صِنْفٌ أَقَلَّ مَا يُصْنَعُ بِهِ قَالَ ذَاكَ إِلَى الْإِمَامِ أَ رَأَيْتَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) كَيْفَ يَصْنَعُ أَ لَيْسَ إِنَّمَا كَانَ يُعْطِي عَلَى مَا يَرَى كَذَلِكَ الْإِمَامُ .

It was said to him-asws, ‘What is your-asws view if there was more of a category from the categories, and less of a category, what would be done with it?’ He-asws said: ‘That is up to the Imam-asws. Did you not see how Rasool-Allah-azwj dealt (with it)? Wasn’t it so that he-saww gave upon what he-saww saw (as proper)? Like that is the Imam-asws’.[45]

Al-Khums is Waived only for Shias and those who believe in Wilayah:

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الصَّمَدِ بْنِ بَشِيرٍ عَنْ حُكَيْمٍ مُؤَذِّنِ ابْنِ عِيسَى قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى وَ اعْلَمُوا أَنَّما غَنِمْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَ لِلرَّسُولِ وَ لِذِي الْقُرْبى فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) بِمِرْفَقَيْهِ عَلَى رُكْبَتَيْهِ ثُمَّ أَشَارَ بِيَدِهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ هِيَ وَ اللَّهِ الْإِفَادَةُ يَوْماً بِيَوْمٍ إِلَّا أَنَّ أَبِي جَعَلَ شِيعَتَهُ فِي حِلٍّ لِيَزْكُوا .

Muhammad Bin Yahya, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad, from Muhammad Bin Sinan, from Abdul Samad Bin Bashir, from Hukeym Mouwazzin Ibn Isa who said,

‘I asked Abu Abdullah-asws about the Words of Allah-azwj the Exalted [8:41] And know that whatever war booty you gain, a fifth of it is for Allah and for the Rasool and for the near of kin. So Abu Abdullah-asws said by his-asws elbows upon his-asws knees, then gestured by his-asws hand, then said: ‘By Allah-azwj! It is the profit day by day, except that my-asws father-asws made our-asws Shias to be in an ease (not obliged to pay Khums) in order to purify them’.[46]

أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ يَعْقُوبَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ بْنِ نَافِعٍ قَالَ طَلَبْنَا الْإِذْنَ عَلَى أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) وَ أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَيْهِ فَأَرْسَلَ إِلَيْنَا ادْخُلُوا اثْنَيْنِ اثْنَيْنِ فَدَخَلْتُ أَنَا وَ رَجُلٌ مَعِي فَقُلْتُ لِلرَّجُلِ أُحِبُّ أَنْ تَسْتَأْذِنَ بِالْمَسْأَلَةِ فَقَالَ نَعَمْ

Ahmad Bin Muhammad, from Muhammad Bin Sinan, from Yunus Bin Yaqoub, from Abdul Aziz Bin Nafiu who said,

‘We sought the permission to see Abu Abdullah-asws and sent a message to him-asws. So he-asws sent a message to us: ‘Come over, two by two’. So I went over and there was a man with me, and I said to the man, ‘I would love it if you would ask permission for the questions’. He said, ‘Yes’.

فَقَالَ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِنَّ أَبِي كَانَ مِمَّنْ سَبَاهُ بَنُو أُمَيَّةَ قَدْ عَلِمْتُ أَنَّ بَنِي أُمَيَّةَ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُمْ أَنْ يُحَرِّمُوا وَ لَا يُحَلِّلُوا وَ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُمْ مِمَّا فِي أَيْدِيهِمْ قَلِيلٌ وَ لَا كَثِيرٌ وَ إِنَّمَا ذَلِكَ لَكُمْ فَإِذَا ذَكَرْتُ رَدَّ الَّذِي كُنْتُ فِيهِ دَخَلَنِي مِنْ ذَلِكَ مَا يَكَادُ يُفْسِدُ عَلَيَّ عَقْلِي مَا أَنَا فِيهِ

So he said to him-asws, ‘May I be sacrificed for you-asws! My father was from the ones who was a captive of the Clan of Umayya, and I have known that the Clan of Umayya did not have (the right) for them that they should be prohibiting nor that they should be permitting, and they did not have for them, from whatever was in their hands, be it little or more, and rather (all) that was for you (Imam-asws). So whenever I remember the return of that which I was in, there enters into me due to that what almost spoils my intellect upon me, what I am in (at the moment)’.

فَقَالَ لَهُ أَنْتَ فِي حِلٍّ مِمَّا كَانَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَ كُلُّ مَنْ كَانَ فِي مِثْلِ حَالِكَ مِنْ وَرَائِي فَهُوَ فِي حِلٍّ مِنْ ذَلِكَ

So he-asws said to him: ‘You are in an ease (without obligation) from whatever was from that, and everyone who was in a state similar to yours from after me-asws, so he (also) would be in an ease from that’.

قَالَ فَقُمْنَا وَ خَرَجْنَا فَسَبَقَنَا مُعَتِّبٌ إِلَى النَّفَرِ الْقُعُودِ الَّذِينَ يَنْتَظِرُونَ إِذْنَ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) فَقَالَ لَهُمْ قَدْ ظَفِرَ عَبْدُ الْعَزِيزِ بْنُ نَافِعٍ بِشَيْ‏ءٍ مَا ظَفِرَ بِمِثْلِهِ أَحَدٌ قَطُّ قَدْ قِيلَ لَهُ وَ مَا ذَاكَ فَفَسَّرَهُ لَهُمْ

He (the narrator) said, ‘So we arose and went out and we preceded Mo’tab (the servant) to the number (of people) who were sitting awaiting the permission to see Abu Abdullah-asws. So he (Mo’tab) said to him, ‘Abdul Aziz Bin Nafiu has succeeded with something what no one has succeeded at all’. (They) said to him, ‘And what is that?’ So he explained it to them’.

فَقَامَ اثْنَانِ فَدَخَلَا عَلَى أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) فَقَالَ أَحَدُهُمَا جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِنَّ أَبِي كَانَ مِنْ سَبَايَا بَنِي أُمَيَّةَ وَ قَدْ عَلِمْتُ أَنَّ بَنِي أُمَيَّةَ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُمْ مِنْ ذَلِكَ قَلِيلٌ وَ لَا كَثِيرٌ وَ أَنَا أُحِبُّ أَنْ تَجْعَلَنِي مِنْ ذَلِكَ فِي حِلٍّ فَقَالَ وَ ذَاكَ إِلَيْنَا مَا ذَاكَ إِلَيْنَا مَا لَنَا أَنْ نُحِلَّ وَ لَا أَنْ نُحَرِّمَ

So two (persons) stood up and went over to Abu Abdullah-asws, and one of the two said, ‘May I be sacrificed for you-asws! My father was from the captives of the Clan of Umayya, and I have known that the Clan of Umayya did not happen to have (the right) for them from that, neither little nor more, and I would love it if you-asws could make for me an ease from that’. So he-asws said: ‘And is that up to us-asws? That is not for us-asws that we-asws Permit nor that we-asws Prohibit!’

فَخَرَجَ الرَّجُلَانِ وَ غَضِبَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) فَلَمْ يَدْخُلْ عَلَيْهِ أَحَدٌ فِي تِلْكَ اللَّيْلَةِ إِلَّا بَدَأَهُ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) فَقَالَ أَ لَا تَعْجَبُونَ مِنْ فُلَانٍ يَجِيئُنِي فَيَسْتَحِلُّنِي مِمَّا صَنَعَتْ بَنُو أُمَيَّةَ كَأَنَّهُ يَرَى أَنَّ ذَلِكَ لَنَا وَ لَمْ يَنْتَفِعْ أَحَدٌ فِي تِلْكَ اللَّيْلَةِ بِقَلِيلٍ وَ لَا كَثِيرٍ إِلَّا الْأَوَّلَيْنِ فَإِنَّهُمَا غَنِيَا بِحَاجَتِهِمَا .

So the two men exited and Abu Abdullah-asws was angered. So, not one went over to him-asws during that night except Abu Abdullah-asws initiated him saying: ‘Are you not wondering from so and so? He comes to me-asws for me to legalise from what the Clan of Umayya have done. It is as if he sees that, that is for us-asws (to do)’. And no one benefitted during that night, neither by a little nor by more except for the two first ones, for they both became needless of their needs’.[47]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ ضُرَيْسٍ الْكُنَاسِيِّ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) مِنْ أَيْنَ دَخَلَ عَلَى النَّاسِ الزِّنَا قُلْتُ لَا أَدْرِي جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ قَالَ مِنْ قِبَلِ خُمُسِنَا أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ إِلَّا شِيعَتَنَا الْأَطْيَبِينَ فَإِنَّهُ مُحَلَّلٌ لَهُمْ لِمِيلَادِهِمْ .

Ali Bin Ibrahim, from his father, from Ibn Mahboub, from Zureys Al Kunasy who said,

“Abu ‘Abdullah-asws said, “Why do people get the course of adultery?” I said, “I do not know, May Allah take my soul in service for your cause.” Imam-asws replied, “It is because of not paying our Al-Khums (one fifth religious dues) except our pure Shi‘a. It helps (its waiver for them) them to keep their births legitimate.[48]

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ صَبَّاحٍ الْأَزْرَقِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَحَدِهِمَا ( عليهما السلام ) قَالَ إِنَّ أَشَدَّ مَا فِيهِ النَّاسُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَنْ يَقُومَ صَاحِبُ الْخُمُسِ فَيَقُولَ يَا رَبِّ خُمُسِي وَ قَدْ طَيَّبْنَا ذَلِكَ لِشِيعَتِنَا لِتَطِيبَ وِلَادَتُهُمْ وَ لِتَزْكُوَ وِلَادَتُهُمْ .

Muhammad Bin Yahya, from Ahmad Bin Muhammad, from Muhammad Bin Sinan, from Sabbah Al Azraq, from Muhammad Bin Muslim,

(It has been narrated) from one of the two (5th or 6th Imam-asws) having said: ‘The most difficult (of the circumstances) what the people would be in on the Day of Judgment is when the owner of the Khums would be standing, so he-asws would be saying: ‘O Lord-azwj! My-asws Khums’. And we-asws have waived that for our-asws Shias in order for their births to be cleaned, and for their births to be purified’.[49]

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ الصَّفَّارُ عَنِ الْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ مَعْرُوفٍ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع أَنَّهُ قَالَ: إِنَّ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع حَلَّلَهُمْ مِنَ الْخُمُسِ يَعْنِي الشِّيعَةَ لِيَطِيبَ مَوْلِدُهُمْ.

It is narrated from Muhammad Ibn Al-Hassan, who heard it from Mohammed Ibn Al-Hassan Al-Safar, who from Al-Abbas Ibn Mauroof, who from Hammad Ibn Isa, who from Hareez, from Zarah, who from;

Imam Mohammed Baqir-asws narrated that Amir Al-Momineen-asws has waived Al-Khums for his Shias so that their children are born clean/legitimate.[50]

وَ بِهَذَا الْإِسْنَادِ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ وَ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ وَ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع‏ هَلَكَ النَّاسُ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ وَ فُرُوجِهِمْ لِأَنَّهُمْ لَا يُؤَدُّونَ إِلَيْنَا حَقَّنَا أَلَا وَ إِنَّ شِيعَتَنَا مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَ أَبْنَاءَهُمْ فِي حِلٍّ.

It is narrated from above chain of narrators that,

Amir Al-Momineen-asws said: People are being punished and killed because they do not pay our rights, through suffering from what they eat and involving in disrespectful acts.  But be aware, we have lifted our rights on our Shias and their children.[51]

حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ عَنِ الْهَيْثَمِ النَّهْدِيِّ عَنِ السِّنْدِيِّ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ عِمْرَانَ الزَّيَّاتِ عَنْ دَاوُدَ الرَّقِّيِّ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع يَقُولُ‏ النَّاسُ كُلُّهُمْ يَعِيشُونَ فِي فَضْلِ مَظْلِمَتِنَا إِلَّا أَنَّا أَحْلَلْنَا شِيعَتَنَا مِنْ ذَلِكَ.

It is reported by Ahmed bin Mohammed may Allah be pleased with him from his father Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Haytham Nahdi from Sindi bin Mohammed Yahya bin Imran Dawood from Zayat he said ,

Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq-asws said: Everyone is living off what they have usurped from us but we have made it permissible for our Shias. [52]

Al-Khums is not Waived to Muslims or Those not liked by Imam-asws:

سَهْلٌ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ الْمُثَنَّى قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ زَيْدٍ الطَّبَرِيُّ قَالَ كَتَبَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ تُجَّارِ فَارِسَ مِنْ بَعْضِ مَوَالِي أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا ( عليه السلام ) يَسْأَلُهُ الْإِذْنَ فِي الْخُمُسِ فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَاسِعٌ كَرِيمٌ ضَمِنَ عَلَى الْعَمَلِ الثَّوَابَ وَ عَلَى الضِّيقِ الْهَمَّ لَا يَحِلُّ مَالٌ إِلَّا مِنْ وَجْهٍ أَحَلَّهُ اللَّهُ وَ إِنَّ الْخُمُسَ عَوْنُنَا عَلَى دِينِنَا وَ عَلَى عِيَالَاتِنَا وَ عَلَى مَوَالِينَا وَ مَا نَبْذُلُهُ وَ نَشْتَرِي مِنْ أَعْرَاضِنَا مِمَّنْ نَخَافُ سَطْوَتَهُ

Sahl, from Ahmad Bin Al Musna who said, ‘Muhammad Bin Zayd Al Tabary narrated to me saying,

‘A man from the traders of Persia from some of the friends of Al-Reza-asws wrote asking him-asws the permission regarding the Khums. So he-asws wrote to him: ‘In the Name of Allah-azwj the Beneficent, the Merciful. Allah-azwj is Capaciously Benevolent Guaranteeing the Rewards upon the deeds, and the worries upon the constraints. The wealth is not Permissible except from the aspect which Allah-azwj has Permitted it; and that the Khums is our-asws support upon our-asws Religion and upon our-asws dependants and the ones in our-asws Wilayah, and whatever we-asws extend and we-asws buy from the ones whose prevailing we-asws fear.

فَلَا تَزْوُوهُ عَنَّا وَ لَا تَحْرِمُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ دُعَاءَنَا مَا قَدَرْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ فَإِنَّ إِخْرَاجَهُ مِفْتَاحُ رِزْقِكُمْ وَ تَمْحِيصُ ذُنُوبِكُمْ وَ مَا تُمَهِّدُونَ لِأَنْفُسِكُمْ لِيَوْمِ فَاقَتِكُمْ وَ الْمُسْلِمُ مَنْ يَفِي لِلَّهِ بِمَا عَهِدَ إِلَيْهِ وَ لَيْسَ الْمُسْلِمُ مَنْ أَجَابَ بِاللِّسَانِ وَ خَالَفَ بِالْقَلْبِ وَ السَّلَامُ .

Therefore neither impede it from us-asws nor prohibit yourselves from supplicating for us-asws whatever you are able upon, for its extraction is the key to your sustenance, and a cleansing for your sins, and whatever you are paving out for yourselves for the day of your destitution, and a Muslim is one who fulfils to Allah-azwj with whatever he Promises to him, and isn’t a Muslim, the one who responds with the tongue and opposes with the heart. And the greetings (be upon you)’.[53]

وَ بِهَذَا الْإِسْنَادِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ زَيْدٍ قَالَ قَدِمَ قَوْمٌ مِنْ خُرَاسَانَ عَلَى أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا ( عليه السلام ) فَسَأَلُوهُ أَنْ يَجْعَلَهُمْ فِي حِلٍّ مِنَ الْخُمُسِ فَقَالَ مَا أَمْحَلَ هَذَا تَمْحَضُونَّا بِالْمَوَدَّةِ بِأَلْسِنَتِكُمْ وَ تَزْوُونَ عَنَّا حَقّاً جَعَلَهُ اللَّهُ لَنَا وَ جَعَلَنَا لَهُ وَ هُوَ الْخُمُسُ لَا نَجْعَلُ لَا نَجْعَلُ لَا نَجْعَلُ لِأَحَدٍ مِنْكُمْ فِي حِلٍّ .

And by this chain, from Muhammad Bin Zayd who said,

‘A group from Khurasan proceeded to Abu Al-Hassan Al-Reza-asws, and they asked him-asws and he-asws makes an ease for them from the Khums, but he-asws said: ‘What need is this? You are being pure with the cordiality by your tongues and you are impeding from us-asws a right which Allah-azwj Made it to be for us-asws and we-asws make it to be for Him-azwj, and it is the Khums. We-asws do not make, we-asws do not make, we-asws do not make it for anyone of you to be in an ease’.[54]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ كُنْتُ عِنْدَ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ الثَّانِي ( عليه السلام ) إِذْ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ صَالِحُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سَهْلٍ وَ كَانَ يَتَوَلَّى لَهُ الْوَقْفَ بِقُمَّ فَقَالَ يَا سَيِّدِي اجْعَلْنِي مِنْ عَشَرَةِ آلَافٍ فِي حِلٍّ فَإِنِّي أَنْفَقْتُهَا فَقَالَ لَهُ أَنْتَ فِي حِلٍّ

Ali Bin Ibrahim, from his father who said,

‘I was in the presence of Abu Ja’far-asws the 2nd when Salih Bin Muhammad Bin Sahl came over to him-asws, and he used to administer the dedications (Waqf) for him-asws at Qumm. So he said, ‘O my Master-asws! Make me to be in ease from ten thousand for I have spent it’. So he-asws to him: ‘You are in an ease (i.e. you don’t have to pay)’.

فَلَمَّا خَرَجَ صَالِحٌ قَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ ( عليه السلام ) أَحَدُهُمْ يَثِبُ عَلَى أَمْوَالِ حَقِّ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ أَيْتَامِهِمْ وَ مَسَاكِينِهِمْ وَ فُقَرَائِهِمْ وَ أَبْنَاءِ سَبِيلِهِمْ فَيَأْخُذُهُ ثُمَّ يَجِي‏ءُ فَيَقُولُ اجْعَلْنِي فِي حِلٍّ أَ تَرَاهُ ظَنَّ أَنِّي أَقُولُ لَا أَفْعَلُ وَ اللَّهِ لَيَسْأَلَنَّهُمُ اللَّهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ عَنْ ذَلِكَ سُؤَالًا حَثِيثاً .

So when Salih went out, Abu Ja’far-asws said: ‘One of you leaps upon the wealth of the right of the Progeny-asws of Muhammad-saww, and their-asws orphans, and their-asws needy ones, and their-asws poor ones, and their-asws needy travellers, so he takes it, then he comes over to me-asws and he is saying, ‘Make me to be in ease’. Do you view him guessing that I-asws would be saying: ‘Don’t do it?’ By Allah-azwj! Allah-azwj will be Questioning them on the Day of Judgment about that, a vigorous Questioning’.[55]

The (minimum) Amount on Which Zakāt and Al-Khums is Due:

وَ رَوَى أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا ع قَالَ: سَأَلْتُهُ عَمَّا يَجِبُ فِيهِ الْخُمُسُ مِنَ الْكَنْزِ فَقَالَ مَا تَجِبُ الزَّكَاةُ فِي مِثْلِهِ فَفِيهِ الْخُمُسُ‏.

Ahmed bin Mohammed bin Nasar asked from Imam Abul-Hassan Imam Reza-asws, ‘On what amount Al-Khums become due from treasures? Imam-asws replied it will be the same amount on which Zakāt becomes due.[56]

وَ سُئِلَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ ع‏ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَأْخُذُ مِنْهُ هَؤُلَاءِ زَكَاةَ مَالِهِ أَوْ خُمُسَ غَنِيمَتِهِ أَوْ خُمُسَ مَا يَخْرُجُ لَهُ مِنَ الْمَعَادِنِ أَ يُحْسَبُ ذَلِكَ لَهُ فِي زَكَاتِهِ وَ خُمُسِهِ فَقَالَ نَعَمْ.

Imam Abul-Hassan-asws was asked about a person, from whom others (non-shia) would deduct Zakāt from his earnings or deduct Al-Khums from his portion of ‘war booty’ or take away by force what he gets from mining.  Would these be accounted for his contributions towards Zakat and Al-Khums?  Imam-asws replied, Yes.[57]

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ سَلَمَةَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ رَاشِدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ الْمِيثَمِيِّ عَنْ حَبِيبٍ الْخَثْعَمِيِّ قَالَ كَتَبَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ الْمَنْصُورُ إِلَى مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ وَ كَانَ عَامِلَهُ عَلَى الْمَدِينَةِ أَنْ يَسْأَلَ أَهْلَ الْمَدِينَةِ عَنِ الْخَمْسَةِ فِي الزَّكَاةِ مِنَ الْمِائَتَيْنِ كَيْفَ صَارَتْ وَزْنَ سَبْعَةٍ وَ لَمْ يَكُنْ هَذَا عَلَى عَهْدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) وَ أَمَرَهُ أَنْ يَسْأَلَ فِيمَنْ يَسْأَلُ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ الْحَسَنِ وَ جَعْفَرَ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ ( عليه السلام )

Ali Bin Ibrahim, from Salma Bin Al Khattab, from Al Hassan Bin Rashid, from Ali Bin Ismail Al Maysami, from Habeeb Al Khash’amy who said,

‘Abu Ja’far Al Mansour wrote to Muhammad Bin Khalid, and he was his office bearer upon Al-Medina, that he should ask the people of Al-Medina about the five from the two hundred regarding the Zakāt, how it came to be seven, and this did not happen to be in the era of Rasool-Allah-saww, and instructed him that among the ones he asks should be Abdullah Bin Al-Hassan, and Ja’far-asws Bin Muhammad-asws’.

قَالَ فَسَأَلَ أَهْلَ الْمَدِينَةِ فَقَالُوا أَدْرَكْنَا مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَنَا عَلَى هَذَا فَبَعَثَ إِلَى عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ وَ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ ( عليه السلام ) فَسَأَلَ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ الْحَسَنِ فَقَالَ كَمَا قَالَ الْمُسْتَفْتَوْنَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ قَالَ فَقَالَ مَا تَقُولُ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ فَقَالَ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) جَعَلَ فِي كُلِّ أَرْبَعِينَ أُوقِيَّةً أُوقِيَّةً فَإِذَا حَسَبْتَ ذَلِكَ كَانَ عَلَى وَزْنِ سَبْعَةٍ وَ قَدْ كَانَتْ وَزْنَ سِتَّةٍ وَ كَانَتِ الدَّرَاهِمُ خَمْسَةَ دَوَانِيقَ

He (Muhammad Bin Khalid) said, ‘So I asked the people of Al-Medina, and they said, ‘We came across the ones who were before us to be upon this’. So he sent for Abdullah Bin Al-Hassan and Ja’far Bin Muhammad-asws. So he asked Abdullah Bin Al-Hassan, and he said just as the Fatwa issuers from the people of Al-Medina. So he said, ‘What are you-asws saying, O Abu Abdullah-asws?’ So he-asws said: ‘Rasool-Allah-saww made to be in every forty Owqiyas, one Owqiya (unit of weight – forty Dirhams). So when that was counted, it was upon the weight of seven, and it had been weighed at six, and the Dirham was of five Dawaneeqs (units of weight)’.

قَالَ حَبِيبٌ فَحَسَبْنَاهُ فَوَجَدْنَاهُ كَمَا قَالَ فَأَقْبَلَ عَلَيْهِ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ فَقَالَ مِنْ أَيْنَ أَخَذْتَ هَذَا قَالَ قَرَأْتُ فِي كِتَابِ أُمِّكَ فَاطِمَةَ

Habeeb (the narrator) said, ‘So we counted it and found it to be just as he-asws had said it to be. So Abdullah Bin Al-Hassan turned towards him-asws and said: ‘From where did you-asws take this?’ He-asws said: ‘I-asws read it in the Book of your mother-asws Syeda Fatima-asws’.

قَالَ ثُمَّ انْصَرَفَ فَبَعَثَ إِلَيْهِ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ ابْعَثْ إِلَيَّ بِكِتَابِ فَاطِمَةَ ( عليها السلام ) فَأَرْسَلَ إِلَيْهِ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) إِنِّي إِنَّمَا أَخْبَرْتُكَ أَنِّي قَرَأْتُهُ وَ لَمْ أُخْبِرْكَ أَنَّهُ عِنْدِي

He (the narrator) said, ‘Then they left. So Muhammad Bin Khalid sent a message to him-asws, ‘Send the Book of Syeda Fatima-asws over to me’. So Abu Abdullah-asws sent a message to him: ‘But rather, I-asws informed you that I-asws had read it and did not inform you that it was with me-asws’.

قَالَ حَبِيبٌ فَجَعَلَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ يَقُولُ لِي مَا رَأَيْتُ مِثْلَ هَذَا قَطُّ .

Habeeb (the narrator) said, ‘So Muhammad Bin Khalid went on to say to me, ‘I have not seen the likes of this, at all!’[58]

Estimation of Minimum Amount for Al-Khums:

See Appendix IV.

Summary: Al-Khums

From the presented traditions of Masomeen-asws regarding both Zakat and Al-Khums articles, a brief summary of the traditions is presented:

  • Zakat and Al-Khums both are due on savings, after deduction of all expenses from earnings.[59]
  • The minimum amount on which Zakat (2.5%) and Al-Khums (20%) become payable is 200 Dirhams (see Appendix IV for conversion) but inflation must be taken into account, see the calculations in appendix.
  • The government taxes on income may be counted in Zakat and Al-Khums.[60]
  • Collection and distribution of Al-Khums can only be executed by Allah-azwj s’ Wali-asws. No one else can fulfil it justifiably, particularly during our time, its collection and distribution is not possible by those who claim to be the representatives of Imam-e-Zamanajfj .[61]
  • Shias, including all those who believe in the Wilayah of Masomeen-asws, are not obliged to distribute Al-Khums, however, they are encouraged to do so for gains in this world as well as in the hereafter.[62]

Now the question would be, how we should act these days? Especially as we are conscious that some Sadaat families are unable to make both their ends meet. In the light of Masomeen-asws‘s traditions, Al-Khums is still wajib but its non-payment has been waived for their-asws shias so that their-asws follower’s children would born on Mola Ali-aswss’ Wilayah (legitimate). In other words, it becomes mustahab for shias, as there will be rewards in this as well as in the next world, but others would be penalised for not paying it.

However, Al-Khums cannot be collected and managed by a non-masoom person, so it will be the responsibility of a well-off shia to divide his/her savings (if he/she would like to), after taking out expenses, into two parts. One may be used for deserving sadaat whereas Molaajfj‘s share could be spend on those acts where Niaz/Imam Zamin funds are spent. The best option would be to take Divine permission on its use through ‘Istikhara’ prior to committing either portion (Siam-e-Imam and Siam-e-Sadaat). On Istikhara, see http://www.hubeali.com/articles/Seeking-Divine-Guidance-Istikhara.pdf

We would like to end this article with the following traditions of Masomeen-asws:

وَ بِإِسْنَادِهِ عَنْ سَعْدٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جُمْهُورٍ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْأَوْسِيِّ عَنِ الرِّضَا ع قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبِي يَقُولُ‏ كُنْتُ عِنْدَ أَبِي يَوْماً فَأَتَاهُ رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ إِنِّي رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الرَّيِّ- وَ لِيَ زَكَاةٌ فَإِلَى مَنْ أَدْفَعُهَا

And by his chain from Sa’ad, from one of our companions, from Muhammad Bin Jamhour, from Ibrahim Al Awsy,

‘From Al-Reza-asws having said: ‘I was in the presence of my-asws father-asws one day. A man came to him-asws and said, ‘I am from the people of Al-Rayy, and there is Zakat (money) for me, whom should I hand it over to?’

فَقَالَ إِلَيْنَا فَقَالَ أَ لَيْسَ الصَّدَقَةُ مُحَرَّمَةً عَلَيْكُمْ فَقَالَ بَلَى إِذَا دَفَعْتَهَا إِلَى‏ شِيعَتِنَا فَقَدْ دَفَعْتَهَا إِلَيْنَا

He-asws said: ‘To us-asws’. He said, ‘Isn’t the charity prohibited unto you-asws all?’ He-asws said: ‘Yes, when you hand it to our-asws Shias, so you have handed it to us-asws’.

فَقَالَ إِنِّي لَا أَعْرِفُ لَهَا أَحَداً قَالَ فَانْتَظِرْ بِهَا سَنَةً فَقَالَ فَإِنْ لَمْ أُصِبْ لَهَا أَحَداً قَالَ انْتَظِرْ بِهَا سَنَتَيْنِ حَتَّى بَلَغَ أَرْبَعَ سِنِينَ

He said, ‘I do not know anyone for it’. He-asws said: ‘Then wait with it for a year’. He said, ‘Supposing I do not find anyone for it?’ He-asws said: ‘Wait with it for two years’. Until it reached four years.

ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ إِنْ لَمْ تُصِبْ لَهَا أَحَداً فَصُرَّهَا صُرَراً وَ اطْرَحْهَا فِي الْبَحْرِ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ حَرَّمَ أَمْوَالَنَا وَ أَمْوَالَ شِيعَتِنَا عَلَى عَدُوِّنَا.

Then he-asws said to him: ‘If you do not find anyone for it, then pack it in a package and drop it in the sea, for Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic has Prohibited our-asws wealth and wealth of our-asws Shias unto our-asws enemies’’.[63]  

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ فِي الْعِلَلِ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ سَعْدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْكُوفِيِّ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ عَنْ سُفْيَانَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْمُؤْمِنِ الْأَنْصَارِيِّ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شِمْرٍ عَنْ جَابِرٍ قَالَ:

Muhammad Bin Ali Bin Al-Husayn in (the book) ‘Al Illal’, from his father, from Sa’ad Bin Abdullah, from Al Hassan Bin Ali Al Kufy, from Abdullah Bin Al Mugheira, from Sufyan Bin Abdul Momin Al Ansari, from Amro Bin SHimr, from Jabir who said,

أَقْبَلَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع وَ أَنَا حَاضِرٌ فَقَالَ رَحِمَكَ‏ اللَّهُ‏ اقْبِضْ‏ مِنِّي‏ هَذِهِ‏ الْخَمْسَمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ‏ فَضَعْهَا فِي مَوَاضِعِهَا فَإِنَّهَا زَكَاةُ مَالِي

‘A man came to Abu Ja’far-asws and I was present. He said, ‘May Allah-azwj have Mercy on you-asws! Take possession from me these five hundred Dirhams, and place these is their (rightful) place for this is Zakat of my wealth’.

فَقَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ ع بَلْ خُذْهَا أَنْتَ فَضَعْهَا فِي جِيرَانِكَ وَ الْأَيْتَامِ وَ الْمَسَاكِينِ وَ فِي إِخْوَانِكَ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ إِنَّمَا يَكُونُ هَذَا إِذَا قَامَ قَائِمُنَا- فَإِنَّهُ يَقْسِمُ بِالسَّوِيَّةِ وَ يَعْدِلُ فِي خَلْقِ الرَّحْمَنِ الْبَرِّ مِنْهُمْ وَ الْفَاجِرِ الْحَدِيثَ.

Abu Ja’far-asws said: ‘But you take it and place it among your neighbours, and the orphans, and the poor, and among your brothers from the Muslims. But rather, this (it’s just distribution) would happen when our-asws Qaim-asws rises, then he-asws will distribute with the equality and justice among the creatures of the Beneficent, the righteous ones from them and the immoral ones’ – the Hadith’’.[64]

– لي‏، الأمالي للصدوق عَنِ الدَّقَّاقِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ الطَّارِيِّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ الْخَشَّابِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُحَسِّنٍ عَنِ الْمُفَضَّلِ بْنِ عُمَرَ عَنِ الصَّادِقِ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ جَدِّهِ عَنْ أَبِيهِ ع قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع‏ وَ اللَّهِ مَا دُنْيَاكُمْ عِنْدِي إِلَّا كَسَفْرٍ عَلَى مَنْهَلٍ‏ حَلُّوا إِذْ صَاحَ بِهِمْ سَائِقُهُمْ فَارْتَحَلُوا وَ لَا لَذَاذَتُهَا فِي عَيْنِي إِلَّا كَحَمِيمٍ أَشْرَبُهُ غَسَّاقاً وَ عَلْقَمٍ أَتَجَرَّعُ بِهِ زُعَاقاً وَ سَمِّ أَفْعَاةٍ أَسْقَاهُ دِهَاقاً وَ قِلَادَةٍ مِنْ نَارٍ أُوهِقُهَا حناقا [خِنَاقاً] وَ لَقَدْ رَقَّعْتُ مِدْرَعَتِي هَذِهِ حَتَّى اسْتَحْيَيْتُ مِنْ رَاقِعِهَا

(The book) ‘Al Amaali’ of Al Sadouq – from Al Daqqaq, from Muhammad Bin AL Hassan Al Tary, from Muhammad Bin Al Husayn Al Khashaab, from Muhammad Bin Muhassin, from al Mufazzal Bin Umar,

‘Al-Sadiq Ja’far-asws Bin Muhammad-asws, from his-asws father-asws, from his-asws grandfather-asws, from his-asws father-asws having said: ‘Amir Al-Momineen-asws said: ‘By Allah-azwj! What is your world in my-asws presence except like travelling by a sweet water place, when their usher shouts at them, so they depart, nor are its pleasures in my-asws eyes except like boiling water I-asws drink its pus, and a gulp I-asws swallow with a sigh, and snake poison I-asws quench to the fill, and a collar of fire I-asws am with a chokehold, and I-asws have patched this shirt of mine-asws until I-asws am embarrassed from its patches.

وَ لَوْ شِئْتُ لَتَسَرْبَلْتُ بِالْعَبْقَرِيِّ الْمَنْقُوشِ مِنْ دِيبَاجِكُمْ وَ لَأَكَلْتُ لُبَابَ هَذَا الْبُرِّ بِصُدُورِ دَجَاجِكُمْ وَ لَشَرِبْتُ الْمَاءَ الزُّلَالَ بِرَقِيقِ زُجَاجِكُمْ وَ لَكِنِّي أُصَدِّقُ اللَّهَ جَلَّتْ عَظَمَتُهُ حَيْثُ يَقُولُ- مَنْ كانَ يُرِيدُ الْحَياةَ الدُّنْيا وَ زِينَتَها نُوَفِّ إِلَيْهِمْ أَعْمالَهُمْ فِيها وَ هُمْ فِيها لا يُبْخَسُونَ- أُولئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَيْسَ لَهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ إِلَّا النَّارُ-

And had I-asws so desired, I-asws could have worn the engraved from your brocades, and I-asws could have eaten the pulp of this wheat with your chicken breasts, and I-asws could have drunk the clear water in your thin glasses, but I-asws am ratifying Allah-azwj, Majestic is His-azwj Magnificence where He-azwj is Saying: One who wanted the life of the world and its adornments, We shall Fulfil their deeds therein and they would not be devalued [11:15] They are those, there wouldn’t be for them in the Hereafter except the Fire, [11:16].

فَكَيْفَ أَسْتَطِيعُ‏ الصَّبْرَ عَلَى نَارٍ لَوْ قَذَفَتْ بِشَرَرَةٍ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ لَأَحْرَقَتْ نَبْتَهَا وَ لَوِ اعْتَصَمَتْ نَفْسٌ بِقُلَّةٍ لَأَنْضَجَهَا وَهْجُ النَّارِ فِي قُلَّتِهَا

How can I-asws be capable of being patient upon fire, if sparks of it were to be thrown to the earth, it would incinerate its vegetation, and even if a soul were to fortify in a hole, the glow of the fire would boil him inside the hole.

وَ أَيُّمَا خَيْرٌ لِعَلِيٍّ أَنْ يَكُونَ عِنْدَ ذِي الْعَرْشِ مُقَرَّباً أَوْ يَكُونَ فِي لَظَى خَسِيئاً مُبَعَّداً مَسْخُوطاً عَلَيْهِ بِجُرْمِهِ مُكَذَّباً

And which of the two is better for Ali-asws – should he-asws be drawn closer to the One-azwj with the Throne, or be in a blaze, despised, distanced, being Wrathful upon due to his crimes, belied?

وَ اللَّهِ لَأَنْ أَبِيتَ عَلَى حَسَكِ السَّعْدَانِ مُرَقَّداً وَ تَحْتِي أَطْمَارٌ عَلَى سَفَاهَا مُمَدَّداً أَوْ أُجَرَّ فِي أَغْلَالِي مُصَفَّداً أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنْ أَنْ أَلْقَى فِي الْقِيَامَةِ مُحَمَّداً خَائِناً فِي ذِي يَتْمَةٍ أَظْلِمُهُ بِفَلْسِهِ مُتَعَمِّداً وَ لَمْ أَظْلِمِ الْيَتِيمَ وَ غَيْرَ الْيَتِيمِ

By Allah-azwj! Because I-asws would spend a night lying upon spiky bones and under me-asws are old rags stretched upon their rocks, or be dragged handcuffed in my-asws shackles, would be more beloved to me-asws than meeting Muhammad-saww during Qiyamah as a betrayer of an orphan having oppressed him deliberately for a Dirham, and I-asws have not been unjust to an orphan nor a non-orphan.

لِنَفْسٍ تُسْرِعُ إِلَى الْبَلَاءِ قُفُولُهَا وَ يَمْتَدُّ فِي أَطْبَاقِ الثَّرَى حُلُولُهَا وَ إِنْ عَاشَتْ رُوَيْداً فَبِذِي الْعَرْشِ نُزُولُهَا-

For a soul, its locks are quick to the affliction, and there is extension in the layers of the soil in its permeation, and if it lives slowly, its descent will be to the One-azwj with the Throne.

مَعَاشِرَ شِيعَتِي احْذَرُوا فَقَدْ عَضَّتْكُمُ الدُّنْيَا بِأَنْيَابِهَا تَخْتَطِفُ مِنْكُمْ نَفْساً بَعْدَ نَفْسٍ كَذِئَابِهَا وَ هَذِهِ مَطَايَا الرَّحِيلِ قَدْ أُنِيخَتْ لِرُكَّابِهَا

Community of my-asws Shias! Be careful, for the world is biting you with its fangs. A soul and soul are being snatched away from you like its wolves (snatch away its prey), and (you act like) these camels of departure have bowed to their riders.

أَلَا إِنَّ الْحَدِيثَ ذُو شُجُونٍ فَلَا يَقُولَنَّ قَائِلُكُمْ إِنَّ كَلَامَ عَلِيٍّ مُتَنَاقِضٌ لِأَنَّ الْكَلَامَ عَارِضٌ

Indeed! The Hadeeth is with miscellaneous topics, so your speaker should not be saying that the speech of Ali-asws is contradictory, because the speech is wide.

وَ لَقَدْ بَلَغَنِي أَنَّ رَجُلًا مِنْ قُطَّانِ الْمَدَائِنِ تَبِعَ بَعْدَ الْحَنِيفِيَّةِ عُلُوجَهُ وَ لَبِسَ مِنْ نَالَةِ دِهْقَانِهِ مَنْسُوجَهُ وَ تَضَمَّخَ بِمِسْكِ هَذِهِ النَّوَافِجِ صَبَاحَهُ وَ تَبَخَّرَ بِعُودِ الْهِنْدِ رَوَاحَهُ وَ حَوْلَهُ رَيْحَانُ حَدِيقَةٍ يَشَمُّ تُفَّاحَهُ وَ قَدْ مُدَّ لَهُ مَفْرُوشَاتُ الرُّومِ عَلَى سُرُرِهِ

And it has reached me that a man from Qatan Al-Madain pursued after the Hanafiya for his honour, and he wore his woven fabric having acquired it from Dihqan, and he applied musk in his nasal passages in his morning, and he burned the aloes of India for his perfume, and around him was an aromatic garden he was smelling its apples, and the furnishings of Rome had been spread out for him upon his bed.

تَعْساً لَهُ بَعْدَ مَا نَاهَزَ السَّبْعِينَ مِنْ عُمُرِهِ وَ حَوْلَهُ شَيْخٌ يَدِبُّ عَلَى أَرْضِهِ مِنْ هَرَمِهِ وَ ذُو يَتْمَةٍ تَضَوَّرَ مِنْ ضُرِّهِ وَ مِنْ قَرْمِهِ فَمَا وَاسَاهُمْ بِفَاضِلَاتٍ مِنْ عَلْقَمِهِ

Woe be to him! After having reached the age of seventy? And around him was an old man crawling upon his ground out of old age and with orphans suffering from his injuries, and from taking small bites, but he did not help him with from his surplus morsels.

لَئِنْ أَمْكَنَنِيَ اللَّهُ مِنْهُ لَأَخْضَمَنَّهُ خَضْمَ الْبُرِّ وَ لَأُقِيمَنَّ عَلَيْهِ حَدَّ الْمُرْتَدِّ وَ لَأَضْرِبَنَّهُ الثَّمَانِينَ بَعْدَ حَدٍّ وَ لَأَسُدَّنَّ مِنْ جَهْلِهِ كُلَّ مَسَدٍّ

If Allah-azwj were to Enable me-asws from him, I-asws would shut him up with bites of wheat, and I-asws would establish a legal penalty of the apostate upon him, and I-asws would beat him eighty (lashes) after a legal penalty, and I-asws would close down every hindrance from his ignorance.

تَعْساً لَهُ أَ فَلَا شَعْرٌ أَ فَلَا صُوفٌ أَ فَلَا وَبَرٌ أَ فَلَا رَغِيفٌ قَفَارُ اللَّيْلِ إِفْطَارٌ مُقَدَّمٌ‏ أَ فَلَا عَبْرَةٌ عَلَى خَدٍّ فِي ظُلْمَةِ لَيَالٍ تَنْحَدِرُ وَ لَوْ كَانَ مُؤْمِناً لَاتَّسَقَتْ لَهُ الْحُجَّةُ إِذَا ضَيَّعَ مَا لَا يَمْلِكُ-

Woe be to him! Is there no hair? Is there no wool? Is there no fur? Is there no bread for the night to precede the breakfast? Is there no tear to roll down upon the cheek in darkness of the night? And had he been a Momin, the argument would be consistent for him when he wastes what he does not own.

وَ اللَّهِ لَقَدْ رَأَيْتُ عَقِيلًا أَخِي وَ قَدْ أَمْلَقَ حَتَّى اسْتَمَاحَنِي مِنْ بُرِّكُمْ صَاعَةً وَ عَاوَدَنِي فِي عُشْرِ وَسْقٍ مِنْ شَعِيرِكُمْ يُطْعِمُهُ جِيَاعَهُ وَ يَكَادُ يَلْوِي ثَالِثَ أَيَّامِهِ خَامِصاً مَا اسْتَطَاعَهُ وَ رَأَيْتُ أَطْفَالَهُ شُعْثَ الْأَلْوَانِ مِنْ ضَرِّهِمْ كَأَنَّمَا اشْمَأَزَّتْ وُجُوهُهُمْ مِنْ قُرِّهِمْ

By Allah-azwj! I-asws had seen my-asws brother Aqeel, and he was so destitute until he requested me-asws for a Sa’a (four handfuls) from your wheat (public granary), and kept re-iterating to me-asws regarding a tenth of a load from your barley he can feed his hungry ones, and it was almost his third day he had folded (squinted) as much as he could, and I-asws saw his children being of dishevelled colours from their harm. It was as if their faces had constricted from their disgust.

فَلَمَّا عَاوَدَنِي فِي قَوْلِهِ وَ كَرَّرَهُ أَصْغَيْتُ إِلَيْهِ سَمْعِي فَغَرَّهُ وَ ظَنَّنِي وَ أُوتِغُ دِينِي فَأَتَّبِعُ مَا سَرَّهُ أَحْمَيْتُ لَهُ حَدِيدَةً يَنْزَجِرُ إِذْ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُ مِنْهَا دُنُوّاً وَ لَا يَصْبِرُ ثُمَّ أَدْنَيْتُهَا مِنْ جِسْمِهِ

When he re-iterated his words to me-asws and repeated it, I-asws listened intently to him. He was deceived. He thought of me-asws that I-azwj would spoil my-asws religion and follow what would cheer him. I-asws heated an iron rod for him for rebuke until he would neither be able to close to it nor be patient. Then I-asws brought it closer to his body.

فَضَجَّ مِنْ أَلَمِهِ ضَجِيجَ ذِي دَنَفٍ يَئِنُّ مِنْ سُقْمِهِ وَ كَادَ يَسُبُّنِي سَفَهاً مِنْ كَظْمِهِ وَ لِحَرْقَةٍ فِي لَظَى أَضْنَى لَهُ مِنْ عُدْمِهِ

He clamoured from his pain like the groaning of one in his sickness, and he almost reviled me‑asws as foolish from his remorse, and for a burning sensation more appropriate for him than not.

فَقُلْتُ لَهُ ثَكِلَتْكَ الثَّوَاكِلُ يَا عَقِيلُ أَ تَئِنُّ مِنْ حَدِيدَةٍ أَحْمَاهَا إِنْسَانُهَا لِمَدْعَبِهِ وَ تَجُرُّنِي إِلَى نَارٍ سَجَرَهَا جَبَّارُهَا مِنْ غَضَبِهِ أَ تَئِنُّ مِنَ الْأَذَى وَ لَا أَئِنُّ مِنْ لَظَى

I-asws said to him: ‘May the bereaving ones be bereaved of you, O Aqeel! Are you groaning from an iron heated by its human being in jest, and you are dragging me-asws to a Fire heated by its Subduer from His-azwj Wrath? Are you groaning from the pain and I-asws will not groan from the blazing flame?

وَ اللَّهِ لَوْ سَقَطَتِ الْمُكَافَاةُ عَنِ الْأُمَمِ وَ تُرِكَتْ فِي مَضَاجِعِهَا بَالِيَاتٌ فِي الرِّمَمِ- لَاسْتَحْيَيْتُ مِنْ مَقْتِ رَقِيبٍ يَكْشِفُ فَاضِحَاتٍ مِنَ الْأَوْزَارِ تَنَّسِخُ-

By Allah-azwj! If the reciprocation were to fall from the communities, and they are left in their lying places (graves) decaying in the ashes (dust), I-asws would be embarrassed from the hate of a Watcher Uncovering the shames from the replicated sins.

فَصَبْراً عَلَى دُنْيَا تَمُرُّ بِلَأْوَائِهَا كَلَيْلَةٍ بِأَحْلَامِهَا تَنْسَلِخُ كَمْ بَيْنَ نَفْسٍ فِي خِيَامِهَا نَاعِمَةٌ وَ بَيْنَ أَثِيمٍ فِي جَحِيمٍ يَصْطَرِخُ فَلَا تَعَجُّبَ‏ مِنْ هَذَا وَ أَعْجَبُ بِلَا صُنْعٍ مِنَّا مِنْ طَارِقٍ طَرَقَنَا بِمَلْفُوفَاتٍ زَمَّلَهَا فِي وِعَائِهَا وَ مَعْجُونَةٍ بَسَطَهَا فِي إِنَائِهَا

Therefore, be patient upon a world passing by with its afflictions, its dreams slipping away. How much is there between a soul sleeping it its tent and a sinner screaming in Hell? So do not be surprised from this, and more surprising is without any making from us-asws, from a knocker knocking on our-asws doors with cabbages having packed in her bowl, and dough she has spread in her bowl’.

فَقُلْتُ لَهُ أَ صَدَقَةٌ أَمْ نَذْرٌ أَمْ زَكَاةٌ وَ كُلُّ ذَلِكَ يَحْرُمُ عَلَيْنَا أَهْلَ بَيْتِ النُّبُوَّةِ وَ عُوِّضْنَا مِنْهُ خُمُسَ ذِي الْقُرْبَى فِي الْكِتَابِ وَ السُّنَّةِ

I-asws said to him: ‘Is it charity (you want), or a vow, or Zakat, and all that is Prohibited unto us‑asws People-asws of Household of the Prophet-saww, and we-asws have been compensated from it with Khums of the ones with relationships, in the Book and the Sunnah’.

فَقَالَ لِي لَا ذَاكَ وَ لَا ذَاكَ وَ لَكِنَّهُ هَدِيَّةٌ

He said to me-asws, ‘Neither that nor that, but as a gift’.

فَقُلْتُ لَهُ ثَكِلَتْكَ الثَّوَاكِلُ أَ فَعَنْ دِينِ اللَّهِ تَخْدَعُنِي بِمَعْجُونَةٍ عَرَّقْتُمُوهَا بِقَنْدِكُمْ وَ خَبِيصَةٍ صَفْرَاءَ أَتَيْتُمُونِي بِهَا بِعَصِيرِ تَمْرِكُمْ أَ مُخْتَبِطٌ أَمْ ذُو جِنَّةٍ أَمْ تَهْجُرُ أَ لَيْسَتِ النُّفُوسُ عَنْ مِثْقَالِ حَبَّةٍ مِنْ خَرْدَلٍ مَسْئُولَةً فَمَا ذَا أَقُولُ فِي مَعْجُونَةٍ أَتَزَقَّمُهَا مَعْمُولَةً

I-asws said to him: ‘May the bereaved ones be bereaved of you! Are you deceiving me-asws about the religion of Allah-azwj with a kneading you have worked with your sweets, and yellow porridge you have come to me-asws with juice of your dates? Should I-asws be confused, either with Paradise or abandonment? Won’t the souls be Questioned about a particle weight of mustard seed? So what shall I-asws say regarding a cooked kneading I-asws should swallow?

وَ اللَّهِ لَوْ أُعْطِيتُ الْأَقَالِيمَ السَّبْعَةَ بِمَا تَحْتَ أَفْلَاكِهَا وَ اسْتُرِقَّ لِي قُطَّانُهَا مُذْعِنَةً بِأَمْلَاكِهَا عَلَى أَنْ أَعْصِيَ اللَّهَ فِي نَمْلَةٍ أَسْلُبُهَا شَعِيرَةً فَأَلُوكَهَا مَا قَبِلْتُ وَ لَا أَرَدْتُ-

By Allah-azwj! Even if I were to be given the seven regions with what is under their skies, and its dwellers lower their heads to me-asws submissive with their possessions, based upon that I-asws should disobey Allah-azwj regarding an ant, I-asws should confiscate its barley seed from its mouth, I-asws will neither accept nor intend.

وَ لَدُنْيَاكُمْ أَهْوَنُ عِنْدِي مِنْ وَرَقَةٍ فِي فِي جَرَادَةٍ تَقْضَمُهَا وَ أَقْذَرُ عِنْدِي مِنْ عُرَاقَةِ خِنْزِيرٍ يَقْذِفُ بِهَا أَجْذَمُهَا وَ أَمَرُّ عَلَى فُؤَادِي مِنْ حَنْظَلَةٍ يَلُوكُهَا ذُو سُقْمٍ فَيَبْشَمُهَا

And this world of yours is less significant in my-asws presence than a leaf in the mouth of a locust nibbling it, and it is filthier in my-asws presence than knuckles of a pig thrown with in their dumps, and it is bitterer upon my-asws heart than colocynth licked by the sick one, so he smells it.

فَكَيْفَ أَقْبَلُ مَلْفُوفَاتٍ عَكَمْتَهَا فِي طَيِّهَا وَ مَعْجُونَةً كَأَنَّهَا عُجِنَتْ بِرِيقِ حَيَّةٍ أَوْ قَيْئِهَا

So how can I accept wraps kept in her fold, and dough as if it has been kneaded with saliva of a snake or its vomit?’

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي نَفَرْتُ عَنْهَا نِفَارَ الْمُهْرَةِ مِنْ كَيِّهَا أُرِيهِ السُّهَا وَ يُرِينِي الْقَمَرَ أَ أَمْتَنِعُ مِنْ وَبَرَةٍ مِنْ قَلُوصِهَا سَاقِطَةٍ وَ أَبْتَلِعُ إِبِلًا فِي مَبْرَكِهَا رَابِطَةً أَ دَبِيبَ الْعَقَارِبِ مِنْ وَكْرِهَا أَلْتَقِطُ أَمْ قَوَاتِلَ الرُّقْشِ فِي مَبِيتِي أَرْتَبِطُ

O Allah-azwj! I-asws flee away from it like the filly fleeing away from the one cauterising it. I-asws am showing him the star and he is showing me-asws the moon. Shall I-asws abstain from a faller hair fallen from its stalk? And shall I-asws swallow a camel tied in its enclosure? Shall I-asws drive the scorpions out from their dens or shall I-asws battles the sprinkles in my-asws spending the night tied up?

فَدَعُونِي أَكْتَفِي مِنْ دُنْيَاكُمْ بِمِلْحِي وَ أَقْرَاصِي فَبِتَقْوَى اللَّهِ أَرْجُو خَلَاصِي مَا لِعَلِيٍّ وَ نَعِيمٍ يَفْنَى وَ لَذَّةٍ تَنْحَتُهَا الْمَعَاصِي

So leave me! I-asws shall suffice from your world with my-asws salt and my-asws disc of bread. By the fear of Allah-azwj I-asws hope for my-asws salvation. What is there for Ali-asws and perishing bounties, and pleasures kept aside by the disobedience?

سَأَلْقَى وَ شِيعَتِي رَبَّنَا بِعُيُونٍ سَاهِرَةٍ وَ بُطُونٍ خِمَاصٍ‏ لِيُمَحِّصَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَ يَمْحَقَ الْكافِرِينَ‏ وَ نَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنْ سَيِّئَاتِ الْأَعْمَالِ وَ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِهِ.

I-asws and my-asws Shias shall meet our Lord-azwj with eyes having stayed awake at nights, and hungry bellies, And for Allah to Distinguish those who are believing and Obliterate the Kafirs [3:141], and we-asws seek Refuge with Allah-azwj from the evil deeds, and may Allah-azwj Send Salawaat upon Muhammad-saww and his-saww Progeny-asws’’.[65]

 Appendix I: Explanation of 8:41 – The Authorisation of Al-Khums

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ الْحِمْيَرِيُّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ الرَّيَّانِ بْنِ الصَّلْتِ قَالَ:

It was narrated to us by Muhammad Bin Abdullah Bin Ja’far Al Humeyri, from his father, from Al Rayyan Bin Al Salt who said,

حَضَرَ الرِّضَا ع مَجْلِسَ الْمَأْمُونِ بِمَرْوَ وَ قَدِ اجْتَمَعَ فِي مَجْلِسِهِ جَمَاعَةٌ مِنْ عُلَمَاءِ الْعِرَاقِ وَ خُرَاسَانَ فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ أَخْبِرُونِي عَنْ مَعْنَى هَذِهِ الْآيَةِ ثُمَّ أَوْرَثْنَا الْكِتابَ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَيْنا مِنْ عِبادِنا فَقَالَتِ الْعُلَمَاءُ أَرَادَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ بِذَلِكَ الْأُمَّةَ كُلَّهَا فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ مَا تَقُولُ يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ فَقَالَ الرِّضَا ع لَا أَقُولُ كَمَا قَالُوا وَ لَكِنِّي أَقُولُ أَرَادَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ بِذَلِكَ الْعِتْرَةَ الطَّاهِرَةَ

‘Al-Reza-asws attended the gathering of Al-Mamoun at Merv, and he had gathered in his gathering a group of scholars of Al-Iraq and Khurasan. (Among the proofs he-asws presented was):

وَ أَمَّا الثَّامِنَةُ فَقَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَ‏ وَ اعْلَمُوا أَنَّما غَنِمْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَ لِلرَّسُولِ وَ لِذِي الْقُرْبى‏ فَقَرَنَ سَهْمَ ذِي الْقُرْبَى مَعَ سَهْمِهِ وَ سَهْمِ رَسُولِهِ فَهَذَا فَضْلٌ أَيْضاً بَيْنَ الْآلِ وَ الْأُمَّةِ لِأَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى جَعَلَهُمْ فِي خَيْرٍ وَ جَعَلَ النَّاسَ فِي خَيْرٍ دُونَ ذَلِكَ وَ رَضِيَ لَهُمْ بِمَا رَضِيَ لِنَفْسِهِ وَ اصْطَفَاهُمْ فِيهِ فَبَدَأَ بِنَفْسِهِ ثُمَّ بِرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ بِذِي الْقُرْبَى

‘And as for the eighth, so Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic is Saying: And know that whatever booty you gain from anything, so a fifth of it is for Allah, and for the Rasool, and for the near of kin [8:41]. Thus He-azwj Paired the portion of the relatives with His-azwj Portion and the portion of His-azwj Rasool-saww. So this is a merit as well between the Progeny-asws and the people, because Allah-azwj Exalted Made them-asws to be in goodness and Made the people to be in goodness besides that, and was Pleased for them-asws what He-azwj was Pleased for Himself, and Chose them-asws with regards to it. So He-azwj Began with Himself-azwj, then with His-azwj Rasool-saww, then with the relatives.

فَكُلُّ مَا كَانَ مِنَ الْفَيْ‏ءِ وَ الْغَنِيمَةِ وَ غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ مِمَّا رَضِيَهُ جَلَّ وَ عَزَّ لِنَفْسِهِ فَرَضِيَهُ لَهُمْ فَقَالَ وَ قَوْلُهُ الْحَقُ‏ وَ اعْلَمُوا أَنَّما غَنِمْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَ لِلرَّسُولِ وَ لِذِي الْقُرْبى‏ فَهَذَا تَأْكِيدٌ مُؤَكَّدٌ وَ أَثَرٌ قَائِمٌ لَهُمْ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ النَّاطِقِ الَّذِي‏ لا يَأْتِيهِ الْباطِلُ مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَ لا مِنْ خَلْفِهِ تَنْزِيلٌ مِنْ حَكِيمٍ حَمِيدٍ

Therefore, everything which was from Al-Fey and the booty and other than that from what the Majestic and Mighty is Pleased for Himself-azwj, Necessitated for them. So He-azwj Said and His-azwj Word is the Truth [8:41] And know that whatever booty you gain, a fifth of it is for Allah and for the Rasool and for the near of kin. This is an emphatic confirmation, and an impact established for them up to the Day of Judgment in the Speaking Book of Allah-azwj which Neither did the falsehood come from before it, nor (would it come) from after it. (It is) a Revelation from the most Wise, the most Praised [41:42].

وَ أَمَّا قَوْلُهُ‏ وَ الْيَتامى‏ وَ الْمَساكِينِ‏ فَإِنَّ الْيَتِيمَ إِذَا انْقَطَعَ قيمة سهمه [يُتْمُهُ‏] خَرَجَ مِنَ الْغَنَائِمِ وَ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ فِيهَا نَصِيبٌ وَ كَذَلِكَ الْمِسْكِينُ إِذَا انْقَطَعَ مَسْكَنَتُهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ نَصِيبٌ مِنَ الْمَغْنَمِ وَ لَا يَحِلُّ لَهُ أَخْذُهُ وَ سَهْمُ ذِي الْقُرْبَى إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ قَائِمٌ فِيهِمْ لِلْغَنِيِّ وَ الْفَقِيرِ مِنْهُمْ لِأَنَّهُ لَا أَحَدٌ أَغْنَى مِنَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ لَا مِنْ رَسُولِهِ ص

And as for His-azwj Words: and the orphans and the needy [8:41], so the orphan is when the amount of his share is cut off (when his orphan-hood is cut off), he is exited from the war booty and there would not happen to be a share for him in it, and similar to that is the need, when his neediness is cut off, there would not happen to be a share for him from the war booty, nor would it be Permissible for him to take it, and the share of the near relatives is up to the Day of Judgment, established regarding them, for the rich and the poor from them, because there is no one richer than Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic, nor (richer) than His-azwj Rasool-saww.

فَجَعَلَ لِنَفْسِهِ سَهْماً مِنْهَا وَ لِرَسُولِهِ سَهْماً فَمَا رَضِيَهُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَ لِرَسُولِهِ‏ رَضِيَهُ لَهُمْ وَ كَذَلِكَ الْفَيْ‏ءُ مَا رَضِيَهُ مِنْهُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَ لِنَبِيِّهِ رَضِيَهُ لِذِي الْقُرْبَى كَمَا أَجْرَاهُمْ فِي الْغَنِيمَةِ فَبَدَأَ بِنَفْسِهِ جَلَّ جَلَالُهُ ثُمَّ بِرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ بِهِمْ وَ قَرَنَ سَهْمَهُ بِسَهْمِ اللَّهِ وَ سَهْمِ رَسُولِهِ

So He-azwj Made a share for Himself-azwj from it and a share for His-azwj Rasool-saww. Whatever He-azwj was Pleased for Himself-azwj, and for His-azwj Rasool-saww, He-azwj was Pleased for them-asws. And similar to that is Al-Fey. Whatever He-azwj was Pleased from it for Himself-azwj and for His-azwj Prophet-saww, He-azwj was Pleased for the near relatives, just as He-azwj Informed them regarding the booty. So He-azwj Began with Himself-azwj, Majestic is His-azwj Majesty, then with His-azwj Rasool-saww, then with them-asws, and their-asws share is Paired with the Share of Allah-azwj and the share of His-azwj Rasool-saww.

كَذَلِكَ فِي الطَّاعَةِ قَالَ‏ يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَ أَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ‏ فَبَدَأَ قَبْلًا بِنَفْسِهِ ثُمَّ بِرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ بِأَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ وَ كَذَلِكَ آيَةُ الْوَلَايَةِ إِنَّما وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَّهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فَجَعَلَ وَلَايَتَهُمْ مَعَ طَاعَةِ الرَّسُولِ مَقْرُونَةً بِطَاعَتِهِ كَمَا جَعَلَ سَهْمَهُمْ مَعَ سَهْمِ الرَّسُولِ مَقْرُوناً بِسَهْمِهِ فِي الْغَنِيمَةِ وَ الْفَيْ‏ءِ

Similar to that is the obedience. He-azwj Said [4:59] O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Rasool and those with Divine authority from among you. He-azwj Began with Himself-azwj before, then with His-azwj Rasool-saww, then with the People-asws of his-saww Household. And similar to that is the Verse of the Wilayah [5:55] But rather, only Allah is your Guardian and His Rasool and those who believe. So He-azwj Made their-asws Wilayah with the obedience to the Rasool-saww, being paired with His-azwj obedience, just as He-azwj Made their-asws share with the share of the Rasool-saww paired with His-azwj Share in the booty and Al-Fey.

فَتَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ وَ تَعَالَى مَا أَعْظَمَ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَى أَهْلِ هَذَا الْبَيْتِ فَلَمَّا جَاءَتْ قِصَّةُ الصَّدَقَةِ نَزَّهَ رَسُولَهُ وَ نَزَّهَ أَهْلَ بَيْتِهِ فَقَالَ‏ إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقاتُ لِلْفُقَراءِ وَ الْمَساكِينِ وَ الْعامِلِينَ عَلَيْها وَ الْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَ فِي الرِّقابِ وَ الْغارِمِينَ وَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَ ابْنِ السَّبِيلِ فَرِيضَةً مِنَ اللَّهِ

So the Blessed and High, how great is His-azwj Bounty upon the People-asws of this Household. So when the story of the charity came, He-azwj Removed His-azwj Rasool-saww and Removed the People-asws of his-saww Household, and He-azwj Said But rather, the charities are for the poor and the needy, and the office bearers upon it, and the ones (recently) inclined of their hearts (to Al Islam), and ones in bondage, and the ones in debt, and in the Way of Allah, and the wayfarer. Being an Ordinance from Allah; and Allah is Knowing, Wise [9:60].

‏فَهَلْ تَجِدُ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْ ذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ جَعَلَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ سَهْماً لِنَفْسِهِ أَوْ لِرَسُولِهِ أَوْ لِذِي الْقُرْبَى لِأَنَّهُ لَمَّا نَزَّهَ نَفْسَهُ عَنِ الصَّدَقَةِ وَ نَزَّهَ رَسُولَهُ نَزَّهَ أَهْلَ بَيْتِهِ لَا بَلْ حَرَّمَ عَلَيْهِمْ لِأَنَّ الصَّدَقَةَ مُحَرَّمَةٌ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِهِ وَ هِيَ أَوْسَاخُ النَّاسِ لَا تَحِلُّ لَهُمْ لِأَنَّهُمْ طُهِّرُوا مِنْ كُلِّ دَنَسٍ وَ وَسَخٍ فَلَمَّا طَهَّرَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَ اصْطَفَاهُمْ رَضِيَ لَهُمْ مَا رَضِيَ لِنَفْسِهِ وَ كَرِهَ لَهُمْ مَا كَرِهَ لِنَفْسِهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فَهَذِهِ الثَّامِنَةُ

So, can you find in anything from that, that the Mighty and Majestic Made a Share to be for Himself-azwj, or for His-azwj Rasool-saww, or for the relatives? Because, when He-azwj Removed Himself-azwj from the Charity, and Removed His-azwj Rasool-saww, (also) Removed the People-asws of his-saww Household. No! But, He-azwj Prohibited upon them-asws, because the charity is Prohibited upon Muhammad-saww and the his-saww Progeny-asws, and it is the dirt of the people. It is not Permissible for them-asws because they-asws are clean from every filth and grime. So when Allah-azwj Cleaned them-asws and Chose them-asws, was Pleased for them-asws what He-azwj was Pleased for Himself-azwj, and Disliked for them-asws whatever He-azwj Disliked for Himself-azwj, Mighty and Majestic. So this is the eighth.

فَقَالَ الْمَأْمُونُ وَ الْعُلَمَاءُ جَزَاكُمُ اللَّهُ أَهْلَ بَيْتِ نَبِيِّكُمْ عَنِ الْأُمَّةِ خَيْراً فَمَا نَجِدُ الشَّرْحَ وَ الْبَيَانَ فِيمَا اشْتَبَهَ عَلَيْنَا إِلَّا عِنْدَكُمْ.

So Al-Mamoun and the scholars said, ‘May Allah-azwj Recompense you-asws all, the People-asws of the Household of your-asws Prophet-saww with goodness on behalf of the community. So we cannot find the explanations and the clarifications with regards to what is confusing upon us except with you-asws all’’.[66]

Appendix II: Letter of the 12th Imamajfj in the explanation of Verse 8:41

محمد بن يعقوب الكليني، عن إسحاق بن يعقوب قال: سألت محمد بن عثمان العمري رحمه الله أن يوصل لي كتابا قد سألت فيه عن مسائل أشكلت علي، فورد التوقيع بخط مولانا صاحب الزمان عليه السلام:

Muhammad Bin Yaqoub Al Kulayni, from Is’haq Bin Yaqoub who said,

‘I asked Muhammad Bin Usma Al-Amarira that he connects a letter for me wherein I had asked certain questions which were difficult upon me. So the letter arrived in the handwriting of our Master-asws, the Master-asws of the Time: –

أما ما سألت عنه أرشدك الله وثبتك من أمر المنكرين لي من أهل بيتنا وبني عمنا، فاعلم أنه ليس بين الله عزوجل وبين أحد قرابة، من أنكرني فليس مني وسبيله سبيل ابن نوح، وأما سبيل عمي جعفر وولده، فسبيل إخوة يوسف عليه السلام

As for what you asked about, may Allah-azwj Guide you and Affirm you from the matters of the deniers of me-asws from the people of our-asws Household and the sons of our-asws uncle. Know that it is such, there isn’t any relationship between Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic and anyone. The one who denies me-asws, so he isn’t from me-asws, and his way is the way of the son of Noahas. And as for the way of my-asws uncle Ja’far and his son, so it is the way of the brothers of Yusufas.

وأما الفقاع فشربه حرام ولا بأس بالشلماب وأما أموالكم فما نقبلها إلا لتطهروا فمن شاء فليصل، ومن شاء فليقطع فما آتانا الله خير مما آتاكم.

And as for Al-Faqa’a (a fermented drink), so drinking it is Prohibited, and there is no problem with Al-Shalmab (juice of cooked turnip), and as for your wealth, for whatever we-asws do not accept it except to purify you, so the one who so desires to, let him send, and the one who so desires to, let him cut off, for whatever Allah-azwj Gives us is better than what He-azwj Gave you all.

وأما ظهور الفرج فانه إلى الله وكذب الوقاتون. وأما قول من زعم أن الحسين عليه السلام لم يقتل، فكفر وتكذيب وضلال.

And as for the appearance of the Relief, so it is up to Allah-azwj, and the timers are lying. And as for the word of the one who claims that Al-Husayn-asws was not killed, so he has blasphemed, and is lying, and has strayed.

وأما الحوادث الواقعة فارجعوا فيها إلى رواة حديثنا فانهم حجتي عليكم وأنا حجة الله عليكم.

And as for the newly occurring events, so refer regarding these to the reporters of our-asws Ahadeeth, for they are my-asws authority upon you all and I-asws am the Divine Authority of Allah-azwj upon you all.

وأما محمد بن عثمان العمري رضي الله عنه وعن أبيه من قبل فانه ثقتي وكتابه كتابي.

And as for Muhammad Bin Usman Al-Amiry, may Allah-azwj be Pleased from him and from his father from before, so he is my-asws trustworthy one, and his letter is my letter.

وأما محمد بن علي بن مهزيار الأهوازي فسيصلح الله قلبه، ويزيل عنه شكه.

And as for Muhammad Bin Ali Bin Mahziyar Al-Ahwazy, so Allah-azwj has Corrected his heart, and has Removed his doubts from him.

وأما ما وصلتنا به فلا قبول عندنا إلا لما طاب وطهر، وثمن المغنية حرام.

And as for what (wealth) arrives to us-asws, so it is not acceptable in our-asws presence except of what is good and clean, and the price (earnings) of the female singer is Prohibited.

وأما محمد بن شاذان بن نعيم فانه رجل من شيعتنا أهل البيت. وأما أبو الخطاب محمد بن أبي زينب الأجدع فانه ملعون وأصحابه ملعونون فلا تجالس أهل مقالتهم فاني منهم برئ وآبائي عليهم السلام منهم براء.

And as for Muhammad Bin Shazan Bin Naeem, so he is a man from our-asws Shias, the People-asws of the Household. And as for Abu Al-Khatab Muhammad Bin Abu Zaynab Al-Agdy, so he is an Accursed and his companions are (also) Accursed, therefore do not sit with the people of their words, for I-asws am disavowing from them and my-asws forefathers-asws are disavowed from them (as well).

وأما المتلبسون بأموالنا فمن استحل شيئا منها فأكله فانما يأكل النيران.

And as for the ones clothing with our-asws wealth, so the one who permits anything from it and consumes it, so rather he is consuming the fires.

وأما الخمس فقد ابيح لشيعتنا وجعلوا منه في حل إلى وقت ظهور أمرنا لتطيب ولادتهم ولا تخبث.

And as for the Al-Khums, so it has been Permitted for our-asws Shias and they have been made to be in an ease from it up to the time of the appearance of our-asws matter, in order to purify their births, and it would not be wicked.

وأما ندامة قوم شكوا في دين الله على ما وصلونا به، فقد أقلنا من استقال ولا حاجة لنا إلى صلة الشاكين.

And as for the regret of a people who complained regarding the Religion of Allah-azwj upon what we-asws are being sent with, so we had resigned from the accepting and there is no need for us-asws to the connection of the complainers.

وأما علة ما وقع من الغيبة فان الله عزوجل يقول: ” يا أيها الذين آمنوا لا تسألوا عن أشياء إن تبدلكم تسؤكم ” إنه لم يكن أحد من آبائي إلا وقد وقعت في عنقه بيعة لطاغية زمانه وإني أخرج حين أخرج ولا بيعة لأحد من الطواغيت في عنقي.

And as for the reason of what occurred from the Occultation, so Allah-azwj Mighty and Majestic is Saying: ‘O you who believe! Do not ask about things, if it is declared to you it would offend you [5:101]. It is such that there has not been anyone from my-asws forefathers-asws except and there has fallen in his-asws neck, allegiance to tyrants of his-asws era, and I-asws will come out when I-asws will rise, and there would be no allegiance to anyone from the tyrants in my-asws neck.

وأما وجه الانتفاع بي في غيبتي فكالانتفاع بالشمس إذا غيبها عن الأبصار السحاب، وإني لأمان لأهل الأرض كما أن النجوم أمان لأهل السماء، فاغلقوا ابواب السؤال عما لا يعنيكم ولا تتكلفوا علم ما قد كفيتم وأكثروا الدعاء بتعجيل الفرج، فان ذلك فرجكم،

And as for the aspect of the benefit with me-asws during my-asws Occultation, so it is like the benefit with the sun when it disappears from the visions by the clouds, and I-asws am the security for the inhabitants of the earth just as the stars are a security for the inhabitants of the sky. Therefore close the doors of the questions about what does not concern you and do not encumber for a knowledge, (when it has already) sufficed you, and frequent the supplications with the hastening of the Relief, for in that is your Relief.

والسلام عليك يا إسحاق بن يعقوب وعلى من اتبع الهدى.

And the greeting be upon you, O Is’haq Bin Yaqoub, and upon the one who follows the Guidance’.[67]

Appendix III: A Detailed Hadith on Al-Khums

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ هَاشِمٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنِ الْعَبْدِ الصَّالِحِ ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ الْخُمُسُ مِنْ خَمْسَةِ أَشْيَاءَ مِنَ الْغَنَائِمِ وَ الْغَوْصِ وَ مِنَ الْكُنُوزِ وَ مِنَ الْمَعَادِنِ وَ الْمَلَّاحَةِ يُؤْخَذُ مِنْ كُلِّ هَذِهِ الصُّنُوفِ الْخُمُسُ فَيُجْعَلُ لِمَنْ جَعَلَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى لَهُ وَ يُقْسَمُ الْأَرْبَعَةُ الْأَخْمَاسِ بَيْنَ مَنْ قَاتَلَ عَلَيْهِ وَ وَلِيَ ذَلِكَ

Ali Bin Ibrahim Bin Hashim, from his father, from Hammad Bin Isa, from some of our companions,

(It has been narrated) from Al-Abd Al-Salih-asws (7th Imam-asws) having said: ‘The fifth (Al-Khums) is from five things – from the spoils (of war), and the diving, and from treasures, and from the mines and the salt-works. The fifth (Khums) would be taken from all of these types and it would be made to be for the ones whom Allah-azwj the Exalted Made it to be for, and four-fifths would be distributed upon the ones who fought upon it and the ones who supported that.

وَ يُقْسَمُ بَيْنَهُمُ الْخُمُسُ عَلَى سِتَّةِ أَسْهُمٍ سَهْمٌ لِلَّهِ وَ سَهْمٌ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ وَ سَهْمٌ لِذِي الْقُرْبَى وَ سَهْمٌ لِلْيَتَامَى وَ سَهْمٌ لِلْمَسَاكِينِ وَ سَهْمٌ لِأَبْنَاءِ السَّبِيلِ

And the fifth would be distributed upon six shares – a share being for Allah-azwj, and a share for Rasool-Allah-saww, and a share for the near of kin, and a share for the orphans, and a share for the poor, and a share for the children of the way (needy travellers).

فَسَهْمُ اللَّهِ وَ سَهْمُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ لِأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْ بَعْدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) وِرَاثَةً فَلَهُ ثَلَاثَةُ أَسْهُمٍ سَهْمَانِ وِرَاثَةً وَ سَهْمٌ مَقْسُومٌ لَهُ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَ لَهُ نِصْفُ الْخُمُسِ كَمَلًا وَ نِصْفُ الْخُمُسِ الْبَاقِي بَيْنَ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ

So the share of Allah-azwj and the share of Rasool-Allah-saww is for the Master-asws of the Command (Wali Al-Amr) from after Rasool-Allah-saww as an inheritance. Thus, for him-asws would be three shares, two share as an inheritance and a share distributed for him-asws (being near of kin) from Allah-azwj, and for him-asws would be half of the complete Khums; and the remaining half of the Khums would be between his-asws family members.

فَسَهْمٌ لِيَتَامَاهُمْ وَ سَهْمٌ لِمَسَاكِينِهِمْ وَ سَهْمٌ لِأَبْنَاءِ سَبِيلِهِمْ يُقْسَمُ بَيْنَهُمْ عَلَى الْكِتَابِ وَ السُّنَّةِ مَا يَسْتَغْنُونَ بِهِ فِي سَنَتِهِمْ فَإِنْ فَضَلَ عَنْهُمْ شَيْ‏ءٌ فَهُوَ لِلْوَالِي وَ إِنْ عَجَزَ أَوْ نَقَصَ عَنِ اسْتِغْنَائِهِمْ كَانَ عَلَى الْوَالِي أَنْ يُنْفِقَ مِنْ عِنْدِهِ بِقَدْرِ مَا يَسْتَغْنُونَ بِهِ

Therefore, the share of the orphans, and the share of the poor, and the share of the children of the way (needy travellers), he-asws would distribute between them based upon the Book and the Sunnah what they would become needless with during their year. So if there is anything excess from them, so it would be for the Guardian-asws, and if there is frustration or a deficiency from their becoming needless, it would be upon the Guardian-asws that he-asws spends from him-asws by a measurement of what they could become needless with.

وَ إِنَّمَا صَارَ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يَمُونَهُمْ لِأَنَّ لَهُ مَا فَضَلَ عَنْهُمْ وَ إِنَّمَا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ هَذَا الْخُمُسَ خَاصَّةً لَهُمْ دُونَ مَسَاكِينِ النَّاسِ وَ أَبْنَاءِ سَبِيلِهِمْ عِوَضاً لَهُمْ مِنْ صَدَقَاتِ النَّاسِ تَنْزِيهاً مِنَ اللَّهِ لَهُمْ لِقَرَابَتِهِمْ بِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) وَ كَرَامَةً مِنَ اللَّهِ لَهُمْ عَنْ أَوْسَاخِ النَّاسِ

And rather, it has come to be upon him-asws that he-asws prevents them, because for him-asws is what is excess from them, and rather Allah-azwj has Made the Khums to be especially for them, besides the poor ones of the people and their needy travellers as an alternate for them from the charities of the people as a distinction from Allah-azwj for them due to their near relationship with Rasool-Allah-saww and a Prestige from Allah-azwj for them, from the grime of the people.

فَجَعَلَ لَهُمْ خَاصَّةً مِنْ عِنْدِهِ مَا يُغْنِيهِمْ بِهِ عَنْ أَنْ يُصَيِّرَهُمْ فِي مَوْضِعِ الذُّلِّ وَ الْمَسْكَنَةِ وَ لَا بَأْسَ بِصَدَقَاتِ بَعْضِهِمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ وَ هَؤُلَاءِ الَّذِينَ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لَهُمُ الْخُمُسَ هُمْ قَرَابَةُ النَّبِيِّ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) الَّذِينَ ذَكَرَهُمُ اللَّهُ فَقَالَ وَ أَنْذِرْ عَشِيرَتَكَ الْأَقْرَبِينَ وَ هُمْ بَنُو عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ أَنْفُسُهُمْ الذَّكَرُ مِنْهُمْ وَ الْأُنْثَى لَيْسَ فِيهِمْ مِنْ أَهْلِ بُيُوتَاتِ قُرَيْشٍ وَ لَا مِنَ الْعَرَبِ أَحَدٌ وَ لَا فِيهِمْ وَ لَا مِنْهُمْ فِي هَذَا الْخُمُسِ مِنْ مَوَالِيهِمْ وَ قَدْ تَحِلُّ صَدَقَاتُ النَّاسِ لِمَوَالِيهِمْ وَ هُمْ وَ النَّاسُ سَوَاءٌ

Thus, he-asws makes it to be for them in particular, from Him-azwj what they could be needless with that from coming into a place of disgrace and neediness. And there is no problem with the charities of some of them upon the others, and they are those for whom Allah-azwj has Made the Khums. They are the near of kin of the Prophet-saww whom Allah-azwj has Mentioned, and He-azwj Said [26:214] And warn your nearest relations, and they are the Clan of Abdul Muttalib-asws themselves, the males from them and the females. There aren’t among them from the people of the households of the Quraysh, nor from the Arabs anyone, nor among them, nor from them in this Khums from any of their friends, and the charities of the people has been Made permissible for their friends, and they and the people are equal.

وَ مَنْ كَانَتْ أُمُّهُ مِنْ بَنِي هَاشِمٍ وَ أَبُوهُ مِنْ سَائِرِ قُرَيْشٍ فَإِنَّ الصَّدَقَاتِ تَحِلُّ لَهُ وَ لَيْسَ لَهُ مِنَ الْخُمُسِ شَيْ‏ءٌ لِأَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى يَقُولُ ادْعُوهُمْ لِآبائِهِمْ

The one whose mother was from the Clan of Hashim and his father was from the rest of the Quraysh, so the charities would be Permissible for him and there wouldn’t be anything for him from the Khums because Allah-azwj the Exalted is Saying [33:5] Assert their relationship to their fathers.

وَ لِلْإِمَامِ صَفْوُ الْمَالِ أَنْ يَأْخُذَ مِنْ هَذِهِ الْأَمْوَالِ صَفْوَهَا الْجَارِيَةَ الْفَارِهَةَ وَ الدَّابَّةَ الْفَارِهَةَ وَ الثَّوْبَ وَ الْمَتَاعَ بِمَا يُحِبُّ أَوْ يَشْتَهِي فَذَلِكَ لَهُ قَبْلَ الْقِسْمَةِ وَ قَبْلَ إِخْرَاجِ الْخُمُسِ وَ لَهُ أَنْ يَسُدَّ بِذَلِكَ الْمَالِ جَمِيعَ مَا يَنُوبُهُ مِنْ مِثْلِ إِعْطَاءِ الْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَ غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ مِمَّا يَنُوبُهُ

And for the Imam-asws is the clean wealth that he-asws should take from these wealth, the cleanest of it – the luxurious maid, and the luxurious animal, and the clothes and the chattels. Whatever he-asws loves or desires, so that is for him before the distribution and before the extraction of the Khums. And for him-asws is that he-asws supports with that wealth the entirety of what he-asws is represented with from the likes of grants to incline their hearts and other than that from what he-asws is represented with.

فَإِنْ بَقِيَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ شَيْ‏ءٌ أَخْرَجَ الْخُمُسَ مِنْهُ فَقَسَمَهُ فِي أَهْلِهِ وَ قَسَمَ الْبَاقِيَ عَلَى مَنْ وَلِيَ ذَلِكَ وَ إِنْ لَمْ يَبْقَ بَعْدَ سَدِّ النَّوَائِبِ شَيْ‏ءٌ فَلَا شَيْ‏ءَ لَهُمْ وَ لَيْسَ لِمَنْ قَاتَلَ شَيْ‏ءٌ مِنَ الْأَرَضِينَ وَ لَا مَا غَلَبُوا عَلَيْهِ إِلَّا مَا احْتَوَى عَلَيْهِ الْعَسْكَرُ

So if something were to remain after that, the Khums would be extracted from it and it would be distributed among his-asws family and the remainder would be distributed upon the ones who is the governor of that, and if there does not remain anything after the support of the representatives, then there would not be anything for them. And there isn’t anything for the fighter from the (captured) lands, nor what they overcome upon except for what the army encompasses upon.

وَ لَيْسَ لِلْأَعْرَابِ مِنَ الْقِسْمَةِ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَ إِنْ قَاتَلُوا مَعَ الْوَالِي لِأَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) صَالَحَ الْأَعْرَابَ أَنْ يَدَعَهُمْ فِي دِيَارِهِمْ وَ لَا يُهَاجِرُوا عَلَى أَنَّهُ إِنْ دَهِمَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ دَهْمٌ أَنْ يَسْتَنْفِرَهُمْ فَيُقَاتِلَ بِهِمْ وَ لَيْسَ لَهُمْ فِي الْغَنِيمَةِ نَصِيبٌ وَ سُنَّتُهُ جَارِيَةٌ فِيهِمْ وَ فِي غَيْرِهِمْ

And there isn’t anything for the Bedouins from the distribution and even though they may have found along with the administrator, because Rasool-Allah-saww reconciled with the Bedouins that he-saww would leave them to be in their houses and they would not emigrate upon the stipulation that if Rasool-Allah-saww is ever raided from his-saww enemies with a raid, they would make them flee and fight with them and there wouldn’t be a share for them in the spoils, and his-saww Sunnah flows in them and in the others.

وَ الْأَرَضُونَ الَّتِي أُخِذَتْ عَنْوَةً بِخَيْلٍ وَ رِجَالٍ فَهِيَ مَوْقُوفَةٌ مَتْرُوكَةٌ فِي يَدِ مَنْ يَعْمُرُهَا وَ يُحْيِيهَا وَ يَقُومُ عَلَيْهَا عَلَى مَا يُصَالِحُهُمُ الْوَالِي عَلَى قَدْرِ طَاقَتِهِمْ مِنَ الْحَقِّ النِّصْفِ أَوِ الثُّلُثِ أَوِ الثُّلُثَيْنِ وَ عَلَى قَدْرِ مَا يَكُونُ لَهُمْ صَلَاحاً وَ لَا يَضُرُّهُمْ

And the lands which are seized forcibly by cavalry horses and (infantry) men, so it would be suspended, left in the hands of the one who would build these and revive these, and look after upon these upon what the administrator would reconcile with them in accordance of their strength from the right, the half or the third or the two-third, and upon a measurement of what would happen to be correct for them, and he would not harm them.

فَإِذَا أُخْرِجَ مِنْهَا مَا أُخْرِجَ بَدَأَ فَأَخْرَجَ مِنْهُ الْعُشْرَ مِنَ الْجَمِيعِ مِمَّا سَقَتِ السَّمَاءُ أَوْ سُقِيَ سَيْحاً وَ نِصْفَ الْعُشْرِ مِمَّا سُقِيَ بِالدَّوَالِي وَ النَّوَاضِحِ فَأَخَذَهُ الْوَالِي فَوَجَّهَهُ فِي الْجِهَةِ الَّتِي وَجَّهَهَا اللَّهُ عَلَى ثَمَانِيَةِ أَسْهُمٍ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ وَ الْمَسَاكِينِ وَ الْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَ الْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَ فِي الرِّقَابِ وَ الْغَارِمِينَ وَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَ ابْنِ السَّبِيلِ

So if there comes forth from it what comes forth (harvest), so a tenth would be taken out from the entirety of what the sky has irrigated, or the clouds irrigate, and (it would be) half of the tenth (5%) from what is irrigated by the buckets or the dams. So the administrator would take it and divert it in the perspective which Allah-azwj has Diverted, upon eight shares – for the poor, and the needy, and the workers upon it, and the ones inclined of hearts, and regarding (freeing) of the slaves, and the creditors, and in the Way of Allah-azwj, and the needy traveller.

ثَمَانِيَةَ أَسْهُمٍ يَقْسِمُ بَيْنَهُمْ فِي مَوَاضِعِهِمْ بِقَدْرِ مَا يَسْتَغْنُونَ بِهِ فِي سَنَتِهِمْ بِلَا ضِيقٍ وَ لَا تَقْتِيرٍ فَإِنْ فَضَلَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْ‏ءٌ رُدَّ إِلَى الْوَالِي وَ إِنْ نَقَصَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَ لَمْ يَكْتَفُوا بِهِ كَانَ عَلَى الْوَالِي أَنْ يَمُونَهُمْ مِنْ عِنْدِهِ بِقَدْرِ سَعَتِهِمْ حَتَّى يَسْتَغْنُوا

(These) eight shares being distributed between them in their places by a measurement of what they could become needless with it during their years with neither being constricted nor being thrifty. So if there is anything excess from that, it would be returned to the administrator, and if something is deficient from that and they are not sufficed with it, it would be upon the administrator that he gifts it from him in accordance with their capacity until they become needless.

وَ يُؤْخَذُ بَعْدُ مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ الْعُشْرِ فَيُقْسَمُ بَيْنَ الْوَالِي وَ بَيْنَ شُرَكَائِهِ الَّذِينَ هُمْ عُمَّالُ الْأَرْضِ وَ أَكَرَتُهَا فَيُدْفَعُ إِلَيْهِمْ أَنْصِبَاؤُهُمْ عَلَى مَا صَالَحَهُمْ عَلَيْهِ وَ يُؤْخَذُ الْبَاقِي فَيَكُونُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ أَرْزَاقَ أَعْوَانِهِ عَلَى دِينِ اللَّهِ وَ فِي مَصْلَحَةِ مَا يَنُوبُهُ مِنْ تَقْوِيَةِ الْإِسْلَامِ وَ تَقْوِيَةِ الدِّينِ فِي وُجُوهِ الْجِهَادِ وَ غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ مِمَّا فِيهِ مَصْلَحَةُ الْعَامَّةِ لَيْسَ لِنَفْسِهِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ قَلِيلٌ وَ لَا كَثِيرٌ

And he (the administrator) would take afterwards, whatever remains from the tenth, and it would be distributed between the administrator and his associated, those who work the earth and supervise it. So he would hand their shares to them upon what he can reconcile them upon, and he would take the remainder, so that it would happen to be a sustenance for his supporters upon the Religion of Allah-azwj and in the interests of what he is represented from the strengthening of Al-Islam and the strengthening of the Religion in its aspects of the Jihad and other than that, from what therein is the general interest of the people, and there isn’t anything for himself from that, be it little of more.

وَ لَهُ بَعْدَ الْخُمُسِ الْأَنْفَالُ وَ الْأَنْفَالُ كُلُّ أَرْضٍ خَرِبَةٍ قَدْ بَادَ أَهْلُهَا وَ كُلُّ أَرْضٍ لَمْ يُوجَفْ عَلَيْهَا بِخَيْلٍ وَ لَا رِكَابٍ وَ لَكِنْ صَالَحُوا صُلْحاً وَ أَعْطَوْا بِأَيْدِيهِمْ عَلَى غَيْرِ قِتَالٍ وَ لَهُ رُءُوسُ الْجِبَالِ وَ بُطُونُ الْأَوْدِيَةِ وَ الْآجَامُ وَ كُلُّ أَرْضٍ مَيْتَةٍ لَا رَبَّ لَهَا وَ لَهُ صَوَافِي الْمُلُوكِ مَا كَانَ فِي أَيْدِيهِمْ مِنْ غَيْرِ وَجْهِ الْغَصْبِ لِأَنَّ الْغَصْبَ كُلَّهُ مَرْدُودٌ وَ هُوَ وَارِثُ مَنْ لَا وَارِثَ لَهُ يَعُولُ مَنْ لَا حِيلَةَ لَهُ

And for him, after the Khums, is the Anfal, and the Anfal is every barren land which its people have perished, and every land not seized upon neither by a cavalry nor an infantry, but they have reconciled with a reconciliation and they have given with their own hands without any fighting. And for him (the administrator) would be the peaks of the mountains and the interior of the valleys, and the bushes, and every dead land with no owner for it; and for him would be the properties of the kings what was in their hands from without an aspect of usurpation, because the usurpation, all of it is returnable, and he would be an inheritor of the one who has no inheritor for him, and a supporter for whom there is no supporter for him.

وَ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمْ يَتْرُكْ شَيْئاً مِنْ صُنُوفِ الْأَمْوَالِ إِلَّا وَ قَدْ قَسَمَهُ وَ أَعْطَى كُلَّ ذِي حَقٍّ حَقَّهُ الْخَاصَّةَ وَ الْعَامَّةَ وَ الْفُقَرَاءَ وَ الْمَسَاكِينَ وَ كُلَّ صِنْفٍ مِنْ صُنُوفِ النَّاسِ

And he-asws said: ‘Allah-azwj did not neglects anything from the varieties of the wealth except and He-azwj has Apportioned it and Given it to every one with a right, his right, the special and the general, and the poor and the needy, and every variety from the varieties of the people’.

فَقَالَ لَوْ عُدِلَ فِي النَّاسِ لَاسْتَغْنَوْا ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنَّ الْعَدْلَ أَحْلَى مِنَ الْعَسَلِ وَ لَا يَعْدِلُ إِلَّا مَنْ يُحْسِنُ الْعَدْلَ قَالَ وَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) يَقْسِمُ صَدَقَاتِ الْبَوَادِي فِي الْبَوَادِي وَ صَدَقَاتِ أَهْلِ الْحَضَرِ فِي أَهْلِ الْحَضَرِ وَ لَا يَقْسِمُ بَيْنَهُمْ بِالسَّوِيَّةِ عَلَى ثَمَانِيَةٍ حَتَّى يُعْطِيَ أَهْلَ كُلِّ سَهْمٍ ثُمُناً وَ لَكِنْ يَقْسِمُهَا عَلَى قَدْرِ مَنْ يَحْضُرُهُ مِنْ أَصْنَافِ الثَّمَانِيَةِ عَلَى قَدْرِ مَا يُقِيمُ كُلَّ صِنْفٍ مِنْهُمْ يُقَدِّرُ لِسَنَتِهِ

He-asws said: ‘If justice is done among the people, they would become needless’. Then he-asws said: ‘The justice is sweeter than the honey, and he cannot do justice except the one who is good of justice. And it was so that Rasool-Allah-saww distributed the charities of the people of the valleys among the people of the valleys, and the charities of the people of the towns among the people of the towns, and he-saww did not apportion between them with the equal-ness upon the eight (categories) until he-saww gave the people of each share, an eighth (of the total), but he-saww distributed it upon a measurement of the ones who were present from the eight varieties, upon a measurement of what each category from them could be able to stay for his year.

لَيْسَ فِي ذَلِكَ شَيْ‏ءٌ مَوْقُوتٌ وَ لَا مُسَمًّى وَ لَا مُؤَلَّفٌ إِنَّمَا يَضَعُ ذَلِكَ عَلَى قَدْرِ مَا يَرَى وَ مَا يَحْضُرُهُ حَتَّى يَسُدَّ فَاقَةَ كُلِّ قَوْمٍ مِنْهُمْ وَ إِنْ فَضَلَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَضْلٌ عَرَضُوا الْمَالَ جُمْلَةً إِلَى غَيْرِهِمْ

There isn’t anything dedicated nor specified, nor written. But rather, that is upon a measurement of what he-saww saw and what was presented to him-saww until he-saww eliminated the destitution of every people from them. And if there was an excess from that, he-saww distributed the total wealth upon the others’.

وَ الْأَنْفَالُ إِلَى الْوَالِي وَ كُلُّ أَرْضٍ فُتِحَتْ فِي أَيَّامِ النَّبِيِّ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) إِلَى آخِرِ الْأَبَدِ وَ مَا كَانَ افْتِتَاحاً بِدَعْوَةِ أَهْلِ الْجَوْرِ وَ أَهْلِ الْعَدْلِ لِأَنَّ ذِمَّةَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ فِي الْأَوَّلِينَ وَ الْآخِرِينَ ذِمَّةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ لِأَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) قَالَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ إِخْوَةٌ تَتَكَافَى دِمَاؤُهُمْ وَ يَسْعَى بِذِمَّتِهِمْ أَدْنَاهُمْ

And the Anfal is to the administrator, and every land conquered during the days of the Prophet-saww up to the last, for ever. And whatever was conquered by the calling of the people of tyranny and people of the justice, because the responsibility of Rasool-Allah-saww among the former ones and the later ones, is one (and the same), because Rasool-Allah-saww said: ‘The Muslims are brethren. Their bloods are sufficed with and their responsibilities are strived for by the lowest of them’.

وَ لَيْسَ فِي مَالِ الْخُمُسِ زَكَاةٌ لِأَنَّ فُقَرَاءَ النَّاسِ جُعِلَ أَرْزَاقُهُمْ فِي أَمْوَالِ النَّاسِ عَلَى ثَمَانِيَةِ أَسْهُمٍ فَلَمْ يَبْقَ مِنْهُمْ أَحَدٌ وَ جَعَلَ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ قَرَابَةِ الرَّسُولِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) نِصْفَ الْخُمُسِ فَأَغْنَاهُمْ بِهِ عَنْ صَدَقَاتِ النَّاسِ وَ صَدَقَاتِ النَّبِيِّ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) وَ وَلِيِّ الْأَمْرِ

And there isn’t any Zakāt in the wealth of the Khums, because the poor people, their sustenance is made to be in the wealth of the people upon eight portions, therefore there does not remain even one of them. And for the poor of the relatives of Rasool-Allah-saww is half the Khums, so they are needless by it from the charities of the people, and the charities of the Prophet-saww and the Master-asws of the Command (Wali Al-Amr).

فَلَمْ يَبْقَ فَقِيرٌ مِنْ فُقَرَاءِ النَّاسِ وَ لَمْ يَبْقَ فَقِيرٌ مِنْ فُقَرَاءِ قَرَابَةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) إِلَّا وَ قَدِ اسْتَغْنَى فَلَا فَقِيرَ وَ لِذَلِكَ لَمْ يَكُنْ عَلَى مَالِ النَّبِيِّ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) وَ الْوَالِي زَكَاةٌ لِأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَبْقَ فَقِيرٌ مُحْتَاجٌ وَ لَكِنْ عَلَيْهِمْ أَشْيَاءُ تَنُوبُهُمْ مِنْ وُجُوهٍ وَ لَهُمْ مِنْ تِلْكَ الْوُجُوهِ كَمَا عَلَيْهِمْ .

Thus, there does not remain a poor one from the poor of the people, and there does not remain a poor one from the poor relatives of Rasool-Allah-saww but they have been made needless. Therefore, there would be no poor ones due to that. The Zakāt does not happen to be upon the wealth of the Prophet-saww and the administrator because there does not remain a poor needy one, but upon them are things given to them from its perspective, and for them, from that perspective is like what is upon them’.[68]

Appendix IV: Estimation of Minimum Amount for Al-Khums:

The minimum amount of savings kept over one year on which Al-Khums can be paid is the same as for Zakāt – 200 dirhams. Al-Khums is taken as 20%, 20% of 200 dirhams = 40 dirhams.

Assumption: 1 dirham silver coin is equal to about 3 grams of silver[69].

As per today, 20th April 2020, the rate of silver is as follows:[70]

Approximately £396.00 per kilogram of silver.

Per gram, this is = 396×1/1000 = £00.396

Therefore, 1 gram of silver is approximately £00.40

1 dirham (which is of 3 grams) is £00.40 x 3 = £1.20 pounds

Therefore, 200 dirhams = £1.20 x 200 = £240

Therefore, upon savings of £240, £48 (20% of 240) may be paid as Al-Khums.

Below are minimum savings (held for one year) after which Zakāt is payable for other currencies:

GBP.1 = 200  Pakistani rupee              200 x 240 = 48 000 (of which 20% = 9600)
GBP.1 = 95.29     Indian rupee             95 x 240  =  22 800  (of which 20% = 4560)

GBP.1 = 1.24     American dollars        1.24 x 240 = 297.60 (of which 20% = 59.52)

Minimum of savings in Pakistan is   48, 000 rupees

Minimum of savings in India is  22, 800 rupees

Minimum savings of American dollars is $297.60

[1] ‘I heard Amir Al-Momineenasws saying: ‘By Allahazwj! We (Imamsasws) are those Allahazwj Meant by the ‘near of kin’ whom Allahazwj has Paired with Himselfazwj and Hisazwj Prophetsaww, so Heazwj Said [59:7] Whatever Allah has restored to His Rasool from the people of the towns, it is for Allah and for the Rasool, and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy from usasws in particular, and Heazwj did not Make for usasws a share in the charities. Allahazwj is more Honourable with Hisazwj Prophetsaww and more Honourable with usasws than that Heazwj should Feed usasws the grime what is in the hands of the people’.[1]

[2] “The Imam has the right before the distribution, to spend from (booties of war), give as gift, grants and other causes. The Messengersaww of Allahazwj had been confronted by some people but Prophetsaww did not leave anything for them from Al-Fay’. Prophetsaww may have given them a share if hesaww would have wanted to.”[2]

[3] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 4

[4] Letter of Imam e Zamanaajfj

[5] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 20

[6] On Istikhara, see http://www.hubeali.com/articles/Seeking-Divine-Guidance-Istikhara.pdf

[7] Tafseer Abu Hamza Al Sumaly – H 116

[8] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 108 H 12

[9] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 2

[10] Kitab Suleym Bin Qays – H 18 (Extract)

[11] التهذيب 4: 125/ 361

[12] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 7

[13] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 10

[14] الكافي 1: 459/ 16

[15] الكافي 1: 459/ 20

[16] تفسير العيّاشي 2: 62/ 59.

[17] Al Kafi – H 14879 (Extract)

[18] Kitab Suleym Bin Qays H 14

[19] تفسير العيّاشي 2: 61/ 51.

[20] تفسير العيّاشي 2: 62/ 57.

[21] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 3

[22] Al-Kafi, Chapter 130, Tradition no. 4.

[23] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 17

[24] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 18

[25] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 1

[26] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 2

[27] Al-Kafi, Chapter 130, and extract from Tradition no. 4.

[28] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 8

[29] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 11

[30] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 12

[31] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 13

[32] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 14

[33] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 19

[34] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 21

[35] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 28

[36] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 24

[37] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 22

[38] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 23

[39] Al-Kafi, Chapter 130, and extract from Tradition no. 4.

[40] Al-Kafi, Chapter 130, and extract from Tradition no. 4.

[41] Al-Kafi, Chapter 130, Extract from Tradition no. 4.

[42] Al-Kafi, Chapter 130, Extract from Tradition no. 4.

[43] Al-Kafi, Chapter 130, Tradition no. 9.

[44] Al-Kafi, Chapter 130, An extract from Tradition no. 4.

[45] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 7

[46] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 10

[47] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 15

[48] Al-Kafi, Chapter 130, Tradition no. 16.

[49] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 20

[50] علل الشرائع، ج‏2، ص: 377, Chapter 106, H. 1

[51] علل الشرائع، ج‏2، ص: 377, Chapter 106, H. 2

[52] علل الشرائع، ج‏2، ص: 377, Chapter 106, H. 3

[53] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 25

[54] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 26

[55] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 27

[56] Manla Yahzar-ul-Faqi, vol.2, tradition 1647.

[57] Manla Yahzar-ul-Faqi, vol.2, tradition 1656, من لا يحضره الفقيه، ج‏2، ص: 43

[58] Al Kafi V 3 – The Book Of Zakat CH 3 H 2

[59] Al Kafi, vol, 3, chapter 6, hadith 2. and Al-Kafi, Chapter 130, Tradition no. 12.13

[60] Al Kafi, vol, 3, chapter 30, hadith 1-2 and Al Kafi, vol, 3, chapter 25, hadith 1. and Al-Kafi, Chapter 130, Tradition no. 15.

[61] Al-Kafi, Chapter 130, An extract from Tradition no. 4.

[62] Al-Kafi, Chapter 130, Tradition no. 25.

[63] Wasail-ul-Shia, vol 6, pp. 141, وسائل الشيعة، ج‏9، ص: 223

[64] وسائل الشيعة، ج‏9، ص: 282

[65] Bihar Al-Anwaar V 74 – The book ‘Al Rawza’ – Ch 15 H 13

[66] Bashaarat Al Mustafasaww Li Shia Al Murtazaasws – P 7 H 42

[67] Bihar Al Anwaar – V 53 P 181 H 10

[68] Al Kafi V 1 – The Book Of Divine Authority CH 130 H 4

[69] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nisab

[70] https://silverprice.org/silver-price-uk.html